Science.gov

Sample records for 2-micron laser transmitter

  1. 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed in NASA Langley Research Center. This laser system is capable of making a vertical profiling of CO2 from ground and column measurement of CO2 from air and space-borne platform. The transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. A Ho:YLF laser operating in the range of 2.05 micrometers can be tuned over several characteristic lines of CO2 absorption. Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of CO2 with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ. For coherent detection, high repetition rate is required for speckle averaging to obtain highly precise measurements. However, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser can not operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. A Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can operate in high repetition rate. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the performance of Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF lasers. For continuous wave (CW) operation, high pump intensity with small beam

  2. Double-Pulsed 2-micron Laser Transmitter for Multiple Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong

    2002-01-01

    A high energy double-pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF 2-micron laser amplifier has been demonstrated. 600 mJ per pulse pair under Q-switch operation is achieved with the gain of 4.4. This solid-state laser source can be used as lidar transmitter for multiple lidar applications such as coherent wind and carbon dioxide measurements.

  3. Development of a Pulsed 2-micron Laser Transmitter for CO2 Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Petros, Mulugeta; Menzies, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), in collaboration with NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is engaged in the development and demonstration of a highly efficient, versatile, 2-micron pulsed laser that can be used in a pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)/Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) instrument to make precise, high-resolution CO2 measurements to investigate sources, sinks, and fluxes of CO2. This laser transmitter will feature performance characteristics needed for an ASCENDS system that will be capable of delivering the CO2 measurement precision required by the Earth Science Decadal Survey (DS).

  4. 2-Micron Diode-Pumped Pulsed Laser Transmitter for SPARCLE: A Coherent Wind Lidar Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Barnes, Norman P.; Phillips, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    To enable a tropospheric vector wind velocity profiling from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar, a diode-pumped, room temperature Ho:Tm:YLF coherent pulsed transmitter has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This pulsed laser transmitter will be a part of coherent wind lidar shuttle mission SPARCLE. The acronym stands for SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment and is primarily a technology demonstration mission and is expected to fly in 2001 as NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) second Earth Orbiter (EO-2) mission. The laser transmitter for SPARCLE is a Ho:Tm:YLF power oscillator operating at eye-safe wavelength of 2.05 microns. The Q-switched output energy is 125 mJ at six Hz, and it has a near-transform limited beam with a pulse width of 170 ns. The high power and high beam quality of this laser makes it well suited as a coherent wind lidar transmitter on a space platform. When the output of this power oscillator is amplified by using four diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF amplifiers, an output energy of 600 mJ at 10 Hz is achieved. This is the highest energy ever produced at 10 Hz, and is at least an order of magnitude greater than previously achieved for a 2-micron diode-pumped laser at room temperature.

  5. High Repetition Rate Pulsed 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Uprendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo C.; Lee, Hyung

    2009-01-01

    A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Such a laser transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of approximately 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. The measured standard deviation of the laser frequency jitter is about 3 MHz.

  6. Pulsed 2-micron Laser Transmitter For Carbon Dioxide Sensing From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Bai, Y.; Petros, M.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. Studies of the carbon cycle are limited by the tools available to precisely measure CO2 concentrations by remote sensing. Active sensing, using the Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) approach, permits measurements day and night, at all latitudes and seasons. The development of a high pulse energy 2-μm laser transmitter for high-precision CO2 measurements from space leverages years of NASA investment in solid-state laser technology. Under NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program, funded by Earth Science Technology Office, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center developed an injection seeded, high repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YLF laser transmitter for CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar/IPDA (profile/column) measurements from ground and airborne platforms. This master-slave laser system has high optical-to-optical efficiency and seeding success rate. NASA LaRC's 2-micron pulsed laser transmitter possesses advantages over current passive and CW active sensors. First, the pulsed format provides a built-in means for determining range to the scattering target and effectively filtering out the scattering from thin clouds and aerosols, thus eliminating a source of measurement bias. Second, by concentrating the laser energy into a pulse, sufficient backscatter signal strength can be obtained from aerosol scattering rather than relying on a hard target at a known distance. Third, the absorption line at the 2.05 μm band is ideally suited for the CO2 concentration measurement. In particular, the weighting function of 2 μm is optimum for measurement in the lower troposphere where the sources and sinks of CO2 are located. The planned laser transmitter development will lead to a Tm:Fiber pumped Ho:YLF laser transmitter capable of

  7. A pulsed, high repetition rate 2-micron laser transmitter for coherent CO2 DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Bai, Y.; Petzar, P.; Petros, M.; Chen, S.; Trieu, B.; Koch, G. J.; Kavaya, M. J.; Singh, U. N.

    2009-12-01

    -line frequency. The on-line and off-line CW laser beams are fed through a fiber optical switch, which provides the sequential seed light to the Ho pulse laser. The Ho pulse laser was injection seeded by the well-controlled CW seed laser. The injection seeding is based on a modified ramp-and-fire technique, which has been successfully applied to operational coherent wind lidars. This paper will describe the 2-µm laser transmitter that will be integrated into a pulsed coherent heterodyne DIAL system and expected to make precise, accurate, high-resolution atmospheric CO2 measurements.

  8. High Energy 2-Micron Solid-State Laser Transmitter for NASA's Airborne CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  9. Advances in High Energy Solid-State 2-micron Laser Transmitter Development for Ground and Airborne Wind and CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  10. High Energy 2-micron Laser Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows the development of 2-micron solid state lasers. The topics covered include: 1) Overview 2-micron solid state lasers; 2) Modeling and population inversion measurement; 3) Side pump oscillator; and 4) One Joule 2-m Laser.

  11. Solid-State 2-Micron Laser Transmitter Advancement for Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements From Ground, Airborne, and Space-Based Lidar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Ismail, Syed

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been developing 2-micron lidar technologies over a decade for wind measurements, utilizing coherent Doppler wind lidar technique and carbon dioxide measurements, utilizing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. Significant advancements have been made towards developing state-of-the-art technologies towards laser transmitters, detectors, and receiver systems. These efforts have led to the development of solid-state lasers with high pulse energy, tunablility, wavelength-stability, and double-pulsed operation. This paper will present a review of these technological developments along with examples of high resolution wind and high precision CO2 DIAL measurements in the atmosphere. Plans for the development of compact high power lasers for applications in airborne and future space platforms for wind and regional to global scale measurement of atmospheric CO2 will also be discussed.

  12. High Energy 2-Micron Laser Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A master oscillator power amplifier, high energy Q-switched 2-micron laser system has been recently demonstrated. The laser and amplifiers are all designed in side-pumped rod configuration, pumped by back-cooled conductive packaged GaAlAs diode laser arrays. This 2-micron laser system provides nearly transform limited beam quality.

  13. 2 micron femtosecond fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Jian; Wan, Peng; Yang, Lihmei

    2014-07-29

    Methods and systems for generating femtosecond fiber laser pulses are disclose, including generating a signal laser pulse from a seed laser oscillator; using a first amplifier stage comprising an input and an output, wherein the signal laser pulse is coupled into the input of the first stage amplifier and the output of the first amplifier stage emits an amplified and stretched signal laser pulse; using an amplifier chain comprising an input and an output, wherein the amplified and stretched signal laser pulse from the output of the first amplifier stage is coupled into the input of the amplifier chain and the output of the amplifier chain emits a further amplified, stretched signal laser pulse. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  14. Optical isolators for 2-micron fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Gary; Legg, Thomas H.; Shardlow, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development and testing of optical isolators for use in 2-micron fiber laser systems. A variety of potential Faraday rotator materials were characterised to identify the most suitable materials for use in the 1700-2100nm wavelength range. Isolators based on the three best performing materials were then developed and packaged as fiber-in, fiber-out and fiber-in, beam-out devices. The isolators were then tested in CW, pulsed and ultrafast laser systems. The three different designs produced different performance characteristics, but all designs demonstrated isolation >25dB and insertion losses of <1.2 dB.

  15. Injection Seeded/Phase-Conjugated 2-micron Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petros,M.; Petzar, Paul; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.; Leyva, V.; Shkunov, V.; Rockwell, D.; Betin, A.; Wang, J.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, beam quality improvement of 2 micron laser using a fiber based phase conjugation mirror has been demonstrated. Single frequency operation is necessary to lower threshold. The reflectivity of PCM is approx. 50%.

  16. Fibre laser component technology for 2-micron laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, G.; Robertson, A.

    2014-05-01

    We report on recent developments in fibre laser component technology for use in 2-micron laser systems. A range of `building block' components has been built to allow novel fibre laser architectures that exploit the advantages of fibre lasers based on Thulium and Holmium active fibres. Fibre lasers operating around 2-microns are becoming widely used in an increasing number of applications, which is driving the need for components that can operate reliably at high powers and also integrate easily with other components. To that end, we have designed and built a range of fused fibre, acousto-optic and magneto-optic devices that can be readily integrated into a range of novel fibre laser systems. Research has been carried out into improving fused fibre technology for components operating at 2um wavelengths. Side-coupled feed through combiners have been developed with signal losses as low as 0.02dB and kilowatt level end-coupled pump couplers. Alongside this a range of taps, splitters and WDMs have been developed which allows for the implementation of a variety of laser architectures. Optical isolators based on new Faraday materials have been developed, providing over 30dB isolation, low insertion loss and 30W power handling in a fibre-in, fibre-out version. New cell designs and materials for Acousto-Optic devices have been researched leading to the development of fibre-coupled Acousto-Optic Modulators (AOM) and allows for the realisation of all fibre Thulium and Holmium Q-switched and pulsed fibre lasers. Novel Acousto-Optic Tunable Filters (AOTF) designs have been realised to produce narrow resolution AOTFs and zero-shift AOTFs.

  17. A High Energy 2-microns Laser for Multiple Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2000-01-01

    Solid-state 2-microns laser has been receiving considerable interest because of its eye-safe property and efficient diode pump operation, It has potential for multiple lidar applications to detect water vapor. carbon dioxide and winds. In this paper, we describe a 2-microns double pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser and end-pumped amplifier system. A comprehensive theoretical model has been developed to aid the design and optimization of the laser performance. In a single Q-switched pulse operation the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will be wasted. However, in a double pulses operation mode, the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will repopulate the Ho atoms that were depleted by the extraction of the first Q-switched pulse. Thus. the Tin sensitized Ho:YLF laser provides a unique advantage in applications that require double pulse operation, such as Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). A total output energy of 146 mJ per pulse pair under Q-switch operation is achieved with as high as 4.8% optical to optical efficiency. Compared to a single pulse laser, 70% higher laser efficiency is realized. To obtain high energy while maintaining the high beam quality, a master-oscillator-power-amplifier 2-microns system is designed. We developed an end-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF disk amplifier. This amplifier uses two diode arrays as pump source. A non-imaging lens duct is used to couple the radiation from the laser diode arrays to the laser disk. Preliminary result shows that the efficiency of this laser can be as high as 3%, a factor of three increases over side-pump configuration. This high energy, highly efficient and high beam quality laser is a promising candidate for use in an efficient, multiple lidar applications.

  18. Progress on High-Energy 2-micron Solid State Laser for NASA Space-Based Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center during last fifteen years have resulted in significant advancement of a 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, air and space-borne platforms. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  19. High Power Laser Diode Arrays for 2-Micron Solid State Coherent Lidars Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra; Sudesh, Vikas; Baker, Nathaniel

    2003-01-01

    Laser diode arrays are critical components of any diode-pumped solid state laser systems, constraining their performance and reliability. Laser diode arrays (LDAs) are used as the pump source for energizing the solid state lasing media to generate an intense coherent laser beam with a high spatial and spectral quality. The solid state laser design and the characteristics of its lasing materials define the operating wavelength, pulse duration, and power of the laser diodes. The pump requirements for high pulse energy 2-micron solid state lasers are substantially different from those of more widely used 1-micron lasers and in many aspects more challenging [1]. Furthermore, the reliability and lifetime demanded by many coherent lidar applications, such as global wind profiling from space and long-range clear air turbulence detection from aircraft, are beyond the capability of currently available LDAs. In addition to the need for more reliable LDAs with longer lifetime, further improvement in the operational parameters of high power quasi-cw LDAs, such as electrical efficiency, brightness, and duty cycle, are also necessary for developing cost-effective 2-micron coherent lidar systems for applications that impose stringent size, heat dissipation, and power constraints. Global wind sounding from space is one of such applications, which is the main driver for this work as part of NASA s Laser Risk Reduction Program. This paper discusses the current state of the 792 nm LDA technology and the technology areas being pursued toward improving their performance. The design and development of a unique characterization facility for addressing the specific issues associated with the LDAs for pumping 2-micron coherent lidar transmitters and identifying areas of technological improvement will be described. Finally, the results of measurements to date on various standard laser diode packages, as well as custom-designed packages with potentially longer lifetime, will be reported.

  20. Qualification Testing of Laser Diode Pump Arrays for a Space-Based 2-micron Coherent Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers being considered as the transmitter source for space-based coherent Doppler lidar require high power laser diode pump arrays operating in a long pulse regime of about 1 msec. Operating laser diode arrays over such long pulses drastically impact their useful lifetime due to the excessive localized heating and substantial pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling of their active regions. This paper describes the long pulse performance of laser diode arrays and their critical thermal characteristics. A viable approach is then offered that allows for determining the optimum operational parameters leading to the maximum attainable lifetime.

  1. Advanced 2-micron Solid-state Laser for Wind and CO2 Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in the 2-micron laser development have been made recently. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. The world record 2-micron laser energy is demonstrated with an oscillator and two amplifiers system. It generates more than one joule per pulse energy with excellent beam quality. Based on the successful demonstration of a fully conductive cooled oscillator by using heat pipe technology, an improved fully conductively cooled 2-micron amplifier was designed, manufactured and integrated. It virtually eliminates the running coolant to increase the overall system efficiency and reliability. In addition to technology development and demonstration, a compact and engineering hardened 2-micron laser is under development. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser is expected to be integrated to a lidar system and take field measurements. The recent achievements push forward the readiness of such a laser system for space lidar applications. This paper will review the developments of the state-of-the-art solid-state 2-micron laser.

  2. A Master-Oscillator-Power-Amplifier 2-micron Laser Using Fiber Phase-conjugate Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Shkunov, V.; Rockwell, D.; Betin, A.; Wang, J.; Petros, M.; Petzar, Paul; Trieu, Bo

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, a 2-micron master-oscillator-power-amplifier laser using a fiber based phase conjugation mirror has been demonstrated. The beam quality improvement and 56% of the PCM reflectivity have been achieved.

  3. Improving Lifetime of Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping 2-Micron Solid State Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Operating high power laser diode arrays in long pulse regime of about 1 msec, which is required for pumping 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers, greatly limits their useful lifetime. This paper describes performance of laser diode arrays operating in long pulse mode and presents experimental data on the active region temperature and pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling that are the primary cause of their premature failure and rapid degradation. This paper will then offer a viable approach for determining the optimum design and operational parameters leading to the maximum attainable lifetime.

  4. Developing high energy dissipative soliton fiber lasers at 2 micron

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chongyuan; Wang, Cong; Shang, Wei; Yang, Nan; Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    While the recent discovered new mode-locking mechanism - dissipative soliton - has successfully improved the pulse energy of 1 μm and 1.5 μm fiber lasers to tens of nanojoules, it is still hard to scale the pulse energy at 2 μm due to the anomalous dispersion of the gain fiber. After analyzing the intracavity pulse dynamics, we propose that the gain fiber should be condensed to short lengths in order to generate high energy pulse at 2 μm. Numerical simulation predicts the existence of stable 2 μm dissipative soliton solutions with pulse energy over 10 nJ, comparable to that achieved in the 1 μm and 1.5 μm regimes. Experimental operation confirms the validity of the proposal. These results will advance our understanding of mode-locked fiber lasers at different wavelengths and lay an important step in achieving high energy ultrafast laser pulses from anomalous dispersion gain media. PMID:26348563

  5. Developing high energy dissipative soliton fiber lasers at 2 micron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chongyuan; Wang, Cong; Shang, Wei; Yang, Nan; Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-09-01

    While the recent discovered new mode-locking mechanism - dissipative soliton - has successfully improved the pulse energy of 1 μm and 1.5 μm fiber lasers to tens of nanojoules, it is still hard to scale the pulse energy at 2 μm due to the anomalous dispersion of the gain fiber. After analyzing the intracavity pulse dynamics, we propose that the gain fiber should be condensed to short lengths in order to generate high energy pulse at 2 μm. Numerical simulation predicts the existence of stable 2 μm dissipative soliton solutions with pulse energy over 10 nJ, comparable to that achieved in the 1 μm and 1.5 μm regimes. Experimental operation confirms the validity of the proposal. These results will advance our understanding of mode-locked fiber lasers at different wavelengths and lay an important step in achieving high energy ultrafast laser pulses from anomalous dispersion gain media.

  6. Developing high energy dissipative soliton fiber lasers at 2 micron.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chongyuan; Wang, Cong; Shang, Wei; Yang, Nan; Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    While the recent discovered new mode-locking mechanism--dissipative soliton--has successfully improved the pulse energy of 1 μm and 1.5 μm fiber lasers to tens of nanojoules, it is still hard to scale the pulse energy at 2 μm due to the anomalous dispersion of the gain fiber. After analyzing the intracavity pulse dynamics, we propose that the gain fiber should be condensed to short lengths in order to generate high energy pulse at 2 μm. Numerical simulation predicts the existence of stable 2 μm dissipative soliton solutions with pulse energy over 10 nJ, comparable to that achieved in the 1 μm and 1.5 μm regimes. Experimental operation confirms the validity of the proposal. These results will advance our understanding of mode-locked fiber lasers at different wavelengths and lay an important step in achieving high energy ultrafast laser pulses from anomalous dispersion gain media. PMID:26348563

  7. Single-Frequency Narrow Linewidth 2 Micron Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Shibin (Inventor); Spiegelberg, Christine (Inventor); Luo, Tao (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A compact single frequency, single-mode 2 .mu.m fiber laser with narrow linewidth, <100 kHz and preferably <100 kHz, is formed with a low phonon energy glass doped with triply ionized rare-earth thulium and/or holmium oxide and fiber gratings formed in sections of passive silica fiber and fused thereto. Formation of the gratings in passive silica fiber both facilitates splicing to other optical components and reduces noise thus improving linewidth. An increased doping concentration of 0.5 to 15 wt. % for thulium, holmium or mixtures thereof produces adequate gain, hence output power levels for fiber lengths less than 5 cm and preferably less than 3 cm to enable single-frequency operation.

  8. One-Joule-per-Pulse Q-Switched 2-micron Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Modlin, Ed A.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Pual J.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2005-01-01

    Q-switched output of 1.1 J per pulse at 2-micron wavelength has been achieved in a diode pumped Ho:Tm:LuLF laser using a side-pumped rod configuration in a Master-Oscillator-Power-Amplifier (MOPA) architecture. This is the first time that a 2-micron laser has broken the Joule per pulse barrier for Q-switched operation. The total system efficiency reaches 5% and 6.2% for single and double pulse operation, respectively. The system produces excellent 1.4 times of transform limited beam quality.

  9. Conductive-cooled 2-micron laser development for wind and CO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Kohei; Ishii, Shoken; Yasui, Motoaki; Itabe, Toshikazu; Sato, Atsushi; Asai, Kazuhiro; Fukuoka, Hirotake; Ishikawa, Takayoshi

    2012-11-01

    We have developing two types of 2micron conductive-cooled lasers for wind and CO2 measurements. One type of lasers is side pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser operated at 20-40Hz. The laser rod is cooled down to -80C and laser diodes are operated at normal temperature in a vacuum container. With this type of laser, we have built up a coherent lidar system which is used to measure wind and CO2 concentration. Ho:YLF laser end-pumped by Tm:fiber laser is another type oscillator which will be operated at high repetition rate of 200-300 Hz in normal temperature. The laser will have an amplifier. These lasers are conductive-cooled, solid-state, eye-safe and suitable for space applications.

  10. Mars Observer Laser Altimeter: laser transmitter.

    PubMed

    Afzal, R S

    1994-05-20

    The Mars Observer Laser Altimeter utilizes a space-qualified diode-laser-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser transmitter. A simple numerical model of the laser energetics is presented, which predicts the pulse energy and pulse width. Comparisons with the measured data available are made. The temperature dependence of the laser transmitter is also predicted. This dependence prediction is particularly important in determining the operational temperature range of the transmitter. Knowing the operational temperature range is especially important for a passive, thermally controlled laser operating in space. PMID:20885685

  11. Transmittance and reflectance of crystalline quartz and highand low-water content fused silica from 2 microns to 1 mm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaney, J. B.; Stewart, K. P.; Hass, G.

    1983-01-01

    The transmittances and reflectances of cultured crystalline quartz, Suprasil, Suprasil W, and Infrasil were compared over the wavelength region from 2 to 1000 microns. The high-water content of Suprasil and the low-water content of cultured crystalline quartz, Suprasil W, and Infrasil were determined by their transmittances measured at 2.73 microns where water content causes high absorption in optical materials. The fact that the fused silicas, both with high- and low-water content, had identical far-IR transmittances and that their transmittances were greatly inferior to that of crystalline quartz led to the conclusion that their inferior transmittance is due to their amorphous structure and not to their water content.

  12. Self-Calibration and Laser Energy Monitor Validations for a Double-Pulsed 2-Micron CO2 Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2015-01-01

    Double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is well suited for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing. The IPDA lidar technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features of the gas normalized to the transmitted energy. In the double-pulse case, each shot of the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by a short interval. Calibration of the transmitted pulse energies is required for accurate CO2 measurement. Design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on an InGaAs pin quantum detector. A high-speed photo-electromagnetic quantum detector was used for laser-pulse profile verification. Both quantum detectors were calibrated using a reference pyroelectric thermal detector. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in the single-pulsed mode, then comparing the quantum detectors in the double-pulsed mode. In addition, a self-calibration feature of the 2-micron IPDA lidar is presented. This feature allows one to monitor the transmitted laser energy, through residual scattering, with a single detection channel. This reduces the CO2 measurement uncertainty. IPDA lidar ground validation for CO2 measurement is presented for both calibrated energy monitor and self-calibration options. The calibrated energy monitor resulted in a lower CO2 measurement bias, while self-calibration resulted in a better CO2 temporal profiling when compared to the in situ sensor.

  13. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  14. Compact Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2009-04-01

    ): In this paper we present design considerations, thermal and optical modeling results, and device performance for a ruggedized, compact laser transmitter that utilizes a room temperature quantum cascade (QC) laser source. The QC laser transmitter is intended for portable mid-infrared (3-12 µm) spectroscopy applications, where the atmospheric transmission window is relatively free of water vapor interference and where the molecular rotational vibration absorption features can be used to detect and uniquely identify chemical compounds of interest. Initial QC laser-based sensor development efforts were constrained by the complications of cryogenic operation. However, improvements in both QC laser designs and fabrication processes have provided room-temperature devices that now enable significant miniaturization and integration potential for national security, environmental monitoring, atmospheric science, and industrial safety applications.

  15. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, R. S.; Dallas, J. L.; Yu, A. W.; Mamakos, W. A.; Lukemire, A.; Schroeder, B.; Malak, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), scheduled to launch in 2001, is a laser altimeter and lidar for tile Earth Observing System's (EOS) ICESat mission. The laser transmitter requirements, design and qualification test results for this space- based remote sensing instrument are presented.

  16. Room-Temperature, Diode-Pumped Ho:Tm:YLF Laser Amplifiers Generating 700 mJ at 2-microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie A.; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, Norman P.; Lockard, George E.; Modlin, Edward A.; Yu, Jurong

    1997-01-01

    Q-switched, 400-ns pulses with output energy of 700 mJ at 2-microns, representing an optical-to-optical efficiency of 2%, was achieved from five diode-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser amplifiers at room-temperature.

  17. Validar: A Testbed for Advanced 2-Micron Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Petros, Mulugeta; Barnes, Bruce W.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy 2-microns lasers have been incorporated in a breadboard coherent Doppler lidar to test component technologies and explore applications for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Design of the lidar is presented including aspects in the laser transmitter, receiver, photodetector, and signal processing. Sample data is presented on wind profiling and CO2 concentration measurements.

  18. Geodynamic laser ranging system laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallas, J. L.; Czechanski, J. P.; Coyle, D. B.; Zukowski, B. J.; Seery, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the requirements and design options in the development of a spaceborne laser transmitter for NASA's Geodynamic Laser Ranging System. Three different oscillators are considered. The first is an injection-seeded ring oscillator yielding 1 mJ of energy within a 120-ps pulse. The second is a frequency-modulated mode-locked oscillator emitting 0.30 nJ in a 20-ps pulse. The third is a self-starting, additive pulse mode-locked laser. Detailed design considerations and preliminary results of these lasers are reported as well as the design of a unique multipass amplifier.

  19. Hermetic diode laser transmitter module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollila, Jyrki; Kautio, Kari; Vahakangas, Jouko; Hannula, Tapio; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Jorma; Sivonen, Matti

    1999-04-01

    In very demanding optoelectronic sensor applications it is necessary to encapsulate semiconductor components hermetically in metal housings to ensure reliable operation of the sensor. In this paper we report on the development work to package a laser diode transmitter module for a time- off-light distance sensor application. The module consists of a lens, laser diode, electronic circuit and optomechanics. Specifications include high acceleration, -40....+75 degree(s)C temperature range, very low gas leakage and mass-production capability. We have applied solder glasses for sealing optical lenses and electrical leads hermetically into a metal case. The lens-metal case sealing has been made by using a special soldering glass preform preserving the optical quality of the lens. The metal housings are finally sealed in an inert atmosphere by welding. The assembly concept to retain excellent optical power and tight optical axis alignment specifications is described. The reliability of the laser modules manufactured has been extensively tested using different aging and environmental test procedures. Sealed packages achieve MIL- 883 standard requirements for gas leakage.

  20. Fiber laser at 2 micron region using double-clad thulium/ytterbium co-doped yttria-alumino-silicate fiber Fiber laser at 2 micron region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, S. W.; Saidin, N.; Damanhuri, S. S. A.; Ahmad, H.; Halder, A.; Paul, M. C.; Das, S.; Pal, M.; Bhadra, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    A lasing action from a newly developed double-clad Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped yttria-alumino-silicate fiber (TYDF) is demonstrated based on cladding pumping technique. The TYDF used was drawn from D-shape preform, which was fabricated using a modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process in conjunction with a solution doping technique. The Tm3+ and Yb3+ ions concentrations in this fiber are 5.55×1019 and 15.52×1019 ions/cc, respectively. The fiber laser operates at wavelength of 1948.4 and 1947.2 nm with pump power thresholds of 0.6 and 1.0 W for 915 and 940 nm pumping, respectively. The maximum output power of 10.5 mW was achieved with the 915 nm pumping at the maximum pump power of 1.5 W. It is found that the laser is more efficient with 915 nm pumping compared to 940 nm pumping.

  1. Theoretical simulation of a 2 micron airborne solid state laser anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbert, Beatrice; Cariou, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    In the near future, military aircraft will need to know precisely their true airspeed in order to optimize flight conditions. In comparison with classical anemometer probes, an airborne Doppler lidar allows measurement of the air velocity without influence from aircraft aerodynamic disturbance. While several demonstration systems of heterodyne detection using a CO2 laser have been reported, improvements in the technology of solid state lasers have recently opened up the possibility that these devices can be used as an alternative to CO2 laser systems. In particular, a diode pumped Tm:Ho:YAG laser allows a reliable compact airborne system with an eye safe wavelength (lambda = 2.09 microns) to be achieved. The theoretical study of performances of a coherent lidar using a solid state diode pumped Tm:Ho:YAG laser, caled SALSA, for measuring aircraft airspeed relative to atmospheric aerosols is described. A computer simulation was developed in order to modelize the Doppler anemometer in the function of atmospheric propagation and optical design. A clever analysis of the power budget on the detector area allows optical characteristic parameters of the system to be calculated, and then it can be used to predict performances of the Doppler system. Estimating signal to noise ratios (SNR) and heterodyne efficiency provides the available energy of speed measurement as well as a useful measurement of the alignment of the backscattered and reference fields on the detector.

  2. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Novo-Gradac, Anne Marie; Shaw, George B.; Unger, Glenn; Lukemire, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We present the final configuration of the space flight laser transmitter as delivered to the LOLA instrument. The laser consists of two oscillators with co-aligned outputs on a single bench, each capable of providing one billion plus shots.

  3. Laser Transmitter for the Lunar Orbit Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Shaw, George B.; Li, Steven X.; Krebs, Danny C.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis A.; Unger, Glenn; Lukemire, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We present the final configuration of the space flight laser transmitter as delivered to the LOLA instrument. The laser consists of two oscillators on a single bench, each capable of providing one billion plus shots.

  4. Solid-State, High Energy 2-Micron Laser Development for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    Lidar (light detection and ranging) remote sensing enjoys the advantages of excellent vertical and horizontal resolution; pointing capability; a signal source independent from natural light; and control and knowledge of transmitted wavelength, pulse shape, and polarization and received polarization. Lidar in space is an emerging technology now being developing to fit applications where passive sensors cannot meet current measurement requirements. Technical requirements for space lidar are more demanding than for ground-based or airborne systems. Perhaps the most distinguishing characteristics of space lidars are the environmental requirements. Space lidar systems must be specially designed to survive the mechanical vibration loads of launch and operate in the vacuum of space where exposure to ionizing radiation limits the electronic components available. Finally, space lidars must be designed to be highly reliable because they must operate without the need for repair or adjustment. Lifetime requirements tend to be important drivers of the overall system design. The maturity of the required technologies is a key to the development of any space lidar system. NASA entered a new era in the 1990 s with the approval of several space-based remote sensing missions employing laser radar (lidar) techniques. Following the steps of passive remote sensing and then active radar remote sensing, lidar sensors were a logical next step, providing independence from natural light sources, and better spatial resolution and smaller sensor size than radar sensors. The shorter electromagnetic wavelengths of laser light also allowed signal reflectance from air molecules and aerosol particles. The smaller receiver apertures allowed the concept of scanning the sensor field of view. However, technical problems with several space-based lidar missions during that decade led to concern at NASA about the risk of lidar missions. An external panel was convened to make recommendations to NASA. Their

  5. 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar Instrument Advancements for Tropospheric Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Kavaya, M. J.; Koch, G.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge derived from global tropospheric wind measurement is an important constituent of our overall understanding of climate behavior [1]. Accurate weather prediction saves lives and protects properties from destructions. High-energy 2-micron laser is the transmitter of choice for coherent Doppler wind detection. In addition to the eye-safety, the wavelength of the transmitter suitably matches the aerosol size in the lower troposphere. Although the technology of the 2-micron laser has been maturing steadily, lidar derived wind data is still a void in the global weather database. In the last decade, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been engaged in this endeavor, contributing to the scientific database of 2-micron lidar transmitters. As part of this effort, an in depth analysis of the physics involved in the workings of the Ho: Tm laser systems have been published. In the last few years, we have demonstrated lidar transmitter with over1Joule output energy. In addition, a large body of work has been done in characterizing new laser materials and unique crystal configurations to enhance the efficiency and output energy of the 2-micron laser systems. At present 2-micron lidar systems are measuring wind from both ground and airborne platforms. This paper will provide an overview of the advancements made in recent years and the technology maturity levels attained.

  6. Laser Transmitter Design for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, R. S.; Yu, A. W.; Mamakos, W.; Lukemire, A.; Dallas, J. L.; Schroeder, B.; Green, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    NASA is embarking on a new era of laser remote sensing instruments from space. This paper focuses specifically on the laser technology involved in one of the present NASA missions. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) scheduled to launch in 2001 is a laser altimeter and lidar for the Earth Observing System's (EOS) ICESat mission. The laser transmitter for this space-based remote sensing instrument is discussed in the context of the mission requirements.

  7. 2-micron Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Singh, U.; Petros, M.

    2012-12-01

    A 2-micron high energy, pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar is being developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. Development of this lidar heavily leverages the 2-micron laser technologies developed in LaRC over the last decade. The high pulse energy, direct detection lidar operating at CO2 2-micron absorption band provides an alternate approach to measure CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. It is expected to provide high-precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. Our objective is to integrate an existing high energy double-pulsed 2-micron laser transmitter with a direct detection receiver and telescope to enable an airborne capability to perform a first proof of principle demonstration of airborne direct detection CO2 measurements. The 2-micron transmitter provides 100mJ at 10Hz with double pulse format specifically designed for DIAL/IPDA instrument. The compact, rugged, highly reliable transceiver is based on unique Ho:Tm:YLF high-energy 2-micron pulsed laser technology. All the optical mounts are custom designed and have space heritage. A 16-inch diameter telescope has been designed and being manufactured for the direct detection lidar. The detector is an InGaAs Positive-Intrinsic-Negative (PIN) photodiode manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation. The performance of the detector is characterized at various operating temperatures and bias voltages for spectral response, NEP, response time, dynamic range, and linearity. A collinear lidar structure is designed to be integrated to NASA UC12 or B200 research aircrafts. This paper will describe the design of the airborne 2-micron pulsed IPDA lidar system; the lidar operation parameters; the wavelength pair selection; laser transmitter energy, pulse rate, beam divergence, double pulse generation and accurate frequency control; detector characterization; telescope design; lidar structure design

  8. Recent Development of Sb-based Phototransistors in the 0.9- to 2.2-microns Wavelength Range for Applications to Laser Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. Nurul; Refaat, Tamer F.; Sulima, Oleg V.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated commercially available photodiodes and also recent developed Sb-based phototransistors in order to compare their performances for applications to laser remote sensing. A custom-designed phototransistor in the 0.9- to 2.2-microns wavelength range has been developed at AstroPower and characterized at NASA Langley's Detector Characterization Laboratory. The phototransistor's performance greatly exceeds the previously reported results at this wavelength range in the literature. The detector testing included spectral response, dark current and noise measurements. Spectral response measurements were carried out to determine the responsivity at 2-microns wavelength at different bias voltages with fixed temperature; and different temperatures with fixed bias voltage. Current versus voltage characteristics were also recorded at different temperatures. Results show high responsivity of 2650 A/W corresponding to an internal gain of three orders of magnitude, and high detectivity (D*) of 3.9x10(exp 11) cm.Hz(exp 1/2)/W that is equivalent to a noise-equivalent-power of 4.6x10(exp -14) W/Hz(exp 1/2) (-4.0 V @ -20 C) with a light collecting area diameter of 200-microns. It appears that this recently developed 2-micron phototransistor's performances such as responsivity, detectivity, and gain are improved significantly as compared to the previously published APD and SAM APD using similar materials. These detectors are considered as phototransistors based-on their structures and performance characteristics and may have great potential for high sensitivity differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor at 2.05-microns and 1.9-microns, respectively.

  9. Propagation of laser beam parameters through pure phase transmittances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquero, G.; Mejías, P. M.; Martínez-Herrero, R.

    1996-02-01

    The propagation laws of the intensity moments of a laser beam through ABCD optical systems are generalized to include pure phase transmittances. This is done by representing the behaviour of such transmittances by means of a 4 × 4 matrix, M, which can be handled, to some extent, as the ABCD-matrices associated with ordinary first-order optical systems. This formalism enables the application of ABCD propagation formulae to cascaded optical systems containing pure phase transmittances. Matrix M is used to determine the intensity moments at the output of two special quartic phase transmittances, namely, a circular spherically aberrated lens and a pair of orthogonal cylindrical (also aberrated) lenses.

  10. Development of 2-micron nonlinear frequency conversion laser system and tissue interaction monitoring using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongkyun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Kim, Dae Yu

    2016-03-01

    We report on development of optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based mid-infrared laser system, which utilizes periodically poled nonlinear crystal that was pumped by near-infrared (NIR) laser. We have obtained 8 W of mid-infrared average output at the injection current of 20A from a quasi-phase-matched OPO using external cavity configuration. The laser tissue ablation efficiency was investigated which is substantially affected by several parameters such as, optical fluence rate, wavelength of the laser source and the optical properties of target tissue. Wavelength and radiant exposure dependent tissue ablation dimension were quantified by using SD-OCT (spectral domain optical coherence tomography) and the ablation efficiency was compared to that of non-converted NIR- laser system.

  11. Performance of the GLAS Laser Transmitter in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Afzal, Robert S.; Dallas, Joseph L.; Melak, Anthony; Mamakos, William

    2006-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), launched in January 2003, is a laser altimeter and lidar for the Earth Observing System's (EOS) ICESat mission. The laser transmitter requirements, design and qualification test results and in-flight performance for this space-based remote sensing instrument is summarized and presented.

  12. Laterally Coupled Distributed-Feedback GaSb-Based Diode Lasers for Atmospheric Gas Detection at 2 Microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Ksendzov, Alexander; Franz, Kale J.; Bagheri, Mahmood; Forouhar, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate single-mode laterally coupled distributed-feedback diode lasers at 2.05 microns employing low-loss etched gratings. Single-facet CW output exceeds 50 mW near room temperature with linewidth below 1 MHz over 10-ms observation times

  13. Watt-level supercontinuum generation in As2Se3 fibers pumped by a 2-micron random fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yulong; Li, Feng; Xu, Jianqiu

    2016-05-01

    Chalcogenide fibers are good candidates for generating supercontinuum (SC) radiation due to their large nonlinear refractive indices and high mid-infrared transmission, but their low damage thresholds hamper the SC power scaling, thereby limiting the ultimately achieved SC brightness. Here, we report an As2Se3 fiber SC system pumped by a novel random Q-switched 2 μm Tm3+ fiber laser. The maximum SC output power is 1.09 W with slope efficiency of 24%, and the SC spans from ~1980 to ~2500 nm with a spectral width of ~500 nm at the  -20 dB points. The spectral power density is ~2 mW nm-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power and spectral density SC emission ever achieved in chalcogenide fibers.

  14. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Methane Using Pulsed Laser Transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Wu, Stewart; Gonzalez, Brayler; Rodriguez, Michael; Hasselbrack, William; Fahey, Molly; Yu, Anthony; Stephen, Mark; Mao, Jianping; Kawa, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with approximately 25 times the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide (CO2) per molecule. At NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) we have been developing a laser-based technology needed to remotely measure CH4 from orbit. We report on our development effort for the methane lidar, especially on our laser transmitters and recent airborne demonstration. Our lidar transmitter is based on an optical parametric process to generate near infrared laser radiation at 1651 nanometers, coincident with a CH4 absorption. In an airborne flight campaign in the fall of 2015, we tested two kinds of laser transmitters --- an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The output wavelength of the lasers was rapidly tuned over the CH4 absorption by tuning the seed laser to sample the CH4 absorption line at several wavelengths. This approach uses the same Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) technique we have used for our CO2 lidar for ASCENDS. The two laser transmitters were successfully operated in the NASAs DC-8 aircraft, measuring methane from 3 to 13 kilometers with high precision.

  15. In-Flight Performance of the Mercury Laser Altimeter Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Sun, Xiaoli; Li, Steven X.; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which was launched on August 3, 2004. MLA maps Mercury's shape and topographic landforms and other surface characteristics using a diode-pumped solid-state laser transmitter and a silicon avalanche photodiode receiver that measures the round-trip time of individual laser pulses. The laser transmitter has been operating nominally during planetary flyby measurements and in orbit about Mercury since March 2011. In this paper, we review the MLA laser transmitter telemetry data and evaluate the performance of solid-state lasers under extended operation in a space environment.

  16. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  17. Laser transmitter for Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, John; Cimolino, Marc; Petros, Mulugeta

    1991-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) Laser Transmitter Module (LTM) flight laser optical architecture has been space qualified by extensive testing at the system, subsystem and component level. The projected system output performance has been verified using an optically and electrically similar breadboard version of the laser. Parasitic lasing was closely examined and completely suppressed after design changes were implemented and tested. Oscillator and amplifier type heads were separately tested to 150 million shots. Critical subassemblies have undergone environmental testing to Shuttle qualification levels. A superior three color anti-reflection coating was developed and tested for use on 14 surfaces after the final amplifier.

  18. Implementation and validation of a CubeSat laser transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsbury, R. W.; Caplan, D. O.; Cahoy, K. L.

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents implementation and validation results for a CubeSat-scale laser transmitter. The master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) design produces a 1550 nm, 200mW average power optical signal through the use of a directly modulated laser diode and a commercial fiber amplifier. The prototype design produces high-fidelity M-ary pulse position modulated (PPM) waveforms (M=8 to 128), targeting data rates > 10 Mbit/s while meeting a constraining 8W power allocation. We also present the implementation of an avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver with measured transmitter-to-receiver performance within 3 dB of theory. Via loopback, the compact receiver design can provide built-in self-test and calibration capabilities, and supports incremental on-orbit testing of the design.

  19. Remote control radioactive-waste removal system uses modulated laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcher, E. E.; Kopia, L. P.; Rowland, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Laser remote control system consists of transmitter, auto tracker, and receiver. Transmitter and tracker, packaged together and bore sighted, constitute control station, receiver is slave station. Model has five command channels and optical link operating range of 110 m.

  20. Alexandrite laser transmitter development for airborne water vapor DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Thomas H.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Higdon, Noah S.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Browell, Edward V.

    1995-01-01

    In the DIAL technique, the water vapor concentration profile is determined by analyzing the lidar backscatter signals for laser wavelengths tuned 'on' and 'off' a water vapor absorption line. Desired characteristics of the on-line transmitted laser beam include: pulse energy greater than or equal to 100 mJ, high-resolution tuning capability (uncertainty less than 0.25 pm), good spectral stability (jitter less than 0.5 pm about the mean), and high spectral purity (greater than 99 percent). The off-line laser is generally detuned less than 100 pm away from the water vapor line. Its spectral requirements are much less stringent. In our past research, we developed and demonstrated the airborne DIAL technique for water vapor measurements in the 720-nm spectral region using a system based on an alexandrite laser as the transmitter for the on-line wavelength and a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser for the off-line wavelength. This off-line laser has been replaced by a second alexandrite laser. Diode lasers are used to injection seed both lasers for frequency and linewidth control. This eliminates the need for the two intracavity etalons utilized in our previous alexandrite laser and thereby greatly reduces the risk of optical damage. Consequently, the transmitted pulse energy can be substantially increased, resulting in greater measurement range, higher data density, and increased measurement precision. In this paper, we describe the diode injection seed source, the two alexandrite lasers, and the device used to line lock the on-line seed source to the water vapor absorption feature.

  1. Prototype laser-diode-pumped solid state laser transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Thomas J.; Cheng, Emily A. P.; Wallace, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    Monolithic, diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring lasers can provide diffraction-limited, single-frequency, narrow-linewidth, tunable output which is adequate for use as a local oscillator in a coherent communication system. A laser was built which had a linewidth of about 2 kHz, a power of 5 milliwatts, and which was tunable over a range of 30 MHz in a few microseconds. This laser was phase-locked to a second, similar laser. This demonstrates that the powerful technique of heterodyne detection is possible with a diode-pumped laser used as the local oscillator. Laser diode pumping of monolithic Nd:YAG rings can lead to output powers of hundreds of milliwatts from a single laser. A laser was built with a single-mode output of 310 mW. Several lasers can be chained together to sum their power, while maintaining diffraction-limited, single frequency operation. This technique was demonstrated with two lasers, with a total output of 340 mW, and is expected to be practical for up to about ten lasers. Thus with lasers of 310 mW, output of up to 3 W is possible. The chaining technique, if properly engineered, results in redundancy. The technique of resonant external modulation and doubling is designed to efficiently convert the continuous wave, infrared output of our lasers into low duty-cycle pulsed green output. This technique was verified through both computer modeling and experimentation. Further work would be necessary to develop a deliverable system using this technique.

  2. Feasibility of a 30-meter space based laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, R. R.; Lenertz, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the application of large expandable mirror structures in future space missions to establish the feasibility and define the potential of high power laser systems for such applications as propulsion and power transmission. Application of these concepts requires a 30-meter diameter, diffraction limited mirror for transmission of the laser energy. Three concepts for the transmitter are presented. These concepts include consideration of continuous as well as segmented mirror surfaces and the major stow-deployment categories of inflatable, variable geometry and assembled-in-space structures. The mirror surface for each concept would be actively monitored and controlled to maintain diffraction limited performance at 10.6 microns during operation. The proposed mirror configurations are based on existing aerospace state-of-the-art technology. The assembled-in-space concept appears to be the most feasible, at this time.

  3. Transmitter design with alterable view field for airborne laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiyan; Hu, Yun'an

    2009-10-01

    The variable focus telescope is utilized now in the laser transmitter system design. It changes the telescope's magnifying power in order to adjust the exit beam through moving the inner focus lens. This system has complicated structure and high machining expense. This paper investigates the focusing character of Gaussian beam through misadjust telescope and presents a new method for lidar transmission system design. The laser beam divergence angle and the radius of exit beam are changed through moving the distance between the back focus of object lens and the front focus of ocular. This design can provide a convenient method for calculating the focusing parameters. The restriction of assembly dimension and the effect of fitting and adjusting error which should be considered in engineering application are studied, and then bring a method to choose the right parameters of focusing optic system by the focusing requirement.

  4. Wind Profiling from a New Compact, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection Doppler Lidar Transceiver during Wind Measurement Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Demoz, B.; Veneable, D.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. This lidar system was recently deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Maryland, along with other wind lidar systems. Coherent Doppler wind lidar ground-based wind measurements and comparisons with other lidars and other sensors will be presented.

  5. Reflection Effects in Multimode Fiber Systems Utilizing Laser Transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Harry E.

    1991-01-01

    A number of optical communication lines are now in use at NASA-Kennedy for the transmission of voice, computer data, and video signals. Now, all of these channels use a single carrier wavelength centered near 1300 or 1550 nm. Engineering tests in the past have given indications of the growth of systematic and random noise in the RF spectrum of a fiber network as the number of connector pairs is increased. This noise seems to occur when a laser transmitter is used instead of a LED. It has been suggested that the noise is caused by back reflections created at connector fiber interfaces. Experiments were performed to explore the effect of reflection on the transmitting laser under conditions of reflective feedback. This effort included computer integration of some of the instrumentation in the fiber optic lab using the Lab View software recently acquired by the lab group. The main goal was to interface the Anritsu Optical and RF spectrum analyzers to the MacIntosh II computer so that laser spectra and network RF spectra could be simultaneously and rapidly acquired in a form convenient for analysis. Both single and multimode fiber is installed at Kennedy. Since most are multimode, this effort concentrated on multimode systems.

  6. Hybrid current driver designed for a space-borne laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Robert K., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    NASA Goddard is developing a free-space laser communication transmitter. Each of the 10 GaAlAs diode lasers in the transmitter must be digitally modulated by individual current drivers from a common data source. In order to fit the miniature laser header modules, a hybrid integrated laser current driver was required. The hybrid, smaller than a postage stamp, can drive 100 mA modulation current at a data rate of 200 Mbit/s NRZ.

  7. 2-Micron Triple-Pulse Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Development for Simultaneous Airborne Column Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    For more than 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has contributed in developing several 2-micron carbon dioxide active remote sensors using the DIAL technique. Currently, an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is under development at NASA LaRC. This paper focuses on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of wavelength control, packaging and lidar integration. In addition, receiver development updates will also be presented, including telescope integration, detection systems and data acquisition electronics. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will be presented.

  8. Evaluation of Manganese Doped Ca5(PO4)3F as a Near Infrared (1-2 microns) Solid-State Laser Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Matthew; Hoemmerich, Uwe; Loutts, George B.

    1998-01-01

    Tunable solid-state lasers are of enormous interest for applications including fundamental spectroscopy, remote sensing of the earth atmosphere, medical surgery, and optical communications. Efficient and widely tunable lasers have been developed for the 800-1100 nm region based on transition metal doped insulators like e.g. Ti:Sapphire. The development of transition metal lasers operating at longer wavelength, however, has been limited by the luminescence efficiency of existing materials. We are currently evaluating Mn doped Ca5(PO4)3F as a new solid-state laser material for the 1-2 micro-m region. Preliminary spectroscopic studies revealed that Mn:Ca5(PO4)3F exhibits an intense near infrared luminescence which extends from 1100-1300 nm. Based on lifetime measurements we estimated the luminescence quantum efficiency to be as high as 90 deg./0 at room temperature. The near infrared luminescence properties of Mn doped Ca5(PO4)3F and its potential for solid-state laser applications will be discussed in detail.

  9. On the minimization of the prime power consumption of a coupling-modulated gas laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The prime power requirements of a coupling-modulated gas laser transmitter are presented. The latter consists of a gas discharge tube and electro-optic modulator inside a laser resonator. In performing the calculations, the laser discharge length and the modulator voltage are simultaneously varied so that the transmitted power remains constant. In this way, tradeoffs can be made between the prime power supplied individually to the discharge tube and to the modulator driver to obtain a transmitter configuration which minimizes the total prime power consumption. An analytical expression is derived which describes the effects of information bandwidth and transmitter output power on the prime power requirements. Specific numerical results are obtained for a CO2 laser transmitter based on presently available experimental data.

  10. Compact, High Energy 2-micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development for NASA's Future 3-D Winds Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Demoz, Belay B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2-micron laser transmitter development at NASA Langley Research Center for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to study laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for future global coherent Doppler lidar winds measurement. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz laser was designed as an integral part of a compact lidar transceiver developed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 aircraft in autonomous operation. Recently, LaRC 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar system was selected to contribute to the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) hurricane field experiment in 2010 titled Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The Doppler lidar system will measure vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds from the DC-8 aircraft using NASA Langley s existing 2-micron, pulsed, coherent detection, Doppler wind lidar system that is ready for DC-8 integration. The measurements will typically extend from the DC-8 to the earth s surface. They will be highly accurate in both wind magnitude and direction. Displays of the data will be provided in real time on the DC-8. The pulsed Doppler wind lidar of NASA Langley Research Center is much more powerful than past Doppler lidars. The operating range, accuracy, range resolution, and time resolution will be unprecedented. We expect the data to play a key role, combined with the other sensors, in improving understanding and predictive algorithms for hurricane strength and track. 1

  11. Supercontinuum generation from a multi-ring holes tellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 2 micron high power mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dinghuan; Gao, Weiqing; Liao, Meisong; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2013-03-01

    Supercontinuum (SC) generation from a highly nonlinear tellurite microstructured fiber with multi-ring holes was demonstrated by pumping with a 2 μm high power mode-locked fiber laser. The chromatic dispersion of the fiber was measured with a homemade white-light spectral interferometer on a wide wavelength range and matched very well with the theoretical calculation. The zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of the fiber was measured to be 1358 nm and calculated to be 1390 nm. Although the pumped wavelength was far away from ZDW, with flat dispersion profile of the fiber on the anomalous dispersion, the SC could be expanded from 650 nm to 2850 nm with launched pulse energy of several hundred picojoules. Simulations of SC generation were performed and showed fair agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Fiber-Based Laser Transmitter for Oxygen A-Band Spectroscopy and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2010-01-01

    A fiber-based laser transmitter has been designed for active remote-sensing spectroscopy. The transmitter uses a master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration with a distributed feedback diode-laser master oscillator and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The output from the MOPA is frequency-doubled with a periodically poled nonlinear crystal. The utility of this single-frequency, wavelength-tunable, power-scalable laser has been demonstrated in a spectroscopic measurement of the diatomic oxygen A-band.

  13. Single Frequency, Pulsed Laser Diode Transmitter for Dial Water Vapor Measurements at 935nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, Gregg W.; Cornwell, Donald M., Jr.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Rall, Johnathan A. R.

    1998-01-01

    We report a tunable, single frequency, narrow linewidth, pulsed laser diode transmitter at 935.68nm for remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. The transmitter consists of a CW, tunable, external cavity diode laser whose output is amplified 2OdB using a tapered diode amplifier. The output is pulsed for range resolved DIAL lidar by pulsing the drive current to the diode amplifier at 4kHz with a .5% duty cycle. The output from the transmitter is 36OnJ/pulse and is single spatial mode. It maintains a linewidth of less than 25MHz as its wavelength is tuned across the water vapor absorption line at 935.68nm. The transmitter design and its use in a water vapor measurement will be discussed.

  14. Development of an efficient Ti:sapphire laser transmitter for atmospheric ozone lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Khaled Abdelsabour

    The impetus of this work was to develop an all solid-state Ti:sapphire laser transmitter to replace the current dye lasers that could provide a potentially compact, robust, and highly reliable laser transmitter for differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric ozone. Two compact, high-energy pulsed, and injection-seeded Ti:sapphire lasers operating at a pulse repetition frequency of 30 Hz and wavelengths of 867 nm and 900 nm, with M2 of 1.3, have been experimentally demonstrated and compared to model results. The Ti:sapphire lasers have shown the required output beam quality at maximum output pulse energy, 115 mJ at 867 nm and 105 mJ at 900 nm, with a slope efficiency of 40% and 32%, respectively, to achieve 30 mJ of ultraviolet laser output at 289 run and 300 nm with two LBO nonlinear crystals.

  15. Noise-immune laser receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit

    SciTech Connect

    Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K; Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P

    2009-11-30

    We consider the operation principles of noise-immune near-IR receiver - transmitters with the quantum sensitivity limit, in which active quantum filters based on iodine photodissociation quantum amplifiers and iodine lasers are used. The possible applications of these devices in laser location, laser space communication, for the search for signals from extraterrestrial civilisations and sending signals to extraterrestrial civilisations are discussed. (invited paper)

  16. Fiber-Based, Trace-Gas, Laser Transmitter Technology Development for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Wu, Stewart; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Gonzalez, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Numata, Kenji; Storm, Mark; Abshire, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is working on maturing the technology readiness of a laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. GSFC has been developing an airplane-based CO2 lidar instrument over several years to demonstrate the efficacy of the instrumentation and measurement technique and to link the science models to the instrument performance. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. In order to accomplish this, we must demonstrate the technology readiness and performance of the components as well as demonstrate the required power-scaling to make the link with the required signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). To date, all the instrument components have been shown to have the required performance with the exception of the laser transmitter.In this program we are working on a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture where we will develop a ruggedized package and perform the relevant environmental tests to demonstrate TRL-6. In this paper we will review our transmitter architecture and progress on the performance and packaging of the laser transmitter.

  17. Fiber-based, trace-gas, laser transmitter technology development for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Wu, Stewart; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Gonzales, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Numata, Kenji; Storm, Mark; Abshire, James

    2015-09-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is working on maturing the technology readiness of a laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. GSFC has been developing an airplane-based CO2 lidar instrument over several years to demonstrate the efficacy of the instrumentation and measurement technique and to link the science models to the instrument performance. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. In order to accomplish this, we must demonstrate the technology readiness and performance of the components as well as demonstrate the required power-scaling to make the link with the required signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). To date, all the instrument components have been shown to have the required performance with the exception of the laser transmitter. In this program we are working on a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture where we will develop a ruggedized package and perform the relevant environmental tests to demonstrate TRL-6. In this paper we will review our transmitter architecture and progress on the performance and packaging of the laser transmitter.

  18. High-power multi-beam diode laser transmitter for a flash imaging lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmlund, Christer; Aitta, Petteri; Kivi, Sini; Mitikka, Risto; Tyni, Lauri; Heikkinen, Veli

    2013-10-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is developing the transmitter for the "Flash Optical Sensor for TErrain Relative NAVigation" (FOSTERNAV) multi-beam flash imaging lidar. FOSTERNAV is a concept demonstrator for new guidance, navigation and control (GNC) technologies to fulfil the requirements for landing and docking of spacecraft as well as for navigation of rovers. This paper presents the design, realisation and testing of the multi-beam continuous-wave (CW) laser transmitter to be used in a 256x256 pixel flash imaging lidar. Depending on the target distance, the lidar has three operation modes using either several beams with low divergence or one single beam with a large divergence. This paper describes the transmitter part of the flash imaging lidar with focus on the electronics and especially the laser diode drivers. The transmitter contains eight fibre coupled commercial diode laser modules with a total peak optical power of 32 W at 808 nm. The main requirement for the laser diode drivers was linear modulation up to a frequency of 20 MHz allowing, for example, low distortion chirps or pseudorandom binary sequences. The laser modules contain the laser diode, a monitoring photodiode, a thermo-electric cooler, and a thermistor. The modules, designed for non-modulated and low-frequency operation, set challenging demands on the design of the drivers. Measurement results are presented on frequency response, and eye diagrams for pseudo-random binary sequences.

  19. Long-duration Operation of 2-micron Coherent Doppler Lidar in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Baggot, Rene P.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2005-01-01

    The reliability and lifetime of laser remote sensing systems that can operate autonomously over a sufficiently long period are mainly constrained by the laser diode arrays (LDAs) used for pumping their laser transmitters. The lifetime of a 2-micron coherent lidar operating in space is particularly of concern in lieu of required pump pulse duration of Thulium and Holmium solid state lasers (approx. 1msec) that are considerably longer than those of more widely used 1-micron lasers (< 0.2 msec). A factor of 5 to 10 times longer pulse duration can easily translate to over an order of magnitude shorter lifetime for a typical commercially available high-power 2-D array. Therefore, it is imperative to address the lifetime and reliability of LDAs for pumping 2-micron lasers by exploring all the potential options that significantly prolong their life meeting the required operational lifetime of space-based coherent Doppler lidars. The leading causes of sudden failure and premature degradation of LDAs are intrinsic semiconductor defects, optical facet breakdown resulting from excessive localized heating, and thermo-mechanical stresses due to the extreme thermal cycling of the laser active regions1-2. Long pulse operation grossly amplifies the impact of these failure/degradation causes, particularly the thermo-mechanical stresses due to pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling. Therefore, several experimental setups have been developed to investigate each of the failure mechanisms and causes of premature degradation in order to evaluate various package designs, define the best operating parameters, and to guide the technology advancement, leading to highly reliable and very long lifetime LDAs5. Several areas of improvement in the packaging and fabrication process of laser diodes have already been identified and efforts towards implementing these improvements are well underway. These efforts include the use of advanced high thermal conductivity materials for packaging of laser diode

  20. Integration and test of high-speed transmitter electronics for free-space laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Nitin J.; Lizanich, Paul J.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, has developed the electronics for a free-space, direct-detection laser communications system demonstration. Under the High-Speed Laser Integrated Terminal Electronics (Hi-LITE) Project, NASA Lewis has built a prototype full-duplex, dual-channel electronics transmitter and receiver operating at 325 megabit S per second (Mbps) per channel and using quaternary pulse-position modulation (QPPM). This paper describes the integration and testing of the transmitter portion for future application in free-space, direct-detection laser communications. A companion paper reviews the receiver portion of the prototype electronics. Minor modifications to the transmitter were made since the initial report on the entire system, and this paper addresses them. The digital electronics are implemented in gallium arsenide integrated circuits mounted on prototype boards. The fabrication and implementation issues related to these high-speed devices are discussed. The transmitter's test results are documented, and its functionality is verified by exercising all modes of operation. Various testing issues pertaining to high-speed circuits are addressed. A description of the transmitter electronics packaging concludes the paper.

  1. Remote sensing with a tunable alexandrite laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Kagann, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution, tunable alexandrite laser system is described. Two alexandrite lasers are continuously tunable from 725-790 nm and have a bandwidth of 0.02/cm. The stability of the two lasers is evaluated. The line shape of the laser emission and spectral purity of the system were measured. The data reveal that the output consists of three axial modes with an overall width of 0.026/cm, and the spectral impurity of the alexandrite laser output is less than 0.01 percent. The ground-based lidar system is utilized for measuring atmospheric pressure profiles; the integrated absorption in the wings of lines in the O2 A band is studied to produce the profiles. An example of lidar-collected atmospheric pressure data is presented and compared with radiosonde data; only a 0.3 percent deviation between the data is observed.

  2. 2-micron Double Pulsed IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke; Scola, Tory

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a high energy pulsed 2-micron IPDA lidar instrument to measure the atmospheric CO2 column density. The IPDA lidar is operated on the long wavelength wing of R(30) CO2 line at 2050.967 nm (4875.749 cm-1) in the side-line operation mode. The R(30) line is an excellent absorption line for the measurements of CO2 in 2µm wavelength region with regard to the strength of the absorption lines, low susceptibility to atmospheric temperature variability, and freedom from problematic interference with other absorption lines. The Ho:Tm:YLF laser transmitter is designed to be operated in a unique double pulse format that can produce two-pulse pair in 10 Hz operation. Typically, the output energies of the laser transmitter are 100mJ and 45mJ for the first pulse and the second pulse, respectively. We injection seed the first pulse with on-line frequency and the second pulse with off-line frequency. The IPDA lidar instrument size, weight and power consumption were restricted to small research aircraft payload requirements. The airborne IPDA lidar instrument measures the total integrated column content of CO2 from the instrument to the ground but with weighting that can be tuned by controlling the transmitted wavelengths. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. The 2-μm CO2 IPDA lidar airborne demonstration was conducted during March 20, 2014 through April 10, 2014. IPDA lidar airborne flights included various operating and environmental conditions. Environmental conditions included different flight altitude up to 8.3 km, different ground target conditions such as vegetation, soil, ocean, snow and sand and different cloud conditions. Besides, some flights targeted power plant incinerators for investigating the IPDA sensitivity to CO2 plums. The lidar instrument is robust during all of the flights. This paper describes

  3. Calculation of transmittance of diode pumped alkali laser in atmosphere propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Que, Yiqin; Hua, Weihong; Wang, Hongyan; Yang, Zining; Xu, Xiaojun

    2013-05-01

    Diode pumped alkali vapor lasers (DPAL) is a rising high-energy laser. The wavelength of which is consistent with the response curve peak position of solar cell, and it has broad application prospects in laser directed energy transfer. The paper bases on the application of solar unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) energy transfer in high altitude and longendurance conditions. For the first time by using the MODTRAN and FASCODE, we calculate the transmittance of Potassium, rubidium, cesium laser in the typical atmospheric conditions vertically and different angles of atmospheric slant path by the numbers, The result shows that DPAL has a very high atmospheric transmittance, and also a valuable reference in other applications with the atmospheric transmission.

  4. Robust Short-Pulse, High-Peak-Power Laser Transmitter for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Malcolm W.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a pulsed fiber based master oscillator power amplifier laser at 1550 nm to support moderate data rates with high peak powers in a compact package suitable for interplanetary optical communications. To accommodate pulse position modulation, the polarization maintaining laser transmitter generates pulses from 0.1 to 1 ns with variable duty cycle over a pulse repetition frequency range of 10 to 100 MHz.

  5. Generalized propagation law of laser beam parameters through thin pure-phase transmittances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquero, Gemma; Mejias, Pedro M.; Martinez-Herrero, Rosario

    1996-11-01

    As is well-known, pure-phase transmittances are not, in general, first-order optical systems. It thus seems that a simple ABCD-propagation law cannot be applied to this kind of transmittance. In other words, such optical elements could not be characterized by an overall ABCD matrix. The aim of the present contribution is to overcome this trouble. In fact, the propagation laws of the intensity moments of a laser beam through ABCD optical systems are generalized to include pure phase transmittances. This is done by representing the behavior of such transmittances by means of a 4 by 4 matrix, M, which can be handled, to some extent, as the ABCD-matrices associated with ordinary first-order optical systems. This formalism enables the application of ABCD propagation formulae to cascaded optical systems containing pure phase transmittances. Matrix M is applied, in particular, to determine the intensity moments and the beam quality parameter at the output of special quartic phase transmittances, namely, thin and thick spherically aberrated lenses.

  6. MOLA II Laser Transmitter Calibration and Performance. 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, Robert S.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the document is to explain the algorithm for determining the laser output energy from the telemetry data within the return packets from MOLA II. A simple algorithm is developed to convert the raw start detector data into laser energy, measured in millijoules. This conversion is dependent on three variables, start detector counts, array heat sink temperature and start detector temperature. All these values are contained within the return packets. The conversion is applied to the GSFC Thermal Vacuum data as well as the in-space data to date and shows good correlation.

  7. An overview of DREV's activities on pulsed CO2 laser transmitters: Frequency stability and lifetime aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruickshank, James; Pace, Paul; Mathieu, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    After introducing the desired features in a transmitter for laser radar applications, the output characteristics of several configurations of frequency-stable TEA-CO2 lasers are reviewed. Based on work carried out at the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier (DREV), output pulses are examined from short cavity lasers, CW-TEA hybrid lasers, and amplifiers for low power pulses. It is concluded that the technique of injecting a low-power laser beam into a TEA laser resonator with Gaussian reflectivity mirrors should be investigated because it appears well adapted to producing high energy, single mode, low chirp pulses. Finally, a brief report on tests carried out on catalysts composed of stannic oxide and noble metals demonstrates the potential of these catalysts, operating at close to room temperature, to provide complete closed-cycle laser operation.

  8. Development of an Airborne Triple-Pulse 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) for Simultaneous Airborne Column Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong; Antill, Charles W.; Remus, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide status and details of an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar being developed at NASA Langley Research Center with support from NASA ESTO Instrument Incubator Program. The development of this active optical remote sensing IPDA instrument is targeted for measuring both atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere from an airborne platform. This presentation will focus on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver and detector upgrades, laser packaging and lidar integration. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be presented.

  9. Narrow linewidth UV laser transmitter for ozone DIAL remote sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ti; Hansell, Joe; Shuman, Tim; Schum, Tom; Puffenberger, Kent; Burnham, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    Fibertek has demonstrated a dual-wavelength narrow linewidth UV laser transmitter for NASA airborne ozone DIAL remote sensing application. The application requires two narrow linewidth lasers in the UV region between 300 nm and 320 nm with at least 12 nm separation between the two wavelengths. Each UV laser was based on a novel ring structure incorporating an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and a sum frequency generator (SFG). The fundamental pump source of the UV laser was a single frequency 532 nm laser, which was frequency-doubled from a diode-pumped, injection-seeded single frequency Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and 50 Hz repetition rate. The ring frequency converters generated UV wavelengths at 304 nm and 316 nm respectively. The demonstrated output energies were 2.6 mJ for 304 nm and 2.3 mJ for 316 nm UV lines, with room to potentially achieve more energy for each laser. Linewidth narrowing was achieved using a volume Bragg grating as the output coupler of the OPO in each ring oscillator. We obtained spectral linewidths (FWHM) of 0.12 nm for the 304 nm line and 0.1 nm for the 316 nm line, and the UV energy conversion efficiencies of 12.2% and 9.1%. Fibertek built an airborne DIAL transmitter based on the reported demonstration, which was a single optical module with dual-wavelength output at the demonstrated wavelengths. NASA plans to field the UV laser transmitter as a key component of the High Spectral Resolution Lidar-II (HSRL-II) high altitude airborne instrument to perform autonomous global ozone DIAL remote sensing field campaigns.

  10. High accuracy alignment facility for the receiver and transmitter of the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sumita; Affolter, Michael; Gunderson, Kurt; Neubert, Jakob; Thomas, Nicolas; Beck, Thomas; Gerber, Michael; Graf, Stefan; Piazza, Daniele; Pommerol, Antoine; Roethlisberger, Guillaume; Seiferlin, Karsten

    2012-07-10

    The accurate co-alignment of the transmitter to the receiver of the BepiColombo Laser Altimeter is a challenging task for which an original alignment concept had to be developed. We present here the design, construction and testing of a large collimator facility built to fulfill the tight alignment requirements. We describe in detail the solution found to attenuate the high energy of the instrument laser transmitter by an original beam splitting pentaprism group. We list the different steps of the calibration of the alignment facility and estimate the errors made at each of these steps. We finally prove that the current facility is ready for the alignment of the flight instrument. Its angular accuracy is 23 μrad. PMID:22781273

  11. Design of transmitter and receiver for experimental blue-green laser communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Chen, Xiaolu; Wen, Dong; Sun, Xiaolei

    2015-02-01

    An experimental blue-green laser communication system was developed using optical pulse position modulation (PPM) to study the feasibility of high-rate underwater communication among submerged objects. As a primary optical modulation means, PPM modulation is reviewed firstly. By comparison with other means, the conclusion was drawn that PPM has lower power requirement and it is a near optimal modulation for background-limited optical communications. For establishing laser beam propagating through the channel with modulated information through different pulse positions from the transmitter to the receiver, the transmitter subsystem and the receiver subsystem are developed and the key techniques are described separately in detail. Results indicated that the whole blue-green communication system was compact, efficient, reliable and inexpensive, and achieved a high-speed rate communication up to megabits per second and a reasonably low error rates.

  12. Compact laser transmitter delivering a long-range infrared beam aligned with a monitoring visible beam.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Shik; Kim, Haeng-In; Lee, Sang-Shin

    2012-06-10

    A compact laser transmitter, which takes advantage of an optical subassembly module, was proposed and demonstrated, providing precisely aligned collinear IR and visible beams. The collimated IR beam acts as a long-range projectile for simulated combat, carrying an optical pulsed signal, whereas the visible beam plays the role of tracking the IR beam. The proposed laser transmitter utilizes IR (λ(1)=905 nm) and visible (λ(2)=660 nm) light sources, a fiber-optic collimator, and a beam combiner, which includes a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filter in conjunction with optical fiber. The device was built via the laser welding technique and then evaluated by investigating the characteristics of the generated light beams. The IR collimated beam produced had a Gaussian profile and a divergence angle of ~1.3 mrad, and the visible monitoring beam was appropriately collimated to be readily discernible in the vicinity of the transmitter. The two beams were highly aligned within an angle of 0.004 deg as anticipated. Finally, we performed a practical outdoor field test to assess the IR beam with the help of a receiver. An effective trajectory was observed ranging up to 660 m with an overall detectable beam width of ~60 cm. PMID:22695673

  13. Tm,Ho:YAG laser with tunable range of 2.08-2.12 microns and its applications to spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asai, Kazuhiro; Itabe, Toshikazu

    1992-01-01

    In recent advanced lasers, 2 micron solid-state lasers such as Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG lasers are very attractive for laser radar remote sensing technologies because of eye safety, realizations of all solid-state laser pumped by diode laser and smaller dimension, tunability of lasing wavelength, possibility of coherent detection, etc. Featuring these advantages, 2 micron lasers have been candidated as laser transmitters for use in water vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), laser altimeter, Doppler wind sensor, Mie lidar, etc. Characterization of a tunable Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser and its applications to spectroscopy concerning absorption and reflectance are reported.

  14. A high performance laser diode transmitter for optical free space communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildbebrand, U.; Ohm, G.; Wiesmann, Th.; Hildebrand, K.; Voit, E.

    1990-07-01

    For the ESA Semiconductor Intersatellite Link Experiment (SILEX), elements of the communication chain have been breadboarded. The electrooptical converter, called the laser diode transmitter package (LDTP), is described here. The requirements on the LDTP optical quality are deduced from the overall system requirements. The tolerable wavefront errors (WFE) and the stability of beam direction are most critical. Four breadboards have been assembled and tested. The very stringent requirements on WFE were surpassed, with a resulting rms value of 1/40 waves. In order to achieve this wavefront quality, the typical astigmatism of index-guided laser diodes (1-10 microns) had to be compensated by adjustable cylindrical lenses.

  15. Laser transmitter development for NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, D. B.; Stysley, Paul R.; Poulios, Demetrios; Clarke, Greg B.; Kay, Richard B.

    2015-09-01

    The Global Ecosystems Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) Lidar, to be installed aboard the International Space Station in early 2018, will use 3 NASA laser transmitters to produce 14 parallel tracks of 25 m footprints on the Earth's surface. A global set of systematic canopy measurements will be derived, the most important of which are vegetation canopy top heights and the vertical distribution of canopy structure. Every digitized laser pulse waveform will provide 3-D biomass information for the duration of the mission. A total of 5 GEDI-HOMER lasers are to be built (1 ETU + 3 Flight + 1 spare) in-house at NASA-GSFC, and is based on a well-studied architecture, developed over several years in the Lasers and Electro-Optics Branch.

  16. 2-Micron Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke

    2014-01-01

    A 2-micron high energy, pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. Development of this lidar heavily leverages the 2-micron laser technologies developed in LaRC over the last decade. The high pulse energy, direct detection lidar operating at CO2 2-micron absorption band provides an alternate approach to measure CO2 concentrations. This new 2-micron pulsed IPDA lidar has been flown in spring of this year for total ten flights with 27 flight hours. It is able to make measurements of the total amount of atmospheric CO2 from the aircraft to the ground or cloud. It is expected to provide high-precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  17. Low SWaP Semiconductor Laser Transmitter Modules For ASCENDS Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Rosiewicz, Alex; Coleman, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council's (NRC) Decadal Survey (DS) of Earth Science and Applications from Space has identified the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as an important atmospheric science mission. NASA Langley Research Center, working with its partners, is developing fiber laser architecture based intensity modulated CW laser absorption spectrometer for measuring XCO2 in the 1571 nm spectral band. In support of this measurement, remote sensing of O2 in the 1260 nm spectral band for surface pressure measurements is also being developed. In this paper, we will present recent progress made in the development of advanced transmitter modules for CO2 and O2 sensing. Advanced DFB seed laser modules incorporating low-noise variable laser bias current supply and low-noise variable temperature control circuit have been developed. The 1571 nm modules operate at >80 mW and could be tuned continuously over the wavelength range of 1569-1574nm at a rate of 2 pm/mV. Fine tuning was demonstrated by adjusting the laser drive at a rate of 0.7 pm/mV. Heterodyne linewidth measurements have been performed showing linewidth 200 kHz and frequency jitter 75 MHz. In the case of 1260 nm DFB laser modules, we have shown continuous tuning over a range of 1261.4 - 1262.6 nm by changing chip operating temperature and 1261.0 - 1262.0 nm by changing the laser diode drive level. In addition, we have created a new laser package configuration which has been shown to improve the TEC coefficient of performance by a factor of 5 and improved the overall efficiency of the laser module by a factor of 2.

  18. Multi-Wavelength, Multi-Beam, and Polarization-Sensitive Laser Transmitter for Surface Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Harding, David; Huss, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A multi-beam, multi-color, polarized laser transmitter has been developed for mapping applications. It uses commercial off-the-shelf components for a lowcost approach for a ruggedized laser suitable for field deployment. The laser transmitter design is capable of delivering dual wavelengths, multiple beams on each wavelength with equal (or variable) intensities per beam, and a welldefined state of polarization. This laser transmitter has been flown on several airborne campaigns for the Slope Imaging Multi-Polarization Photon Counting Lidar (SIMPL) instrument, and at the time of this reporting is at a technology readiness level of between 5 and 6. The laser is a 1,064-nm microchip high-repetition-rate laser emitting energy of about 8 microjoules per pulse. The beam was frequency-doubled to 532 nm using a KTP (KTiOPO4) nonlinear crystal [other nonlinear crystals such as LBO (LiB3O5) or periodically poled lithium niobiate can be used as well, depending on the conversion efficiency requirements], and the conversion efficiency was approximately 30 percent. The KTP was under temperature control using a thermoelectric cooler and a feedback monitoring thermistor. The dual-wavelength beams were then spectrally separated and each color went through its own optical path, which consisted of a beam-shaping lens, quarterwave plate (QWP), and a birefringent crystal (in this case, a calcite crystal, but others such as vanadate can be used). The QWP and calcite crystal set was used to convert the laser beams from a linearly polarized state to circularly polarized light, which when injected into a calcite crystal, will spatially separate the circularly polarized light into the two linear polarized components. The spatial separation of the two linearly polarized components is determined by the length of the crystal. A second set of QWP and calcite then further separated the two beams into four. Additional sets of QWP and calcite can be used to further split the beams into multiple

  19. Development of a Low SWaP Laser Transmitter for lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; Rosiewicz, A.; Coleman, S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is working on novel lidar schemes to measure carbon dioxide concentrations from space based platforms for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The National Research Council of the U.S. National Academies in its Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, has recommended the ASCENDS mission to produce global atmospheric column CO2 measurements without seasonal, latitudinal, or diurnal bias using simultaneous laser remote sensing of CO2 and O2. The goal the ASCENDS mission is to enhance understanding of the role of CO2 in the global carbon cycle that include quantification of global spatial distributions of terrestrial and oceanic sources and sinks of CO2 on 1° x 1° grids. Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters with high-spatial resolution from ground, airborne, and space-based platforms require advances in the state-of-the-art LIDAR technology with emphasis on compactness, efficiency, reliability, lifetime, and high performance. LaRC has selected the 1.57 micron spectral band for CO2 and 1.26 micron spectral band for oxygen sensing. In this paper, we discuss recent progress made in the development of compact, single mode transmitter technologies for CO2 and O2 lidars. One of our efforts is to demonstrate compact, efficient DFB laser modules with integrated drive and temperature control circuitry that minimizes laser linewidth, allows for wavelength tunability, and is adaptable to space qualified electronic hardware. Since ASCENDS is in essence a spectroscopic mission, precise tunability of the laser diode wavelength over transition lines is of importance. The overall goal is to reduce the overall size, weight, and power consumption (SWaP) of the laser master oscillator. In this paper, the development of advanced DFB laser diode module efficiently coupled to integrated electronics and nano-cooling scheme in a

  20. development of a medium repetition rate (10 Hz - 500 Hz) diode pumped laser transmitter for airborne scanning altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Lindauer, Steven J., II; Kay, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, NASA has developed several small, all-solid state lasers of low repetition rates for use as transmitters in prototype LIDAR and raster scanned altimetry retrieval systems. Our early laser transmitters were developed for high resolution airborne altimetry which employed cavity dumping techniques to produce a pulse shape with a 1 ns rise time. The first such laser was the SUMR (Sub-millimeter resolution) transmitter which used a side pumped, D-shaped half-rod of Nd:YAG for the oscillator active media and produced approximately 3 ns pulses of 100 micro-J energy at a 40 Hz repetition rate. (Coyle and Blair, 1993; Coyle et al., 1995) After several upgrades to improve rep rate and pulse energy, the final version produced 1.2 mJ pulses at 120 Hz with a 3.7 ns pulse width. The laser has become known as SPLT (Sharp Pulsed Laser Transmitter), and has flown successfully on a variety of airborne altimetry missions. (Coyle and Blair, 1995; Blair et al., 1994) From building these systems, we have accrued valuable experience in delivering field-deployable lasers and have become aware of the advantages and disadvantages of employing new technologies. For example, even though the laser's main operating environment is in a "cold" aircraft during flight, the laser must still operate in very warm temperatures. This is important if the mission is based in the desert or a tropical climate since ground calibration data from stationary targets must be gathered before and after each data flight. Because conductive cooling is much more convenient than closed loop water flow, achieving the highest possible laser efficiency is becoming a high priority when designing a flight laser. This is especially true for lasers with higher pulse energies and repetition rates which are needed for high altitude scanning altimeters and LIDARs.

  1. Analysis and design of a high power laser adaptive phased array transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mevers, G. E.; Soohoo, J. F.; Winocur, J.; Massie, N. A.; Southwell, W. H.; Brandewie, R. A.; Hayes, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of delivering substantial quantities of optical power to a satellite in low earth orbit from a ground based high energy laser (HEL) coupled to an adaptive antenna was investigated. Diffraction effects, atmospheric transmission efficiency, adaptive compensation for atmospheric turbulence effects, including the servo bandwidth requirements for this correction, and the adaptive compensation for thermal blooming were examined. To evaluate possible HEL sources, atmospheric investigations were performed for the CO2, (C-12)(O-18)2 isotope, CO and DF wavelengths using output antenna locations of both sea level and mountain top. Results indicate that both excellent atmospheric and adaption efficiency can be obtained for mountain top operation with a micron isotope laser operating at 9.1 um, or a CO laser operating single line (P10) at about 5.0 (C-12)(O-18)2um, which was a close second in the evaluation. Four adaptive power transmitter system concepts were generated and evaluated, based on overall system efficiency, reliability, size and weight, advanced technology requirements and potential cost. A multiple source phased array was selected for detailed conceptual design. The system uses a unique adaption technique of phase locking independent laser oscillators which allows it to be both relatively inexpensive and most reliable with a predicted overall power transfer efficiency of 53%.

  2. Wind Profiling from a High Energy, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection Doppler Lidar during Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, U. N.; Koch, G. J.; Kavaya, M. J.; Yu, J.; Beyon, J. Y.; Demoz, B.

    2009-12-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. The transmitter portion of the transceiver employs the high-pulse-energy, Ho:Tm:LuLiF, partially conductively cooled laser technology developed at NASA Langley. The transceiver is capable of 250 mJ pulses at 10 Hz. It is very similar to the technology envisioned for coherent Doppler lidar wind measurements from Earth and Mars orbit. The transceiver is coupled to the large optics and data acquisition system in the NASA Langley VALIDAR mobile trailer. The large optics consists of a 15-cm off-axis beam expanding telescope, and a full-hemispheric scanner. Vertical and horizontal vector winds are measured, as well as relative backscatter. The data acquisition system employs frequency domain velocity estimation and pulse accumulation. It permits real-time display of the processed winds and archival of all data. The LaRC mobile lidar was deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Maryland as part of NASA HQ funded (ROSES-2007, Wind Lidar Science Proposal entitled “Intercomparison of Multiple Lidars for Wind Measurements). During the campaign, testing of the lidar was combined with a field campaign to operate a 2-μm coherent lidar alongside a 355-nm direct detection lidar to demonstrate the hybrid wind lidar concept. Besides lidar, many other meteorological sensors were located at the campaign site, including wind measuring balloon sondes, sonic and propeller anemometers mounted on a tower, and a 915-MHz radio acoustic sounding system. Comparisons among these wind measurement sensors are currently being analyzed and should be available for presentation at the Conference.

  3. Roles of the 2 microns gene products in stable maintenance of the 2 microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, A E; Murray, A W; Szostak, J W

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the replication and segregation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2 microns circle. The amplification of the plasmid at low copy numbers requires site-specific recombination between the 2 microns inverted repeat sequences catalyzed by the plasmid-encoded FLP gene. No other 2 microns gene products are required. The overexpression of FLP in a strain carrying endogenous 2 microns leads to uncontrolled plasmid replication, longer cell cycles, and cell death. Two different assays show that the level of Flp activity decreases with increasing 2 microns copy number. This regulation requires the products of the REP1 and REP2 genes. These gene products also act together to ensure that 2 microns molecules are randomly segregated between mother and daughter cells at cell division. Images PMID:3316982

  4. Transmitter and receiver antenna gain analysis for laser radar and communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive and fairly self-contained study of centrally obscured optical transmitting and receiving antennas is presented and is intended for use by the laser radar and communication systems designer. The material is presented in a format which allows the rapid and accurate evaluation of antenna gain. The Fresnel approximation to scalar wave theory is reviewed and the antenna analysis proceeds in terms of the power gain. Conventional range equations may then be used to calculate the power budget. The transmitter calculations, resulting in near and far field antenna gain patterns, assumes the antenna is illuminated by a laser operating in the fundamental cavity mode. A simple equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn which display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the outgoing beam as a function of antenna size and central obscuration. The use of telescope defocusing as an approach to spreading the beam for target acquisition is compared to some alternate methods.

  5. First successful satellite laser ranging with a fibre-based transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampf, D.; Sproll, F.; Wagner, P.; Humbert, L.; Hasenohr, T.; Riede, W.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) is an established technology used for geodesy, fundamental science and precise orbit determination. This paper reports on the first successful SLR measurement from the German Aerospace Center research observatory in Stuttgart. While many SLR stations are in operation, the experiment described here is unique in several ways: The modular system has been assembled completely from commercial off-the-shelf components, which increases flexibility and significantly reduces hardware costs. To our knowledge it has been the first time that an SLR measurement has been conducted using an optical fibre rather than a coudé path to direct the light from the laser source onto the telescope. The transmitter operates at an output power of about 75 mW and a repetition rate of 3 kHz, and at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Due to its rather small diameter of only 80 μm, the receiver detector features a low noise rate of less than 2 kHz and can be operated without gating in many cases. With this set-up, clear return signals have been received from several orbital objects equipped with retroreflectors. In its current configuration, the system does not yet achieve the same performance as other SLR systems in terms of precision, maximum distance and the capability of daylight ranging; however, plans to overcome these limitations are outlined.

  6. Electroabsorption-modulated widely tunable DBR laser transmitter for WDM-PONs.

    PubMed

    Han, Liangshun; Liang, Song; Wang, Huitao; Qiao, Lijun; Xu, Junjie; Zhao, Lingjuan; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Baojun; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    We present an InP based distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser transmitter which has a wide wavelength tuning range and a high chip output power for wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) applications. By butt-jointing InGaAsP with 1.45 µm emission wavelength as the material of the grating section, the laser wavelength can be tuned for over 13 nm by the DBR current. Accompanied by varying the chip temperature, the tuning range can be further enlarged to 16 nm. With the help of the integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), the largest chip output power is over 30 mW. The electroabsorption modulator (EAM) is integrated into the device by the selective-area growth (SAG) technique. The 3 dB small signal modulation bandwidth of the EAM is over 13 GHz. The device has both a simple tuning scheme and a simple fabrication procedure, making it suitable for low cost massive production which is desirable for WDM-PON uses. PMID:25606965

  7. Loss of transmittance in fluoropolymer films due to laser-induced damage at 1053 and 351 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Milam, David; Norton, Mary A.; Sell, Walter D.

    1998-04-01

    Thick fluoropolymer films are being evaluated as a potential 'disposable' debris shield to protect high-peak-power laser optics from x-ray and target debris generated in inertial- confinement fusion-ignition experiments. Two obstacles to implementation are optical uniformity and damage threshold. To understand the damage characteristics, transmittance of single 1053- or 351-nm laser pulses has been measured for commercial fluoropolymer films in vacuum. Samples were tested at fluences up to 105 J/cm2 at 351-nm. Both the total transmitted energy for a single shot and the temporal energy transmittance profile during the shot were measured as a function of fluence. In addition, the total focusable transmitted energy was recorded for 351-nm pulses. Results show that transmittance decreases slowly during a single-pulse irradiation, allowing much of the energy to be transmitted at fluences which cause noticeable degradation to the film. The film transmits greater than 90 percent of the 351-nm energy delivered in a beam with spatial average fluence of 8 J/cm2 with modulation up to 15 J/cm2. For 1053-nm laser light, the films do not begin to exhibit noticeable transmittance loss until average fluences exceed 40 J/cm2.

  8. Loss of transmittance in fluoropolymer films due to laser-induced damage at 1053 and 351-nm

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, P.; Milam, D.; Norton, M.; Sell, W.

    1997-12-01

    Thick fluoropolymer films are being evaluated as a potential `disposable` debris shield to protect high-peak-power laser optics from x-ray and target debris generated in inertial-confinement fusion-ignition experiments, Two obstacles to implementation are optical uniformity and damage threshold. To understand the damage characteristics, transmittance of single 1053- or 351-nm laser pulses has been measured for commercial fluoropolymer films in vacuum. Samples were tested at fluences up to 105 J/cm2 at 1053-nm and 13 J/cm2 at 351-nm. Both the total transmitted energy for a single shot and the temporal energy transmittance profile during the shot were measured as a function of fluence. In addition, the total focusable transmitted energy was recorded for 351 -nm pulses. Results show that transmittance decreases slowly during a single-pulse irradiation, allowing much of the energy to be transmitted at fluences which cause noticeable degradation to the film. The film transmits greater than 90% of the 351-nm energy delivered in a beam with spatial average fluence of 8 J/cm2 with modulation up to 15 J/cm2. For 1053-nm laser light, the films do not begin to exhibit noticeable transmittance loss until average fluences exceed 40 J/cm2.

  9. The 10 micrometer transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design, fabrication tests, and engineering model components of a 10.6 mum wideband transceiver system are reported. The effort emphasized the transmitter subsystem, including the development of the laser, the modulator driver, and included productization of both the transmitter and local oscillator lasers. The transmitter subsystem is functionally compatible with the receiver engineering model terminal, and has undergone high data rate communication system testing against that terminal.

  10. Miniature long-range light beam transmitter resorting to a high-power broad area laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Wenjing; Lee, Sang-Shin

    2014-08-01

    A miniature long-range light beam transmitter, which taps into a high-power broad area laser diode (BALD), was realized to exhibit a uniform detectable width. An effective model was proposed to practically emulate the multimode characteristics of the beam generated by the BALD. The model, solely based on the emitting region and far-field divergence angle pertaining to the LD, is established through an incoherent superposition of multiple normalized Hermit-Gaussian modes. The feasibility of the proposed model was successfully verified in terms of the calculated and observed irradiance distributions of the light beams. A long-range light beam transmitter was then designed and constructed taking advantage of the BALD source in conjunction with a beam shaper. The manufactured transmitter was corroborated to provide an infrared beam with a constant detectable width of ~1 m, over a distance ranging up to 400 m, for a predefined threshold level.

  11. Data Acquisition and Processing System for Airborne Wind Profiling with a Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, J. Y.; Koch, G. J.; Kavaya, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    A data acquisition and signal processing system is being developed for a 2-micron airborne wind profiling coherent Doppler lidar system. This lidar, called the Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN), is based on a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser transmitter and 15-cm diameter telescope. It is being packaged for flights onboard the NASA DC-8, with the first flights in the summer of 2010 in support of the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign for the study of hurricanes. The data acquisition and processing system is housed in a compact PCI chassis and consists of four components such as a digitizer, a digital signal processing (DSP) module, a video controller, and a serial port controller. The data acquisition and processing software (DAPS) is also being developed to control the system including real-time data analysis and display. The system detects an external 10 Hz trigger pulse and initiates the data acquisition and processing process, and displays selected wind profile parameters such as Doppler shift, power distribution, wind directions and velocities. Doppler shift created by aircraft motion is measured by an inertial navigation/GPS sensor and fed to the signal processing system for real-time removal of aircraft effects from wind measurements. A general overview of the system and the DAPS as well as the coherent Doppler lidar system is presented in this paper.

  12. Progress of 2-micron Detectors for Application to Lidar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb heterojunction phototransistors were developed at Astropower, Inc under Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) for operation in the 2-micron region. These phototransistors were optimized for 2-micron detection and have high quantum efficiency (>60%), high gain (>10(exp 3)) and low noise-equivalent- power (<5x10(exp -14) W/Hz), while operating at low bias voltage. One of these phototransistors was tested in lidar mode using the 2-micron CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system currently under development under the Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) at NASA Langley. Lidar measurements included detecting atmospheric structures consisting of thin clouds in the mid-altitude and near-field boundary layer. These test results are very promising for the application of phototransistors for the two-micron lidar remote sensing. In addition, HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes (APD) acquired from Raytheon were used in atmospheric testing at 2-microns. A discussion of these measurements is also presented in this paper.

  13. Fiber-Based Laser Transmitter at 1.57 Micrometers for Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Abshire, James B.; Stephen, Mark A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Wu, Stewart; Gonzalez, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Numata, Kenji; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William; Nicholson, Jeffrey W.; Yan, Man; Wisk, Patrick; DeSantolo, Anthony; DeSantolo, Anthony; Mangan, Brian; Puc, Gabe; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Storm, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, NASA Goddard has successfully developed space-based lidar for remote sensing studies of the Earth and planets. The lidar in all missions to date have used diode pumped Nd:YAG laser transmitters. Recently we have been concentrating work on developing integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar to measure greenhouse gases, with the goal of measurements from space. Due to the absorption spectrum of CO2 a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser with a tunable seed source is an attractive laser choice. Fiber-based lasers offer a number of potential advantages for space, but since they are relatively new, challenges exist in developing them. In order to reduce risks for new missions using fiber-based lasers, we developed a 30- month plan to mature the technology of a candidate laser transmitter for space-based CO2 measurements to TRL-6. This work is also intended to reduce development time and costs and increase confidence in future mission success.

  14. Development and testing of a risk reduction high energy laser transmitter for high spectral resolution lidar and Doppler winds lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinxue; Leyva, Victor; Hovis, Floyd E.

    2007-09-01

    Spaceborne 3-dimensional winds lidar and spaceborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) for aerosol and clouds are among the high priority future space missions recommended by the recent National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Review. They are expected to provide the important three dimensional winds data and aerosol data critically needed to improve climate models and numerical weather forecasting. HSRL and winds lidar have a common requirement for high energy solid-state lasers with output wavelengths at 1064nm, 532nm and 355nm, which can be achieved with Nd:YAG lasers and 2nd and 3rd harmonic generations. For direct detection winds lidar, only the 355nm output is needed. One of the key development needs is the demonstration of laser transmitter subsystem. Top issues include power and thermal management, lifetime, high energy UV operations, damage and contamination. Raytheon and its partner, Fibertek, have designed and built a space-qualifiable high energy Nd:YAG laser transmitter with funding from Raytheon Internal Research and Development (IR&D). It is intended to serve as a risk-reduction engineering unit and a test bed for the spaceborne HRSL and direct-detection Doppler winds Lidar missions. Close to 900 mJ/pulse at1064nm and a wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% have been achieved with our risk reduction laser. It is currently being characterized and tested at Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems. In this paper, we will discuss the design, build and testing results of this risk reduction high energy laser transmitter.

  15. Discovery of new 2 micron sources in Rho Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsony, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Burton, Michael G.; Russell, A. P. G.; Garden, R.

    1989-01-01

    A 144-sq-arcmin region of the Rho Oph star-forming cloud core was surveyed at 2.2 microns, complete to mK = 14. A total of 61 sources are detected, 26 of which have been previously reported, accounting for a total of 35 new sources with mK = 12-14. There is no turnover in the 2-micron luminosity function of the Rho Oph cloud core to a limiting sensitivity of mK = 14. Two of the newly discovered sources are binary companions to previously cataloged objects.

  16. Wavelength Locking to CO2 Absorption Line-Center for 2-Micron Pulsed IPDA Lidar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Antill, Charles W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This IPDA lidar system targets both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) column measurements. Independent wavelength control of each of the transmitted laser pulses is a key feature for the success of this instrument. The wavelength control unit provides switching, tuning and locking for each pulse in reference to a 2-micron CW (Continuous Wave) laser source locked to CO2 line-center. Targeting the CO2 R30 line center, at 2050.967 nanometers, a wavelength locking unit has been integrated using semiconductor laser diode. The CO2 center-line locking unit includes a laser diode current driver, temperature controller, center-line locking controller and CO2 absorption cell. This paper presents the CO2 center-line locking unit architecture, characterization procedure and results. Assessment of wavelength jitter on the IPDA measurement error will also be addressed by comparison to the system design.

  17. Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited rutile titanium dioxide films on quartz substrates determined by Raman scattering and transmittance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. G.; Li, W. W.; Wu, J. D.; Sun, J.; Shu, Q. W.; Zhong, X. X.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Chu, J. H.

    2008-11-01

    Optical response of rutile TiO2 films grown under different laser energy by pulsed laser deposition has been investigated by Raman scattering and spectral transmittance. Dielectric functions in the photon energy range of 1.24-6.5 eV have been extracted by fitting the experimental data with the Adachi's model [S. Adachi, Phys. Rev. B 35, 7454 (1987)]. The refractive index dispersion in the transparent region is mainly ascribed to the higher A1-A2 electronic transitions for the rutile TiO2 films. Owing to slightly different crystalline structures and film densities, the optical band gap linearly increases with increasing packing density. The phenomena were confirmed by different theoretical evaluation methods.

  18. Laser transmitter design and performance for the slope imaging multi-polarization photon-counting lidar (SIMPL) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Harding, David J.; Dabney, Philip W.

    2016-03-01

    The Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) is a polarimetric, two-color, multi-beam push broom laser altimeter developed through the NASA Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program. It has flown successfully on multiple airborne platforms beginning in 2008.1 It was developed to demonstrate new altimetry capabilities that combine height measurements and information about surface composition and properties. In this talk we will discuss the laser transmitter design and performance and present recent science data collected over the Greenland ice sheet and arctic sea ice in support of the second NASA Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) mission to be launched in 2017.2

  19. 2.5 MHz Line-Width High-energy, 2 Micrometer Coherent Wind Lidar Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2007-01-01

    2 micron solid-state lasers are the primary choice for coherent Doppler wind detection. As wind lidars, they are used for wake vortex and clear air turbulence detection providing air transport safety. In addition, 2 micron lasers are one of the candidates for CO2 detection lidars. The rich CO2 absorption line around 2 micron, combined with the long upper state life of time, has made Ho based 2 micron lasers a viable candidate for CO2 sensing DIAL instrument. The design and fabrication of a compact coherent laser radar transmitter for Troposphere wind sensing is under way. This system is hardened for ground as well as airborne applications. As a transmitter for a coherent wind lidar, this laser has stringent spectral line width and beam quality requirements. Although the absolute wavelength does not have to be fixed for wind detection, to maximize return signal, the output wavelength should avoid atmospheric CO2 and H2O absorption lines. The base line laser material is Ho:Tm:LuLF which is an isomorph of Ho:Tm:YLF. LuLF produces 20% more output power than Ho:Tm:YLF. In these materials the Tm absorption cross-section, the Ho emission cross-section, the Tm to Ho energy transfer parameters and the Ho (sup 5) I (sub 7) radiative life time are all identical. However, the improved performance of the LuLF is attributed to the lower thermal population in the (sup 5) I (sub 8) manifold. It also provides higher normal mode to Q-switch conversion than YLF at high pump energy indicating a lower up-conversion. The laser architecture is composed of a seed laser, a ring oscillator, and a double pass amplifier. The seed laser is a single longitudinal mode with a line width of 13 KHz. The 100mJ class oscillator is stretched to 3 meters to accommodate the line-width requirement without compromising the range resolution of the instrument. The amplifier is double passed to produce greater than 300mJ energy.

  20. Development of a Ground-based 2-Micron DIAL System to Profile Tropospheric CO2 and Aerosol Distributions for Atmospheric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S.; Koch, G. J.; Abedin, N.; Refaat, T.; Rubio, M.; Davis, K.; Miller, C.; Singh, U.

    2006-12-01

    NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) has funded a 3 year Instrument Incubator Program to develop a ground-based 2-micron Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) CO2 profiling system. This is a collaborative program between NASA Langley, Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Development of this field deployable instrument is an initial step towards the eventual development of a space-based DIAL system and involves the design, development, evaluation, and fielding of a ground-based CO2 profiling system. This system will be capable of providing high resolution measurements of CO2 and aerosol profiles and will be used in a number of atmospheric studies involving the atmospheric boundary layer where the sources and sinks of CO2 are located; and in the studies of dynamical, transport, pollution, and biogenic activity in the atmosphere. After a successful development of this system, it can be used as a validation tool of the OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory). This instrument leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under a number of NASA programs to develop new solid-state YLF laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to cover a large signal dynamic range with minimum signal distortions to achieve high precision DIAL measurements. High sensitivity in situ LI-COR 7000 sensors are being calibrated at PSU for the validation of DIAL measurements and high resolution spectroscopic measurements are being conducted at JPL to characterize the CO2 line parameters for DIAL application. This paper will review the need for and the advantage of a CO2 DIAL profiling system, provide

  1. Infrared spectrum of Io, 2.8-5.2 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    1980-02-01

    The reflectance spectrum of Io is presented from 2.8 to 5.2 microns demonstrating the full extent of the broad and deep spectral absorption between 3.5 and 4.8 microns. Laboratory spectra of nitrates and carbonates diluted with sulfur do not satisfactorily reproduce the Io spectrum, but new information based on recently discovered volcanic activity on the satellite lead to consideration of other classes of compounds reported by Fanale et al. (1979). It is concluded that the variability of the supply of condensible SO2 gas to the surface of Io, its removal by sublimination, and the temporal variations in the strength of the SO2 band may provide an index of volcanic activity on Io that can be monitored from the earth.

  2. The 2 micron plasmid purloins the yeast cohesin complex

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shwetal; Yang, Xian Mei; Chan, Clarence S.; Dobson, Melanie J.; Jayaram, Makkuni; Velmurugan, Soundarapandian

    2002-01-01

    The yeast 2 micron plasmid achieves high fidelity segregation by coupling its partitioning pathway to that of the chromosomes. Mutations affecting distinct steps of chromosome segregation cause the plasmid to missegregate in tandem with the chromosomes. In the absence of the plasmid stability system, consisting of the Rep1 and Rep2 proteins and the STB DNA, plasmid and chromosome segregations are uncoupled. The Rep proteins, acting in concert, recruit the yeast cohesin complex to the STB locus. The periodicity of cohesin association and dissociation is nearly identical for the plasmid and the chromosomes. The timely disassembly of cohesin is a prerequisite for plasmid segregation. Cohesin-mediated pairing and unpairing likely provides a counting mechanism for evenly partitioning plasmids either in association with or independently of the chromosomes. PMID:12177044

  3. Mars Atmospheric Characterization Using Advanced 2-Micron Orbiting Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, U.; Engelund, W.; Refaat, T.; Kavaya, M.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mars atmospheric characterization is critical for exploring the planet. Future Mars missions require landing massive payloads to the surface with high accuracy. The accuracy of entry, descent and landing (EDL) of a payload is a major technical challenge for future Mars missions. Mars EDL depends on atmospheric conditions such as density, wind and dust as well as surface topography. A Mars orbiting 2-micron lidar system is presented in this paper. This advanced lidar is capable of measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles using the most abundant atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on Mars. In addition Martian winds and surface altimetry can be mapped, independent of background radiation or geographical location. This orbiting lidar is a valuable tool for developing EDL models for future Mars missions.

  4. Photometric variability of Charon at 2.2 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosh, A. S.; Young, L. A.; Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Baron, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Pluto-Charon images obtained on each of four nights at 2.2, 1.2, and 1.7 microns are presently fitted by a two-source image model in which the position of Charon and the ratio of its signal to that of Pluto are free parameters. At 2.2 microns, Charon is fainter than Pluto by magnitudes which, when combined with Pluto-Charon system photometry, yield apparent magnitudes of 15.01 + or - 0.08 for Charon at 0.06 lightcurve phase and 15.46 + or - 0.05 at lightcurve phase 0.42. In view of these results, Charon is variable in this filter bypass due to geometric albedo changes as a function of longitude.

  5. High Energy, Single-Mode, All-Solid-State and Tunable UV Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Hovis, FLoyd

    2007-01-01

    A high energy, single mode, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser primarily for pumping an UV converter is developed. Greater than 1 J/pulse at 50 HZ PRF and pulse widths around 22 ns have been demonstrated. Higher energy, greater efficiency may be possible. Refinements are known and practical to implement. Technology Demonstration of a highly efficient, high-pulse-energy, single mode UV wavelength generation using flash lamp pumped laser has been achieved. Greater than 90% pump depletion is observed. 190 mJ extra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency > 21% (> 27% for 1 mJ seed). 160 mJ intra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency up to 24% Fluence < 1 J/sq cm for most beams. The pump beam quality of the Nd:YAG pump laser is being refined to match or exceed the above UV converter results. Currently the Nd:YAG pump laser development is a technology demonstration. System can be engineered for compact packaging.

  6. Design and Performance of the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Kay, Richard B.; Lindauer, Steven J., II

    2002-01-01

    The Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) laser is a Nd:YAG Q-switched, diode side-pumped, zig-zag slab design producing 10 ns, 15 mJ pulses at 1064 nm. It employs an unstable resonator as well as a graded reflectivity output coupler with a Gaussian reflectivity profile. In order to conserve power, a conductively cooled design is employed and is designed to operate over a range of 25 C without active thermal control. The laser is an oscillator-only design and equipped with an 15X beam expander to limit the output divergence to less than 60 microrad. Thermal lensing compensation in the side-pumped slab was performed with different treatments of the x and y portions of the z-directed beam. Performance data as a function of temperature are given.

  7. Line imaging ladar using a laser-diode transmitter and FM/cw radar principles for submunition applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stann, Barry L.; Abou-Auf, Ahmed; Ruff, William C.; Robinson, Dale; Liss, Brian; Potter, William; Sarama, Scott D.; Giza, Mark M.; Simon, Deborah R.; Frankel, Scott; Sztankay, Zoltan G.

    2000-09-01

    We describe the technical approach, component development, and test results of a line imager laser radar (ladar) being developed at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) for smart munition applications. We obtain range information using a frequency modulation/continuous wave (FM/cw) technique implemented by directly amplitude modulating a near-IR diode laser transmitter with a radio frequency (rf) subcarrier that is linearly frequency modulated. The diode's output is collimated and projected to form a line illumination in the downrange image area. The returned signal is focused onto a line array of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) detectors where it is detected and mixed with a delayed replica of the laser modulation signal that modulates the responsivity of each detector. The output of each detector is an intermediate frequency (IF) signal (a product of the mixing process) whose frequency is proportional to the target range. This IF signal is continuously sampled over each period of the rf modulation. Following this, a N-channel signal processor based on field- programmable gate arrays (FPGA) calculates the discrete Fourier transform over the IF waveform in each pixel to establish the ranges to all the scatterers and their respective amplitudes. Over the past year, we constructed the fundamental building blocks of this ladar, which include a 3.5-W line illuminator, a wideband linear FM chirp modulator, a N-pixel MSM detector line array, and a N-channel FPGA signal processor. In this paper we report on the development and performance of each building block and the results of system tests conducted in the laboratory.

  8. Hydrogenation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a factor affecting the cosmic 6.2 micron emission band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, L. W.; Wdowiak, T. J.; Harrison, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    While many of the characteristics of the cosmic unidentified infrared (UIR) emission bands observed for interstellar and circumstellar sources within the Milky Way and other galaxies, can be best attributed to vibrational modes of the variants of the molecular family known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), there are open questions that need to be resolved. Among them is the observed strength of the 6.2 micron (1600 cm(-1)) band relative to other strong bands, and the generally low strength for measurements in the laboratory of the 1600 cm(-1) skeletal vibration band of many specific neutral PAH molecules. Also, experiments involving laser excitation of some gas phase neutral PAH species while producing long lifetime state emission in the 3.3 micron (3000 cm(-1)) spectral region, do not result in significant 6.2 micron (1600 cm(-1)) emission. A potentially important variant of the neutral PAH species, namely hydrogenated-PAH (H(N)-PAH) which exhibit intriguing spectral correlation with interstellar and circumstellar infrared emission and the 2175 A extinction feature, may be a factor affecting the strength of 6.2 micron emission. These species are hybrids of aromatic and cycloalkane structures. Laboratory infrared absorption spectroscopy augmented by density function theory (DFT) computations of selected partially hydrogenated-PAH molecules, demonstrates enhanced 6.2 micron (1600 cm(-1)) region skeletal vibration mode strength for these molecules relative to the normal PAH form. This along with other factors such as ionization or the incorporation of nitrogen or oxygen atoms could be a reason for the strength of the cosmic 6.2 micron (1600 cm(-1)) feature.

  9. Research progress on a focal plane array ladar system using a laser diode transmitter and FM/cw radar principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stann, Barry L.; Abou-Auf, Ahmed; Aliberti, Keith; Giza, Mark M.; Ovrebo, Greg; Ruff, William C.; Simon, Deborah R.; Stead, Michael R.

    2002-07-01

    The Army Research Laboratory is developing scannerless ladar systems for smart munition and reconnaissance applications. Here we report on progress attained over the past year related to the construction of a 32x32 pixel ladar. The 32x32 pixel architecture achieves ranging based on a frequency modulation/continuous wave (FM/cw) technique implemented by directly amplitude modulating a near-IR diode laser transmitter with a radio frequency (rf) subcarrier that is linearly frequency modulated. The diode's output is collected and projected to form an illumination field in the downrange image area. The returned signal is focused onto an array of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) detectors where it is detected and mixed with a delayed replica of the laser modulation signal that modulates the responsivity of each detector. The output of each detector is an intermediate frequency (IF) signal (a product of the mixing process) whose frequency is proportional to the target range. This IF signal is continuously sampled over each period of the rf modulation. Following this, a N channel signal processor based-on field-programmable gate arrays calculates the discrete Fourier transform over the IF waveform in each pixel to establish the ranges to all the scatterers and their respective amplitudes. Over the past year, we have built one and two-dimensional self-mixing MSM detector arrays at .8 and 1.55 micrometers , designed and built circuit boards for reading data out of a 32x32 pixel array, and designed an N channel FPGA signal processor for high-speed formation of range gates. In this paper we report on the development and performance of these components and the results of system tests conducted in the laboratory.

  10. The 2-micron plasmid as a nonselectable, stable, high copy number yeast vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, D. L.; Bruschi, C. V.

    1991-01-01

    The endogenous 2-microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively for the construction of yeast cloning and expression plasmids because it is a native yeast plasmid that is able to be maintained stably in cells at high copy number. Almost invariably, these plasmid constructs, containing some or all 2-microns sequences, exhibit copy number levels lower than 2-microns and are maintained stably only under selective conditions. We were interested in determining if there was a means by which 2-microns could be utilized for vector construction, without forfeiting either copy number or nonselective stability. We identified sites in the 2-microns plasmid that could be used for the insertion of genetic sequences without disrupting 2-microns coding elements and then assessed subsequent plasmid constructs for stability and copy number in vivo. We demonstrate the utility of a previously described 2-microns recombination chimera, pBH-2L, for the manipulation and transformation of 2-microns as a pure yeast plasmid vector. We show that the HpaI site near the STB element in the 2-microns plasmid can be utilized to clone yeast DNA of at least 3.9 kb with no loss of plasmid stability. Additionally, the copy number of these constructs is as high as levels reported for the endogenous 2-microns.

  11. Silicon photonics WDM transmitter with single section semiconductor mode-locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Juliana; Hauck, Johannes; Shen, Bin; Romero-García, Sebastian; Islamova, Elmira; Azadeh, Saeed Sharif; Joshi, Siddharth; Chimot, Nicolas; Moscoso-Mártir, Alvaro; Merget, Florian; Lelarge, François; Witzens, Jeremy

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a wavelength domain-multiplexed (WDM) optical link relying on a single section semiconductor mode-locked laser (SS-MLL) with quantum dash (Q-Dash) gain material to generate 25 optical carriers spaced by 60.8 GHz, as well as silicon photonics (SiP) resonant ring modulators (RRMs) to modulate individual optical channels. The link requires optical reamplification provided by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in the system experiments reported here. Open eye diagrams with signal quality factors (Q-factors) above 7 are measured with a commercial receiver (Rx). For higher compactness and cost effectiveness, reamplification of the modulated channels with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) operated in the linear regime is highly desirable. System and device characterization indicate compatibility with the latter. While we expect channel counts to be primarily limited by the saturation output power level of the SOA, we estimate a single SOA to support more than eight channels. Prior to describing the system experiments, component design and detailed characterization results are reported including design and characterization of RRMs, ring-based resonant optical add-drop multiplexers (RR-OADMs) and thermal tuners, S-parameters resulting from the interoperation of RRMs and RR-OADMs, and characterization of Q-Dash SS-MLLs reamplified with a commercial SOA. Particular emphasis is placed on peaking effects in the transfer functions of RRMs and RR-OADMs resulting from transient effects in the optical domain, as well as on the characterization of SS-MLLs in regard to relative intensity noise (RIN), stability of the modes of operation, and excess noise after reamplification.

  12. Maintenance of the 2 microns circle plasmid in populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Futcher, A B; Cox, B S

    1983-01-01

    The 2 microns circle plasmid is maintained at high frequencies in populations of yeast cells. To find out how the plasmid is maintained, three forces were measured: the selective advantage or disadvantage conferred by 2 microns circles, the rate of generation of [Cir0] cells, and the rate of illegitimate transfer of 2 microns circles from cell to cell. It was found that under the conditions used, 2 microns circles confer a selective disadvantage of about 1%, that [Cir0] cells are generated at the rate of 7.6 x 10(-5) per [Cir+] cell per generation, and that illegitimate transfer of 2 microns circles occurs at a rate less than 10(-7) per recipient cell per generation. The most likely explanation of 2 microns circle maintenance is that the plasmid is sexually transmitted at such a rate that it spreads through populations despite selection against it. Images PMID:6341357

  13. 2.2-micron field stars at the North Galactic Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elias, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    The properties of the 2.2-micron field stars seen near the North Galactic Pole by the Two Micron Sky Survey and by surveys at higher sensitivity are discussed. All the 2.2-micron sources found in these surveys can be identified with stars with known spectral types. The distribution of the 2.2-micron field stars appears to be well-understood.

  14. Wind Measurements with High Energy 2 Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Koch, Grady J.; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Yu, Ji-Rong; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2004-01-01

    A coherent Doppler lidar based on an injection seeded Ho:Tm:YLF pulsed laser was developed for wind measurements. A transmitted pulse energy over 75 mJ at 5 Hz repetition rate has been demonstrated. Designs are presented on the laser, injection seeding, receiver, and signal processing subsystems. Sample data of atmospheric measurements are presented including a wind profile extending from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to the free troposphere.

  15. Direct DPSK modulation of chirp-managed laser as cost-effective downstream transmitter for symmetrical 10-Gbit/s WDM PONs.

    PubMed

    Le, Quang Trung; Emsia, Ali; Briggmann, Dieter; Küppers, Franko

    2012-12-10

    This paper proposes the use of chirp-managed lasers (CML) as cost-effective downstream (DS) transmitters for next generation access networks. As the laser bandwidth is as high as 10 GHz, the CML could be directly modulated at 10 Gbit/s for downstream transmission in future wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks (WDM PON). The laser adiabatic chirp, which is the main drawback limiting the transmission performance of directly modulated lasers, is now utilized to generate phase-shift keying (PSK) modulation format by direct modulation. At the user premise, the wavelength reuse technique based on reflective colorless upstream transmitter is applied. The optical network unit (ONU) reflects and orthogonally remodulates the received light with upstream data. A full-duplex transmission with symmetrical 10-Gbit/s bandwidth is demonstrated. Bit-error-rate measurement showed that optical power budgets of 29 dB at BER of 10(-9) or of 36 dB at BER of 10(-3) could be obtained with direct phase-shift-keying modulation of CML which proves that the proposed solution is a viable candidate for future WDM-PONs. PMID:23262890

  16. UWB transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-01-15

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) dual impulse transmitter is made up of a trigger edge selection circuit actuated by a single trigger input pulse; a first step recovery diode (SRD) based pulser connected to the trigger edge selection circuit to generate a first impulse output; and a second step recovery diode (SRD) based pulser connected to the trigger edge selection circuit in parallel to the first pulser to generate a second impulse output having a selected delay from the first impulse output.

  17. Characterization of the Q-switched MOBLAS Laser Transmitter and Its Ranging Performance Relative to a PTM Q-switched System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J., III; Zagwodski, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype Q-switched Nd:YAG laser transmitter intended for use in the NASA mobile laser ranging system was subjected to various tests of temporal pulse shape and stability, output energy and stability, beam divergence, and range bias errors. Peak to peak variations in the mean range were as large as 30 cm and drift rates of system bias with time as large as 6 mm per minute of operation were observed. The incorporation of a fast electro-optic cavity dump into the oscillator gave significantly improved results. Reevaluation of the ranging performance after modification showed a reduction in the peak to peak variation in the mean range to the 2 or 3 cm level and a drift rate of system time biases of less than 1 mm per minute of operation. A qualitative physical explanation for the superior performance of cavity dumped lasers is given.

  18. Experimental study of cadaver head transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagov, Vladislav V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Vilensky, Maxim A.; Savchenko, Eugeny P.; Efimov, Alexander A.; Lakodina, Nina A.; De Taboada, Luis; Reznik, Boris N.

    2005-06-01

    The results of measurements of transmittance of high power laser irradiation through skull bones and scalp are presented. Dependences of transmittance on sample thickness were received. Character of transmittance was investigated and characteristics of heterogeneity of the scattering structure of the skull bones are proposed. Besides that, variation of temperature of skull and scalp surfaces under exposure of high power laser irradiation during experiments was controlled. Experimental results were verified by Monte-Carlo simulations.

  19. Influence of outgassing organic contamination on the transmittance and laser-induced damage of SiO2 sol-gel antireflection film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liang; Xiang, Xia; Miao, Xinxiang; Li, Zhijie; Zhou, Guorui.; Yan, Zhonghua; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zheng, Wanguo; Zu, Xiaotao

    2015-12-01

    The influence of organic contamination (rubber outgassing) on the transmittance of the SiO2 sol-gel antireflection (AR) film and laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) at 355 nm for 3ω AR film and at 1064 nm for 1ω AR film is studied. The correlation between the contamination time and the transmittance loss/LIDT of 1ω/3ω AR film is also investigated both in atmospheric and vacuum environments. The results show that the transmittance loss increases with increasing contamination time, and the LIDT decreases with increasing contamination time for both in atmospheric and vacuum environments. In addition, the resistance against contamination of the 1ω film is stronger than 3ω film, and the contamination is more serious in vacuum than in an atmosphere environment for the same contamination time. Meanwhile, the damage mechanism is also discussed. It indicated that both the porous structure and photo-thermal absorption contribute to the decreasing LIDT of the sol-gel AR film.

  20. Compact, Engineered, 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Prototype: A New NASA Instrument Incubator Program Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Wang, Jinxue; Petros, Mulugeta

    2005-01-01

    A new project, selected in 2005 by NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) under the Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), will be described. The 3-year effort is intended to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a packaged, rugged, compact, space-qualifiable coherent Doppler wind lidar (DWL) transceiver capable of future validation in an aircraft and/or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The packaged DWL will utilize the numerous advances in pulsed, solid-state, 2-micron laser technology at NASA s Langley Research Center (LaRC) in such areas as crystal composition, architecture, efficiency, cooling techniques, pulse energy, and beam quality. The extensive experience of Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (RSAS) in coherent lidar systems, in spacebased sensors, and in packaging rugged lidar systems will be applied to this project. The packaged transceiver will be as close to an envisioned space-based DWL system as the resources and technology readiness allow. We will attempt to facilitate a future upgrade to a coherent lidar system capable of simultaneous wind and CO2 concentration profile measurements. Since aerosol and dust concentration is also available from the lidar signal, the potential for a triple measurement lidar system is attractive for both Earth and Mars remote sensing. A key follow on step after the IIP will be to add a telescope, scanner, and software for aircraft validation. This IIP should also put us in a position to begin a parallel formulation study in the 2006-2007 timeframe for a space-based DWL demonstration mission early next decade.

  1. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-Micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael J.; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. Successful development of 2-micron lasers has led to development of a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement with an unprecedented laser pulse energy of 250 millijoules in a rugged package. This high pulse energy is produced by a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser with an optical amplifier. While the lidar is meant for use as an airborne instrument, ground-based tests were carried out to characterize performance of the lidar. Atmospheric measurements will be presented, showing the lidar's capability for wind measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere. Lidar wind measurements are compared to a balloon sonde, showing good agreement between the two sensors. Similar architecture has been used to develop a high energy, Ho:Tm:YLF double-pulsed 2-micron Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument based on direct detection technique that provides atmospheric column CO2 measurements. This instrument has been successfully used to measure atmospheric CO2 column density initially from a ground mobile lidar trailer, and then it was integrated on B-200 plane and 20 hours of flight measurement were made from an altitude ranging 1500 meters to 8000 meters. These measurements were compared to in-situ measurements and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) airborne flask measurement to derive the dry mixing ratio of the column CO2 by reflecting the signal by various reflecting surfaces such as land, vegetation, ocean surface, snow and sand. The lidar measurements when compared showed a very agreement with in-situ and airborne flask measurement. NASA Langley Research Center is currently developing a

  2. Development of a 2-micron Pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurement by Direct Detection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Singh, U. N.; Petros, M.; Bai, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a 2-micron Pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar instrument for ground and airborne measurements via direct detection method. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capbility by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. A key component of the CO2 DIAL system, transceiver, is an existing, airborne ready, robust hardware which can provide 250mJ at 10Hz with double pulse format specifically designed for DIAL instrument. The exact wavelengths of the transceiver are controlled by well defined CW seed laser source to provide the required injection source for generating on-and-off line wavelength pulses sequentially. The compact, rugged, highly reliable transceiver is based on the unique Ho:Tm:YLF high-energy 2-micron pulsed laser technology. All the optical mounts are custom designed and have space heritage. They are designed to be adjustable and lockable and hardened to withstand vibrations that can occur in airborne operation. For the direct detection lidar application, a large primary mirror size is preferred. A 14 inch diameter telescope will be developed for this program. The CO2 DIAL/IPDA system requires many electronic functions to operate. These include diode, RF, seed laser, and PZT drivers; injection seeding detection and control; detector power supplies; and analog inputs to sample various sensors. Under NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP), a control unit Compact Laser Electronics (CLE), is developed for the controlling the coherent wind lidar transceiver. Significant modifications and additions are needed to update it for CO2 lidar controls. The data acquisition system was built for ground CO2 measurement demonstration. The software will be updated for

  3. Compact Ti:Sapphire laser with its Third Harmonic Generation (THG) for an airborne ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Songsheng; Storm, Mark E.; Marsh, Waverly D.; Petway, Larry B.; Edwards, William C.; Barnes, James C.

    2001-02-01

    A compact and high-pulse-energy Ti:Sapphire laser with its Third Harmonic Generation (THG) has been developed for an airborne ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to study the distributions and concentrations of the ozone throughout the troposphere. The Ti:Sapphire laser, pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and seeded by a single mode diode laser, is operated either at 867 nm or at 900 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of 20 Hz. High energy laser pulses (more than 110 mJ/pulse) at 867 nm or 900 nm with a desired beam quality have been achieved and utilized to generate its third harmonics at 289nm or 300nm, which are on-line and off-line wavelengths of an airborne ozone DIAL. After experimentally compared with Beta-Barium Borate (b-BaB2O4 or BBO) nonlinear crystals, two Lithium Triborate (LBO) crystals (5'5'20 mm3) are selected for the Third Harmonic Generation (THG). In this paper, we report the Ti:Sapphire laser at 900nm and its third harmonics at 300nm. The desired high ultraviolet (UV) output pulse energy is more than 30mJ at 300nm and the energy conversion efficiency from 900nm to 300nm is 30%.

  4. High Energy, Narrow Linewidth 1572nm Eryb-Fiber Based MOPA for a Multi-Aperture CO2 Trace-Gas Laser Space Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Cao, He; Fouron, Jean-Luc; Storm, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Accurate global measurements of tropospheric CO2 mixing ratios are needed to study CO2 emissions and CO2 exchange with the land and oceans. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing a pulsed lidar approach for an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar to allow global measurements of atmospheric CO2 column densities from space. Our group has developed, and successfully flown, an airborne pulsed lidar instrument that uses two tunable pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, absorption of an O2 line pair in the oxygen A-band (765 nm), range, and atmospheric backscatter profiles in the same path. Both lasers are pulsed at 10 kHz, and the two absorption line regions are sampled at typically a 300 Hz rate. A space-based version of this lidar must have a much larger lidar power-area product due to the x40 longer range and faster along track velocity compared to airborne instrument. Initial link budget analysis indicated that for a 400 km orbit, a 1.5 m diameter telescope and a 10 second integration time, a 2 mJ laser energy is required to attain the precision needed for each measurement. To meet this energy requirement, we have pursued parallel power scaling efforts to enable space-based lidar measurement of CO2 concentrations. These included a multiple aperture approach consists of multi-element large mode area fiber amplifiers and a single-aperture approach consists of a multi-pass Er:Yb:Phosphate glass based planar waveguide amplifier (PWA). In this paper we will present our laser amplifier design approaches and preliminary results.

  5. Airborne 2-Micron Double Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke

    2015-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron double-pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. This new 2-miron pulsed IPDA lidar has been flown in spring of 2014 for total ten flights with 27 flight hours. It provides high precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  6. Airborne 2-Micron Double Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke

    2016-06-01

    An airborne 2-micron double-pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. This new instrument has been flown in spring of 2014 for a total of ten flights with 27 flight hours. This IPDA lidar provides high precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the results.

  7. Investigation on crystalline perfection, optical transmittance, birefringence, temperature-dependent refractive index, laser damage threshold and pyroelectric characteristics of inversely soluble lithium sulfate monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P.; Bhatt, Rajeev; Bhaumik, Indranil; Karnal, A. K.; Ramasamy, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    Bulk prismatic lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals were grown by seed rotation with slow heating method from aqueous solution. Small FWHM obtained from high-resolution X-ray diffraction spectrum shows that the crystals grown by this method have less defects and absence of low-angle grain boundaries. The high transmittance and low reflectance nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. The principal refractive indices of a LSMH crystal have been measured by a prism coupling method for the wavelengths of 0.407, 0.532, 0.828, 1.064 and 1.551 µm at room temperature, and Sellmeier equations are determined from the fitting of the data point. The refractive index data confirm that LSMH crystal is negative biaxial and the optic axis lies in YZ plane with an angle (2 V y ) of 51.74° with respect to y axis at 532 nm wavelength. The thermo-optic coefficients were determined from the temperature-dependent refractive indices measured in the range of 30-125 °C for the wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm. The surface laser damage threshold studies reveal the higher optical radiation stability against 532-nm laser. The pyroelectric coefficients and pyroelectric figure of merit were determined from the pyroelectric current measurement by the Byer and Roundy method.

  8. High energy pulsed fiber laser transmitters in the C- and L-band for coherent lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Moor, Nick; Petersen, Eliot B.; Nguyen, Dan T.; Yao, Zhidong; Stephen, Mark A.; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2011-10-01

    We report a monolithic specialized high stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold fiber laser/amplifier in the C and L band based on highly co-doped phosphate glass fibers. This represents an important new development for coherent LIDAR and remote sensing applications. By using single mode polarization-maintaining large core highly Er/Yb codoped phosphate fibers in the power amplifier stages, we have achieved the highest peak power of 2.02 kW at 1530 nm for 105 ns pulses with transform-limited linewidth, and with a corresponding pulse energy of about 0.212 mJ. The achieved high-energy pulses were frequency doubled by using a commercial periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal, and the highest SHG peak power of 271 W has been achieved for the SHG pulses at 765 nm that can be used for oxygen coherent remote sensing. In the L band, more than 80 μJ fiber laser pulses at 1572 nm with 1-2 μs pulse width and transform-limited linewidth have been achieved by using a monolithic fiber laser system in MOPA configuration, which can be used for CO2 coherent remote sensing.

  9. Two Micron Laser Technology Advancements at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    An Independent Laser Review Panel set up to examine NASA s space-based lidar missions and the technology readiness of lasers appropriate for space-based lidars indicated a critical need for an integrated research and development strategy to move laser transmitter technology from low technical readiness levels to the higher levels required for space missions. Based on the review, a multiyear Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) was initiated by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that ensure the successful development of the broad range of lidar missions envisioned by NASA. This presentation will provide an overview of the development of pulsed 2-micron solid-state laser technologies at NASA Langley Research Center for enabling space-based measurement of wind and carbon dioxide.

  10. Laser diode-fiber link for the transmitter of the SOUT program and for the beacon of the Silex program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaise, Daniel; Gollier, Jacques

    1993-06-01

    The small optical user terminal (SOUT) is part of an experimental program of the European Space Agency, initiated by British Aerospace. One takes advantage of the high antenna gain obtainable at 830 nm to build a very small, lightweight, and comparatively low cost terminal, capable of communicating with SILEX, ESA's full scale optical telecommunication program. SPACEBEL is in charge of developing the transmitting chain of the SOUT, and demonstrating its performances on a breadboard model. In the first part of the paper, we describe the transmitting chain of SOUT, stressing the delicate optical link between the diode and the monomode fiber. In the second part of the paper, we report on the first measurement of the efficiency of the coupling between the laser diode and the fiber as measured on the engineering model of the flight design for the Silex Beacon.

  11. A 2-Micron Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Development For Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Reithmaier, Karl; Bai, Yingxin; Trieu, Bo C.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2012-01-01

    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  12. Compact, Engineered 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Prototype for Field and Airborne Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Koch, Grady J.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar breadboard at NASA/LaRC will be engineered and compactly packaged consistent with future aircraft flights. The packaged transceiver will be integrated into a coherent Doppler wind lidar system test bed at LaRC. Atmospheric wind measurements will be made to validate the packaged technology. This will greatly advance the coherent part of the hybrid Doppler wind lidar solution to the need for global tropospheric wind measurements.

  13. High energy, narrow linewidth 1572nm ErYb-fiber based MOPA for a multi-aperture CO2 trace-gas laser space transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Cao, He; Fouron, Jean-Luc; Storm, Mark

    2016-03-01

    A cladding-pumped, LMA ErYb fiber-based, amplifier is presented for use in a LIDAR transmitter for remote sensing of atmospheric CO2 from space. The amplifier is optimized for high peak power, high efficiency, and narrow linewidth operation at 1572.3nm. Using highly reliable COTS components, the amplifier achieves 0.5kW peak power (440uJ pulse energy), 3.3W average power with transform limited (TL) linewidth and M2<1.3. The power amplifier supports a 30% increase in pulse energy when linewidth is increased to 100MHz. A preliminary conductively cooled laser optical module (LOM) concept has size 9x10x1.25 in (113 in3) and estimated weight of 7.2lb (3.2 kg). Energy scaling with pulse width up to 645uJ, 1.5usec is demonstrated. A novel doubleclad ErYb LMA fiber (30/250um) with high pump absorption (6 dB/m at 915nm) was designed, fabricated, and characterized for power scaling. The upgraded power amplifier achieves 0.8kW peak power (720uJ pulse energy) 5.4W average power with TL linewidth and M2<1.5.

  14. InGaAsSb Detectors' Characterization for 2-Micron CO2 Lidar/DIAL Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in monitoring atmospheric CO2 focuses attention on infrared remote sensing using the 2-micron lidar/differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Quantum detectors are critical components in this technique, and many research efforts concentrate on developing such devices for the 2-micron wavelength. Characterization results of InGaAsSb quantum detectors for the 2-micron wavelength range are presented, including experimental setup and procedure. Detectors are prototype devices manufactured by using separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) structures. Characterization experiments include V-I measurements, spectral response and its variation with bias voltage and temperature, noise measurements, noise-equivalent-power (NEP) and detectivity calculations, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation. A slight increase in the output signal occurred with increased bias voltage and was associated with a noise level increase. Cooling down the detectors reduces noise and shifts the cutoff wavelength to shorter values. Further improvement in the design and manufacturing process, by increasing the device gain and lowering its noise level, is necessary to meet the required CO2 lidar/DIAL specifications.

  15. Computer Simulation of Global Profiles of Carbon Dioxide Using a Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Column-Content DIAL System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Frehlich, Rod G.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary results of computer simulations of the error in measuring carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles from earth orbit. The simulated sensor is a pulsed, 2-micron, coherent-detection lidar alternately operating on at least two wavelengths. The simulated geometry is a nadir viewing lidar measuring the column content signal. Atmospheric absorption is modeled using FASCODE3P software with the HITRAN 2004 absorption line data base. Lidar shot accumulation is employed up to the horizontal resolution limit. Horizontal resolutions of 50, 100, and 200 km are shown. Assuming a 400 km spacecraft orbit, the horizontal resolutions correspond to measurement times of about 7, 14, and 28 s. We simulate laser pulse-pair repetition frequencies from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. The range of shot accumulation is 7 to 2.8 million pulse-pairs. The resultant error is shown as a function of horizontal resolution, laser pulse-pair repetition frequency, and laser pulse energy. The effect of different on and off pulse energies is explored. The results are compared to simulation results of others and to demonstrated 2-micron operating points at NASA Langley.

  16. The Selection of Q-Switch for a 350mJ Air-borne 2-micron Wind Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    In the process of designing a coherent, high energy 2micron, Doppler wind Lidar, various types of Q-Switch materials and configurations have been investigated for the oscillator. Designing an oscillator with a relatively low gain laser material, presents challenges related to the management high internal circulating fluence due to high reflective output coupler. This problem is compounded by the loss of hold-off. In addition, the selection has to take into account the round trip optical loss in the resonator and the loss of hold-off. For this application, a Brewster cut 5mm aperture, fused silica AO Q-switch is selected. Once the Q-switch is selected various rf frequencies were evaluated. Since the Lidar has to perform in single longitudinal and transverse mode with transform limited line width, in this paper, various seeding configurations are presented in the context of Q-Switch diffraction efficiency. The master oscillator power amplifier has demonstrated over 350mJ output when the amplifier is operated in double pass mode and higher than 250mJ when operated in single pass configuration. The repetition rate of the system is 10Hz and the pulse length 200ns.

  17. InP monolithically integrated coherent transmitter.

    PubMed

    Andriolli, N; Fresi, F; Bontempi, F; Malacarne, A; Meloni, G; Klamkin, J; Poti, L; Contestabile, G

    2015-04-20

    A novel InP monolithically integrated coherent transmitter has been designed, fabricated and tested. The photonic integrated circuit consists of a distributed Bragg reflector laser and a modified nested Mach-Zehnder modulator having tunable input power splitters. Back-to-back coherent transmission for PDM-QPSK signals is reported up to 10 Gbaud (40 Gb/s) using the integrated laser and up to 32Gbaud (128 Gb/s) using an external low phase noise laser. PMID:25969111

  18. Automated alexandrite transmitter for airborne DIAL experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the performance characteristics and development status of an automated dual alexandrite laser transmitter that is to be carried aloft by NASA's ER-2 research aircraft for water vapor DIAL experiments; these efforts are part of NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE). The LASE transmitter encompasses control unit, thermal unit, and two lamp driver unit subsystems. Major reductions in system size and weight relative to commercially available alexandrite lasers were necessary; a total weight of only 330 lbs has been achieved. Attention is given to subsystem flight test results.

  19. Direct integration transmittance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunde, V. G.; Maguire, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    A transmittance model was developed for the 200-2000/cm region for interpretation of high spectral resolution measurements of laboratory absorption and of planetary thermal emission. The high spectral resolution requires transmittances to be computed monochromatically by summing the contribution of individual molecular absorption lines. A magnetic tape atlas of H2O,O3, and CO2 molecular line parameters serves as input to the transmittance model with simple empirical representations used for continuum regions wherever suitable laboratory data exist. The theoretical formulation of the transmittance model and the computational procedures used for the evaluation of the transmittances are discussed. Application is demonstrated of the model to several homogenous path laboratory absorption examples.

  20. Modeling of InGaAsSb-Based Avalanche Photodetectors for 2-Micron Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Ravindra P.; Abedin, M. Nurul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The main focus of this research is to study and evaluate the potential of InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb based 2 micron avalanche photo-detectors. The photodetector contains a separate absorption and multiplication region (SAM) structure. The analysis has mainly been done to understand the electrical response characteristics of the devices existing at NASA, and to evaluate alternate structures proposed. Calculating the current flow for the existing detector structure, on the basis of its energy band diagram, is important. This analysis also helps to find shortcomings in the existing detector structure. It is shown that, unfortunately, the existing structure cannot lead to strong multiplication or voltage dependent gain. Two alternate structures are suggested, that could overcome the inherent flaws, and help achieve improved performance. These devices are obtained through modifications of the original structure, which include varying the doping levels, and changing the thicknesses of detector sub-regions. The results of our study are presented and discussed.

  1. Measurements of absolute line intensities in carbon dioxide bands near 5.2 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Benner, D. C.; Devi, V. M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure has been used to derive experimental absolute intensities for over 300 unblended lines belonging to twelve CO2 bands in the 5.2-micron region. The spectral data were recorded at 0.01/cm resolution and room temperature with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the McMath solar telescope complex at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak and have a signal-to-rms noise ratio of 2000-4000. A natural sample of carbon dioxide was used as the sample gas. For each band, the measured line intensities have been analyzed to derive the vibrational band intensity and coefficients of the F factor. The results are compared to the values used to calculate the intensities in the 1982 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory line parameters compilation.

  2. Temperatures of the Jovian auroral zone inferred from 2-micron H2 quadrupole line observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Drossart, P.; Caldwell, J.; Maillard, J. Paris Observatoire, Meudon York Univ., North York CNRS, Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris )

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of the observed intensities of the S1(0), S1(1), and S1(2) 2-micron H2 quadrupole lines in the southern auroral zone of Jupiter, a rotational temperature of 730 (+ 490/-200) K in the 0.01-1.0 microbar range is derived which is judged to represent the local neutral kinetic temperature. Although the dominance of nonthermal emission is indicated for these lines by the factor-of-500 predominance of the H2(nu = 1) auroral zone population over the normal Boltzmann population, a calculation of both thermal and nonthermal intensities of the pure H2 rotational quadrupole lines yields the opposite results in the greater-than-5 micron wavelength region. 21 refs.

  3. Development of a Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Refaat, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to the carbon cycle and global radiation budget on Earth. Active remote sensing of CO2 is important to address several limitations that contend with passive sensors. A 2-micron double-pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This active remote sensing instrument will provide an alternate approach of measuring atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise ratio level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. Commercial, on the shelf, components are implemented for the detection system. Instrument integration will be presented in this paper as well as a background for CO2 measurement at NASA Langley research Center

  4. Space-Based Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Transmitters for Coherent, Ranging, 3D-Imaging, Altimetry, Topology, and Carbon Dioxide Lidar and Earth and Planetary Optical Laser Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Mark; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Utano, Rich; Gupta, Shantanu

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes Fibertek, Inc.'s progress in developing space-qualified Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) transmitters for laser communications and ranging/topology, and CO2 integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. High peak power (1 kW) and 6 W of average power supporting multiple communications formats has been demonstrated with 17% efficiency in a compact 3 kg package. The unit has been tested to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6 standards. A 20 W EDFA suitable for CO2 lidar has been demonstrated with ~14% efficiency (electrical to optical [e-o]) and its performance optimized for 1571 nm operation.

  5. Spacecraft transmitter reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A workshop on spacecraft transmitter reliability was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on September 25 and 26, 1979, to discuss present knowledge and to plan future research areas. Since formal papers were not submitted, this synopsis was derived from audio tapes of the workshop. The following subjects were covered: users' experience with space transmitters; cathodes; power supplies and interfaces; and specifications and quality assurance. A panel discussion ended the workshop.

  6. OISL transmitter at 985 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, Robert; Lauzon, Jocelyn; Mohrdiek, Stefan; Harder, Christoph S.; Changkakoti, Rupak; Park, Peter

    1999-04-01

    For high data rate (greater than 1 Gbps) Optical Inter- Satellite Link (OISL), a compact laser transmitter with high power and good efficiency is required. A trade-off analysis between the technologies such as the mature 840 nm laser diodes, 1064 nm diode-pumped solid state laser and the more recent 1550 nm Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) is used to find the optical solution. The Si-APDs are preferred for their large detector areas and good noise figures which reduce the tracking requirements and simplify optical design of the receiver. Because of significant amount of power needed to close the link distance up to 7000 km (LEO-LEO), use of 840 nm diodes is limited. In this paper, we present an alternative system based on a system concept denoted as the SLYB (Semiconductor Laser Ytterbium Booster). The SLYB uses a polarization maintaining double-clad ytterbium fiber as a power amplifier. The device houses two semiconductor diodes that are designed to meet telecom reliability: a broad-area 917 nm pump diode and a directly modulated FP laser for signal generation. The output signal is in a linearly polarized state with an extinction ratio of 20 dB. The complete module (15 X 12 X 4.3 cm3) weighs less than 0.9 kg and delivers up to 27 dBm average output power at 985 nm. Designed primarily for direct detection using Si APDs, the transmitter offers a modulation data rate of at least 1.5 Gb/s with a modulation extinction ratio better than 13 dB. Total power consumption is expected to be lower than 8 W by using an uncooled pump laser. Preliminary radiation testing of the fiber indicates output power penalty of 1.5 dB at the end of 10 years in operation. We are presently investigating the fabrication of an improved radiation-hardened Yb-fiber for the final prototype to reduce this penalty. For higher data rate the design can be extended to a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) scheme adding multiple channels.

  7. Acquisition signal transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An encoded information transmitter which transmits a radio frequency carrier that is amplitude modulated by a constant frequency waveform and thereafter amplitude modulated by a predetermined encoded waveform, the constant frequency waveform modulated carrier constituting an acquisition signal and the encoded waveform modulated carrier constituting an information bearing signal, the acquisition signal providing enhanced signal acquisition and interference rejection favoring the information bearing signal. One specific application for this transmitter is as a distress transmitter where a conventional, legislated audio tone modulated signal is transmitted followed first by the acquisition signal and then the information bearing signal, the information bearing signal being encoded with, among other things, vehicle identification data. The acquistion signal enables a receiver to acquire the information bearing signal where the received signal is low and/or where the received signal has a low signal-to-noise ratio in an environment where there are multiple signals in the same frequency band as the information bearing signal.

  8. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  9. Remote sensing of turbulence in the clear atmosphere with 2-micron lidars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, Robert J.; Flint, John H.

    1994-01-01

    The development of an eye-safe, airborne LIDAR that exploits the decorrelation of the heterodyne signal to detect clear air turbulence is reported. A one watt average power transmitter is capable of detecting clear air turbulence to over 20 km is subvisual cirrus (an environment highly correlated with instabilities of sratified shear layers). In the absence of subvisual cirrus, a 4 km detection range is maintained. A table depicting the warning time in seconds with respect to the aircraft speed and instrument range (in kilometers) is presented.

  10. Design of a fiber-optic transmitter for microwave analog transmission with high phase stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.; Lutes, G. F.; Primas, L. E.; Maleki, L.

    1990-01-01

    The principal considerations in the design of fiber-optic transmitters for highly phase-stable radio frequency and microwave analog transmission are discussed. Criteria for a fiber-optic transmitter design with improved amplitude and phase-noise performance are developed through consideration of factors affecting the phase noise, including low-frequency laser-bias supply noise, the magnitude and proximity of external reflections into the laser, and temperature excursions of the laser-transmitter package.

  11. Alternative to the effective transmittance approach for the calculation of polychromatic transmittances in rapid transmittance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaozhen; McMillin, Larry M.

    2005-01-01

    Many current rapid transmittance algorithms, specifically the Optical Path Transmittance (OPTRAN), are based on use of effective transmittances to account for the effects of polychromatic radiation on the transmittance calculations. We document how OPTRAN was modified by replacing the effective transmittance concept with a correction term. Use of the correction term solves some numerical problems that were associated with use of effective transmittances, greatly reduces the line-by-line computational burden, and allows for the efficient inclusion of more gases. This correction method can easily be applied to any other fast models that use the effective transmittance approach.

  12. Emergency locating transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, Paul E.

    1991-05-01

    A transmitter generates three signals for sequential transmission. These signal are an unmodulated r.f. carrier, a r.f. carrier amplitude modulated by a first audio frequency waveform and a r.f. carrier amplitude modulated by a second audio frequency waveform which is distinguishable from the first and which may be employed as a means for identifying a particular transmitter. The composite, sequentially transmitted signal may be varied in terms of the individual signal transmission sequence, the duration of the individual signals, overall composite signal repetition rate and the frequency of the second audio waveform. Various combinations of signal variations may be employed to transmit different information.

  13. Column CO2 Measurement From an Airborne Solid-State Double-Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Remus, R.; Fay, J.; Reithmaier, K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micrometers IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  14. Laser Energy Monitor for Double-Pulsed 2-Micrometer IPDA Lidar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is a remote sensing technique for monitoring different atmospheric species. The technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features normalized to the transmitted energy. 2-micron double-pulsed IPDA lidar is best suited for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements. In such case, the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by short interval (200 microseconds), with low repetition rate (10Hz). Conventional laser energy monitors, based on thermal detectors, are suitable for low repetition rate single pulse lasers. Due to the short pulse interval in double-pulsed lasers, thermal energy monitors underestimate the total transmitted energy. This leads to measurement biases and errors in double-pulsed IPDA technique. The design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on a high-speed, extended range InGaAs pin quantum detectors suitable for separating the two pulse events. Pulse integration is applied for converting the detected pulse power into energy. Results are compared to a photo-electro-magnetic (PEM) detector for impulse response verification. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in single-pulsed mode, then comparing the pin and PEM detectors in double-pulsed mode. Energy monitor linearity will be addressed.

  15. Strain gage barometric transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viton, P.

    1977-01-01

    A strain gage barometric transmitter for measuring the atmospheric pressure in severe environmental conditions is described. This equipment specifications are presented and its performance assessed. It is shown that this barometric sensor can measure the atmospheric pressure with a precision of 0.5 mb during a 6 month period.

  16. Enhanced transmittance properties in Pb0.865La0.09(Zr0.65Ti0.35)O3 thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jinqiao; Zhang, Xue; Shen, Meng; Jiang, Shenglin; Xia, Jinsong

    2015-09-01

    Transparent Pb0.865La0.09(Zr0.65Ti0.35)O3 (PLZT) ferroelectric films have been deposited on Si (100) substrate by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and the influence of different deposition temperatures (600-700 °C) on crystalline state, microstructure, and optical properties has been investigated. When the deposition temperature increases from 600 to 700 °C, X-ray diffraction analysis shows that a pyrochlore-to-perovskite phase transition occurs in PLZT thin films, and PLZT target is proved to have the pure perovskite structure. As the deposition temperature increases, particles on the surface of PLZT thin films gradually disappear, the density of the sample increases obviously, and the roughness is reduced from 14 to 7.5 nm. Meanwhile, the average transmittance rate of PLZT thin films increases from 91.86 to 92.84 %, and the maximum transmittance rate 97.69 % is obtained at the temperature of 700 °C. At the incident light wavelength of 632.8 nm, the refractive index changes from 2.43 to 2.47 with the increase in the deposition temperature, and the extinction coefficients maintain at 0. These results indicate that properly increasing the deposition temperature is not only beneficial for enhancing the density of, but also can improve optical properties of PLZT thin films fabricated by the PLD method.

  17. Advanced mid-IR Solid-State Laser Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art 2-micron solid-state laser developments. A world record one-Joule-per-pulse energy laser system and an advanced thermal management with fully conductive cooled laser technique are discussed

  18. Micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar: transmitter design and performance.

    PubMed

    Nehrir, Amin R; Repasky, Kevin S; Carlsten, John L

    2012-10-22

    An all diode-laser-based micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) laser transmitter for tropospheric water vapor and aerosol profiling is presented. The micropulse DIAL (MPD) transmitter utilizes two continuous wave (cw) external cavity diode lasers (ECDL) to seed an actively pulsed, overdriven tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA). The MPD laser produces up to 7 watts of peak power over a 1 µs pulse duration (7 µJ) and a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. Spectral switching between the online and offline seed lasers is achieved on a 1Hz basis using a fiber optic switch to allow for more accurate sampling of the atmospheric volume between the online and offline laser shots. The high laser spectral purity of greater than 0.9996 coupled with the broad tunability of the laser transmitter will allow for accurate measurements of tropospheric water vapor in a wide range of geographic locations under varying atmospheric conditions. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of a third generation MPD laser transmitter with enhanced laser performance over the previous generation DIAL system. PMID:23187280

  19. Distributed data transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kenneth Dewayne; Dunson, David

    2006-08-08

    A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

  20. Distributed data transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kenneth Dewayne; Dunson, David

    2008-06-03

    A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

  1. Temperature responsive transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A temperature responsive transmitter is provided in which frequency varies linearly with temperature. The transmitter includes two identically biased transistors connected in parallel. A capacitor, which reflects into the common bases to generate negative resistance effectively in parallel with the capacitor, is connected to the common emitters. A crystal is effectively in parallel with the capacitor and the negative resistance. Oscillations occur if the magnitude of the absolute value of the negative resistance is less than the positive resistive impedance of the capacitor and the inductance of the crystal. The crystal has a large linear temperature coefficient and a resonant frequency which is substantially less than the gain-bandwidth product of the transistors to ensure that the crystal primarily determines the frequency of oscillation. A high-Q tank circuit having an inductor and a capacitor is connected to the common collectors to increase the collector current flow which in turn enhances the radiation of the oscillator frequency by the inductor.

  2. Orbiter KU-band transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halterman, R.

    1976-01-01

    The design, build, and test of an engineering breadboard Ku band quadraphase shift keyed and wideband frequency modulated transmitter are described. This orbiter Ku band transmitter drawer is to simulate the orbiter transmitter and meet the functional requirements of the orbiter communication link.

  3. A Compact Ti:Sapphire Laser With its Third Harmonic Generation (THG) for an Airborne Ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Songsheng; Storm, Mark E.; Marsh, Waverly D.; Petway, Larry B.; Edwards, William C.; Barnes, James C.

    2000-01-01

    A compact and high-pulse-energy Ti:Sapphire laser with its Third Harmonic Generation (THG) has been developed for an airborne ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to study the distributions and concentrations of the ozone throughout the troposphere. The Ti:Sapphire laser, pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and seeded by a single mode diode laser, is operated either at 867 nm or at 900 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of 20 Hz. High energy laser pulses (more than 110 mJ/pulse) at 867 nm or 900 nm with a desired beam quality have been achieved and utilized to generate its third harmonic at 289nm or 300nm, which are on-line and off-line wavelengths of an airborne ozone DIAL. After being experimentally compared with Beta-Barium Borate (beta - BaB2O4 or BBO) nonlinear crystals, two Lithium Triborate (LBO) crystals (5 x 5 x 20 cu mm) are selected for the Third Harmonic Generation (THG). In this paper, we report the Ti:Sapphire laser at 900 nm and its third harmonic at 300 nm. The desired high ultraviolet (UV) output pulse energy is more than 30 mJ at 300 nm and the energy conversion efficiency from 900 nm to 300 nm is 30%.

  4. Development of a Compact, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Doppler Wind Lidar Transceiver; and Plans for Flights on NASA's DC-8 and WB-57 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Petzar, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a recently completed effort to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a compact lidar transceiver for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to permit study of the laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for global coherent Doppler lidar measurement of winds in the future. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz compact transceiver was also designed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 and WB-57 aircraft. The WB-57 flights will present a more severe environment and will require autonomous operation of the lidar system. The DC-8 lidar system is a likely component of future NASA hurricane research. It will include real-time data processing and display, as well as full data archiving. We will attempt to co-fly on both aircraft with a direct-detection Doppler wind lidar system being prepared by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  5. Development of the Data Acquisition and Processing System for a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A general overview of the development of a data acquisition and processing system is presented for a pulsed, 2-micron coherent Doppler Lidar system located in NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, USA. It is a comprehensive system that performs high-speed data acquisition, analysis, and data display both in real time and offline. The first flight missions are scheduled for the summer of 2010 as part of the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign for the study of hurricanes. The system as well as the control software is reviewed and its requirements and unique features are discussed.

  6. Noise Whitening in Airborne Wind Profiling With a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Arthur, Grant E.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Two different noise whitening methods in airborne wind profiling with a pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. In order to provide accurate wind parameter estimates from the airborne lidar data acquired during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010, the adverse effects of background instrument noise must be compensated properly in the early stage of data processing. The results of the two methods are presented using selected GRIP data and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes.

  7. Airborne Wind Profiling With the Data Acquisition and Processing System for a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia flew on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) during the summer of 2010. The participation was part of the project Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) Air. Selected results of airborne wind profiling are presented and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes. Panoramic presentations of different wind parameters over a nominal observation time span are also presented for selected GRIP data sets. The realtime data acquisition and analysis software that was employed during the GRIP campaign is introduced with its unique features.

  8. Absolute integrated intensity and individual line parameters for the 6.2-micron band of NO2. [in solar spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Bonomo, F. S.; Williams, W. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Snider, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute integrated intensity of the 6.2-micron band of NO2 at 40 C was determined from quantitative spectra at about 10 per cm resolution by the spectral band model technique. A value of 1430 plus or minus 300 per sq cm per atm was obtained. Individual line parameters, positions, intensities, and ground-state energies were derived, and line-by-line calculations were compared with the band model results and with the quantitative spectra obtained at about 0.5 per cm resolution.

  9. Broadband 7 microns OPCPA pumped by a 2 microns picosecond Ho:YLF CPA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Daniel; Hemmer, Michael; Baudisch, Matthias; Biegert, Jens; Chalus, Olivier; Simon-Boisson, Christophe; Zawilski, Kevin; Schunemann, Peter G.; Smirnov, Vadim; Hoogland, Heinar

    2016-03-01

    The development of coherent light sources with emission in the mid-IR is currently undergoing a remarkable revolution. The mid-IR spectral range has always been of tremendous interest, mainly to spectroscopists, due to the ability of mid-IR light to access rotational and vibrational resonances of molecules which give rise to superb sensitivity upon optical probing [1-3]. Previously, high energy resolution was achieved with narrowband lasers or parametric sources, but the advent of frequency comb sources has revolutionized spectroscopy by providing high energy resolution within the frequency comb structure of the spectrum and at the same time broadband coverage and short pulse duration [4-6]. Such carrier to envelope phase (CEP) controlled light waveforms, when achieved at ultrahigh intensity, give rise to extreme effects such as the generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the vacuum to extreme ultraviolet range (XUV) [7]. Motivated largely by the vast potential of attosecond science, the development of ultraintense few-cycle and CEP stable sources has intensified [8], and it was recognized that coherent soft X-ray radiation could be generated when driving high harmonic generation (HHG) with long wavelength sources [9-11]. Recently, based on this concept, the highest waveform controlled soft X-ray flux [12] and isolated attosecond pulse emission at 300 eV [13] was demonstrated via HHG from a 1850 nm, sub-2-cycle source [14]. Within strong field physics, long wavelength scaling may lead to further interesting physics such as the direct reshaping of the carrier field [15], scaling of quantum path dynamics [16], the breakdown of the dipole approximation [17] or direct laser acceleration [18]. The experimental development of long wavelength light sources therefore holds great promise in many fields of science and will lead to numerous applications beyond strong field physics and attosecond science. In this paper, we present the first mid-IR optical parametric

  10. Optimization of A 2-Micron Laser Frequency Stabilization System for a Double-Pulse CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Songsheng; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingsin; Koch, Grady; Petros, Mulugeta; Trieu, Bo; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A carbon dioxide (CO2) Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for accurate CO2 concentration measurement requires a frequency locking system to achieve high frequency locking precision and stability. We describe the frequency locking system utilizing Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Sensitive Detection (PSD), and Proportional Integration Derivative (PID) feedback servo loop, and report the optimization of the sensitivity of the system for the feed back loop based on the characteristics of a variable path-length CO2 gas cell. The CO2 gas cell is characterized with HITRAN database (2004). The method can be applied for any other frequency locking systems referring to gas absorption line.

  11. 47 CFR 74.461 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmitter power. 74.461 Section 74.461....461 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power is the power at the transmitter output terminals and.... For the purpose of this Subpart, the transmitter power is the carrier power. (b) The...

  12. 47 CFR 74.461 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter power. 74.461 Section 74.461....461 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power is the power at the transmitter output terminals and.... For the purpose of this Subpart, the transmitter power is the carrier power. (b) The...

  13. 47 CFR 74.461 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 74.461 Section 74.461....461 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power is the power at the transmitter output terminals and.... For the purpose of this Subpart, the transmitter power is the carrier power. (b) The...

  14. 47 CFR 74.461 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter power. 74.461 Section 74.461....461 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power is the power at the transmitter output terminals and.... For the purpose of this Subpart, the transmitter power is the carrier power. (b) The...

  15. 47 CFR 74.461 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter power. 74.461 Section 74.461....461 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power is the power at the transmitter output terminals and.... For the purpose of this Subpart, the transmitter power is the carrier power. (b) The...

  16. Active Stand-off Detection of Gas Leaks Using a Short Range Hard-target Backscatter Differential Optical Absorption System Based on a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2016-06-01

    Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS). The system retrieves the pathaveraged concentration of N2O and CH4 by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms) and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet) with a detection limit of 2.6 ppm CH4 and 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks. The instrument is monostatic with a tunable QCL emitting at ~ 7.7 μm wavelength range. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Newtonian telescope and focused on an infrared light detector. Puffs of N2O and CH4 are released along the optical path to simulate a gas leak. The measured absorption spectrum is obtained using the thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB QCL and is analyzed to obtain path averaged gas concentrations.

  17. Development of Numerical Models for Performance Predictions of Single-Photon Avalanche Photodetectors (SPAP) for the 2-Micron Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Ravindra P.; Abedin, M. Nurul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Field dependent drift velocity results are presented for electron transport in bulk Indium Arsenide (InAs) material based on a Monte Carlo model, which includes an analytical treatment of band-to-band impact ionization. Avalanche multiplication and related excess noise factor (F) are computed as a function of device length and applied voltage. A decrease in F with increases in device length is obtained. The results suggest an inherent utility for InAs-based single-photon avalanche detectors, particularly around the 2 microns region of interest for atmospheric remote sensing applications. The dark current response was also evaluated. The role of the various components has been analyzed. For shorter devices, the tunneling component is shown to dominate at low temperatures. Finally, possible structures for enhanced photodetection are proposed for future research.

  18. Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithms for the Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Ray, Taylor J.

    2013-01-01

    Two versions of airborne wind profiling algorithms for the pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. Each algorithm utilizes different number of line-of-sight (LOS) lidar returns while compensating the adverse effects of different coordinate systems between the aircraft and the Earth. One of the two algorithms APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) estimates wind products using two LOSs. The other algorithm utilizes five LOSs. The airborne lidar data were acquired during the NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010. The wind profile products from the two algorithms are compared with the dropsonde data to validate their results.

  19. Optical transmittance of multilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shou-En; Yuan, Shengjun; Janssen, G. C. A. M.

    2014-10-01

    We study the optical transmittance of multilayer graphene films up to 65 layers thick. By combing large-scale tight-binding simulation and optical measurement on CVD multilayer graphene, the optical transmission through graphene films in the visible region is found to be solely determined by the number of graphene layers. We argue that the optical transmittance measurement is more reliable in the determination of the number of layers than the commonly used the Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the optical transmittance measurement can be applied also to other 2D materials with weak van der Waals interlayer interaction.

  20. An ingestible temperature-transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    Pill-sized transmitter measures deep body temperature in studies of circadian rhythm and indicates general health. Ingestible device is a compromise between accuracy, circuit complexity, size and transmission range.

  1. Cost-effective tunable 1310nm DWDM transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorchos, Łukasz; Turkiewicz, Jarosław P.

    2015-09-01

    The growing demand for higher data rate transmissions in local and metropolitan area networks is main reason of developing effective and inexpensive transmission systems. In this paper, study about the possibility to realize 1310 nm tunable DWDM transmitter using commercially available low-cost DFB lasers is presented. Extensive DFB lasers characterization has been performed which led to establish relationships between laser current, operational temperature, emitted wavelength and power. An algorithm to find the laser settings for a desired wavelength grid has been proposed and tested. Generation of the 1310nm DWDM channels with frequency spacing between 120 and 240GHz has been demonstrated.

  2. New Cloud Activity on Uranus in 2004: First Detection of a Southern Feature at 2.2 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, H. B.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S. G.; Lockwood, G. W.; Rages, K.

    2004-11-01

    On 4 July 2004 UT, we detected a southern hemispheric cloud feature on Uranus at K' (2.2 microns) using adaptive optics and the NIRC2 camera on the Keck 10-m. At H (1.6 microns), the feature had two components: a condensed core (2004-A) co-located with the K' feature at latitude -36.0 ± 0.4 deg, and an extended feature (2004-B) at roughly -33.7 ± 0.4 deg. When we observed again on 8 July UT, the core had faded at K'. By 9 July we were unable to detect a K' feature; the extended feature was still seen at H. The initial high K'-brightness of 2004-A indicates that the core's scattering particles reached altitudes above the 1-bar level, with the larger feature at H, 2004-B, residing below the 1.1-bar level (assuming the model of de Pater et al. 2002, Icarus 160, 359). The core's rapid disappearance at K' indicates dynamical processes in the local vertical aerosol structure, for example, subsidence of the feature's cloud tops. Features 2004-A and 2004-B had zonal velocities of 107 and 115 m/s, respectively (+/- 3 m/s), different from past velocities near these latitudes. These features are either new, or are long-lived but drifting in latitude (as has been seen on Neptune); see abstract by Rages et al. this volume. Regardless of their latitude, no southern features on Uranus have been detected at wavelengths of 2 microns or longward, indicating some change of activity. Continued observations of Uranus are strongly encouraged as its 2007 equinox approaches. HBH acknowledges partial support from NASA grants NAG5-11961 and NAG5-10451. IdP acknowledges partial support from NSF and the Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by UCSC under cooperative agreement No. AST-9876783. SGG's work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE, National Nuclear Security Administration by the UC, LLNL under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  3. Variable conductance heat pipe technology for precise temperature control of the NASA/DDLT transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanevenhoven, D. E.; Antoniak, D.

    1989-01-01

    The application of variable conductance heat pipe technology for achieving precise temperature control to + or - 0.1 C for a space-based laser diode transmitter is described. Heat pipe theory of operation and test data are presented along with a discussion of its applicability for NASA's Direct Detection Laser Transceiver (DDLT) program. This design for the DDLT transmitter features a reduction in space radiator size and up to 42 percent reduction in prime power requirements.

  4. Proposal to Simultaneously Profile Wind and CO2 on Earth and Mars With 2-micron Pulsed Lidar Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Ismail, Syed; Emmitt, David

    2005-01-01

    2-micron lidar technology has been in use and under continued improvement for many years toward wind measurements. But the 2-micron wavelength region is also rich in absorption lines of CO2 (and H2O to a lesser extent) that can be exploited with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique to make species concentration measurements. A coherent detection receiver offers the possibility of making combined wind and DIAL measurements with wind derived from frequency shift of the backscatter spectrum and species concentration derived from power of the backscatter spectrum. A combined wind and CO2 measurement capability is of interest for applications on both Earth and Mars. CO2 measurements in the Earth atmosphere are of importance to studies of the global carbon cycle. Data on vertically-resolved CO2 profiles over large geographical observations areas are of particular interest that could potentially be made by deploying a lidar on an aircraft or satellite. By combining CO2 concentration with wind measurements an even more useful data product could be obtained in the calculation of CO2 flux. A challenge to lidar in this application is that CO2 concentration measurements must be made with a high level of precision and accuracy to better than 1%. The Martian atmosphere also presents wind and CO2 measurement problems that could be met with a combined DIAL/Doppler lidar. CO2 concentration in this scenario would be used to calculate atmospheric density since the Martian atmosphere is composed of 95% CO2. The lack of measurements of Mars atmospheric density in the 30-60 km range, dust storm formation and movements, and horizontal wind patterns in the 0-20 km range pose significant risks to aerocapture, and entry, descent, and landing of future robotic and human Mars missions. Systematic measurement of the Mars atmospheric density and winds will be required over several Mars years, supplemented with day-of-entry operational measurements. To date, there have been 5

  5. A 20-GHz IMPATT transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, J. L.; Sun, C.

    1983-01-01

    The engineering development of a solid state transmitter amplifier operating in the 20 GHz frequency band. The development effort involved a variety of disciplines including IMPATT device development, circulator design, simple and multiple diode circuits designs, and amplifier integration and test.

  6. Pulsed Single Frequency Fiber Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shibin

    2016-06-01

    Pulsed single frequency fiber lasers with mJ level near 1 micron, 1.55 micron and 2 micron wavelengths were demonstrated by using our proprietary highly doped fibers. These fiber lasers exhibit excellent long term stable operation with M2<1.2.

  7. Morphology and transmittance of porous alumina on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peitao, Guo; Zhilin, Xia; Yiyu, Xue; Caihua, Huang; Lixin, Zhao

    2011-02-01

    The porous optical film has higher threshold of laser-induced damage than densified films, for the study of mechanism of laser-induced damage of porous optical film with ordered pore structure. Porous anodic alumina (PAA) film with high transmittance on glass substrate has been prepared. Aluminum film was deposited on glass substrate by means of resistance and electron beam heat (EBH) evaporation. Porous alumina was prepared in oxalic acid solution under different anodizing conditions. At normal incidence, the optical transmittance spectrum over 300-1000 nm spectra region was obtained by spectrophotometer. SEM was introduced to analysis the morphology of the porous alumina film. The pore aperture increased with the increase of anodizing voltage, which resulted in a rapid decrease of the pore concentration and the optical thickness of porous alumina film. Damage morphology of porous alumina film is found to be typically defects initiated, and the defect is the pore presented on the film.

  8. A Low Cost TDRSS Compatible Transmitter Option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Don

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space-based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) program has developed and tested a low cost Ku-Band transmitter alternative for TDRSS applications based on an existing IRIG shaped offset quaternary phase shift keying (SOQPSK) transmitter. This paper presents information related to the implementation of this low cost system, as well as performance measurements of the alternative TDRSS transmitter system compared with an existing QPSK TDRSS transmitter.

  9. Digital transmitter - Simple, yet precise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.; Sumida, J.

    1986-01-01

    A transmitter developed for operation at high digital transmission speeds is described. It is a complex system that produces a clean waveform with data rates as high as 1 Mb/s; and its design makes it possible to vary all possible modulation schemes by reprogramming a chip, to vary data-transmission rates with the clock frequency, and to shape pulses without distortion. The design, furthermore, can be adapted to very-large-scale-integration (VLSI) fabrication and mass production. A prototype QPSK residual carrier modulation transmitter was fabricated and tested. The purpose was to create a deep null in the data spectrum to transmit a tone or residual carrier along with the modulation.

  10. 47 CFR 22.625 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fixed transmitters is 113 kilometers (70 miles). (b) 470-512 MHz. The purpose of the rule in paragraph... kilometers (50 miles) of the designated locations in this paragraph. Urban area N. latitude W. longitude... transmitter locations must be at least 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) from the main transmitter locations of all...

  11. 47 CFR 80.215 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter power. 80.215 Section 80.215... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.215 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power shown on the radio station authorization is the maximum power the licensee is authorized to use. Power...

  12. 47 CFR 80.215 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmitter power. 80.215 Section 80.215... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.215 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power shown on the radio station authorization is the maximum power the licensee is authorized to use. Power...

  13. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis...

  14. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis...

  15. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis...

  16. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807... SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will not be authorized to use transmitters having a rated power output in excess of the limits set forth...

  17. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807... SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will not be authorized to use transmitters having a rated power output in excess of the limits set forth...

  18. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis...

  19. 47 CFR 80.215 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 80.215 Section 80.215... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.215 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power shown on the radio station authorization is the maximum power the licensee is authorized to use. Power...

  20. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807... SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will not be authorized to use transmitters having a rated power output in excess of the limits set forth...

  1. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807... SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will not be authorized to use transmitters having a rated power output in excess of the limits set forth...

  2. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807... SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will not be authorized to use transmitters having a rated power output in excess of the limits set forth...

  3. 47 CFR 80.215 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter power. 80.215 Section 80.215... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.215 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power shown on the radio station authorization is the maximum power the licensee is authorized to use. Power...

  4. 47 CFR 80.215 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter power. 80.215 Section 80.215... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.215 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power shown on the radio station authorization is the maximum power the licensee is authorized to use. Power...

  5. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis...

  6. Error-free DWDM transmission and crosstalk analysis for a silicon photonics transmitter.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, M Ashkan; Chen, Chin-Hui; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Ray

    2015-12-28

    Individual channels of a five-channel microring silicon photonics transmitter are used for bit error ratio analysis and demonstrate error-free transmission at 10Gb/s. Two channels of the same transmitter are concurrently modulated using an 80GHz channel spacing comb laser and demonstrate open eye diagrams at 10Gb/s and 12.5Gb/s. Finally, concurrent modulation with tunable lasers is done to quantify optical power penalty for link bit error ratio versus channel spacing from +100GHz to -100GHz. When using a comb laser for concurrent modulation, no direct power penalty is observed for an 80GHz channel separation. PMID:26831964

  7. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  8. 47 CFR 90.463 - Transmitter control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transmitter or transmitters controlled are either radiating “RF” energy, or when the transmitter circuits have... meter may be employed to indicate the activation of both the local and the remote transmitter(s). (2) To... operator to determine when they are radiating “RF” energy or when the transmitter circuits have been...

  9. 47 CFR 90.463 - Transmitter control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transmitter or transmitters controlled are either radiating “RF” energy, or when the transmitter circuits have... meter may be employed to indicate the activation of both the local and the remote transmitter(s). (2) To... operator to determine when they are radiating “RF” energy or when the transmitter circuits have been...

  10. 47 CFR 90.463 - Transmitter control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transmitter or transmitters controlled are either radiating “RF” energy, or when the transmitter circuits have... meter may be employed to indicate the activation of both the local and the remote transmitter(s). (2) To... operator to determine when they are radiating “RF” energy or when the transmitter circuits have been...

  11. 47 CFR 90.463 - Transmitter control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitter or transmitters controlled are either radiating “RF” energy, or when the transmitter circuits have... meter may be employed to indicate the activation of both the local and the remote transmitter(s). (2) To... operator to determine when they are radiating “RF” energy or when the transmitter circuits have been...

  12. 47 CFR 90.463 - Transmitter control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transmitter or transmitters controlled are either radiating “RF” energy, or when the transmitter circuits have... meter may be employed to indicate the activation of both the local and the remote transmitter(s). (2) To... operator to determine when they are radiating “RF” energy or when the transmitter circuits have been...

  13. Comparison of 2 micron Ho and 10 micron CO2 lidar for atmospheric backscatter and Doppler windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killinger, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    The development of eye-safe, solid-state Lidar systems is discussed, with an emphasis on Coherent Doppler Lidar for Atmospheric Wind Measurements. The following subject areas are covered: tunable Ho DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar)/lidar atmospheric measurements; atmospheric turbulence measurements and detector arrays; diurnal measurements of C(sub n)(sup 2) for KSC lidar measurements; and development of single-frequency Ho laser/lidar.

  14. Infrared heterodyne radiometer for airborne atmospheric transmittance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolczok, J. M.; Lange, R. A.; Dinardo, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    An infrared heterodyne radiometer (IHR) was used to measure atmospheric transmittance at selected hydrogen fluoride (2.7 micrometer) and deuterium fluoride (3.8 micrometer) laser transitions. The IHR was installed aboard a KC-135 aircraft for an airborne atmospheric measurements program that used the sun as a backlighting source for the transmission measurements. The critical components are: a wideband indium antimonide (1nSb) photomixer, a CW HF/DF laser L0, a radiometric processor, and a 1900 K blackbody reference source. The measured heterodyne receiver sensitivity (NEP) is 1.3 x 10 to the -19th power W/Hz, which yields a calculated IHR temperature resolution accuracy of delta I sub S/-3 sub S = 0.005 for a source temperature of 1000 K and a total transmittance of 0.5. Measured atmospheric transmittance at several wavelengths and aircraft altitudes from 9.14 km (30,000 ft) to 13.72 km (45,000 ft) were obtained during the measurements program and have been compared with values predicted by the AFGL Atmospheric Line Parameter Compilation.

  15. Characteristics of direct detection 1.6μm CO2 DIAL with OPG transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, C.; Shibata, Y.; Abo, M.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, there have been significant advances in a QPM nonlinear optical frequency conversion efficienfy. The QPM condition is produced to use periodically poled ferroelectric crystals. An optical parametric oscillator (OPO), amplifier (OPA), and generator (OPG) devices are widely recognized as versatile coherent tunable spectroscopic sources. Many applications of PPLN-parametric radiation sources, such as laser remote sensing and molecular spectroscopy, require broadly tunable and narrow linewidth operation in the infrared region. We developed an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) transmitter for the first 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL. In order to improve the measurement accuracy of CO2 profiles, development of high power and wavelength stabilized laser system has been conducted. We have developed a new high-power 1.6 μm laser transmitter based on a parametric master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) system pumped by a LD-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser which has the injection seed laser locked to the iodine absorption line. The master oscillator is the OPG transmitter and the amplifier is the OPA transmitter. Since the OPO transmitter has a cavity mirror, running the system without mode hopping requires complex control of cavity length. By contrast, the OPG transmitter has no cavity mirror, so there is no need to control cavity length. We report detail characteristics of the direct detection 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL with the OPG transmitter. Moreover, we report the technique of the simultaneously measurement temperature profiles with the CO2 concentration profiles using a CO2 absorption profile because of improvement of measurement accuracy of the CO2 concentration. This work was financially supported by the System Development Program for Advanced Measurement and Analysis of the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  16. A demonstration of CMOS VLSI circuit prototyping in support of the site facility using the 1.2 micron standard cell library developed by National Security Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Edwyn D.

    1991-01-01

    Two silicon CMOS application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), a data generation chip, and a data checker chip were designed. The conversion of the data generator circuitry into a pair of CMOS ASIC chips using the 1.2 micron standard cell library is documented. The logic design of the data checker is discussed. The functions of the control circuitry is described. An accurate estimate of timing relationships is essential to make sure that the logic design performs correctly under practical conditions. Timing and delay information are examined.

  17. A Ground-Based 2-Micron DIAL System to Profile Tropospheric CO2 and Aerosol Distributions for Atmospheric Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady; Abedin, Nurul; Refaat, Tamer; Rubio, Manuel; Davis, Kenneth; Miller, Charles; Singh, Upendra

    2006-01-01

    System will operate at a temperature insensitive CO2 line (2050.967 nm) with side-line tuning and off-set locking. Demonstrated an order of magnitude improvement in laser line locking needed for high precision measurements, side-line operation, and simultaneously double pulsing and line locking. Detector testing of phototransistor has demonstrated sensitivity to aerosol features over long distances in the atmosphere and resolve features approx. 100m. Optical systems that collect light onto small area detectors work well. Receiver optical designs are being optimized and data acquisition systems developed. CO2 line parameter characterization in progress In situ sensor calibration in progress for validation of DIAL CO2 system.

  18. Digital transmitter for data bus communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proch, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Digital transmitter designed for Manchester coded signals (and all signals with ac waveforms) generated at a rate of one megabit per second includes efficient output isolation circuit. Transmitter consists of logic control section, amplifier, and output isolation section. Output isolation circuit provides dynamic impedance at terminals as function of amplifier output level.

  19. 47 CFR 90.215 - Transmitter measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter measurements. 90.215 Section 90.215... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.215 Transmitter measurements. (a) The licensee of... may, at the opinion of the licensee, be made by a qualified engineering measurement service, in...

  20. 47 CFR 90.215 - Transmitter measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter measurements. 90.215 Section 90.215... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.215 Transmitter measurements. (a) The licensee of... may, at the opinion of the licensee, be made by a qualified engineering measurement service, in...

  1. 47 CFR 90.215 - Transmitter measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter measurements. 90.215 Section 90.215... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.215 Transmitter measurements. (a) The licensee of... may, at the opinion of the licensee, be made by a qualified engineering measurement service, in...

  2. 47 CFR 90.215 - Transmitter measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter measurements. 90.215 Section 90.215... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.215 Transmitter measurements. (a) The licensee of... may, at the opinion of the licensee, be made by a qualified engineering measurement service, in...

  3. 47 CFR 90.215 - Transmitter measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmitter measurements. 90.215 Section 90.215... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.215 Transmitter measurements. (a) The licensee of... may, at the opinion of the licensee, be made by a qualified engineering measurement service, in...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1011 - Transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter. 80.1011 Section 80.1011 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1011 Transmitter. (a) The bridge-to-bridge...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1011 - Transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter. 80.1011 Section 80.1011 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1011 Transmitter. (a) The bridge-to-bridge...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1011 - Transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter. 80.1011 Section 80.1011 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1011 Transmitter. (a) The bridge-to-bridge...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1011 - Transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter. 80.1011 Section 80.1011 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1011 Transmitter. (a) The bridge-to-bridge...

  8. 47 CFR 22.1009 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter locations. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1009 Transmitter locations. The rules in this section establish limitations on the locations...

  9. 47 CFR 22.657 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... locations. Base transmitter locations must be within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the designated locations in this paragraph. Mobile transmitters must not be operated at locations more than 129 kilometers (80... operated at locations more than 48 kilometers (30 miles) from all associated base stations. (c)...

  10. 47 CFR 22.657 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... locations. Base transmitter locations must be within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of the designated locations in this paragraph. Mobile transmitters must not be operated at locations more than 129 kilometers (80... operated at locations more than 48 kilometers (30 miles) from all associated base stations. (c)...