Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-05-01
pBEAM (Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module) is a finite element code for beam-like structures. The methodology uses Euler? Bernoulli beam elements with 12 degrees of freedom (3 translation and 3 rotational at each end of the element).
Single element laser beam shaper
Zhang, Shukui; Michelle D. Shinn
2005-09-13
A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.
Diffractive Optical Elements for Lidar Beam Scanning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nordin, Gregory P.
1996-01-01
Wind measurement from space can provide critical data for understanding weather patterns and large-scale storm phenomena. An instrument for providing such measurements is currently under development at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The instrument utilizes a pulsed coherent lidar system operating at a wavelength of 2.06 micrometers in order to achieve decreased weight, size, and cost compared to systems operating at longer wavelengths, and it is being developed to be compatible with the capabilities of small satellites. A key aspect of such an orbital lidar system is that the beam must be conically scanned after it exits the final beam expansion telescope. Previous work indicates that the aperture of the beam expansion telescope should be 50 cm with a scanner half-angle of 300 and a rotation rate of 10 RPM. The critical requirements for the beam scanning element include a 50 cm aperture, an induced wavefront error of less than lambda/10, and high efficiency deflection (i.e., 95+ % of the incident light is deflected). This report is intended to provide a brief overview and discussion of potential technologies for space-borne laser radar (lidar) beam scanning.
Effective beam method for element concentrations.
Tolhurst, Thomas; Barbi, Mauricio; Tokaryk, Tim
2015-03-01
There is a great diversity of research being conducted at synchrotron facilities around the world and a diverse set of beamlines to accommodate this research. Time is a precious commodity at synchrotron facilities; therefore, methods that can maximize the time spent collecting data are of value. At the same time the incident radiation spectrum, necessary for some research, may not be known on a given beamline. A preliminary presentation of a method applicable to X-ray fluorescence spectrocopic analyses that overcomes the lack of information about the incident beam spectrum that addresses both of these concerns is given here. The method is equally applicable for other X-ray sources so long as local conditions are considered. It relies on replacing the polychromatic spectrum in a standard fundamental parameters analysis with a set of effective monochromatic photon beams. A beam is associated with each element and can be described by an analytical function allowing extension to elements not included in the necessary calibration measurement(s). PMID:25723941
Effective beam method for element concentrations
Tolhurst, Thomas; Barbi, Mauricio; Tokaryk, Tim
2015-01-01
There is a great diversity of research being conducted at synchrotron facilities around the world and a diverse set of beamlines to accommodate this research. Time is a precious commodity at synchrotron facilities; therefore, methods that can maximize the time spent collecting data are of value. At the same time the incident radiation spectrum, necessary for some research, may not be known on a given beamline. A preliminary presentation of a method applicable to X-ray fluorescence spectrocopic analyses that overcomes the lack of information about the incident beam spectrum that addresses both of these concerns is given here. The method is equally applicable for other X-ray sources so long as local conditions are considered. It relies on replacing the polychromatic spectrum in a standard fundamental parameters analysis with a set of effective monochromatic photon beams. A beam is associated with each element and can be described by an analytical function allowing extension to elements not included in the necessary calibration measurement(s). PMID:25723941
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of FRP Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasmal, S.; Kalidoss, S.; Srinivas, V.
2012-12-01
This paper focuses on nonlinear analysis of parent and fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beam using general purpose finite element software, ANSYS. Further, it is aimed to investigate the suitability of different elements available in ANSYS library to represent FRP, epoxy and interface. 3-D structural RC solid element has been used to model concrete and truss element is employed for modeling the reinforcements. FRP has been modelled using 3-D membrane element and layered element with number of layers, epoxy is modelled using eight node brick element, and eight node layered solid shell is used to mathematically represent the concrete-FRP interface behavior. Initially, the validation of the numerical model for the efficacy of different elements (SOLID65 for concrete and LINK8 for reinforcement) and material models is carried out on the experimental beam reported in literature. The validated model, elements and material properties is used to evaluate the load-displacement and load-strain response behavior and crack patterns of the FRP strengthened RC beams. The numerical results indicated that significant improvement in the displacement in the strengthened RC beams with the advancement of cracks. The study shows that FRP with shell elements is recommended when single layer of FRP is used. When multi layered FRP is used, solid layered element can be a reasonably good choice whereas the epoxy matrix with linear solid element does not need further complicated model. Interfacial element makes the analysis minimally improved at the cost of complicated modeling issues and considerable computation time. Hence, for nonlinear analysis of usual strengthened structures, unless it is specifically required for, interface element may not be required and a full contact can be assumed at interface.
Beam and Truss Finite Element Verification for DYNA3D
Rathbun, H J
2007-07-16
The explicit finite element (FE) software program DYNA3D has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate the dynamic behavior of structures, systems, and components. This report focuses on verification of beam and truss element formulations in DYNA3D. An efficient protocol has been developed to verify the accuracy of these structural elements by generating a set of representative problems for which closed-form quasi-static steady-state analytical reference solutions exist. To provide as complete coverage as practically achievable, problem sets are developed for each beam and truss element formulation (and their variants) in all modes of loading and physical orientation. Analyses with loading in the elastic and elastic-plastic regimes are performed. For elastic loading, the FE results are within 1% of the reference solutions for all cases. For beam element bending and torsion loading in the plastic regime, the response is heavily dependent on the numerical integration rule chosen, with higher refinement yielding greater accuracy (agreement to within 1%). Axial loading in the plastic regime produces accurate results (agreement to within 0.01%) for all integration rules and element formulations. Truss elements are also verified to provide accurate results (within 0.01%) for elastic and elastic-plastic loading. A sample problem to verify beam element response in ParaDyn, the parallel version DYNA3D, is also presented.
Multifunctional micro-optical elements for laser beam homogenizing and beam shaping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bich, A.; Rieck, J.; Dumouchel, C.; Roth, S.; Weible, K. J.; Eisner, M.; Voelkel, R.; Zimmermann, M.; Rank, M.; Schmidt, M.; Bitterli, R.; Ramanan, N.; Ruffieux, P.; Scharf, T.; Noell, W.; Herzig, H.-P.; De Rooij, Nico
2008-02-01
Refractive, diffractive and reflective micro-optical elements for laser beam shaping and homogenizing have been manufactured and tested. The presented multifunctional optical elements are used for shaping arbitrary laser beam profiles into a variety of geometries like, a homogeneous spot array or line pattern, a laser light sheet or flat-top intensity profiles. The resulting profiles are strongly influenced by the beam properties of the laser and by diffraction and interference effects at the micro-optical elements. We present general design rules for beam shaping and homogenizing. We demonstrate the application of such multifunctional micro-optical elements for a variety of applications from micro-laser machining to laser diagnostic systems.
Finite element analysis of SMA beam bending using COMSOL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shibin; Seelecke, Stefan S.; Li, Qifu
2009-03-01
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) represent a class of smart materials that has been extensively used in many engineering applications due to their unique material properties. To facilitate these new developments, an efficient computational tool like the finite element method has to be used in order to simulate the highly nonlinear, load-history and temperature dependent responses of SMA materials. The particular focus of this paper is on the aspects of modeling and simulation of the inhomogeneous beam bending problem. Based on small deformation Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the SMA beam is treated as consisting of several layers. Each governed by a 1-D free energy SMA model. The SMA beam is implemented in the finite element software COMSOL using its general PDE form. The ordinary differential equations describing the kinetics of the phase transformations are treated as degenerated PDEs without a flux term and coupled with the mechanical equilibrium equation and the heat transfer equation. In this paper, we study the quasiplastic and superelastic isothermal behavior of an SMA cantilever beam at constant low and high temperature, respectively. Keywords: finite element analysis, shape memory alloy, COMSOL
Large areas elemental mapping by ion beam analysis techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, T. F.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Curado, J. F.; Allegro, P.; Moro, M. V.; Campos, P. H. O. V.; Santos, S. B.; Kajiya, E. A. M.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.
2015-07-01
The external beam line of the Laboratory for Material Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI) is a versatile setup for multi-technique analysis. X-ray detectors for Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) measurements, a Gamma-ray detector for Particle Induced Gamma- ray Emission (PIGE), and a particle detector for scattering analysis, such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), were already installed. In this work, we present some results, using a large (60-cm range) XYZ computer controlled sample positioning system, completely developed and build in our laboratory. The XYZ stage was installed at the external beam line and its high spacial resolution (better than 5 μm over the full range) enables positioning the sample with high accuracy and high reproducibility. The combination of a sub-millimeter beam with the large range XYZ robotic stage is being used to produce elemental maps of large areas in samples like paintings, ceramics, stones, fossils, and all sort of samples. Due to its particular characteristics, this is a unique device in the sense of multi-technique analysis of large areas. With the continuous development of the external beam line at LAMFI, coupled to the robotic XYZ stage, it is becoming a robust and reliable option for regular analysis of trace elements (Z > 5) competing with the traditional in-vacuum ion-beam-analysis with the advantage of automatic rastering.
A viscoelastic higher-order beam finite element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Arthur R.; Tressler, Alexander
1996-01-01
A viscoelastic internal variable constitutive theory is applied to a higher-order elastic beam theory and finite element formulation. The behavior of the viscous material in the beam is approximately modeled as a Maxwell solid. The finite element formulation requires additional sets of nodal variables for each relaxation time constant needed by the Maxwell solid. Recent developments in modeling viscoelastic material behavior with strain variables that are conjugate to the elastic strain measures are combined with advances in modeling through-the-thickness stresses and strains in thick beams. The result is a viscous thick-beam finite element that possesses superior characteristics for transient analysis since its nodal viscous forces are not linearly dependent an the nodal velocities, which is the case when damping matrices are used. Instead, the nodal viscous forces are directly dependent on the material's relaxation spectrum and the history of the nodal variables through a differential form of the constitutive law for a Maxwell solid. The thick beam quasistatic analysis is explored herein as a first step towards developing more complex viscoelastic models for thick plates and shells, and for dynamic analyses. The internal variable constitutive theory is derived directly from the Boltzmann superposition theorem. The mechanical strains and the conjugate internal strains are shown to be related through a system of first-order, ordinary differential equations. The total time-dependent stress is the superposition of its elastic and viscous components. Equations of motion for the solid are derived from the virtual work principle using the total time-dependent stress. Numerical examples for the problems of relaxation, creep, and cyclic creep are carried out for a beam made from an orthotropic Maxwell solid.
Design concept for diffractive elements shaping partially coherent laser beams.
Schäfer, D
2001-11-01
A new two-step design algorithm for the calculation of a diffractive phase element (DPE) for use with partially coherent laser beams is presented. The optical reconstruction of the DPE is modeled by the convolution of a coherent diffraction pattern and the far-field intensity distribution of a partially coherent laser beam. Numerical deconvolution is applied to derive a suitable amplitude pattern as signal input to a standard iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA). Theory and numerical results are presented. Compared with a single-step IFTA design, this new approach yields nearly equal diffraction efficiencies and a relative improvement of 15% in signal reconstruction error. PMID:11688882
Simulation of dynamics of beam structures with bolted joints using adjusted Iwan beam elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Y.; Hartwigsen, C. J.; McFarland, D. M.; Vakakis, A. F.; Bergman, L. A.
2004-05-01
Mechanical joints often affect structural response, causing localized non-linear stiffness and damping changes. As many structures are assemblies, incorporating the effects of joints is necessary to produce predictive finite element models. In this paper, we present an adjusted Iwan beam element (AIBE) for dynamic response analysis of beam structures containing joints. The adjusted Iwan model consists of a combination of springs and frictional sliders that exhibits non-linear behavior due to the stick-slip characteristic of the latter. The beam element developed is two-dimensional and consists of two adjusted Iwan models and maintains the usual complement of degrees of freedom: transverse displacement and rotation at each of the two nodes. The resulting element includes six parameters, which must be determined. To circumvent the difficulty arising from the non-linear nature of the inverse problem, a multi-layer feed-forward neural network (MLFF) is employed to extract joint parameters from measured structural acceleration responses. A parameter identification procedure is implemented on a beam structure with a bolted joint. In this procedure, acceleration responses at one location on the beam structure due to one known impulsive forcing function are simulated for sets of combinations of varying joint parameters. A MLFF is developed and trained using the patterns of envelope data corresponding to these acceleration histories. The joint parameters are identified through the trained MLFF applied to the measured acceleration response. Then, using the identified joint parameters, acceleration responses of the jointed beam due to a different impulsive forcing function are predicted. The validity of the identified joint parameters is assessed by comparing simulated acceleration responses with experimental measurements. The capability of the AIBE to capture the effects of bolted joints on the dynamic responses of beam structures, and the efficacy of the MLFF parameter
Efficient Coupler for a Bessel Beam Dispersive Element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Le, Thanh; Yu, nan; Maleki, Lute
2008-01-01
A document discusses overcoming efficient optical coupling to high orbital momentum modes by slightly bending the taper dispersive element. This little shape distortion is not enough to scramble the modes, but it allows the use of regular, free-beam prism coupling, fiber coupling, or planar fiber on-chip coupling with, ultimately, 100 percent efficiency. The Bessel-beam waveguide is bent near the contact with the coupler, or a curved coupler is used. In this case, every Bessel-beam mode can be successfully coupled to a collimated Gaussian beam. Recently developed Bessel-beam waveguides allow long optical delay and very high dispersion. Delay values may vary from nanoseconds to microseconds, and dispersion promises to be at 100 s/nm. Optical setup consisted of a red laser, an anamorphic prism pair, two prism couplers, and a bent, single-mode fiber attached to prisms. The coupling rate increased substantially and corresponded to the value determined by the anamorphic prism pair.
Dynamical observer for a flexible beam via finite element approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manitius, Andre; Xia, Hong-Xing
1994-01-01
The purpose of this view-graph presentation is a computational investigation of the closed-loop output feedback control of a Euler-Bernoulli beam based on finite element approximation. The observer is part of the classical observer plus state feedback control, but it is finite-dimensional. In the theoretical work on the subject it is assumed (and sometimes proved) that increasing the number of finite elements will improve accuracy of the control. In applications, this may be difficult to achieve because of numerical problems. The main difficulty in computing the observer and simulating its work is the presence of high frequency eigenvalues in the finite-element model and poor numerical conditioning of some of the system matrices (e.g. poor observability properties) when the dimension of the approximating system increases. This work dealt with some of these difficulties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovkov, Alexei I.; Avdeev, Ilya V.; Artemyev, A.
1999-05-01
In present work, the stress, vibration and buckling finite element analysis of laminated beams is performed. Review of the equivalent single-layer (ESL) laminate theories is done. Finite element algorithms and procedures integrated into the original FEA program system and based on the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), third-order theory of Reddy (TSDT-R) and third- order theory of Kant (TSDT-K) with the use of the Lanczos method for solving of the eigenproblem are developed. Several numerical tests and examples of bending, free vibration and buckling of multilayered and sandwich beams with various material, geometry properties and boundary conditions are solved. New effective higher-order hierarchical element for the accurate calculation of transverse shear stress is proposed. The comparative analysis of results obtained by the considered models and solutions of 2D problems of the heterogeneous anisotropic elasticity is fulfilled.
Element free Galerkin formulation of composite beam with longitudinal slip
Ahmad, Dzulkarnain; Mokhtaram, Mokhtazul Haizad; Badli, Mohd Iqbal; Yassin, Airil Y. Mohd
2015-05-15
Behaviour between two materials in composite beam is assumed partially interact when longitudinal slip at its interfacial surfaces is considered. Commonly analysed by the mesh-based formulation, this study used meshless formulation known as Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method in the beam partial interaction analysis, numerically. As meshless formulation implies that the problem domain is discretised only by nodes, the EFG method is based on Moving Least Square (MLS) approach for shape functions formulation with its weak form is developed using variational method. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by Langrange multipliers. The proposed EFG formulation gives comparable results, after been verified by analytical solution, thus signify its application in partial interaction problems. Based on numerical test results, the Cubic Spline and Quartic Spline weight functions yield better accuracy for the EFG formulation, compares to other proposed weight functions.
Khonina, Svetlana N; Karpeev, Sergey V; Alferov, Sergey V
2012-06-15
We propose a new approach to generating a pair of initial beams for a polarization converter that operates by summing up two opposite-sign circularly polarized beams. The conjugated pairs of vortex beams matched with laser modes are generated using binary diffractive optical elements (DOEs). The same binary element simultaneously serves two functions: a beam shaper and a beam splitter. Two proposed optical arrangements are compared in terms of alignment complexity and energy efficiency. The DOEs in question have been designed and fabricated. Natural experiments that demonstrate the generation of vector higher-order cylindrical beams have been conducted. PMID:22739916
Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.
1999-04-01
External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies : one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional gemological observations.
Efficient generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams through kinoform phase elements.
Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel; Sánchez-de-la-Llave, David; Arrizón, Victor
2015-10-01
We discuss the generation of Hermite-Gauss and Ince-Gauss beams employing phase elements whose transmittances coincide with the phase modulations of such beams. A scaled version of the desired field appears, distorted by marginal optical noise, at the element's Fourier domain. The motivation to perform this study is that, in the context of the proposed approach, the desired beams are generated with the maximum possible efficiency. A disadvantage of the method is the distortion of the desired beams by the influence of several nondesired beam modes generated by the phase elements. We evaluate such distortion employing the root mean square deviation as a figure of merit. PMID:26479622
A spectral element for laminated composite beams: theory and application to pyroshock analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruotolo, R.
2004-02-01
In this article a spectral element for anisotropic, laminated composite beams is developed. Firstly, the axial-bending coupled equations of motion are derived under the assumptions of the First order Shear Deformation Theory, then the spectral element matrix is formulated. The proposed spectral element is validated by comparing, with corresponding results from the scientific literature, natural frequencies of a number of both orthotropic and anisotropic laminated composite beams and the dynamic response of an anisotropic cantilever beam to high frequency transients. Finally, the application of the proposed element to the evaluation of the dynamic response to a simulated pyroshock of an idealized satellite structure made of sandwich beams is shown.
Finite Element Models for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandra, Umesh
2012-01-01
Electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) is a member of an emerging class of direct manufacturing processes known as solid freeform fabrication (SFF); another member of the class is the laser deposition process. Successful application of the EBF3 process requires precise control of a number of process parameters such as the EB power, speed, and metal feed rate in order to ensure thermal management; good fusion between the substrate and the first layer and between successive layers; minimize part distortion and residual stresses; and control the microstructure of the finished product. This is the only effort thus far that has addressed computer simulation of the EBF3 process. The models developed in this effort can assist in reducing the number of trials in the laboratory or on the shop floor while making high-quality parts. With some modifications, their use can be further extended to the simulation of laser, TIG (tungsten inert gas), and other deposition processes. A solid mechanics-based finite element code, ABAQUS, was chosen as the primary engine in developing these models whereas a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, Fluent, was used in a support role. Several innovative concepts were developed, some of which are highlighted below. These concepts were implemented in a number of new computer models either in the form of stand-alone programs or as user subroutines for ABAQUS and Fluent codes. A database of thermo-physical, mechanical, fluid, and metallurgical properties of stainless steel 304 was developed. Computing models for Gaussian and raster modes of the electron beam heat input were developed. Also, new schemes were devised to account for the heat sink effect during the deposition process. These innovations, and others, lead to improved models for thermal management and prediction of transient/residual stresses and distortions. Two approaches for the prediction of microstructure were pursued. The first was an empirical approach involving the
Collimation of diode laser beams with a single holographic diffractive element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miler, Miroslav; Koudela, Ivo; Aubrecht, Ivo
1999-07-01
Holographic diffractive optical elements collimating highly divergent, elliptical and astigmatic edge emitted diode laser beams are analyzed. Elements are recorded using only divergent beams with spherical wavefronts while off-axis astigmatism and coma of the holographic recording arrangement are compensated in a narrow beam approximation. Because of the very asymmetrical recording setup, significant blazing properties are present. Two types of the collimators are proposed: one for obliquely and the other for perpendicularly incident laser beam. Astigmatic properties of the output beams were measured in the reverse setup, i.e. when the collimated laser beams impinge on elements from their back side. Comparison of the advantages and drawbacks of both arrangements is presented.
Highly Accurate Beam Torsion Solutions Using the p-Version Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, James P.
1996-01-01
A new treatment of the classical beam torsion boundary value problem is applied. Using the p-version finite element method with shape functions based on Legendre polynomials, torsion solutions for generic cross-sections comprised of isotropic materials are developed. Element shape functions for quadrilateral and triangular elements are discussed, and numerical examples are provided.
Injection of metallic elements into an electron-beam ion trap using a Knudsen cell
Yamada, C.; Nagata, K.; Nakamura, N.; Ohtani, S.; Takahashi, S.; Tobiyama, T.; Tona, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Sakurai, M.; Kavanagh, A. P.; Currell, F. J.
2006-06-15
A method of injecting metallic elements into an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) is described. The method is advantageous over the conventional coaxial and pulsed injection methods in two ways: (a) complicated switching of injection and extraction beams can be avoided when extracting beams of highly charged ions from the EBIT and (b) a beam of stable intensity can be achieved. This method may be applicable to any metallic elements or metallic compounds that have vapor pressures of {approx}0.1 Pa at a temperature lower than 1900 deg. C. We have employed this method for the extraction of highly charged ions of Bi, Er, Fe, and Ho.
Enhanced dispersion compensation capability of angular elements based on beam expansion.
Du, Rui; Jiang, Runhua; Fu, Ling
2009-09-14
We demonstrate that beam size manipulation plays an important role in dispersion compensation. With expanded beam, the maximal negative group delay dispersion (GDD) provided by angular elements increases by an order of magnitude compared with original beam. Both calculation and experimental results show that a modest 2 x and 4 x expanded beams can improve dispersion compensation capability of prisms or acousto-optical deflectors: the restored minimal pulse width decreases by 50% and the corresponding distance between angular elements is shortened more than 70 cm. These findings will be helpful for designing dispersion compensation schemes for femtosecond pulse laser application systems such as multiphoton microscopy or laser micromachining. PMID:19770855
Comparison of Finite Element Non-Linear Beam Random Response with Experimental Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, R. R.; Mei, C.; Wolfe, HF
1996-09-01
A finite element formulation combined with the equivalent linearization technique and normal mode method is developed for the non-linear random response of beams subjected to acoustic and thermal loads applied simultaneously. To validate the present formulation and solution procedure, results are compared with the classical continuum solution and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation solution. Comparison is also made with experimental data for a pre-stretched clamped beam. Random responses of thermally buckled simply supported beam, clamped beam and simply supported-clamped beam are presented. The comparison of the present simultaneously loaded response with the existing sequentially loaded results shows a significant difference between them.
Multifunctional diffractive optical elements for the generation of higher order Bessel-like-beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijayakumar, A.; Bhattacharya, Shanti
2015-01-01
Higher Order Bessel Beams (HOBBs) have many useful applications in optical trapping experiments. The generation of HOBBs is achieved by illuminating an axicon by a Laguerre-Gaussian beam generated by a spiral phase plate. It can also be generated by a Holographic Optical Element (HOE) containing the functions of the Spiral Phase Plate (SPP) and an axicon. However the HOBB's large focal depth reduces the intensity at each plane. In this paper, we propose a multifunctional Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) containing the functions of a SPP, axicon and a Fresnel Zone Lens (FZL) to generate higher efficiency higher order Bessel-like-beams with a reduced focal depth. The functions of a SPP and a FZL were combined by shifting the location of zones of FZL in a spiral fashion. The resulting element is combined with an axicon by modulo-2π phase addition technique. The final composite element contains the functions of SPP, FZL and axicon. The elements were designed with different topological charges and fabricated using electron beam direct writing. The elements were tested and the generation of a higher order Bessel-like-beams is confirmed. Besides, the elements also generated high quality donut beams at two planes equidistant from the focal plane of the FZL.
Design and analysis of diffractive optical elements for flattening of single modal Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Kewei; Huang, Zhiqiang; Lin, Wumei; Xing, Tingwen
2012-10-01
A design method of diffractive optical element is presented for converting a single modal Gaussian beam into a flat-top beam in the far field of the source. The design is based on geometrical method and modified Gerchberg-Saxton method. Geometrical method derives from the conservation of energy and the constant optical path length. This method could supply initial phase distribution of the modified Gerchberg-Saxton method. To find the optimization design results, the modified Gerchberg-Saxton method is important to choose the feedback factor to increase the convergent speed. In addition, tolerances and limitations of such elements result in a reduction of the diffraction efficiency and as a result of stray light. Further study indicates that deviation of the laser wavelength, incident beam, and observation plane can greatly influence flat-top beam shaping quality. On the basis of theoretical and experimental results, limitations for the application of diffractive beam shaping elements are investigated.
Analysis of warping deformation modes using higher order ANCF beam element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orzechowski, Grzegorz; Shabana, Ahmed A.
2016-02-01
Most classical beam theories assume that the beam cross section remains a rigid surface under an arbitrary loading condition. However, in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) continuum-based beams, this assumption can be relaxed allowing for capturing deformation modes that couple the cross-section deformation and beam bending, torsion, and/or elongation. The deformation modes captured by ANCF finite elements depend on the interpolating polynomials used. The most widely used spatial ANCF beam element employs linear approximation in the transverse direction, thereby restricting the cross section deformation and leading to locking problems. The objective of this investigation is to examine the behavior of a higher order ANCF beam element that includes quadratic interpolation in the transverse directions. This higher order element allows capturing warping and non-uniform stretching distribution. Furthermore, this higher order element allows for increasing the degree of continuity at the element interface. It is shown in this paper that the higher order ANCF beam element can be used effectively to capture warping and eliminate Poisson locking that characterizes lower order ANCF finite elements. It is also shown that increasing the degree of continuity requires a special attention in order to have acceptable results. Because higher order elements can be more computationally expensive than the lower order elements, the use of reduced integration for evaluating the stress forces and the use of explicit and implicit numerical integrations to solve the nonlinear dynamic equations of motion are investigated in this paper. It is shown that the use of some of these integration methods can be very effective in reducing the CPU time without adversely affecting the solution accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrigues Ribeiro, R. S.; Guerreiro, A.; Viegas, J.; Jorge, P. A. S.
2016-05-01
In this work, spiral phase lenses and Fresnel zone lenses for beam tailoring, fabricated on the tip of optical fibers, are reported. The spiral phase lenses allow tailoring the fundamental guided mode, a Gaussian beam, into a Laguerre - Gaussian profile without using additional optical elements. Whereas, the Fresnel lenses are used as focusing systems. The lenses are fabricated using Focused Ion Beam milling, enabling high resolution in the manufacturing process. The output optical intensity profiles matching the numerical simulations are presented and analyzed.
Exact element modal analysis of beam/oscillator systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broome, Taft H., Jr.
1993-01-01
Exact modal analysis of a beam/many-oscillator system is presented. Each oscillator consists of a discrete mass having rotational inertia, and two locally-dependent springs: one being rotational and the other, translational. A constant longitudinal force is applied to the mass, and its effect is coupled with the dynamic modes. The beam's distributed mass and other material properties, and its geometric properties, do not vary within spans bounded by the oscillators, but may vary from span to span. The classical separation-of-variables technique is used to obtain a dosedform description of the dynamic matrix, and the modal frequencies are determined as the zeros of this determinant.
Beam loss and radiation effects in the SSC lattice elements
Baishev, I.S.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Mokhov, N.V. |
1990-11-01
The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is designed to be an advanced machine with relatively low beam loss-induced radiation levels. However, a fraction of the beam lost in the lattice due to pp-collisions at the interaction points, beam-gas scattering, bearn-halo scraping, various instabilities and errors will result in the irradiation of conventional and superconducting components of the accelerator and experimental apparatus. The level of the beam loss and its distribution along the machine structure has impact on all of the three crucial radiation effects at the SSC: quenching of the superconducting magnets, survivability of the accelerator and detectors components in the near-beam regions, and influence to the environment. This paper, based on the full-scale Monte Carlo simulation, will explore all major sources of beam loss in the Collider and measures to reduce the irradiation of the accelerator components. Basic parameters of the Super Collider accepted throughout this report are as follows: Proton energy E{sub 0} = 20 TeV, injection energy is 2 TeV, number of protons circulating in each of the collider rings is N = 1.3 {times} 10{sup 14}, circumference is 87.12 km, the transverse normalized emittance {var_epsilon}{sub N}({sigma}) = 1 {pi} mm-mrad, for the regular lattice ({beta} = 305 m) the beam R.M.S. sizes are {sigma} = 0.12 mm at 20 TEV and {sigma} = 0.38 mm at the injection energy. The dipole length is 15.815 m with the effective field length of 15.165 m. The magnetic field map for B{sub 0} = 6.5999 T has been calculated with the POISSON program by Greg Snitchler. The turn angle of each dipole is {alpha} = 1.50027 mrad. The dipole aperture is 50 mm. The two beam pipe diameters are studied 33 and 40 mm. The operating temperature is T{sub 0} = 4.35 K.
Delivering pump light to a laser gain element while maintaining access to the laser beam
Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Payne, Stephen A.
2001-01-01
A lens duct is used for pump delivery and the laser beam is accessed through an additional component called the intermediate beam extractor which can be implemented as part of the gain element, part of the lens duct or a separate component entirely.
Finite Element Analysis Of An Axially Moving Beam, Part I: Time Integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stylianou, M.; Tabarrok, B.
1994-12-01
Axially moving materials arise in problems associated with spacecraft antennas, pipes conveying fluid and telescopic robotic manipulators. Axially moving beams are a special class of axially moving materials, in which the axially moving material is modelled as a slender beam and the mechanism of elastic deformation is transverse bending. The mass of this system is not constant and the general analytical solution to the equation of motion is not known. In this study, numerical solutions are obtained using finite element analysis. However, instead of following the obvious (but cumbersome) approach of using fixed-size elements and increasing their number, in a step-wise fashion, as mass elements enter the domain of interest, a more elegant approach is followed wherein the number of elements is fixed, while the sizes of the elements change with time. To this end, a variable-domain beam finite element the size of which is a prescribed function of time is formulated in Part I. The accuracy of this variable-domain beam element is demonstrated through the time-integration of equations of motion using various extrusion profiles. The effects of wall flexibility, tip mass, and high frequency axial motion perturbations to the transverse response of the flexible extendible beam are also examined.
Finite-element method for a uniformly loaded cantilever beam with general cross section
Lin, S.C.
1987-05-01
The Michell (1901) theory for the analysis of beam-type structures is combined with that of Friedrich and Lin (1984) to obtain a finite element solution for a uniformly loaded cantilever beam with general cross section. A plane-strain problem established with internal body and boundary forces that were computed from the warping displacement is solved by means of the regular two-dimensional finite element program, on the same model used for warping displacement calculation. Numerical examples are given for cantilever beams with circular and thin-rectangular cross section. 6 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Huimin
In the aerospace and automotive industries, many finite element analyses use lower-dimensional finite elements such as beams, plates and shells, to simplify the modeling. These simplified models can greatly reduce the computation time and cost; however, reduced-dimensional models may introduce inaccuracies, particularly near boundaries and near portions of the structure where reduced-dimensional models may not apply. Another factor in creation of such models is that beam-like structures frequently have complex geometry, boundaries and loading conditions, which may make them unsuitable for modeling with single type of element. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a method that can accurately and efficiently capture the response of a structure by rigorous combination of a reduced-dimensional beam finite element model with a model based on full two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) finite elements. The first chapter of the thesis gives the background of the present work and some related previous work. The second chapter is focused on formulating a system of equations that govern the joining of a 2D model with a beam model for planar deformation. The essential aspect of this formulation is to find the transformation matrices to achieve deflection and load continuity on the interface. Three approaches are provided to obtain the transformation matrices. An example based on joining a beam to a 2D finite element model is examined, and the accuracy of the analysis is studied by comparing joint results with the full 2D analysis. The third chapter is focused on formulating the system of equations for joining a beam to a 3D finite element model for static and free-vibration problems. The transition between the 3D elements and beam elements is achieved by use of the stress recovery technique of the variational-asymptotic method as implemented in VABS (the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis). The formulations for an interface transformation matrix and
Mixed finite element models for free vibrations of thin-walled beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.; Min, Byung-Jin
1989-01-01
Simple, mixed finite element models are developed for the free vibration analysis of curved thin-walled beams with arbitrary open cross section. The analytical formulation is based on a Vlasov's type thin-walled beam theory with the effects of flexural-torsional coupling, transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia included. The fundamental unknowns consist of seven internal forces and seven generalized displacements of the beam. The element characteristic arrays are obtained by using a perturbed Lagrangian-mixed variational principle. Only C(sup o) continuity is required for the generalized displacements. The internal forces and the Lagrange multiplier are allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy and effectiveness of the elements developed. The standard of comparison is taken to be the solutions obtained by using 2-D plate/shell models for the beams.
Dynamic modeling and analysis of the PZT-bonded composite Timoshenko beams: Spectral element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Usik; Kim, Daehwan; Park, Ilwook
2013-03-01
The health of thin laminated composite beams is often monitored using the ultrasonic guided waves excited by wafer-type piezoelectric transducers (PZTs). Thus, for the smart composite beams which consist of a laminated composite base beam and PZT layers, it is very important to develop a very reliable mathematical model and to use a very accurate computational method to predict accurate dynamic characteristics at very high ultrasonic frequency. In this paper, the axial-bending-shear-lateral contraction coupled differential equations of motion are derived first by the Hamilton's principle with Lagrange multipliers. The smart composite beam is represented by a Timoshenko beam model by adopting the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) for the laminated composite base beam. The axial deformation of smart composite beam is improved by taking into account the effects of lateral contraction by adopting the concept of Mindlin-Herrmann rod theory. The spectral element model is then formulated by the variation approach from coupled differential equations of motion transformed into the frequency domain via the discrete Fourier transform. The high accuracy of the present spectral element model is verified by comparing with other solution methods: the finite element model developed in this paper and the commercial FEA package ANSYS. Finally the dynamics and wave characteristics of some example smart composite beams are investigated through the numerical studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khonina, S. N.; Karpeev, S. V.; Morozov, A. A.; Paranin, V. D.
2016-07-01
We apply diffractive optical elements in problems of transformation of Bessel beams in a birefringent crystal. Using plane waves expansion we show a significant interference between the ordinary and extraordinary beams due to the energy transfer in the orthogonal transverse components in the nonparaxial mode. A comparative analysis of the merits and lack of diffractive and refractive axicons in problems of formation non-paraxial Bessel beams has shown the preferability of diffractive optics application in crystal optics. The transformation of uniformly polarised Bessel beams in the crystal of Iceland spar in the nonparaxial mode by application of a diffractive axicon is investigated numerically and experimentally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ruixi; Mei, Chuh
1993-04-01
A finite element formulation combined with the equivalent linearization technique and the normal mode method is developed for the study of nonlinear random response of beams subjected to simultaneously applied acoustic and thermal loads. Examples include thermally buckled random response of simply supported beam, clamped-clamped beam and simply supported-clamped beam. To compare and validate the present formulation, results are compared with the solutions from existing sequential load method, and significant difference has been found. Results by classical continuum solution and the solution of Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation are also derived and obtained for comparison.
On trigonometric basis functions for C1 curved beam finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guimaraes, J. E. F.; Heppler, G. R.
1992-10-01
The formulation of a finite element model for a thin curved beam which is described by the Winkler beam model is presented. A review and discussion of the literature that pertains to this type of element is included with special attention being paid to the need to be able to recover incremental rigid body motions. Three different C1 trigonometric trial functions that allow the recovery of incremental rigid body motions are investigated. The attributes and deficiencies of the various elements are examined and discussed via several problems which have been designed to evaluate the performance of the element. The 4U4W element is shown to be the best choice of those elements considered here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jianfeng; Gong, Jinhui; Liu, Kan; Zhang, Xinyu; Xie, Changsheng
2011-11-01
A special software is constructed effectively for reconstructing the fine phase distribution of the diffracted Gaussian laser beams in the terahertz frequency range, according to common diffraction theory. The fine surface microrelief patterns of the elements, which originate from the simple patterns in photomask and further etched onto the surface of {100}- oriented silicon wafer by a low cost and rapid method, are created by the software above according to the phase distribution designed. Being different with the traditional silicon diffractive lenses fabricated by multiple level processes, the elements produced by the method introduced by us can transfer common Gaussian beams into desired images through created fine patterns over the surface of the elements. Two typical type of diffractive elements, which are used to transform common Gaussian laser beams in terahertz frequency into highly focused spot or so-called common focus, and the desired figure of the "umber one", are designed and fabricated. For testing the element, the LASER SIEIR 50 of Coherent Company is used to generate common Gaussian laser beams (the diameter of the beams is 10mm), and the PYROCAM THERE of Spiricon Company is also used to display the images acquired. Experimental results show that the elements can be used to form needed light fields and expected images, respectively.
Free-Vibration Analysis of Rotating Beams by a Variable-Order Finite-Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Dewey H.; Rutkowski, Michael J.
1981-01-01
The free vibration of rotating beams is analyzed by means of a finite-element method of variable order. This method entails displacement functions that are a complete power series of a variable number of terms. The terms are arranged so that the generalized coordinates are composed of displacements and slopes at the element extremities and, additionally, displacements at certain points within the element. The displacement is assumed to be analytic within an element and thus can be approximated to any degree of accuracy desired by a complete power series. Numerical results are presented for uniform beams with zero and nonzero hub radii, tapered beams, and a nonuniform beam with discontinuities. Since the present method reduces to a conventional beam finite-element method for a cubic displacement function, the results are compared and found to be superior to the conventional results in terms of accuracy for a given number of degrees of freedom. Indeed, essentially exact eigenvalues and eigenvectors are obtained with this technique, which is far more rapidly convergent than other approaches in the literature.
Mathew, Jose V.; Paul, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep
2010-05-15
An earlier study of the axial ion energy distribution in the extraction region (plasma meniscus) of a compact microwave plasma ion source showed that the axial ion energy spread near the meniscus is small ({approx}5 eV) and comparable to that of a liquid metal ion source, making it a promising candidate for focused ion beam (FIB) applications [J. V. Mathew and S. Bhattacharjee, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 96101 (2009)]. In the present work we have investigated the radial ion energy distribution (IED) under the influence of beam extraction. Initially a single Einzel lens system has been used for beam extraction with potentials up to -6 kV for obtaining parallel beams. In situ measurements of IED with extraction voltages upto -5 kV indicates that beam extraction has a weak influence on the energy spread ({+-}0.5 eV) which is of significance from the point of view of FIB applications. It is found that by reducing the geometrical acceptance angle at the ion energy analyzer probe, close to unidirectional distribution can be obtained with a spread that is smaller by at least 1 eV.
A refined finite element for vibration analysis of twisted blades based on beam theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sisto, F.; Chang, A. T.
1983-01-01
A finite element method of discretizing beam segments of pretwisted rotating blades is presented. Employing the matrix displacement method, stiffness and mass properties are developed from basic mechanics of a pretwisted beam theory. By introducing the proper displacement functions, the effect of rotor blade rotational motion on the stiffness matrix is obtained systematically from the kinetic energy expression. Comparing with other beam elements the derivation of this element is more fundamental. This allows one to apply the same approach to more complicated problems including nonlinear effects or complex dynamic motions. Illustrative examples are given comparing numerical results with available data and other numerical solutions from rotating and nonrotating force fields. These examples show that accurate prediction of vibration frequencies for pretwisted blades can be obtained by employing a quite modest number of degrees of freedom.
A compact beam focusing and steering element using quadrupoles with independently excited poles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grime, Geoffrey W.
2013-07-01
Beam steering elements for accelerator beam transport are conventionally and conveniently incorporated into beamlines by fitting magnetic dipole elements around the vacuum tube of the line. Two steerers in each plane (X and Y) together with a quadrupole doublet constitute a module providing full control of the direction, position and focus of the beam. In some installations however, there may be insufficient space on the beamline to mount separate steerer elements. To provide steering capabilities in such a situation we have used a magnetic quadrupole doublet with the coils of each pole independently excited to synthesise the desired combination of quadrupole, horizontal dipole and vertical dipole fields. This paper describes the quadrupole steerer and its multichannel power supply and presents calculated magnetic field distributions together with raytracing simulation of its performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Chiang, C. K.
1987-01-01
A finite element formulation is presented for the analysis of beams and rectangular plates undergoing large deflections subjected to Gaussian white noise excitations. Single-mode response is assumed in the present formulation. Root-mean-square (RMS) maximum deflections for simply supported and clamped beams and plates at various sound spectrum levels are obtained and compared with solutions using the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation and the equivalent linearization methods. RMS maximum stains and equivalent linear frequencies are compared with the equivalent linearization results for assessment of the accuracy of the finite element method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenz, J.; Krupp, N.; Wilhein, T.; Irsen, S.
2011-09-01
Diffractive optical elements are important components for applications in soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation. At present, the standard fabrication method for such optics is based on electron beam lithography followed by nanostructuring. This requires a series of complex processes including exposure, reactive ion-etching, and electro-plating. We report on experiments showing the single-step fabrication of such elements using ion beam lithography. Both transmission and reflection gratings were fabricated and successfully implemented as spectrometers at laboratory soft x-ray sources. Additionally, first steps toward zone plate fabrication are described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gherlone, Marco; Cerracchio, Priscilla; Mattone, Massimiliano; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander
2014-04-01
Shape sensing, i.e., reconstruction of the displacement field of a structure from surface-measured strains, has relevant implications for the monitoring, control and actuation of smart structures. The inverse finite element method (iFEM) is a shape-sensing methodology shown to be fast, accurate and robust. This paper aims to demonstrate that the recently presented iFEM for beam and frame structures is reliable when experimentally measured strains are used as input data. The theoretical framework of the methodology is first reviewed. Timoshenko beam theory is adopted, including stretching, bending, transverse shear and torsion deformation modes. The variational statement and its discretization with C0-continuous inverse elements are briefly recalled. The three-dimensional displacement field of the beam structure is reconstructed under the condition that least-squares compatibility is guaranteed between the measured strains and those interpolated within the inverse elements. The experimental setup is then described. A thin-walled cantilevered beam is subjected to different static and dynamic loads. Measured surface strains are used as input data for shape sensing at first with a single inverse element. For the same test cases, convergence is also investigated using an increasing number of inverse elements. The iFEM-recovered deflections and twist rotations are then compared with those measured experimentally. The accuracy, convergence and robustness of the iFEM with respect to unavoidable measurement errors, due to strain sensor locations, measurement systems and geometry imperfections, are demonstrated for both static and dynamic loadings.
A finite element for the vibration analysis of a fluid-conveying Timoshenko beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stack, C. P.; Garnett, R. B.; Pawlas, G. E.
1993-04-01
A finite element was developed for use in the vibration analysis of fluid-conveying pipes. The pipe was represented as a Timoshenko beam possessing stiffness and mass while the fluid was idealized as incompressible and inviscid. With these simplifications the equations of motion were derived by the use of Hamilton's principle. Coriolis and centripetal terms in the equation of motion were the result of the fluid flowing in a moving frame of reference (i.e. the vibrating pipe). Formulation of a two-node, C sup 0 continuous, fluid-conveying beam element followed from the weak form of the equation of motion. Inclusion of the Coriolis term is what made this element unique with respect to previous work. Verification of the element was accomplished by modeling Coriolis mass flowmeters and then predicting their frequency and relative phase delay for the mode of operation. Results compared favorably to experimental data for commercially available Coriolis mass flowmeters.
Mass flow prediction of the coriolis meter using C0 continuous beam elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binulal, B. R.; Rajan, Akash; Abhilash, Suryan R.; Kochupillai, Jayaraj; Kim, Heuy Dong
2015-06-01
A three node C0 continuous isoparametric beam element is formulated to model the curved pipe conveying fluid in three dimensional configuration. The equations of motion for the combined structure and fluid domain including added mass effect, Coriolis effect, centrifugal effect and the effect of pressure on the walls of pipe have been developed by Paidoussis. This equation is converted to finite element formulation using Galerkin technique and is validated with the results available from literature.
Search for Off-Diagonal Density Matrix Elements for Atoms in a Supersonic Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubenstein, Richard A.; Dhirani, Al-Amin; Kokorowski, David A.; Roberts, Tony D.; Smith, Edward T.; Smith, Winthrop W.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Lehner, Jana; Gupta, Subhadeep; Pritchard, David E.
1999-03-01
We demonstrate the absence of off-diagonal elements for the density matrix of a supersonic Na atomic beam, thus showing that there are no coherent wave packets emerging from this source. We used a differentially detuned separated oscillatory field longitudinal interferometer to search for off-diagonal density matrix elements in the longitudinal energy/momentum basis. Our study places a stringent lower bound on their possible size over an off-diagonal energy range from 0 to 100 kHz.
Application of a boundary element method to the study of dynamical torsion of beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Czekajski, C.; Laroze, S.; Gay, D.
1982-01-01
During dynamic torsion of beam elements, consideration of nonuniform warping effects involves a more general technical formulation then that of Saint-Venant. Nonclassical torsion constants appear in addition to the well known torsional rigidity. The adaptation of the boundary integral element method to the calculation of these constants for general section shapes is described. The suitability of the formulation is investigated with some examples of thick as well as thin walled cross sections.
Enhancement of RIE: etched Diffractive Optical Elements surfaces by using Ion Beam Etching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, J.; Bischoff, Ch.; Rädel, U.; Grau, M.; Wallrabe, U.; Völklein, F.
2015-09-01
Shaping of laser light intensities by using Diffractive Optical Elements allows the adaption of the incident light to its application. Fused silica is used where for example UV-light or high temperatures are mandatory. For high diffraction efficiency the quality of the etched surface areas is important. The investigation of different process parameters for Ion Beam and Reactive Ion Etching reveals that only Ion Beam Etching provides surfaces with optical quality. Measurements of the influence of the surface quality on the diffraction efficiencies prove that the surfaces generated by Reactive Ion Etching are not suitable. Due to the high selectivity of the process Reactive Ion Etching is nevertheless a reasonable choice for the fabrication of Diffractive Optical Elements. To improve the quality of the etched surfaces a post processing with Ion Beam Etching is developed. Simulations in MATLAB display that the angle dependent removal of the surface during the Ion Beam Etching causes a smoothing of the surface roughness. The positive influence of a post processing on the diffraction efficiency is outlined by measurements. The ion beam post processing leads to an increase of the etching depth. For the fabrication of high efficient Diffractive Optical Elements this has to be taken into account. The relation is investigated and transferred to the fabrication of four-level gratings. Diffraction efficiencies up to 78 % instead of the ideal 81 % underline the practicability of the developed post processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chioran, Doina; Nicoarǎ, Adrian; Roşu, Şerban; Cǎrligeriu, Virgil; Ianeş, Emilia
2013-10-01
Digital processing of two-dimensional cone beam computer tomography slicesstarts by identification of the contour of elements within. This paper deals with the collective work of specialists in medicine and applied mathematics in computer science on elaborating and implementation of algorithms in dental 2D imagery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Michael S.; Hix, W. Raphael; Parete-Koon, Suzanne; Dessieux, Luc; Ma, Zhanwen; Starrfield, Sumner; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Guidry, Michael W.; Smith, Donald L.; Blackmon, Jeffery C.; Mezzacappa, Anthony
2004-12-01
We utilize multiple-zone, post-processing element synthesis calculations to determine the impact of recent ORNL radioactive ion beam measurements on predictions of novae and X-ray burst simulations. We also assess the correlations between all relevant reaction rates and all synthesized isotopes, and translate nuclear reaction rate uncertainties into abundance prediction uncertainties, via a unique Monte Carlo technique.
Surface-active element effects on the shape of GTA, laser, and electron-beam welds
Heiple, C.R.; Roper, J.R.; Stagner, R.T.; Aden, R.J.
1983-03-01
Laser and electron-beam welds were passed across selenium-doped zones in 21-6-9 stainless steel. The depth/width (d/w) ratio of a defocused laser weld with a weld pool shape similar to a GTA weld increased by over 200% in a zone where 66 ppm selenium had been added. Smaller increases were observed in selenium-doped zones for a moderately defocused electron beam weld with a higher d/w ratio in undoped base metal. When laser or electron beam weld penetration was by a keyhole mechanism, no change in d/w ratio occurred in selenium-doped zones. The results confirm the surface-tension-driven fluid-flow model for the effect of minor elements on GTA weld pool shape. Other experimental evidence bearing on the effect of minor elements on GTA weld penetration is summarized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Keisuke; Matsuhisa, Hiroshi; Utsuno, Hideo
2014-01-01
This paper describes new methods that improve the efficiency of a piezoelectric element attached to a beam based on mechanical impedance matching. Piezoelectric elements are often used to suppress bending vibration. They are also used as sensors or energy-harvesting sources. In such cases, the piezoelectric element is usually bonded onto the host structure by an adhesive bond. The efficiency of the piezoelectric element depends on the bonding location. When the efficiency is insufficient despite a good location, the size or number of piezoelectric elements is increased. However, the efficiency of the piezoelectric element is usually insufficient even if these methods are applied. In order to enhance the efficiency of the piezoelectric elements without using active methods, this paper proposes a mechanical impedance matching method that uses spacers or tuning for the size of the piezoelectric element. Because the attached piezoelectric element and host structure in this region behave as springs in parallel to the bending deformation, the stored strain energy in the piezoelectric element is maximized under the condition that their spring constants match. The proposed methods were theoretically investigated with consideration for the effects of the bonding layer, spacers, and host structure. The optimum conditions for the proposed methods were theoretically formulated, and the effectiveness of the proposed methods and theoretical analysis was verified through simulations and experiments.
A TECHNIQUE FOR PRIMARY BEAM CALIBRATION OF DRIFT-SCANNING, WIDE-FIELD ANTENNA ELEMENTS
Pober, Jonathan C.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F.; Bradley, Richard F.; Parashare, Chaitali R.; Carilli, Chris L.; Gugliucci, Nicole E.
2012-02-15
We present a new technique for calibrating the primary beam of a wide-field, drift-scanning antenna element. Drift-scan observing is not compatible with standard beam calibration routines, and the situation is further complicated by difficult-to-parameterize beam shapes and, at low frequencies, the sparsity of accurate source spectra to use as calibrators. We overcome these challenges by building up an interrelated network of source 'crossing points'-locations where the primary beam is sampled by multiple sources. Using the single assumption that a beam has 180 Degree-Sign rotational symmetry, we can achieve significant beam coverage with only a few tens of sources. The resulting network of crossing points allows us to solve for both a beam model and source flux densities referenced to a single calibrator source, circumventing the need for a large sample of well-characterized calibrators. We illustrate the method with actual and simulated observations from the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization.
Application of Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy bars as reinforcement elements in concrete beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrestha, Kshitij C.; Araki, Yoshikazu; Nagae, Takuya; Yano, Hayato; Koetaka, Yuji; Omori, Toshihiro; Sutou, Yuji; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito
2012-04-01
Experimental works are done to assess the seismic behavior of concrete beams reinforced with superelastic alloy (SEA) bars. Applicability of newly developed Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars, characterized by large recovery strain, low material cost, and high machinability, have been proposed as partial replacements for conventional steel bars in order to reduce residual deformations in structures during and after intense earthquakes. Four-point reverse-cyclic bending tests were done on 1/3 scale concrete beams comprising three different types of specimens - conventional steel reinforced concrete (ST-RC), SEA reinforced concrete (SEA-RC), and SEA reinforced concrete with pre-tensioning (SEA-PC). The results showed that SEA reinforced concrete beams demonstrated significant enhancement in crack recovery capacity in comparison to steel reinforced beam. Average recovery of cracks for each of the specimens was 21% for ST-RC, 84% for SEA-RC, and 86% for SEA-PC. In addition, SEA-RC and SEA-PC beams demonstrated strong capability of recentering with comparable normalized strength and ductility relative to conventional ST-RC beam specimen. ST-RC beam, on the other hand, showed large residual cracks due to progressive reduction in its re-centering capability with each cycle. Both the SEA-RC and SEA-PC specimens demonstrated superiority of Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars to conventional steel reinforcing bars as reinforcement elements.
Primary-feed elements for multiple and contoured beam satellite antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adatia, N. A.; Claydon, B.; Brain, D.
The characteristics of possible feed candidates for contoured or multiple beam satellite antennas are considered, and the results of an extensive measurement program undertaken to establish the vector radiation characteristics of preferred feed geometries when embedded in a cluster of seven elements are reported. Dominant mode square or rectangular horns, dominant mode conical horns, and hexagonal waveguide horns are discussed as alternative means of achieving aperture dimensions close to a wavelength. Primary feed elements with hexagonal cross-section allow a tightly packed configuration in a honey-comb structure. The results of comparison measurements on two seven-element clusters, one comprising circular elements and the other hexagonal, are presented. The characteristics of the measured radiation patterns are discussed for both linear and horizontal polarization. The hexagonal elements generally tend to result in better vector radiation characteristics.
Feasibility of Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy bars as reinforcement elements in concrete beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrestha, Kshitij C.; Araki, Yoshikazu; Nagae, Takuya; Koetaka, Yuji; Suzuki, Yusuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Sutou, Yuji; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito
2013-02-01
Experimental and numerical works are reported to assess the cyclic response of concrete beams reinforced with superelastic alloy (SEA) bars. The feasibility of newly developed Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars, characterized by large recovery strain, low material cost and high machinability, is examined as partial replacements for conventional steel bars, in order to reduce residual cracks in structures during and after intense earthquakes. Four-point reverse cyclic bending tests were done on one-third scale concrete beams comprising three different types of specimens—conventional steel reinforced concrete, SEA reinforced concrete and SEA reinforced concrete (RC) with pre-tensioning. The results showed that SEA reinforced concrete beams demonstrated strong recentering capability and significant enhancement in crack recovery capacity, in comparison to steel reinforced beams. Furthermore, corresponding finite element models were generated to simulate the experimental observations. Both the experimental observations and finite element computations illustrated the superiority of SEA bars to conventional steel bars in providing RC beam specimens with recentering and crack recovery capabilities.
Multiple-mode nonlinear free and forced vibrations of beams using finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Decha-Umphai, Kamolphan
1987-01-01
Multiple-mode nonlinear free and forced vibration of a beam is analyzed by the finite element method. The geometric nonlinearity is investigated. Inplane displacement and inertia (IDI) are also considered in the formulation. Harmonic force matrix is derived and explained. Nonlinear free vibration can be simply treated as a special case of the general forced vibration by setting the harmonic force matrix equal to zero. The effect of the higher modes is more pronouced for the clamped supported beam than the simply supported one. Beams without IDI yield more effect of the higher modes than the one with IDI. The effects of IDI are to reduce nonlinearity. For beams with end supports restrained from axial movement (immovable cases), only the hardening type nonlinearity is observed. However, beams of small slenderness ratio (L/R = 20) with movable end supports, the softening type nonlinearity is found. The concentrated force case yields a more severe response than the uniformly distributed force case. Finite element results are in good agreement with the solution of simple elliptic response, harmonic balance method, and Runge-Kutte method and experiment.
Fabricating high-density magnetic storage elements by low-dose ion beam irradiation
Neb, R.; Sebastian, T.; Pirro, P.; Hillebrands, B.; Pofahl, S.; Schaefer, R.; Reuscher, B.
2012-09-10
We fabricate magnetic storage elements by irradiating an antiferromagnetically coupled ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic trilayer by a low-dose ion beam. The irradiated areas become ferromagnetically coupled and are capable of storing information if their size is small enough. We employ Fe/Cr/Fe trilayers and a 30 keV focused Ga{sup +}-ion beam to demonstrate the working principle for a storage array with a bit density of 7 Gbit/in.{sup 2}. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that bit densities of at least two magnitudes of order larger should be possible.
Damping of rotating beams with particle dampers: Discrete element method analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Els, D. N. J.
2013-06-01
The performance of particle dampers (PDs) under centrifugal loads was investigated. A test bench consisting of a rotating cantilever beam with a particle damper at the tip was developed (D. N. J. Els, AIAA Journal 49, 2228-2238 (2011)). Equal mass containers with different depths, filled with a range of uniform-sized steel ball bearings, were used as particle dampers. The experiments were duplicated numerically with a discrete element method (DEM) model, calibrated against the experimental data. The DEM model of the rotating beam with a PD at the tip captured the performance of the PD very well over a wide range of tests with different configurations and rotation velocities.
Diffractive optical elements on non-flat substrates using electron beam lithography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor)
2002-01-01
The present disclosure describes a technique for creating diffraction gratings on curved surfaces with electron beam lithography. The curved surface can act as an optical element to produce flat and aberration-free images in imaging spectrometers. In addition, the fabrication technique can modify the power structure of the grating orders so that there is more energy in the first order than for a typical grating. The inventors noticed that by using electron-beam lithography techniques, a variety of convex gratings that are well-suited to the requirements of imaging spectrometers can be manufactured.
Experiments on the Synthesis of Superheavy Elements with 48CA Beams at the Separator Vassilissa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Yeremin, A. V.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Korotkov, S. P.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Roháč, J.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Hofmann, S.; Münzenberg, G.; Veselsky, M.; Saro, S.; Iwasa, N.; Morita, K.; Giardina, G.
2001-04-01
The study of the decay properties and formation cross sections of the isotopes of elements 110, 112 and 114 were performed at the FLNR JINR with the use of the high intensity 48Ca beams and an electrostatic separator VASSILISSA. 232Th, 238U and 242Pu targets were used in the experiments. At the beam energies corresponding to the calculated cross section maxima of the 3n evaporation channels the isotopes 277110, 283112 and 287114 were produced and identified. The cross section limits were obtained at excitation energies of the compound nucleus corresponding to the maxima of the 4n evaporation channels for the reactions with 232Th and 238U targets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Kei W.; Meier, Christoph; Wall, Wolfgang A.
2015-12-01
Networks of crosslinked biopolymer filaments such as the cytoskeleton are the subject of intense research. Oftentimes, mechanics on the scale of single monomers (∼ 5 nm) govern the mechanics of the entire network (∼ 10 μm). Until now, one either resolved the small scales and lost the big (network) picture or focused on mechanics above the single-filament scale and neglected the molecular architecture. Therefore, the study of network mechanics influenced by the entire spectrum of relevant length scales has been infeasible so far. We propose a method that reconciles both small and large length scales without the otherwise inevitable loss in either numerical efficiency or geometrical (molecular) detail. Both explicitly modeled species, filaments and their crosslinkers, are discretized with geometrically exact beam finite elements of Simo-Reissner type. Through specific coupling conditions between the elements of the two species, mechanical joints can be established anywhere along a beam's centerline, enabling arbitrary densities of chemical binding sites. These binding sites can be oriented to model the monomeric architecture of polymers. First, we carefully discuss the method and then demonstrate its capabilities by means of a series of numerical examples.
The Elastic Behaviour of Sintered Metallic Fibre Networks: A Finite Element Study by Beam Theory
Bosbach, Wolfram A.
2015-01-01
Background The finite element method has complimented research in the field of network mechanics in the past years in numerous studies about various materials. Numerical predictions and the planning efficiency of experimental procedures are two of the motivational aspects for these numerical studies. The widespread availability of high performance computing facilities has been the enabler for the simulation of sufficiently large systems. Objectives and Motivation In the present study, finite element models were built for sintered, metallic fibre networks and validated by previously published experimental stiffness measurements. The validated models were the basis for predictions about so far unknown properties. Materials and Methods The finite element models were built by transferring previously published skeletons of fibre networks into finite element models. Beam theory was applied as simplification method. Results and Conclusions The obtained material stiffness isn’t a constant but rather a function of variables such as sample size and boundary conditions. Beam theory offers an efficient finite element method for the simulated fibre networks. The experimental results can be approximated by the simulated systems. Two worthwhile aspects for future work will be the influence of size and shape and the mechanical interaction with matrix materials. PMID:26569603
An enriched 1D finite element for the buckling analysis of sandwich beam-columns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sad Saoud, Kahina; Le Grognec, Philippe
2016-06-01
Sandwich constructions have been widely used during the last few decades in various practical applications, especially thanks to the attractive compromise between a lightweight and high mechanical properties. Nevertheless, despite the advances achieved to date, buckling still remains a major failure mode for sandwich materials which often fatally leads to collapse. Recently, one of the authors derived closed-form analytical solutions for the buckling analysis of sandwich beam-columns under compression or pure bending. These solutions are based on a specific hybrid formulation where the faces are represented by Euler-Bernoulli beams and the core layer is described as a 2D continuous medium. When considering more complex loadings or non-trivial boundary conditions, closed-form solutions are no more available and one must resort to numerical models. Instead of using a 2D computationally expensive model, the present paper aims at developing an original enriched beam finite element. It is based on the previous analytical formulation, insofar as the skin layers are modeled by Timoshenko beams whereas the displacement fields in the core layer are described by means of hyperbolic functions, in accordance with the modal displacement fields obtained analytically. By using this 1D finite element, linearized buckling analyses are performed for various loading cases, whose results are confronted to either analytical or numerical reference solutions, for validation purposes.
Fault Diagnosis of Cantilever Beam Using Finite Element Analysis: A Case Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murthy, B. S. N.; Ratnam, C.; Kumar, K. A.
2013-10-01
Damage prediction in mechanical and structural systems is establishing a prominent role in modern engineering. Vibration based damage methods give ample flexibility to understand the extent of expected damages in the system. Measurement of vibration characteristics like natural frequencies and mode shapes, Fourier responses and transient responses can help in comprehending the present status of a system either by comparing with their baseline equivalents or by formulating residual functions and minimizing them. The minimization of residues is carried out using non-conventional optimization techniques like genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms being a meta-heuristic method obtain global minimum values with implicitly defined constraints and objective. In all the residual functions considered in this paper, it is assumed that only the stiffness parameters are reduced individually in each element due to the damage. The amount of reduction in each element is an unknown parameter. The approach is attempted with a structural member like beam. Experimental analysis is carried out to test the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the damaged beams from finite element model considered. A cantilever beam with central slot of desired depth is selected and impact hammer analysis is performed to know the variation in modes when compared to undamaged counter part. Results are presented in the form of table and graphs.
Uniformity of reshaped beam by diffractive optical elements with light-emitted diode illumination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Mengzhu; Gu, Huarong; Wang, Qixia; Tan, Qiaofeng
2015-10-01
Due to its low energy consumption, high efficiency and fast switching speed, light-emitted diode (LED) has been used as a new light source in optical wireless communication. To ensure uniform lighting and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) during the data transmission, diffractive optical elements (DOEs) can be employed as optical antennas. Different from laser, LED has a low temporal and spatial coherence. And its impacts upon the far-field diffraction patterns of DOEs remain unclear. Thus the mathematical models of far-field diffraction intensity for LED with a spectral bandwidth and source size are first derived in this paper. Then the relation between source size and uniformity of top-hat beam profile for LEDs either considering the spectral bandwidth or not are simulated. The results indicate that when the size of LED is much smaller than that of reshaped beam, the uniformity of reshaped beam obtained by light source with a spectral bandwidth is significantly better than that by a monochromatic light. However, once the size is larger than a certain threshold value, the uniformity of reshaped beam of two LED models are almost the same, and the influence introduced by spectral bandwidth can be ignored. Finally the reshaped beam profiles are measured by CCD camera when the areas of LED are 0.5×0.5mm2 and 1×1mm2. And the experimental results agree with the simulations.
Generating a Reduced-energy Antiproton beam using Channeling Electrostatic elements (GRACE)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawler, Gerard; Pacifico, Nicola; Aegis Collaboration
2016-03-01
A device was designed for Generating a Reduced-energy Antiproton-beam using Channeling Electrostatic elements (GRACE). A series of einzel lenses and electrodes are used to create a slow beam of antiprotons with tunable mean energy (0 to 16 keV with root mean squared value below 20%) using antiprotons (mean energy of 5 MeV) from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN. Degrader foil is in place, so GRACE further deflects the beam bunches away from the annihilation products, focusing them on a 14 mm x 14 mm detector. Manufacturing parameters were found using simulations written in C++. The device is currently in use by the Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy (AEgIS) collaboration at CERN, which seeks to measure the sign of the gravitational constant for antimatter by performing interferometry studies on an antihydrogen beam. GRACE delivers on the order of 10 events per beam bunch from the AD. Antiprotons will eventually be used together with a pulse of positronium atoms to make antihydrogen atoms with horizontal velocity. GRACE is being used to perform intermediary experiments concerning interferometry of antiprotons, an important stepping stone on the way to measuring the sign of gravity. Special thanks to Boston University Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program, Lawrence Sulak, and Michael Doser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakashima, K.; Shirakawa, T.; Ide-Ektessabi, A.
2003-08-01
ROS (reactive oxygen species) and free radicals are thought to modulate pathways in leukocytes mediated inflammation, especially in T-lymphocytes. In this study, synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) spectroscopy was applied to non-destructive elemental mapping in the HL60 cells with O2- production. There are several mechanisms of ROS production, and many researchers consider that excessive accumulation of metallic elements has a role in its generative processes. Mapping of the elements with a beam size of 4.5×6 μm and an energy of 14.2 keV was carried out in HL60 cells. The distribution of trace elements in HL60 was obtained in an area of about 80×80 μm. There was clearly correlation between O2- production and Fe distribution. Simultaneously, change of other trace elements could be detected. Our results suggest that change of distribution or amounts of intracellular trace elements is important in inflammation processes.
Off-axis collimation of diode laser beams by means of single-element holographic diffractive optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miler, M.; Pala, J.; Aubrecht, I.; Hradil, M.
2006-09-01
Principles of single-element holographic diffractive optics for collimation of diode laser beams with a large divergence, an elliptic cross-section, and astigmatism are presented. Holographic off-axis transformation enables collimation of the beam in two variants: one with a perpendicular input beam and an oblique output beam, and the other with the beams arranged vice-versa. Diffraction due to an elliptic aperture is analyzed. Inspection of experimental samples demonstrates an agreement with theory in the case of diffraction limited focal pattern and shows increase of astigmatism with the departure from diffraction only limitation.
Electron-beam patterned sub-micron magnetic elements and switching mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Mun Hyoun
The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the magnetization configuration and switching behavior of sub-micron patterned elements for magnetic random access memory (MRAM) applications. The investigated shapes include rings and "Pac-man" (PM) shaped elements. The PM element is a newly designed shape proposed in this dissertation. In Chapter 1, currently emerging non-volatile memories are reviewed, which include flash memory, ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM), ovonic unified memory (OUM), and MRAM. In particular, MRAM memory is emphasized, and the goals of this dissertation related with MRAM are introduced. In order to fabricate patterned magnetic elements, DC and RF sputtering deposition, electron-beam lithography with lift-off or ion milling processes were used. Magnetization configuration and switching behavior of patterned magnetic elements were characterized by a magnetic force microscope, vibration sample magnetometer, BH loop tracer, and magneto-optic Kerr effect system. Micromagnetic simulation was also performed to study the switching mechanism and energy contribution on their reversal process. Detailed fabrication steps and measurement tools are presented in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, magnetization modes are classified and reviewed depending on element shape applied to MRAM. In this chapter, current challenges of linear and circular magnetic elements are discussed. In Chapter 4, the geometry dependence of magnetization configuration, switching field distribution, selectivity, and magnetic switching behavior of PM elements are reported. The geometry includes the slot angle, thickness, elements size, shape anisotropy, and slot line. Finally, the most appropriate element showing a well-defined single domain at remanent state, for a low switching field distribution, for high selectivity, and for coherent magnetic switching are explored for its MRAM application. In Chapter 5, the magnetic properties and head-to-head (HTH) domain wall of patterned
Free vibration analysis of a cracked beam by finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, D. Y.; Kessissoglou, N. J.
2004-06-01
In this paper, the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a cracked beam are obtained using the finite element method. An 'overall additional flexibility matrix', instead of the 'local additional flexibility matrix', is added to the flexibility matrix of the corresponding intact beam element to obtain the total flexibility matrix, and therefore the stiffness matrix. Compared with analytical results, the new stiffness matrix obtained using the overall additional flexibility matrix can give more accurate natural frequencies than those resulted from using the local additional flexibility matrix. All the elements in the overall additional flexibility matrix are computed by 128-point (1D) or (128×128)-point (2D) Gauss quadrature, and then further best fitted using the least-squares method. The explicit form best-fitted formulas agree very well with the numerical integration results, and are very convenient for use and valuable for further reference. In addition, the authors constructed a shape function that can perfectly satisfy the local flexibility conditions at the crack locations, which can give more accurate vibration modes.
PATH: a lumped-element beam-transport simulation program with space charge
Farrell, J.A.
1983-01-01
PATH is a group of computer programs for simulating charged-particle beam-transport systems. It was developed for evaluating the effects of some aberrations without a time-consuming integration of trajectories through the system. The beam-transport portion of PATH is derived from the well-known program, DECAY TURTLE. PATH contains all features available in DECAY TURTLE (including the input format) plus additional features such as a more flexible random-ray generator, longitudinal phase space, some additional beamline elements, and space-charge routines. One of the programs also provides a simulation of an Alvarez linear accelerator. The programs, originally written for a CDC 7600 computer system, also are available on a VAX-VMS system. All of the programs are interactive with input prompting for ease of use.
Simulation of ultrasound beam formation of baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) with a finite element model.
Wei, Chong; Zhang, Yu; Au, Whitlow W L
2014-07-01
The baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) of the Yangtze River possesses a sophisticated biosonar system. In this study, a finite element approach was used to numerically investigate the propagation of acoustic waves through the head of the Yangtze River dolphin, which possesses an inhomogeneous and complex structure. The acoustic intensity distribution predicted from models with and without the melon and/or skull showed that the emitted sound beam was narrow and formed a highly directed acoustic beam, and the skull and melon significantly enhanced the directional characteristics of the emitted sound. Finally, for a short duration impulsive source, the emitted sound pressure distributions were also simulated at different propagation times. The results provide useful information for better understanding the operation of the biosonar system in this rare and perhaps extinct animal. PMID:24993226
Section Builder: A finite element tool for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakravarty, Uttam Kumar
SectionBuilder is an innovative finite element based tool, developed for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections. The tool can handle the cross-sections with parametric shapes and arbitrary configurations. It can also handle arbitrary lay-ups for predefined beam cross-section geometries in a consistent manner. The material properties for each layer of the cross-section can be defined on the basis of the design requirements. This tool is capable of dealing with multi-cell composite cross-sections with arbitrary lay-ups. It has also the benefit of handling the variation of thickness of skin and D-spars for beams such as rotor blades. A typical cross-section is considered as a collection of interconnected walls. Walls with arbitrary lay-ups based on predefined geometries and material properties are generated first. The complex composite beam cross-sections are developed by connecting the walls using various types of connectors. These connectors are compatible with the walls, i.e., the thickness of the layers of the walls must match with those of the connectors at the place of connection. Cross-sections are often reinforced by core material for constructing realistic rotor blade cross-sections. The tool has the ability to integrate core materials into the cross-sections. A mapped mesh is considered for meshing parametric shapes, walls and various connectors, whereas a free mesh is considered for meshing the core materials. A new algorithm based on the Delaunay refinement algorithm is developed for creating the best possible free mesh for core materials. After meshing the cross-section, the tool determines the sectional properties using finite element analysis. This tool computes sectional properties including stiffness matrix, compliance matrix, mass matrix, and principal axes. A visualization environment is integrated with the tool for visualizing the stress and strain distributions over the cross-section.
Finite Element Analysis of Micro-cantilever Beam Experiments in UO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Bowen
Uranium Dioxide (UO2) is a significant nuclear fission fuel, which is widely used in nuclear reactors. Understanding the influence of microstructure on thermo-mechanical behavior of UO2 is extremely important to predict its performance. In particular, evaluating mechanical properties, such as elasticity, plasticity and creep at sub-grain length scales is key to developing this understanding as well as building multi-scale models of fuel behavior with predicting capabilities. In this work, modeling techniques were developed to study effects of microstructure on Young's modulus, which was selected as a key representative property that affects overall mechanical behavior, using experimental data obtained from micro-cantilever bending testing as benchmarks. Beam theory was firstly introduced to calculate Young's modulus of UO2 from the experimental data and then three-dimensional finite element models of the micro-cantilever beams were constructed to simulate bending tests in UO2 at room temperature. The influence of the pore distribution was studied to explain the discrepancy between predicted values and experimental results. Results indicate that results of tests are significantly affected by porosity given that both pore size and spacing in the samples are of the order of the micro-beam dimensions. Microstructure reconstruction was conducted with images collected from three-dimensional serial sectioning using focused ion beam (FIB) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and pore clusters were placed at different locations along the length of the beam. Results indicate that the presence of pore clusters close to the substrate, i.e., the clamp of the micro-cantilever beam, has the strongest effect on load-deflection behavior, leading to a reduction of stiffness that is the largest for any location of the pore cluster. Furthermore, it was also found from both numerical and i analytical models that pore clusters located towards the middle of the span and close
Giunta, G.; Belouettar, S.
2015-03-10
In this paper, the static response of three-dimensional beams made of functionally graded materials is investigated through a family of hierarchical one-dimensional finite elements. A wide variety of elements is proposed differing by the kinematic formulation and the number of nodes per elements along the beam axis. Elements’ stiffness matrix and load vector are derived in a unified nuclear form that does not depend upon the a priori expansion order over the cross-section nor the finite element approximation along the beam axis. Results are validated towards three-dimensional finite element models as well as equivalent Navier-type analytical solutions. The numerical investigations show that accurate and efficient solutions (when compared with full three-dimensional FEM solutions) can be obtained by the proposed family of hierarchical one-dimensional elements’ family.
Finite element dynamic analysis of finite beams on a bilinear foundation under a moving load
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro Jorge, P.; Pinto da Costa, A.; Simões, F. M. F.
2015-06-01
The present paper is concerned with the behaviour of finite elastic beams, acted by a moving transverse concentrated load, interacting with elastic foundations of different stiffnesses in compression and in tension. Using finite element analyses, the displacement amplitudes and the critical velocities of the load on a UIC-60 rail are computed and their dependence with respect to the difference between the foundation's moduli in compression and in tension is evaluated. The limit case of a tensionless foundation is as well analyzed. The numerical algorithm relies on the internal force vectors and tangent stiffness matrices computed exactly with automatic symbolic manipulation.
Finite-element 3D simulation tools for high-current relativistic electron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Humphries, Stanley; Ekdahl, Carl
2002-08-01
The DARHT second-axis injector is a challenge for computer simulations. Electrons are subject to strong beam-generated forces. The fields are fully three-dimensional and accurate calculations at surfaces are critical. We describe methods applied in OmniTrak, a 3D finite-element code suite that can address DARHT and the full range of charged-particle devices. The system handles mesh generation, electrostatics, magnetostatics and self-consistent particle orbits. The MetaMesh program generates meshes of conformal hexahedrons to fit any user geometry. The code has the unique ability to create structured conformal meshes with cubic logic. Organized meshes offer advantages in speed and memory utilization in the orbit and field solutions. OmniTrak is a versatile charged-particle code that handles 3D electric and magnetic field solutions on independent meshes. The program can update both 3D field solutions from the calculated beam space-charge and current-density. We shall describe numerical methods for orbit tracking on a hexahedron mesh. Topics include: 1) identification of elements along the particle trajectory, 2) fast searches and adaptive field calculations, 3) interpolation methods to terminate orbits on material surfaces, 4) automatic particle generation on multiple emission surfaces to model space-charge-limited emission and field emission, 5) flexible Child law algorithms, 6) implementation of the dual potential model for 3D magnetostatics, and 7) assignment of charge and current from model particle orbits for self-consistent fields.
Finite element models of rib as an inhomogeneous beam structure under high-speed impacts.
Niu, Yuqing; Shen, Weixin; Stuhmiller, James H
2007-09-01
Fracture of ribs commonly occurs during blunt impacts and can lead to serious injuries or even fatality. The finite element (FE) modeling of ribs under impacts, however, is difficult due to the complex geometry, the difficulty in determining material parameters, and the amount of the computational time required. This study develops a method of modeling ribs as inhomogeneous beam structures. The geometries are reconstructed from images acquired with X-ray computed tomography. Bone material properties, orthotropic or isotropic, are determined from the CT pixel values. From the material distribution inside the cross-section, generalized classical beam formulations use to determine the local homogenized stiffness of the nodes along the rib. To compare the accuracy and efficiency of the method, detailed three-dimensional (3D) FE models of ribs are also developed. Simulations of three benchmark problems that represent different loading or impact conditions demonstrate that the beam FE model is very efficient and is at least as accurate as a very finely meshed 3D FE model. Finally, the rib FE model is used to study blunt trauma injury of animal tests under high-speed impacts. The consistency between predictions and experimental results shows that the developed rib model is a great value to study of blunt trauma caused by high-speed impacts. PMID:17045511
Induced strain actuation of composite beams and rotor blades with embedded piezoceramic elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Peter C.; Chopra, Inderjit
1994-05-01
The objective of this research is to develop a dynamically scaled (Froude scale) helicopter rotor blade with embedded piezoceramic elements as sensors and actuators to control blade vibrations. A 6-ft-diameter two-bladed bearingless rotor model was built, where each blade is embedded with banks of piezoelectric actuators at +/- 45-degree angles with respect to the beam axis on the top and bottom surfaces. A twist distribution along the blade span is achieved through in-phase excitation of the top and bottom actuators at equal potentials, while a bending distribution is achieved through out-of-phase excitation. In order to fix design variables and to optimize blade performance, a uniform strain beam theory is formulated to analytically predict the static bending and torsional response of composite rectangular beams with embedded piezoelectric actuators. Parameters such as bond thicknesses, actuator skew angle, and actuator spacing are investigated by experiments and then validated by theory. The static bending and torsional response of the rotor blades is experimentally measured and correlated with theory. Dynamic torsional and bending responses are experimentally determined for frequencies from 2-120 HZ to assess the viability of a vibration reduction system based on piezoactuation of blade twist. Although the magnitudes of blade twist attained in this experiment were small, it is expected that future models can be built with improved performance.
Optical properties of beam-steering elements utilizing volume holographic gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butler, James Jay
2000-06-01
An optical beam steering element is a device that is used to control the direction in which a beam of light travels. We have investigated the optical properties of two classes of optical beam steering elements. The first type utilized the polarization dependence of the diffraction efficiency of volume holographic gratings. The second type utilized the fact that the diffraction efficiency of holograms imbibed with a nematic liquid crystal can be controlled by the application of an electric field. In both cases, elements with excellent switching contrasts were fabricated for operation in the visible and near infrared wavelength range including the commonly used telecommunications wavelength of 1.3μm. The holographic recording material that we have used is Polaroid Corporation's DMP-128 photopolymer. This material is porous after exposure and processing, a feature useful in two ways for this work. First, volume gratings with very large refractive index modulations, on the order of 0.2, can be fabricated using this material. Secondly, the pores can be filled with a nematic liquid crystal, resulting in electrically-switchable gratings. In our analysis of polarization-sensitive gratings we have employed several coupled wave theories, each with a different set of approximations. We have found that rigorous coupled wave theory must be used in predicting the diffractive properties of highly modulated volume gratings, where the effects of higher diffraction orders and form birefringence become important. In our analysis of the optical properties of electrically-switchable liquid crystal composite holograms, we have employed a theoretical analysis that treats the birefringent nature of the gratings. The results of Kogelnik theory that neglects the grating anisotropy, a two-wave theory that treats anisotropy, and a formulation of rigorous coupled wave theory that includes anisotropy were compared. We found it was necessary to include the effects of optical anisotropy to
Karaton, Muhammet
2014-01-01
A beam-column element based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is researched for nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) structural element. Stiffness matrix of this element is obtained by using rigidity method. A solution technique that included nonlinear dynamic substructure procedure is developed for dynamic analyses of RC frames. A predicted-corrected form of the Bossak-α method is applied for dynamic integration scheme. A comparison of experimental data of a RC column element with numerical results, obtained from proposed solution technique, is studied for verification the numerical solutions. Furthermore, nonlinear cyclic analysis results of a portal reinforced concrete frame are achieved for comparing the proposed solution technique with Fibre element, based on flexibility method. However, seismic damage analyses of an 8-story RC frame structure with soft-story are investigated for cases of lumped/distributed mass and load. Damage region, propagation, and intensities according to both approaches are researched. PMID:24578667
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saada, Mohamed M.; Arafa, Mustafa H.; Nassef, Ashraf O.
2013-06-01
The use of vibration-based techniques in damage identification has recently received considerable attention in many engineering disciplines. While various damage indicators have been proposed in the literature, those relying only on changes in the natural frequencies are quite appealing since these quantities can conveniently be acquired. Nevertheless, the use of natural frequencies in damage identification is faced with many obstacles, including insensitivity and non-uniqueness issues. The aim of this article is to develop a viable damage identification scheme based only on changes in the natural frequencies and to attempt to overcome the challenges typically encountered. The proposed methodology relies on building a finite element model (FEM) of the structure under investigation. An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to facilitate updating the FEM in accordance with experimentally determined natural frequencies in order to predict the damage location and extent. The method is tested on beam structures and was shown to be an effective tool for damage identification.
Object Deformations from Image Silhouettes Using a Kinematic Finite Element Beam Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jepping, C.; Luhmann, T.
2016-06-01
In this paper a method is presented which allows the measurement of deflections and torsion by means of the silhouette of an object in images. The method is based on a finite element description of a beam. The benefit of this method is the determination of the deformation out of the silhouette of an object in images without the need of signalization. The presented method is tested against simulated data as well as against real objects in laboratory tests. As an outlook the presented method can be further modified. By combination with a laser scanner it seems to be possible to replace the CAD model of an object with the point clouds of one or more kinematic laser scans.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Robert V.; Nixon, Mark W.; Rehfield, Lawrence W.
1987-01-01
A methodology was developed for the structural analysis of composite rotor blades. This coupled-beam analysis is relatively simple to use compared with alternative analysis techniques. The beam analysis was developed for thin-wall single-cell rotor structures and includes the effects of elastic coupling. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the new composite-beam analysis method through comparison of its results with those of an established baseline analysis technique. The baseline analysis is an MSC/NASTRAN finite-element model built up from anisotropic shell elements. Deformations are compared for three linear static load cases of centrifugal force at design rotor speed, applied torque, and lift for an ideal rotor in hover. A D-spar designed to twist under axial loading is the subject of the analysis. Results indicate the coupled-beam analysis is well within engineering accuracy.
Induced strain actuation of composite beams and rotor blades with embedded piezoceramic elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Peter C.; Chopra, Inderjit
1996-02-01
The objective of this research is to develop a dynamically-scaled (Froude scale) helicopter rotor blade with embedded piezoceramic elements as sensors and actuators to control blade vibrations. A 6 ft diameter 2-bladed bearingless rotor model was built where each blade is embedded with banks of piezoelectric actuators at 0964-1726/5/1/005/img1 degree angles with respect to the beam axis on the top and bottom surfaces. A twist distribution along the blade span is achieved through in-phase excitation of the top and bottom actuators at equal potentials, while a bending distribution is achieved through out-of-phase excitation. In order to fix design variables and to optimize blade performance, a uniform strain beam theory is formulated to analytically predict the static bending and torsional response of composite rectangular beams with embedded piezoelectric actuators. Parameters such as bond thicknesses, actuator skew angle and actuator spacing are investigated by experiments and then validated by theory. The static bending and torsional response of the rotor blades is experimentally measured and correlated with theory. Dynamic torsional and bending responses are experimentally determined for frequencies from 2 - 120 Hz to assess the viability of a vibration reduction system based on piezo-actuation of blade twist. To assess the performance of the piezo-actuators in rotation, hover tests were conducted where accelerometers embedded in the blades were used to resolve the tip twist amplitudes. Although the magnitudes of blade twist attained in this experiment were small, it is expected that future models can be built with improved performance.
An x-ray microprobe beam line for trace element analysis
Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Schidlovsky, G.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.
1987-01-01
The application of synchrotron radiation to an x-ray microprobe for trace element analysis is a complementary and natural extension of existing microprobe techniques using electrons, protons, and heavier ions as excitation sources for x-ray fluorescence. The ability to focus charged particles leads to electron microprobes with spatial resolutions in the sub-micrometer range and down to 100 ppM detection limits and proton microprobes with micrometer resolution and ppM detection limits. The characteristics of synchrotron radiation that prove useful for microprobe analysis include a broad and continuous energy spectrum, a relatively small amount of radiation damage compared to that deposited by charged particles, a highly polarized source which reduces background scattered radiation in an appropriate counting geometry, and a small vertical divergence angle of approx.0.2 mrad which allows for focussing of the light beam into a small spot with high flux. The features of a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) are described. 4 refs., 3 figs.
Calculating the Loss factor of the LCLS Beam Line Elements for Ultra-Shrot Bunches
Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC
2009-10-17
The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE 1.5-15 {angstrom} x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility. Since an ultra-short intense bunch is used in the LCLS operation one might suggest that wake fields, generated in the vacuum chamber, may have an effect on the x-ray production because these fields can change the beam particle energies thereby increasing the energy spread in a bunch. At LCLS a feedback system precisely controls the bunch energy before it enters a beam transport line after the linac. However, in the transport line and later in the undulator section the bunch energy and energy spread are not under feedback control and may change due to wake field radiation, which depends upon the bunch current or on a bunch length. The linear part of the energy spread can be compensated in the upstream linac; the energy loss in the undulator section can be compensated by varying the K-parameter of the undulators, however we need a precise knowledge of the wake fields in this part of the machine. Resistive wake fields are known and well calculated. We discuss an additional part of the wake fields, which comes from the different vacuum elements like bellows, BPMs, transitions, vacuum ports, vacuum valves and others. We use the code 'NOVO' together with analytical estimations for the wake potential calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Divliansky, Ivan B.; Johnson, Eric G.
2007-02-01
The broad development of the micro- and nano-technologies in the past few years increased the need of techniques capable of fabricating sub-micron structures with arbitrary surface profiles. Out of the several fabrication approaches (HEBS lithography, laser writing, etc.) the electron beam writing stands out as the one capable of the highest resolution, superior alignment accuracy and very small surface roughness. These characteristics make the technique greatly applicable in the fields of photonics and micro-opto-electro-mechanical-systems (MOEMS). Here we describe the specificity of fabricating 3D diffractive micro- and nano-optical elements using Leica EBPG 5000+ electron beam system. Parameters like speed of writing, dose accumulation, pattern writing specifics, etc. affect greatly the electronbeam resist properties and the desired 3D profile. We present data that can be used to better understand the different dependencies and therefore achieve better profile and surface roughness management. The results can be useful in future developments in the areas of integrated photonic circuits and MOEMS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riedlbauer, Daniel; Steinmann, Paul; Mergheim, Julia
2014-07-01
The present contribution is concerned with the macroscopic modelling of the selective electron beam melting process by using the finite element method. The modelling and simulation of the selective electron beam melting process involves various challenges: complex material behaviour, phase changes, thermomechanical coupling, high temperature gradients, different time and length scales etc. The present contribution focuses on performance considerations of solution approaches for thermomechanically coupled problems, i.e. the monolithic and the adiabatic split approach. The material model is restricted to nonlinear thermoelasticity with temperature-dependent material parameters. As a numerical example a straight scanning path is simulated, the predicted temperatures and stresses are analysed and the performance of the two algorithms is compared. The adiabatic split approach turned out to be much more efficient for linear thermomechanical problems, i.e. the solution time is three times less than with the monolithic approach. For nonlinear problems, stability issues necessitated the use of the Euler backward integration scheme, and therefore, the adiabatic split approach required small time steps for reasonable accuracy. Thus, for nonlinear problems and in combination with the Euler backward integration scheme, the monolithic solver turned out to be more efficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nanda, Namita; Kapuria, S.; Gopalakrishnan, S.
2014-07-01
In this paper, we present a spectral finite element model (SFEM) using an efficient and accurate layerwise (zigzag) theory, which is applicable for wave propagation analysis of highly inhomogeneous laminated composite and sandwich beams. The theory assumes a layerwise linear variation superimposed with a global third-order variation across the thickness for the axial displacement. The conditions of zero transverse shear stress at the top and bottom and its continuity at the layer interfaces are subsequently enforced to make the number of primary unknowns independent of the number of layers, thereby making the theory as efficient as the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The spectral element developed is validated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. A comparison of the natural frequencies of simply supported composite and sandwich beams obtained by the present spectral element with the exact two-dimensional elasticity and FSDT solutions reveals that the FSDT yields highly inaccurate results for the inhomogeneous sandwich beams and thick composite beams, whereas the present element based on the zigzag theory agrees very well with the exact elasticity solution for both thick and thin, composite and sandwich beams. A significant deviation in the dispersion relations obtained using the accurate zigzag theory and the FSDT is also observed for composite beams at high frequencies. It is shown that the pure shear rotation mode remains always evanescent, contrary to what has been reported earlier. The SFEM is subsequently used to study wavenumber dispersion, free vibration and wave propagation time history in soft-core sandwich beams with composite faces for the first time in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meier, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Wall, Wolfgang A.
2016-08-01
The objective of this work is the development of a novel finite element formulation describing the contact interaction of slender beams in complex 3D configurations involving arbitrary beam-to-beam orientations. It is shown in a mathematically concise manner that standard beam contact models based on a point-wise contact force fail to describe a considerable range of configurations, which are, however, likely to occur in practical applications. On the contrary, the formulation proposed here models beam-to-beam contact by means of distributed line forces, a procedure that is shown to be applicable for arbitrary geometrical configurations. The proposed formulation is based on a Gauss-point-to-segment type contact discretization and a penalty regularization of the contact constraint. By means of detailed theoretical and numerical investigations, it is shown that this approach is more suitable for beam contact than possible alternatives based on mortar type contact discretizations or constraint enforcement by means of Lagrange multipliers. The proposed formulation is enhanced by a consistently linearized integration interval segmentation avoiding numerical integration across strong discontinuities. In combination with a smoothed contact force law and the employed C1-continuous beam elements, this procedure drastically reduces the numerical integration error, an essential prerequisite for optimal spatial convergence rates. The resulting line-to-line contact algorithm is supplemented by contact contributions of the beam endpoints, which represent boundary minima of the underlying minimal distance problem. Finally, a series of numerical test cases is analyzed in order to investigate the accuracy and consistency of the proposed formulation regarding integration error, spatial convergence behavior and resulting contact force distributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ooi, B. L.; Gilbert, J. M.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.
2016-05-01
Owing to the increasing demand for harvesting energy from environmental vibration for use in self-powered electronic applications, cantilever-based vibration energy harvesting has attracted considerable interest from various parties and has become one of the most common approaches to converting redundant mechanical energy into electrical energy. As the output voltage produced from a piezoelectric material depends largely on the geometric shape and the size of the beam, there is a need to model and compare the performance of cantilever beams of differing geometries. This paper presents the study of strain distribution in various shapes of cantilever beams, including a convex and concave edge profile elliptical beam that have not yet been discussed in any prior literature. Both analytical and finite-element models are derived and the resultant strain distributions in the beam are computed based on a MATLAB solver and ANSYS finite-element analysis tools. An optimum geometry for a vibration-based energy harvesting system is verified. Finally, experimental results comparing the power density for triangular and rectangular piezoelectric beams are also presented to validate the findings of the study, and the claim, as suggested in the literature, is verified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ooi, B. L.; Gilbert, J. M.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.
2016-08-01
Owing to the increasing demand for harvesting energy from environmental vibration for use in self-powered electronic applications, cantilever-based vibration energy harvesting has attracted considerable interest from various parties and has become one of the most common approaches to converting redundant mechanical energy into electrical energy. As the output voltage produced from a piezoelectric material depends largely on the geometric shape and the size of the beam, there is a need to model and compare the performance of cantilever beams of differing geometries. This paper presents the study of strain distribution in various shapes of cantilever beams, including a convex and concave edge profile elliptical beam that have not yet been discussed in any prior literature. Both analytical and finite-element models are derived and the resultant strain distributions in the beam are computed based on a MATLAB solver and ANSYS finite-element analysis tools. An optimum geometry for a vibration-based energy harvesting system is verified. Finally, experimental results comparing the power density for triangular and rectangular piezoelectric beams are also presented to validate the findings of the study, and the claim, as suggested in the literature, is verified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piazzoni, C.; Buttery, M.; Hampson, M. R.; Roberts, E. W.; Ducati, C.; Lenardi, C.; Cavaliere, F.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.
2015-07-01
Fullerene-like MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of fluid and solid lubricants. Metal dichalcogenide films have a very low friction coefficient in vacuum, therefore they have mostly been used as solid lubricants in space and vacuum applications. Unfortunately, their use is significantly hampered by the fact that in the presence of humidity, oxygen and moisture, the low-friction properties of these materials rapidly degrade due to oxidation. The use of closed-cage MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles may eliminate this problem, although the fabrication of lubricant thin films starting from dichalcogenide nanoparticles is, to date, a difficult task. Here we demonstrate the use of supersonic cluster beam deposition for the coating of complex mechanical elements (angular contact ball bearings) with nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 thin films. We report structural and tribological characterization of the coatings in view of the optimization of tribological performances for aerospace applications.
Large-aperture continuous-phase diffractive optical element for beam transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Qiaofeng; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; Wu, Minxian
1999-11-01
Beam transform, such as to obtain uniform focal spot with flat top, steep edge, low side lobes and high light efficiency, can be realized well by diffractive optical element (DOE). The DOE has many advantages, such as high light efficiency and strong phase distribution design flexibility. To increase the light efficiency and decrease large-angle scattering, continuous phase DOE should be used. The phase design is competed by a kind of multi-resolution hybrid algorithm based on hill-climbing and simulated annealing, which exploits sufficiently strong convergence ability of the hill climbing and global optimization potential of the simulated annealing. A kind of phase distribution with good geometrical structure and diameter 80 mm is obtained by choosing disturbance function, receipt and refused probability and so on. The simulated results show that the light efficiency is more than 95 percent, and the non-uniformity is less than 5 percent. Because the etching depth is direct proportion to the exposure time, to obtain continuous phase DOE, a kind of hollowed-out mask, namely gray-scale mask is used to control exposure time of each are. The mask is manufactured by linear cutting machine. The continuous phase DOE with diameter 80mm is fabricated by ion-etching with the mask. Finally, the tolerance of manufacturing error including depth error and alignment error are analyzed.
Key elements of space charge compensation on a low energy high intensity beam injector
Peng Shixiang; Lu Pengnan; Ren Haitao; Zhao Jie; Chen Jia; Xu Yuan; Guo Zhiyu; Chen Jia'er; Zhao Hongwei; Sun Liangting
2013-03-15
Space charge effect (SCE) along the beam line will decrease beam quality. Space charge compensation (SCC) with extra gas injection is a high-efficiency method to reduce SCE. In this paper, we will report the experimental results on the beam profile, potential distribution, beam emittance, and beam transmission efficiency of a 35 keV/90 mA H{sup +} beam and a 40 keV/10 mA He{sup +} beam compensated by Ar/Kr. The influence of gas type, gas flow, and injection location will be discussed. Emphasis is laid on the consideration of SCC when designing and commissioning a high intensity ion beam injector. Based on measured data, a new definition of space charge compensation degree is proposed.
Key elements of space charge compensation on a low energy high intensity beam injector.
Peng, Shixiang; Lu, Pengnan; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Jia; Xu, Yuan; Guo, Zhiyu; Chen, Jia'er; Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Liangting
2013-03-01
Space charge effect (SCE) along the beam line will decrease beam quality. Space charge compensation (SCC) with extra gas injection is a high-efficiency method to reduce SCE. In this paper, we will report the experimental results on the beam profile, potential distribution, beam emittance, and beam transmission efficiency of a 35 keV∕90 mA H(+) beam and a 40 keV∕10 mA He(+) beam compensated by Ar∕Kr. The influence of gas type, gas flow, and injection location will be discussed. Emphasis is laid on the consideration of SCC when designing and commissioning a high intensity ion beam injector. Based on measured data, a new definition of space charge compensation degree is proposed. PMID:23556812
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi, S. M.; Richard, M. J.; Dhatt, G.
1999-03-01
This paper presents a new Dynamic Finite Element (DFE) formulation for the vibrational analysis of spinning beams. A non-dimensional formulation is adopted, and the frequency dependent trigonometric shape functions are used to find a simple frequency dependent element stiffness matrix which has both mass and stiffness properties. An appropriate bisection method, based on a Sturm sequence root counting technique, is used and the flexural natural frequencies of cantilevered beams, for a variety of configurations, are studied. The results are compared to those found by the Dynamic Stiffness Matrix and the classical Finite Elements Method, using “Hermite” beam elements. Much better convergency rates are found using the proposed DFE method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh
1987-01-01
A finite element method is presented for the large amplitude vibrations of complex structures that can be modelled with beam and rectangular plate elements subjected to harmonic excitation. Both inplane deformation and inertia are considered in the formulation. Derivation of the harmonic force and nonlinear stiffness matrices for a beam and a rectangular plate element are presented. Solution procedures and convergence characteristics of the finite element method are described. Nonlinear response to uniform and concentrated harmonic loadings and improved nonlinear free vibration results are presented for beams and rectangular plates of various boundary conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sviridova, S. V.; Bekshaev, A. Y.
2012-01-01
Transformations of spatial characteristics of optical vortex (OV) light beams at passing through a computer-generated hologram (CGH) that imparts an additional phase singularity ("fork" hologram) are investigated. The spatial structure of the diffracted beam is studied for different combinations of the incident OV order m, embedded topological charge of the CGH q and the diffraction order n. Variations of the intensity distribution are investigated experimentally. Due to the incident beam displacement with respect to the CGH optical axis, the diffracted beam profile is deformed, rotates in the azimuthal direction in agreement with the internal energy circulation and its 'center of gravity' is displaced orthogonally to the incident beam displacement. The results are compared with theoretical predictions based on two models of the incident OV beam. As, in experiment, the incident beam was created from the Gaussian beam passed another fork hologram, the Kummer beam model seems presumably more relevant but the standard Laguerre-Gaussian model in some cases fits the experimental data quite well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sviridova, S. V.; Bekshaev, A. Y.
2011-09-01
Transformations of spatial characteristics of optical vortex (OV) light beams at passing through a computer-generated hologram (CGH) that imparts an additional phase singularity ("fork" hologram) are investigated. The spatial structure of the diffracted beam is studied for different combinations of the incident OV order m, embedded topological charge of the CGH q and the diffraction order n. Variations of the intensity distribution are investigated experimentally. Due to the incident beam displacement with respect to the CGH optical axis, the diffracted beam profile is deformed, rotates in the azimuthal direction in agreement with the internal energy circulation and its 'center of gravity' is displaced orthogonally to the incident beam displacement. The results are compared with theoretical predictions based on two models of the incident OV beam. As, in experiment, the incident beam was created from the Gaussian beam passed another fork hologram, the Kummer beam model seems presumably more relevant but the standard Laguerre-Gaussian model in some cases fits the experimental data quite well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, M.
2016-08-01
An analytical-numerical method, based on the use of wavelet spectral finite elements (WSFE), is presented for studying the nonlinear interaction of flexural waves with a breathing crack present in a slender beam. The cracked beam is discretized using wavelet spectral finite elements which use compactly supported Daubechies scaling functions for approximating the temporal dependence of the transverse displacement. Rotational spring is used to model the open crack condition, and behavior of the beam in closed-crack condition is assumed to be similar to that of an intact beam. An intermittent switching between the open- and closed-crack conditions simulates crack-breathing, leading to a set of nonlinear equations which is solved using an iterative method. Results of the proposed method are compared with those obtained using the Fourier spectral finite element (FSFE) and 1D finite element (FE) methods, which show a close agreement. Existence of the higher-order harmonic components, indicative of the crack-induced bilinearity, is confirmed in the frequency domain response. Moreover, the time domain analysis reveals separation of harmonics resulting from the dispersive nature of the waveguide, which is further used for localizing the damage. A parametric study is presented to bring out the influence of crack-severity and -location on the extent of harmonic separation and on the relative strength of higher order harmonic. In addition to elaborating the use of WSFE in addressing the nonlinear wave-damage interaction, results of the present investigation can be potentially useful in devising strategies for an inverse analysis.
Maker, B.N.
1995-04-14
This report provides a user`s manual for NIKE3D, a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the finite strain static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, 2-node truss and beam elements, and 4-node membrane and shell elements. Over twenty constitutive models are available for representing a wide range of elastic, plastic, viscous, and thermally dependent material behavior. Contact-impact algorithms permit gaps, frictional sliding, and mesh discontinuities along material interfaces. Several nonlinear solution strategies are available, including Full-, Modified-, and Quasi-Newton methods. The resulting system of simultaneous linear equations is either solved iteratively by an element-by-element method, or directly by a factorization method, for which case bandwidth minimization is optional. Data may be stored either in or out of core memory to allow for large analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, T.; Fleck, N. A.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.
2013-08-01
The impact of a slug of dry sand particles against a metallic sandwich beam or circular sandwich plate is analysed in order to aid the design of sandwich panels for shock mitigation. The sand particles interact via a combined linear-spring-and-dashpot law whereas the face sheets and compressible core of the sandwich beam and plate are treated as rate-sensitive, elastic-plastic solids. The majority of the calculations are performed in two dimensions and entail the transverse impact of end-clamped monolithic and sandwich beams, with plane strain conditions imposed. The sand slug is of rectangular shape and comprises a random loose packing of identical, circular cylindrical particles. These calculations reveal that loading due to the sand is primarily inertial in nature with negligible fluid-structure interaction: the momentum transmitted to the beam is approximately equal to that of the incoming sand slug. For a slug of given incoming momentum, the dynamic deflection of the beam increases with decreasing duration of sand-loading until the impulsive limit is attained. Sandwich beams with thick, strong cores significantly outperform monolithic beams of equal areal mass. This performance enhancement is traced to the "sandwich effect" whereby the sandwich beams have a higher bending strength than that of the monolithic beams. Three-dimensional (3D) calculations are also performed such that the sand slug has the shape of a circular cylindrical column of finite height, and contains spherical sand particles. The 3D slug impacts a circular monolithic plate or sandwich plate and we show that sandwich plates with thick strong cores again outperform monolithic plates of equal areal mass. Finally, we demonstrate that impact by sand particles is equivalent to impact by a crushable foam projectile. The calculations on the equivalent projectile are significantly less intensive computationally, yet give predictions to within 5% of the full discrete particle calculations for the
Tan, Liying; Yu, Jianjie; Ma, Jing; Yang, Yuqiang; Li, Mi; Jiang, Yijun; Liu, Jianfeng; Han, Qiqi
2009-04-13
For inter-satellite optical communication transmitter with reflective telescope of two-mirrors on axis, a large mount of the transmitted energy will be blocked by central obscuration of the secondary mirror. In this paper, a novel scheme based on diffractive optical element (DOE) is introduced to avoid it. This scheme includes one diffractive beam shaper and another diffractive phase corrector, which can diffract the obscured part of transmitted beam into the domain unobscured by the secondary mirror. The proposed approach is firstly researched with a fixed obscuration ratio of 1/4. Numerical simulation shows that the emission efficiency of new figuration is 99.99%; the beam divergence from the novel inter-satellite optical communication transmitter is unchanged; and the peak intensity of receiver plane is increased about 31% compared with the typical configuration. Then the intensy patterns of receiver plane are analyzed with various obscuration ratio, the corresponding numerical modelling reveals that the intensity patterns with various obscuration ratio are nearly identical, but the amplify of relative peak intensity is getting down with the growth of obscuration ratio. This work can improve the beam quality of inter-satellite optical communication system without affecting any other functionality. PMID:19365457
Sabaeian, Mohammad; Shahzadeh, Mohammadreza
2015-02-01
The authors report the simulation of temperature distribution and thermally induced stresses of human tooth under CO2 pulsed laser beam. A detailed tooth structure comprising enamel, dentin, and pulp with realistic shapes and thicknesses were considered, and a numerical method of finite element was adopted to solve time-dependent bio-heat and stress equations. The realistic boundary conditions of constant temperature for those parts embedded in the gingiva and heat flux condition for those parts out of the gingiva were applied. The results which were achieved as a function of energy density (J/cm(2)) showed when laser beam is irradiated downward (from the top of the tooth), the temperature and thermal stresses decrease quickly as a function of depth that is a result of strong absorption of CO2 beams by enamel. This effect is so influential that one can use CO2 beams to remove micrometer layers while underlying tissues, especially the pulp, are safe from thermal effects. PMID:23868367
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yong; Hu, Jiasheng; Wu, Kenan
2009-08-01
The vector fuzzy control iterative algorithm (VFCIA) is proposed for the design of phase-only sub-wavelength diffractive optical elements (SWDOEs) for beam shaping. The vector diffraction model put forward by Mansuripur is applied to relate the field distributions between the SWDOE plane and the output plane. Fuzzy control theory is used to decide the constraint method for each iterative process of the algorithm. We have designed a SWDOE that transforms a circular flat-top beam to a square irradiance pattern. Computer design results show that the SWDOE designed by the VFCIA can produce better results than the vector iterative algorithm (VIA). And the finite difference time-domain method (FDTD), a rigorous electromagnetic analysis technique, is used to analyze the designed SWDOE for further confirming the validity of the proposed method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stagliano, T. R.; Witmer, E. A.; Rodal, J. J. A.
1979-01-01
Finite element modeling alternatives as well as the utility and limitations of the two dimensional structural response computer code CIVM-JET 4B for predicting the transient, large deflection, elastic plastic, structural responses of two dimensional beam and/or ring structures which are subjected to rigid fragment impact were investigated. The applicability of the CIVM-JET 4B analysis and code for the prediction of steel containment ring response to impact by complex deformable fragments from a trihub burst of a T58 turbine rotor was studied. Dimensional analysis considerations were used in a parametric examination of data from engine rotor burst containment experiments and data from sphere beam impact experiments. The use of the CIVM-JET 4B computer code for making parametric structural response studies on both fragment-containment structure and fragment-deflector structure was illustrated. Modifications to the analysis/computation procedure were developed to alleviate restrictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calva-Vázquez, G.; Razo-Angel, G.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.
2006-08-01
The concentration of elements with Z > 18 is measured in tree rings from forests at the surroundings of the Mexico Valley: El Chico National Park (ECP) and Desierto de los Leones National Park (DLP). The analysis was done by simultaneous PIXE-RBS using an external proton beam on tree rings of Pine and Sacred fir (species Pinus montezumae and Abies religiosa, respectively). This study provides information about the elemental concentration in trees of those parks during the years from 1965 to 2003. Typical elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb were detected using PIXE technique while the wood matrix composition (mainly C and O) was determined by RBS. In general, elemental contents present large variations but concentrations oscillate around the mean value during this period of time. Nevertheless, the measurements showed some trends for Fe and Zn in the tree-rings elemental composition that may be correlated to recent volcanic activities in the region. The low Mn contents indicate soil acidification in DLP from 1968 and the forest decline in ECP during the last 15 years.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abd El Baky, Hussien
This research work is devoted to theoretical and numerical studies on the flexural behaviour of FRP-strengthened concrete beams. The objectives of this research are to extend and generalize the results of simple experiments, to recommend new design guidelines based on accurate numerical tools, and to enhance our comprehension of the bond performance of such beams. These numerical tools can be exploited to bridge the existing gaps in the development of analysis and modelling approaches that can predict the behaviour of FRP-strengthened concrete beams. The research effort here begins with the formulation of a concrete model and development of FRP/concrete interface constitutive laws, followed by finite element simulations for beams strengthened in flexure. Finally, a statistical analysis is carried out taking the advantage of the aforesaid numerical tools to propose design guidelines. In this dissertation, an alternative incremental formulation of the M4 microplane model is proposed to overcome the computational complexities associated with the original formulation. Through a number of numerical applications, this incremental formulation is shown to be equivalent to the original M4 model. To assess the computational efficiency of the incremental formulation, the "arc-length" numerical technique is also considered and implemented in the original Bazant et al. [2000] M4 formulation. Finally, the M4 microplane concrete model is coded in FORTRAN and implemented as a user-defined subroutine into the commercial software package ADINA, Version 8.4. Then this subroutine is used with the finite element package to analyze various applications involving FRP strengthening. In the first application a nonlinear micromechanics-based finite element analysis is performed to investigate the interfacial behaviour of FRP/concrete joints subjected to direct shear loadings. The intention of this part is to develop a reliable bond--slip model for the FRP/concrete interface. The bond
Finite element modeling of light propagation in fruit under illumination of continuous-wave beam
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Spatially-resolved spectroscopy provides a means for measuring the optical properties of biological tissues, based on analytical solutions to diffusion approximation for semi-infinite media under the normal illumination of infinitely small size light beam. The method is, however, prone to error in m...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kala, Zdeněk; Kala, Jiří
2012-09-01
The paper deals with the influence of correlation length, of Gauss random field, and of yield strength of a hotrolled I-beam under bending on the ultimate load carrying capacity limit state. Load carrying capacity is an output random quantity depending on input random imperfections. Latin Hypercube Sampling Method is used for sampling simulation. Load carrying capacity is computed by the programme ANSYS using shell finite elements and nonlinear computation methods. The nonlinear FEM computation model takes into consideration the effect of lateral-torsional buckling on the ultimate limit state.
Kheloufi, Karim; Amara, El Hachemi
2008-09-23
We analyze the deformation induced by focusing a CW high power laser beam on stainless steel plate. A non-linear 3D finite element approach is used to simulate the thermo-elastoplastic deformation, the heat conduction, and stresses. Material properties including density, yield stress, Young modulus, specific heat, and thermal expansion coefficient are considered as temperature-dependent. The effect of heating time on transient temperatures, stresses, strains and bending angles during the process is studied, and the process parameters affecting the bending angles were also investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, D.; Lutkenhaus, J.; Lowell, D.; Philipose, U.; Zhang, H.; Poole, Z.; Chen, K.; Lin, Y.
2015-03-01
Here we present the holographic fabrication of large area 3D photonic structures using a single reflective optical element (ROE) with a single beam, single exposure process. The ROE consists of a 3D printed plastic support that houses 4, 5, or 6-fold symmetrically arranged reflecting surfaces which redirect a central beam into multiple side beams in an umbrella configuration to be used in multi-beam holography. With a circular polarized beam incident to silicon wafer reflecting surfaces at the Brewster angle, multiple linearly s-polarized side beams are generated. 3D photonic crystal structures of woodpile, Penrose quasi-crystal, and hexagonal symmetry were produced with ROEs that have 4+1, 5+1 and 6+1 beam configurations, respectively. Since the ROE design can be readily changed and implemented for different photonic crystal structures, this fabrication method is more versatile and cost effective than currently comparable single optical methods like prisms and phase masks.
Efficient beam-column finite element including application to thermoelastic deformation
Ju, F.D.
1980-02-01
During the study of the structural design of the core of the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR), there is evidence of undue frictional interaction between fuel rod claddings and their spacer grids. In cases for which thermal bowing of the rods is sufficient to cause two-sided contact between the rods and their supporting grids (and thus a tendency to lock up), subsequent rod deformation caused by the axial thermal expansion would result in excessive buckling of the rods between locked supports. The numerical solution is best served by the finite element method. Yet there is a large number of fuel rods in the reactor, of which each is multiply-supported by spacers. Hence, an efficient finite element is needed that would model each section between supports with not more than three elements. The new efficient finite element is developed, beginning with the principle of virtual work.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, T. L.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, M. L.
1992-01-01
SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detectors have been fabricated utilizing molecular beam epitaxy of p(+)-SiGe layers on p(-)-Si substrates. Elemental boron from a high-temperature effusion cell was used as the dopant source during MBE growth, and high doping concentrations have been achieved. Strong infrared absorption, mainly by free-carrier absorption, was observed for the degenerately doped SiGe layers. The use of elemental boron as the dopant source allows a low MBE growth temperature, resulting in improved crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology of the Si(0.7)Ge(0.3) layers. Nearly ideal thermionic emission dark current characteristics have been obtained. Photoresponse of the HIP detectors in the long-wavelength infrared regime has been demonstrated.
Generation of intense and cold beam of Pt-Ag bi-element cluster ions having single-composition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasumatsu, H.
2011-07-01
An intense beam of bi-element Pt-Ag cluster ions with a single atomic-composition has been gained toward development of new-functional materials of the clusters fixed on a solid surface. Mass production of the bi-element cluster ions has been achieved by operating dual magnetron-sputtering devices independently in a gas aggregation cell, and the ions having a single composition are filtered out by passing through a quadrupole mass filter. The kinetic energies of the cluster ions have been reduced by collision with cold helium in order for low-energy cluster-impact deposition of the clusters on the surface. The cooling process was examined further by means of molecular-dynamics simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paranin, Vyacheslav D.; Karpeev, Sergey V.; Khonina, Svetlana N.
2016-03-01
The calculation and simulation of interference polarizer to generate radially polarized light is made. The method is based on converting the conical wavefront passing through the interference polarizer. The multilayer optical coating can be applied on the surface of the axicon. It is shown that in this way we noticeably reduce both the operating angle of incidence and achieve practically significant degree of polarization of the beam generated at much lower energy losses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Shen, Mo-How
1987-01-01
Multiple-mode nonlinear forced vibration of a beam was analyzed by the finite element method. Inplane (longitudinal) displacement and inertia (IDI) are considered in the formulation. By combining the finite element method and nonlinear theory, more realistic models of structural response are obtained more easily and faster.
Spemann, D. Esquinazi, P. Setzer, A.; Böhlmann, W.
2014-10-15
In this study, the impurity concentration and magnetic response of nine highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples with different grades and from different providers were determined using ion beam microscopy and SQUID magnetometry. Apart from sideface contaminations in the as-received state, bulk contamination of the samples in most cases consists of disk-shaped micron-sized particles made of Ti and V with an additional Fe contamination around the grain perimeter. The saturation magnetization typically increases with Fe concentration, however, there is no simple correlation between Fe content and magnetic moment. The saturation magnetization of one, respectively six, out of nine samples clearly exceeds the maximum contribution from pure Fe or Fe{sub 3}C. For most samples the temperature dependence of the remanence decreases linearly with T – a dependence found previously for defect-induced magnetism (DIM) in HOPG. We conclude that apart from magnetic impurities, additional contribution to the ferromagnetic magnetization exists in pristine HOPG in agreement with previous studies. A comparative study between the results of ion beam microscopy and the commonly used EDX analysis shows clearly that EDX is not a reliable method for quantitative trace elemental analysis in graphite, clarifying weaknesses and discrepancies in the element concentrations given in the recent literature.
Korecki, P.; Tolkiehn, M.; Dąbrowski, K. M.; Novikov, D. V.
2011-01-01
Projections of the atomic structure around Nb atoms in a LiNbO3 single crystal were obtained from a white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA) pattern detected using Nb K fluorescence. This kind of anisotropy results from the interference of X-rays inside a sample and, owing to the short coherence length of a white beam, is visible only at small angles around interatomic directions. Consequently, the main features of the recorded XAA corresponded to distorted real-space projections of dense-packed atomic planes and atomic rows. A quantitative analysis of XAA was carried out using a wavelet transform and allowed well resolved projections of Nb atoms to be obtained up to distances of 10 Å. The signal of nearest O atoms was detected indirectly by a comparison with model calculations. The measurement of white-beam XAA using characteristic radiation indicates the possibility of obtaining element-sensitive projections of the local atomic structure in more complex samples. PMID:21997909
An expanded x-ray beam facility (BEaTriX) to test the modular elements of the ATHENA optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spiga, D.; Pelliciari, C.; Bonnini, E.; Buffagni, E.; Ferrari, C.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.
2014-07-01
Future large X-ray observatories like ATHENA will be equipped with very large optics, obtained by assembling modular optical elements, named X-ray Optical Units (XOU) based on the technology of either Silicon Pore Optics or Slumped Glass Optics. In both cases, the final quality of the modular optic (a 5 arcsec HEW requirement for ATHENA) is determined by the accuracy alignment of the XOUs within the assembly, but also by the angular resolution of the individual XOU. This is affected by the mirror shape accuracy, its surface roughness, and the mutual alignment of the mirrors within the XOU itself. Because of the large number of XOUs to be produced, quality tests need to be routinely done to select the most performing stacked blocks, to be integrated into the final optic. In addition to the usual metrology based on profile and roughness measurements, a direct measurement with a broad, parallel, collimated and uniform Xray beam would be the most reliable test, without the need of a focal spot reconstruction as usually done in synchrotron light. To this end, we designed the BEaTriX (Beam Expander Testing X-ray facility) to be realized at INAF-OAB, devoted to the functional tests of the XOUs. A grazing incidence parabolic mirror and an asymmetrically cut crystal will produce a parallel X-ray beam broad enough to illuminate the entire aperture of the focusing elements. An X-ray camera at the focal distance from the mirrors will directly record the image. The selection of different crystals will enable to test the XOUs in the 1 - 5 keV range, included in the X-ray energy band of ATHENA (0.2-12 keV). In this paper we discuss a possible BEaTriX facility implementation. We also show a preliminary performance simulation of the optical system.
Finite elements for a beam system with nonlinear contact under periodic excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazim, H.; Rousselet, B.
Solar arrays are structures which are connected to satellites; during launch, they are in a folded position and submitted to high vibrations. In order to save mass, the flexibility of the panels is not negligible and they may strike each other; this may damage the structure. To prevent this, rubber snubbers are mounted at well chosen points of the structure; a prestress is applied to the snubber; but it is quite difficult to check the amount of prestress and the snubber may act only on one side; they will be modeled as one sided springs (see figure 2). In this article, some analysis for responses (displacements) in both time and frequency domains for a clamped-clamped Euler-Bernoulli beam model with a spring are presented. This spring can be unilateral or bilateral fixed at a point. The mounting (beam +spring) is fixed on a rigid support which has a sinusoidal motion of constant frequency. The system is also studied in the frequency domain by sweeping frequencies between two fixed values, in order to save the maximum of displacements corresponding to each frequency. Numerical results are compared with exact solutions in particular cases which already exist in the literature. On the other hand, a numerical and theoretical investigation of nonlinear normal mode (NNM) can be a new method to describe nonlinear behaviors, this work is in progress.
The Elemental Analysis of Biological and Environmental Materials Using a 2MEV Proton Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arshed, Waheed
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A programme has been developed to simulate the proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectra and its uses have been described. The PIXE technique has been applied to the analysis of new biological reference materials which consist of IAEA human diet samples and NIST leaf samples. Homogeneity of these and two existing reference materials, IAEA soil -7 and Bowen's kale, has also been determined at the mug scale. A subsample representative of a material is ascertained by determination of sampling factors for the elements detected in the material. Proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis in conjunction with PIXE has been employed to investigate F and other elemental concentrations found in human teeth samples. The mean F concentration in enamel and dentine parts of teeth followed an age dependent model. Concentrations of Ca and P were found to be higher in the enamel than in the dentine. Analysis of blood and its components in the study of elemental models in sickle cell disease in Nigerians has been carried out. Comparisons revealed that Cl, Ca and Cu were at higher levels whereas K, Fe, Zn and Rb were at lower levels in the whole blood of the sicklers compared to controls. Similar results were obtained for the erythrocytes except that Br was found at higher concentration in erythrocytes of the sicklers. Higher concentrations of Cl, K, Fe and Cu were also observed in plasma of the sicklers compared to controls. PIXE and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in the characterization of the Harmattan dust particulates collected at Kano and Ife. Most of the elements were found to be at higher concentrations as compared to those found in Recife (Brazil) and Toronto (Canada). The value of total suspended particulate was above the relevant national air quality standards. PIXE in conjunction with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed in the
Carey, D.C.
1999-12-09
TURTLE is a computer program useful for determining many characteristics of a particle beam once an initial design has been achieved, Charged particle beams are usually designed by adjusting various beam line parameters to obtain desired values of certain elements of a transfer or beam matrix. Such beam line parameters may describe certain magnetic fields and their gradients, lengths and shapes of magnets, spacings between magnetic elements, or the initial beam accepted into the system. For such purposes one typically employs a matrix multiplication and fitting program such as TRANSPORT. TURTLE is designed to be used after TRANSPORT. For convenience of the user, the input formats of the two programs have been made compatible. The use of TURTLE should be restricted to beams with small phase space. The lumped element approximation, described below, precludes the inclusion of the effect of conventional local geometric aberrations (due to large phase space) or fourth and higher order. A reading of the discussion below will indicate clearly the exact uses and limitations of the approach taken in TURTLE.
Application of alpha spectrometry to the discovery of new elements by heavy-ion-beam bombardment
Nitschke, J.M.
1983-05-01
Starting with polonium in 1898, ..cap alpha..-spectrometry has played a decisive role in the discovery of new, heavy elements. For even-even nuclei, ..cap alpha..-spectra have proved simple to interpret and exhibit systematic trends that allow extrapolation to unknown isotopes. The early discovery of the natural ..cap alpha..-decay series led to the very powerful method of genetically linking the decay of new elements to the well-established ..cap alpha..-emission of daughter and granddaughter nuclei. This technique has been used for all recent discoveries of new elements including Z = 109. Up to mendelevium (Z = 101), thin samples suitable for ..cap alpha..-spectrometry were prepared by chemical methods. With the advent of heavy-ion accelerators new sample preparation methods emerged. These were based on the large momentum transfer associated with heavy-ion reactions, which produced energetic target recoils that, when ejected from the target, could be thermalized in He gas. Subsequent electrical deposition or a He-jet technique yielded samples that were not only thin enough for ..cap alpha..-spectroscopy, but also for ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-recoil experiments. Many variations of these methods have been developed and are discussed. For the synthesis of element 106 an aerosol-based recoil transport technique was devised. In the most recent experiments, ..cap alpha..-spectrometry has been coupled with the magnetic analysis of the recoils. The time from production to analysis of an isotope has thereby been reduced to 10/sup -6/ s; while it was 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup 0/ s for He-jets and 10/sup 1/ to 10/sup 3/ s for rapid chemical separations. Experiments are now in progress to synthesize super heavy elements (SHE) and to analyze them with these latest techniques. Again, ..cap alpha..-spectrometry will play a major role since the expected signature for the decay of a SHE is a sequence of ..cap alpha..-decays followed by spontaneous fission.
Beam studies of novel THGEM-based potential sampling elements for Digital Hadron Calorimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bressler, S.; Arazi, L.; Natal da Luz, H.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Moleri, L.; Oliveri, E.; Pitt, M.; Rubin, A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Breskin, A.
2013-07-01
Beam studies of thin single- and double-stage THGEM-based detectors are presented. Several 10 × 10 cm2 configurations with a total thickness of 5-6 mm (excluding readout electronics), with 1 × 1 cm2 pads inductively coupled through a resistive layer to APV-SRS readout electronics, were investigated with muons and pions. Detection efficiencies in the 98% range were recorded with an average pad-multiplicity of ~ 1.1. The resistive anode resulted in efficient discharge damping, with few-volt potential drops; discharge probabilities were ~ 10-7 for muons and 10-6 for pions in the double-stage configuration, at rates of a few kHz/cm2. These results, together with the robustness of THGEM electrodes against spark damage and their suitability for economic production over large areas, make THGEM-based detectors highly competitive compared to the other technologies considered for the SiD-DHCAL.
GaInP and AlInP grown by elemental source molecular beam epitaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varriano, J. A.; Koch, M. W.; Johnson, F. G.; Wicks, G. W.
1992-02-01
We report on the use of a new, valved, solid phosphorus cracker source for the growth of phosphides by molecular beam epitaxy. The source avoids the relatively high expense and high level of toxicity associated with the use of phosphine gas and eliminates the problems commonly encountered in using conventional solid phosphorus sources. The source has been used to grow GaInP and AlInP lattice-matched to GaAs substrates. The quality of the materials reported here is comparable to the best materials grown by other techniques. Photoluminescence and Raman scattering measurements indicate that the resulting material has a high degree of disorder on the group III sublattice. The new source is shown to be a reliable and attractive alternative for the growth of these phosphide materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiao; Xu, Bo-qiang; Xu, Rong-qing; Shen, Zhong-hua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiao-wu
2004-02-01
Measurement of laser-generated transient Lamb waves propagation has been performed in 0.25 mm-thick iron plate by using a fibre sensor based on optical beam deflection technique. The detection principle of this optical method is discussed in detail. A high-powered Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was used to excite Lamb waves on the polished surface of iron plate. The well-defined Lamb waveforms, as well as their properties of oscillation and dispersion are presented in this paper. Furthermore, according to the ablation model, the development and propagation of Lamb waves are numerical simulated by the finite element method that has been widely used in laser ultrasonic field. The experimental results show good agreement with the numerical simulation. Therefore, this optical detection technique has considerable potential in ultrasonic field.
Ivanov, A A; Molokanov, A G; Shurshakov, V A; Bulynina, T M; Liakhova, K N; Severiukhin, Yu S; Abrosimova, A N; Ushakov, I B
2015-01-01
The experiment was performed with outbred ICR (CD-1). female mice (SPF). The animals were irradiated by 171 MeV protons at a dose of 20 cGy. The spacecraft radiation protection elements used in the experiment were a construction of wet hygiene wipes called a "protective blind", and a glass plate imitating an ISS window. Physical obstacles on the path of 171 MeV protons increase their linear energy transfer leading to the absorbed dose elevation and strengthening of the radiobiological effect. In the experiment, two types of obstacles together raised the absorbed dose from 20 to 23.2 cGy. Chemically different materials (glass and water in the wipes) were found to exert unequal modifying effects on physical and biological parameters of the proton-irradiated mice. There was a distinct dose-dependent reduction of bone marrow cellularity within the dose range from 20 cGy to 23.2 cGy in 24 hours after exposure. No modifying effect of the radiation protection elements on spontaneous motor activity was discovered when compared with entrance protons. The group of animals protected by the glass plate exhibited normal orientative-trying reactions and weakened grip with the forelimbs. Rationalization of physical methods of spacecrew protection should be based as on knowledge in physical dosimetry (ionizing chambers, thermoluminescent, track detectors etc.), so the radiobiological criteria established in experiments with animals. PMID:26738306
Scattering by single physically large and weak scatterers in the beam of a single-element transducer
Kemmerer, Jeremy P.; Oelze, Michael L.; Gyöngy, Miklós
2015-01-01
Quantitative ultrasound techniques are generally applied to characterize media whose scattering sites are considered to be small compared to a wavelength. In this study, the backscattered response of single weakly scattering spheres and cylinders with diameters comparable to the beam width of a 2.25 MHz single-element transducer were simulated and measured in the transducer focal plane to investigate the impact of physically large scatterers. The responses from large single spherical scatterers at the focus were found to closely match the plane-wave response. The responses from large cylindrical scatterers at the focus were found to differ from the plane-wave response by a factor of f−1. Normalized spectra from simulations and measurements were in close agreement: the fall-off of the responses as a function of lateral position agreed to within 2 dB for spherical scatterers and to within 3.5 dB for cylindrical scatterers. In both measurement and simulation, single scatterer diameter estimates were biased by less than 3% for a more highly focused transducer compared to estimates for a more weakly focused transducer. The results suggest that quantitative ultrasound techniques may produce physically meaningful size estimates for media whose response is dominated by scatterers comparable in size to the transducer beam. PMID:25786931
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Kotaro; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Noda, Kohei; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi
2016-03-01
A diffractive optical element with a three-dimensional liquid crystal (LC) alignment structure for advanced control of polarized beams was fabricated by a highly efficient one-step photoalignment method. This study is of great significance because different two-dimensional continuous and complex alignment patterns can be produced on two alignment films by simultaneously irradiating an empty glass cell composed of two unaligned photocrosslinkable polymer LC films with three-beam polarized interference beam. The polarization azimuth, ellipticity, and rotation direction of the diffracted beams from the resultant LC grating widely varied depending on the two-dimensional diffracted position and the polarization states of the incident beams. These polarization diffraction properties are well explained by theoretical analysis based on Jones calculus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Świta, P.; Kamiński, M.
2016-05-01
The main purpose is to present the stochastic perturbation-based Finite Element Method analysis of the stability in the issues related to the influence of high temperature resulting from a fire directly connected with the reliability analysis of such structures. The thin-walled beam structures with constant cross-sectional thickness are uploaded with typical constant loads, variable loads and, additionally, a temperature increase and we look for the first critical value equivalent to the global stability loss. Such an analysis is carried out in the probabilistic context to determine as precisely as possible the safety margins according to the civil engineering Eurocode statements. To achieve this goal we employ the additional design-oriented Finite Element Method program and computer algebra system to get the analytical polynomial functions relating the critical pressure (or force) and several random design parameters; all the models are state-dependent as we consider an additional reduction of the strength parameters due to the temperature increase. The first four probabilistic moments of the critical forces are computed assuming that the input random parameters have all Gaussian probability functions truncated to the positive values only. Finally, the reliability index is calculated according to the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) by an application of the limit function as a difference in-between critical pressure and maximum compression stress determined in the given structures to verify their durability according to the demands of EU engineering designing codes related to the fire situation.
BEaTriX, expanded x-ray beam facility for testing modular elements of telescope optics: an update
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelliciari, C.; Spiga, D.; Bonnini, E.; Buffagni, E.; Ferrari, C.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.
2015-09-01
We present in this paper an update on the design of BEaTriX (Beam Expander Testing X-ray facility), an X-ray apparatus to be realized at INAF/OAB and that will generate an expanded, uniform and parallel beam of soft X-rays. BEaTriX will be used to perform the functional tests of X-ray focusing modules of large X-ray optics such as those for the ATHENA X-ray observatory, using the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) as a baseline technology, and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) as a possible alternative. Performing the tests in X-rays provides the advantage of an in-situ, at-wavelength quality control of the optical modules produced in series by the industry, performing a selection of the modules with the best angular resolution, and, in the case of SPOs, there is also the interesting possibility to align the parabolic and the hyperbolic stacks directly under X-rays, to minimize the aberrations. However, a parallel beam with divergence below 2 arcsec is necessary in order to measure mirror elements that are expected to reach an angular resolution of about 4 arcsec, since the ATHENA requirement for the entire telescope is 5 arcsec. Such a low divergence over the typical aperture of modular optics would require an X-ray source to be located in a several kilometers long vacuum tube. In contrast, BEaTriX will be compact enough (5 m x 14 m) to be housed in a small laboratory, will produce an expanded X-ray beam 60 mm x 200 mm broad, characterized by a very low divergence (1.5 arcsec HEW), strong polarization, high uniformity, and X-ray energy selectable between 1.5 keV and 4.5 keV. In this work we describe the BEaTriX layout and show a performance simulation for the X-ray energy of 4.5 keV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Biao; Tang, Jingyu; Yan, Fang; Li, Zhihui; Meng, Cai; Pei, Shilun
2015-06-01
In order to achieve the extremely high reliability and availability in superconducting linacs required by some applications such as in accelerator-driven systems (ADS), a fault tolerance design is usually pursued. With the example of the China-ADS main linac, the failure effects of key elements such as RF cavities and focusing elements in different locations along the linac have been studied and the schemes of compensation by means of the local compensation-rematch method have been proposed. For cavity failures, by adjusting the settings of the neighboring cavities and focusing elements one can make sure that the Twiss parameters and beam energy are recovered to the nominal ones at the matching point. For solenoid failures in the low energy section, a novel method by using a neighbor cavity with reverse phase is used to maintain simultaneous acceleration and focusing in both the transverse and longitudinal phase planes. For quadrupole failures in the warm transitions in the high energy section, triplet focusing structure is adopted which can be converted locally into a doublet focusing in case of one quadrupole failure and the rematch method is proven very effective. With macro-particle simulations by TraceWin, it is found that the normalized rms emittance has no obvious growth and the halo emittance has modest growth after applying the local compensation-rematch in the cases mentioned above. In addition, a self-made code based on MATLAB has been developed to double check the simulations by TraceWin for the local compensation and rematch method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Norman F., Jr. (Principal Investigator)
1996-01-01
The goal of this research project is to develop assumed-stress hybrid elements with rotational degrees of freedom for analyzing composite structures. During the first year of the three-year activity, the effort was directed to further assess the AQ4 shell element and its extensions to buckling and free vibration problems. In addition, the development of a compatible 2-node beam element was to be accomplished. The extensions and new developments were implemented in the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed COMET. An assessment was performed to verify the implementation and to assess the performance of these elements in terms of accuracy. During the second and third years, extensions to geometrically nonlinear problems were developed and tested. This effort involved working with the nonlinear solution strategy as well as the nonlinear formulation for the elements. This research has resulted in the development and implementation of two additional element processors (ES22 for the beam element and ES24 for the shell elements) in COMET. The software was developed using a SUN workstation and has been ported to the NASA Langley Convex named blackbird. Both element processors are now part of the baseline version of COMET.
Rao, D.; Swapna, M; Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Akatsuka, T; Yuasa, T; Takeda, T; Tromba, G; Gigante, G
2009-01-01
In this study, synchrotron-based micro-beam was utilized for elemental mapping of a small animal shell. A thin X-ray spot of the order of {approx}10 em was focused on the sample. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, the X-ray fluorescent intensities for Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cu were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive HpGe detector. The sample is scanned in a estep-and-repeat' mode for fast elemental mapping and generated elemental maps at 8, 10 and 12 keV. All images are of 10 em resolution and the measurement time was 1 s per point. The accumulation of trace elements was investigated from the soft-tissue in small areas. Analysis of the small areas will be better suited to establish the physiology of metals in specific structures like small animal shell and the distribution of other trace elements.
Zhang, Guan-Jun; Yang, Jie; Guan, Feng-Jiao; Chen, Dan; Li, Na; Cao, Libo; Mao, Haojie
2016-09-01
The effects of formalin fixation on bone material properties remain debatable. In this study, we collected 36 fresh-frozen cuboid-shaped cortical specimens from five male bovine femurs and immersed half of the specimens into 4% formalin fixation liquid for 30 days. We then conducted three-point bending tests and used both beam theory method and an optimization method combined with specimen-specific finite element (FE) models to identify material parameters. Through the optimization FE method, the formalin-fixed bones showed a significantly lower Young's modulus (-12%) compared to the fresh-frozen specimens, while no difference was observed using the beam theory method. Meanwhile, both the optimization FE and beam theory methods revealed higher effective failure strains for formalin-fixed bones compared to fresh-frozen ones (52% higher through the optimization FE method and 84% higher through the beam theory method). Hence, we conclude that the formalin fixation has a significant effect on bovine cortical bones at small, elastic, as well as large, plastic deformations. PMID:27447849
Raphael, David T.; Li, Xiang; Park, Jinhyoung; Chen, Ruimin; Chabok, Hamid; Barukh, Arthur; Zhou, Qifa; Elgazery, Mahmoud; Shung, K. Kirk
2012-01-01
Feasibility is demonstrated for a forward-imaging beam steering system involving a single-element 20 MHz angled-face acoustic transducer combined with an internal rotating variable-angle reflecting surface (VARS). Rotation of the VARS structure, for a fixed position of the transducer, generates a 2-D angular sector scan. If these VARS revolutions were to be accompanied by successive rotations of the single-element transducer, 3-D imaging would be achieved. In the design of this device, a single-element 20 MHz PMN-PT press-focused angled-face transducer is focused on the circle of midpoints of a micro-machined VARS within the distal end of an endoscope. The 2-D imaging system was tested in water bath experiments with phantom wire structures at a depth of 10 mm, and exhibited an axial resolution of 66 μm and a lateral resolution of 520 μm. Chirp coded excitation was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and to increase the depth of penetration. Images of an ex vivo cow eye were obtained. This VARS-based approach offers a novel forward-looking beam-steering method, which could be useful in intra-cavity imaging. PMID:23122968
Raphael, David T; Li, Xiang; Park, Jinhyoung; Chen, Ruimin; Chabok, Hamid; Barukh, Arthur; Zhou, Qifa; Elgazery, Mahmoud; Shung, K Kirk
2013-02-01
Feasibility is demonstrated for a forward-imaging beam steering system involving a single-element 20MHz angled-face acoustic transducer combined with an internal rotating variable-angle reflecting surface (VARS). Rotation of the VARS structure, for a fixed position of the transducer, generates a 2-D angular sector scan. If these VARS revolutions were to be accompanied by successive rotations of the single-element transducer, 3-D imaging would be achieved. In the design of this device, a single-element 20MHz PMN-PT press-focused angled-face transducer is focused on the circle of midpoints of a micro-machined VARS within the distal end of an endoscope. The 2-D imaging system was tested in water bath experiments with phantom wire structures at a depth of 10mm, and exhibited an axial resolution of 66μm and a lateral resolution of 520μm. Chirp coded excitation was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and to increase the depth of penetration. Images of an ex vivo cow eye were obtained. This VARS-based approach offers a novel forward-looking beam-steering method, which could be useful in intra-cavity imaging. PMID:23122968
Assoufid, L.; Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.M.
1994-08-01
The third generation of synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide users with a high brilliance x-ray beam with high power and power densities. In many cases, the first optical component to intercept the x-ray beam is a silicon-crystal monochromator. Due to extreme heat loading, the photon throughput and brilliance will be severely degraded if the monochromator is not properly designed (or cooled). This document describes a series of finite element analyses performed on room temperature silicon for the three standard APS sources, namely, the bending magnet, Wiggler A, and Undulator A. The modeling is performed with the silicon cooled directly with water or liquid gallium through rectangular channels. The temperature distributions and thermally induced deformations are presented.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Spatially-resolved spectroscopy provides a means for measuring the optical properties of biological tissues, based on analytical solutions to diffusion approximation for semi-infinite media under the normal illumination of infinitely small size light beam. The method is, however, prone to error in m...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maleki Moghadam, Reza; Hosseini, Seyyed Ahmad; Salehi, Manouchehr
2014-08-01
The influence of Stone-Thrower-Wales (STW) defect is scrutinized on the fundamental frequency of single walled carbon nanotube invoking molecular mechanics approach. The modal finite element analysis is carried out by employing Timoshenko's beam element to construct the Carbon-Carbon bond of CNT lattice structure. Hence, three configurations of defective CNTs are taken into account by applying two kinds of boundary conditions. The results demonstrate that the frequencies are dependent on boundary conditions, CNT length, chirality and defect position as the critical position of STW defect is near the fixed end for both cantilever and bridge boundary conditions. Likewise, the results reveal that the natural frequencies extremely depend on the orientation of C-C bond concentrated at the STW defect. Meanwhile, by increasing the number of defects, the models indicate different behaviors ascribing to bond rearrangement imposed by STW defect. The results are in good agreement with those from other literatures.
Zhang, Lin; Sánchez Del Río, Manuel; Monaco, Giulio; Detlefs, Carsten; Roth, Thomas; Chumakov, Aleksandr I; Glatzel, Pieter
2013-07-01
X-ray crystal monochromators exposed to white-beam X-rays in third-generation synchrotron light sources are subject to thermal deformations that must be minimized using an adequate cooling system. A new approach was used to measure the crystal shape profile and slope of several cryogenically cooled (liquid nitrogen) silicon monochromators as a function of beam power in situ and under heat load. The method utilizes multiple angular scans across the Bragg peak (rocking curve) at various vertical positions of a narrow-gap slit downstream from the monochromator. When increasing the beam power, the surface of the liquid-nitrogen-cooled silicon crystal deforms from a concave shape at low heat load to a convex shape at high heat load, passing through an approximately flat shape at intermediate heat load. Finite-element analysis is used to calculate the crystal thermal deformations. The simulated crystal profiles and slopes are in excellent agreement with experiments. The parameters used in simulations, such as material properties, absorbed power distribution on the crystal and cooling boundary conditions, are described in detail as they are fundamental for obtaining accurate results. PMID:23765298
Oftadeh, R; Karimi, Z; Villa-Camacho, J; Tanck, E; Verdonschot, N; Goebel, R; Snyder, B D; Hashemi, H N; Vaziri, A; Nazarian, A
2016-01-01
In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain critical stresses within the human femur model. To test the proposed method, ten human cadaveric femurs with and without simulated defects were mechanically tested under axial compression to failure. Quantitative computed tomography images were acquired from the samples, and CTRA and finite element analysis were performed to obtain the failure load as well as rigidities in both straight and curved cross sections. Experimental results were compared to the results obtained from FEA and CTRA. The failure loads predicated by curved beam CTRA and FEA are in agreement with experimental results. The results also show that the proposed method is an efficient and reliable method to find both the location and magnitude of failure load. Moreover, the results show that the proposed curved CTRA outperforms the regular straight beam CTRA, which ignores the bone intrinsic curvature and can be used as a useful tool in clinical practices. PMID:27585495
Zhang, Lin; Sánchez del Río, Manuel; Monaco, Giulio; Detlefs, Carsten; Roth, Thomas; Chumakov, Aleksandr I.; Glatzel, Pieter
2013-01-01
X-ray crystal monochromators exposed to white-beam X-rays in third-generation synchrotron light sources are subject to thermal deformations that must be minimized using an adequate cooling system. A new approach was used to measure the crystal shape profile and slope of several cryogenically cooled (liquid nitrogen) silicon monochromators as a function of beam power in situ and under heat load. The method utilizes multiple angular scans across the Bragg peak (rocking curve) at various vertical positions of a narrow-gap slit downstream from the monochromator. When increasing the beam power, the surface of the liquid-nitrogen-cooled silicon crystal deforms from a concave shape at low heat load to a convex shape at high heat load, passing through an approximately flat shape at intermediate heat load. Finite-element analysis is used to calculate the crystal thermal deformations. The simulated crystal profiles and slopes are in excellent agreement with experiments. The parameters used in simulations, such as material properties, absorbed power distribution on the crystal and cooling boundary conditions, are described in detail as they are fundamental for obtaining accurate results. PMID:23765298
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kvaternik, R. G.
1976-01-01
The manner of representing a flight vehicle structure as an assembly of beam, spring, and rigid-body components for vibration analysis is described. The development is couched in terms of a substructures methodology which is based on the finite-element stiffness method. The particular manner of employing beam, spring, and rigid-body components to model such items as wing structures, external stores, pylons supporting engines or external stores, and sprung masses associated with launch vehicle fuel slosh is described by means of several simple qualitative examples. A detailed numerical example consisting of a tilt-rotor VTOL aircraft is included to provide a unified illustration of the procedure for representing a structure as an equivalent system of beams, springs, and rigid bodies, the manner of forming the substructure mass and stiffness matrices, and the mechanics of writing the equations of constraint which enforce deflection compatibility at the junctions of the substructures. Since many structures, or selected components of structures, can be represented in this manner for vibration analysis, the modeling concepts described and their application in the numerical example shown should prove generally useful to the dynamicist.
Oftadeh, R.; Karimi, Z.; Villa-Camacho, J.; Tanck, E.; Verdonschot, N.; Goebel, R.; Snyder, B. D.; Hashemi, H. N.; Vaziri, A.; Nazarian, A.
2016-01-01
In this paper, a CT based structural rigidity analysis (CTRA) method that incorporates bone intrinsic local curvature is introduced to assess the compressive failure load of human femur with simulated lytic defects. The proposed CTRA is based on a three dimensional curved beam theory to obtain critical stresses within the human femur model. To test the proposed method, ten human cadaveric femurs with and without simulated defects were mechanically tested under axial compression to failure. Quantitative computed tomography images were acquired from the samples, and CTRA and finite element analysis were performed to obtain the failure load as well as rigidities in both straight and curved cross sections. Experimental results were compared to the results obtained from FEA and CTRA. The failure loads predicated by curved beam CTRA and FEA are in agreement with experimental results. The results also show that the proposed method is an efficient and reliable method to find both the location and magnitude of failure load. Moreover, the results show that the proposed curved CTRA outperforms the regular straight beam CTRA, which ignores the bone intrinsic curvature and can be used as a useful tool in clinical practices. PMID:27585495
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nurjannah, S. A.; Budiono, B.; Imran, I.; Sugiri, S.
2016-04-01
Research on concrete material continues in several countries and had produced a concrete type of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) which has a better compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and durability than normal concrete (NC) namely Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC). Researches on structures using RPC material showed that the RPC structures had a better performance than the NC structures in resisting gravity and lateral cyclic loads. In this study, an experiment was conducted to apply combination of constant axial and lateral cyclic loads to a prototype of RPC interior partial prestressed beam-column subassemblage (prototype of BCS-RPC) with a value of Partial Prestressed Ratio (PPR) of 31.72% on the beam. The test results were compared with finite element model of beam-column subassemblage made of RPC by PPR of 31.72% (BCS-RPC-31.72). Furthermore, there was BCS-RPC modeling with PPR of 21.39% (BCS-RPC-21.39) and beam-column subassemblages made of NC materials modeling with a value of PPR at 21.09% (BCS-NC-21.09) and 32.02% (BCS-NC-32.02). The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of the BCS-RPC models compared to the performance of the BCS-NC models with PPR values below and above 25%, which is the maximum limit of permitted PPR. The results showed that all models of BCS-RPC had a better performance than all models of BCS-NC and the BCS-RPC model with PPR above 25% still behaved ductile and was able to dissipate energy well.
Lee, E.P.; Younger, F.C.; Cruz, G.E.; Nolting, E.
1986-06-23
This report describes beam director elements for an experiment at the Advanced Test Accelerator. The elements described include a vernier magnet for beam aiming, an achromat magnet, and an isolation system for the beam interface. These components are built at small scale for concept testing. (JDH)
Meyer, R.A.; Decman, D.J.; Henry, E.A.; Hoff, R.W.; Mann, L.G.; Struble, G.L.; Ussery, L.E.
1984-05-10
We describe our in-beam superconducting conversion electron spectrometer and its use in a (t,p) proton-conversion electron coincidence mode. Several examples of completed and on-going investigations are presented. These include: E0 strength from the /sup 238/U fission isomer; electromagnetic properties of the J/sup ..pi../ = 6/sup +/ and 8/sup +/ states of /sup 210/Pb; single particle and cluster states of /sup 213/Fr; the J/sup ..pi../ = 21/2/sup +/ isomer in /sup 197/Au and /sup 199/Au; and the cluster states of /sup 199/Au. Results of the study of odd-odd deformed /sup 244/Am are presented. The latter results performed using neutron-capture gamma-ray and conversion electron techniques are compared to recent developments in the modeling of deformed odd-odd nuclei. 23 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butschke, Joerg; Irmscher, Mathias; Koepernik, Corinna; Martens, Stephan; Sailer, Holger; Schnabel, Bernd
2015-03-01
Targeting mass production of nanostructures, nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is one of the most cost-effective ways to do so. One of the most critical topics is the pattern quality of the imprint master template. Therefore the new Vistec SB4050 VSB e-beam writer has been evaluated regarding its capability for state-of-the-art NIL template and DOE making. Equipped with a new air bearing stage the tool can expose a wide variety of substrates including large and heavy ones. For 9035 substrates a placement accuracy of 9nm (3sigma) as well as an overlay accuracy of 7nm (3sigma) with a mean error below 2nm has been achieved. Targeting for minimum feature size, a resolution below 30nm has been achieved for both, dense lines and holes pattern even using CAR. In addition, 3D structuring capability has been proved by applying GenISys' Layout Beamer calibrated for an appropriate negative tone resist. Further investigation has been done on shot count optimization regarding circular holes respective pillars. Using a feature size dependent segmentation, writing time reduction could be achieved keeping the original feature shape. Besides screening of typical tool parameter an application driven evaluation has been done by fabricating different type of templates based on silicon and quartz. 2D and 3D features have been realized. Furthermore holograms have been fabricated and proved for their performance by optical measurements.
Sokaras, D; Karydas, A G; Oikonomou, A; Zacharias, N; Beltsios, K; Kantarelou, V
2009-12-01
Ion beam analysis (IBA)- and X-ray fluorescence (XRF)-based techniques have been well adopted in cultural-heritage-related analytical studies covering a wide range of diagnostic role, i.e., from screening purposes up to full quantitative characterization. In this work, a systematic research was carried out towards the identification and evaluation of the advantages and the limitations of laboratory-based (IBA, electron probe microanalyzer) and portable (milli-XRF and micro-XRF) techniques. The study focused on the analysis of an Archaic glass bead collection recently excavated from the city of Thebes (mainland, Greece), in order to suggest an optimized and synergistic analytical methodology for similar studies and to assess the reliability of the quantification procedure of analyses conducted in particular by portable XRF spectrometers. All the employed analytical techniques and methodologies proved efficient to provide in a consistent way characterization of the glass bead composition, with analytical range and sensitivity depending on the particular technique. The obtained compositional data suggest a solid basis for the understanding of the main technological features related to the raw major and minor materials utilized for the manufacture of the Thebian ancient glass bead collection. PMID:19821114
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albarazanchi, Abbas; Gerard, Philippe; Ambs, Pierre; Meyrueis, Patrick
2014-05-01
There is an increasing demand for optical elements having the functionalities of hybrid devices, such as the combination of a Fresnel lens and a diffraction grating. These new devices can be used in many applications, such as in optical spectrometers, optical precision measurement systems and diffractive optical systems for enhancing the efficiency of third generation photovoltaic solar cells. There is also a growing need for developments of a cost-effective technology to fabricate compact optical devices. Therefore the motivation of our project is to find a new model of the G-Fresnel (i.e. grating and Fresnel lens) taking into account the utilization of the electromagnetic theory for the rigorous analysis of its behavior. In this paper, a novel method is proposed and employed to design a G-Fresnel device that has only one structure layer with subwavelength features, and that focuses and separates different bands of light spectra in the same focal plane. The device performance has been studied through the use of rigorous electromagnetic theory, by using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) for the study of the near field and the Angular Spectrum Method (ASM) for the study of the propagation in the far field. The optimal design of the G-Fresnel profiles depends on the profile of the Fresnel lenses that minimize the longitude chromatic aberration, and also on the diffraction grating with high first order diffraction efficiency. The verification of the G-Fresnel model that we propose shows high diffraction efficiency and a good performance in separation for a broadband light spectrum. This promising G-Fresnel model could be used to increase the efficiency of third generation photovoltaic cells.
Puso, M; Maker, B N; Ferencz, R M; Hallquist, J O
2000-03-24
This report provides the NIKE3D user's manual update summary for changes made from version 3.0.0 April 24, 1995 to version 3.3.6 March 24,2000. The updates are excerpted directly from the code printed output file (hence the Courier font and formatting), are presented in chronological order and delineated by NIKE3D version number. NIKE3D is a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the finite strain static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, 2-node truss and beam elements, and 4-node membrane and shell elements. Thirty constitutive models are available for representing a wide range of elastic, plastic, viscous, and thermally dependent material behavior. Contact-impact algorithms permit gaps, frictional sliding, and mesh discontinuities along material interfaces. Several nonlinear solution strategies are available, including Full-, Modified-, and Quasi-Newton methods. The resulting system of simultaneous linear equations is either solved iteratively by an element-by-element method, or directly by a direct factorization method.
2016-01-01
Purpose Stress distribution and mandible distortion during lateral movements are known to be closely linked to bruxism, dental implant placement, and temporomandibular joint disorder. The present study was performed to determine stress distribution and distortion patterns of the mandible during lateral movements in Class I, II, and III relationships. Methods Five Korean volunteers (one normal, two Class II, and two Class III occlusion cases) were selected. Finite element (FE) modeling was performed using information from cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans of the subjects’ skulls, scanned images of dental casts, and incisor movement captured by an optical motion-capture system. Results In the Class I and II cases, maximum stress load occurred at the condyle of the balancing side, but, in the Class III cases, the maximum stress was loaded on the condyle of the working side. Maximum distortion was observed on the menton at the midline in every case, regardless of loading force. The distortion was greatest in Class III cases and smallest in Class II cases. Conclusions The stress distribution along and accompanying distortion of a mandible seems to be affected by the anteroposterior position of the mandible. Additionally, 3-D modeling of the craniofacial skeleton using CBCT and an optical laser scanner and reproduction of mandibular movement by way of the optical motion-capture technique used in this study are reliable techniques for investigating the masticatory system. PMID:27127690
Chao, A.W.
1983-08-01
The subject of beam-beam instability has been studied since the invention of the colliding beam storage rings. Today, with several colliding beam storage rings in operation, it is not yet fully understood and remains an outstanding problem for the storage ring designers. No doubt that good progress has been made over the years, but what we have at present is still rather primitive. It is perhaps possible to divide the beam-beam subject into two areas: one on luminosity optimization and another on the dynamics of the beam-beam interaction. The former area concerns mostly the design and operational features of a colliding beam storage ring, while the later concentrates on the experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction. Although both areas are of interest, our emphasis is on the second area only. In particular, we are most interested in the various possible mechanisms that cause the beam-beam instability.
Moreno, Rodrigo; Brismar, Torkel B.; Pahr, Dieter H.; Smedby, Örjan
2016-01-01
Stiffness and shear moduli of human trabecular bone may be analyzed in vivo by finite element (FE) analysis from image data obtained by clinical imaging equipment such as high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). In clinical practice today, this is done in the peripheral skeleton like the wrist and heel. In this cadaveric bone study, fourteen bone specimens from the wrist were imaged by two dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) devices and one HR-pQCT device as well as by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Histomorphometric measurements from micro-CT data were used as gold standard. The image processing was done with an in-house developed code based on the automated region growing (ARG) algorithm. Evaluation of how well stiffness (Young’s modulus E3) and minimum shear modulus from the 12, 13, or 23 could be predicted from the CBCT and HR-pQCT imaging data was studied and compared to FE analysis from the micro-CT imaging data. Strong correlations were found between the clinical machines and micro-CT regarding trabecular bone structure parameters, such as bone volume over total volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and trabecular nodes (varying from 0.79 to 0.96). The two CBCT devices as well as the HR-pQCT showed the ability to predict stiffness and shear, with adjusted R2-values between 0.78 and 0.92, based on data derived through our in-house developed code based on the ARG algorithm. These findings indicate that clinically used CBCT may be a feasible method for clinical studies of bone structure and mechanical properties in future osteoporosis research. PMID:27513664
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manzolaro, M.; Meneghetti, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Vivian, G.
2016-03-01
The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the 238U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.
Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G
2016-03-01
The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the (238)U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed. PMID:27036768
Yuan, Liang Leon; Herman, Peter R
2015-12-21
A multi-level nanophotonic structure is a major goal in providing advanced optical functionalities as found in photonic crystals and metamaterials. A three-level nano-grating phase mask has been fabricated in an electron-beam resist (ma-N) to meet the requirement of holographic generation of a diamond-like 3D nanostructure in photoresist by a single exposure step. A 2D mask with 600 nm periodicity is presented for generating first order diffracted beams with a preferred π/2 phase shift on the X- and Y-axes and with sufficient 1(st) order diffraction efficiency of 3.5% at 800 nm wavelength for creating a 3D periodic nanostructure in SU-8 photoresist. The resulting 3D structure is anticipated to provide an 8% complete photonic band gap (PBG) upon silicon inversion. A thin SiO2 layer was used to isolate the grating layers and multiple spin-coating steps served to planarize the final resist layer. A reversible soft coating (aquaSAVE) was introduced to enable SEM inspection and verification of each insulating grating layer. This e-beam lithographic method is extensible to assembling multiple layers of a nanophotonic structure. PMID:26568395
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Liang (Leon); Herman, Peter R.
2015-11-01
A multi-level nanophotonic structure is a major goal in providing advanced optical functionalities as found in photonic crystals and metamaterials. A three-level nano-grating phase mask has been fabricated in an electron-beam resist (ma-N) to meet the requirement of holographic generation of a diamond-like 3D nanostructure in photoresist by a single exposure step. A 2D mask with 600 nm periodicity is presented for generating first order diffracted beams with a preferred π/2 phase shift on the X- and Y-axes and with sufficient 1st order diffraction efficiency of 3.5% at 800 nm wavelength for creating a 3D periodic nanostructure in SU-8 photoresist. The resulting 3D structure is anticipated to provide an 8% complete photonic band gap (PBG) upon silicon inversion. A thin SiO2 layer was used to isolate the grating layers and multiple spin-coating steps served to planarize the final resist layer. A reversible soft coating (aquaSAVE) was introduced to enable SEM inspection and verification of each insulating grating layer. This e-beam lithographic method is extensible to assembling multiple layers of a nanophotonic structure.
Giulian, Raquel; Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims dos; Shubeita, Samir de Moraes; Silva, Luiza Manfredi da; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Yoneama, Maria Lúcia
2007-02-01
Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. is used to prepare a traditional tealike beverage widely appreciated in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. In these countries, the tea is popularly known as mate or chimarrão. The aim of this work is to characterize the elemental composition of commercial Ilex paraguariensis and determine the portion of each element present in the leaves that is eluted in the water during the infusion process and consequently ingested by the drinker. Using the particle-induced X-ray emission technique, we verified the presence of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Rb at different concentrations, which accounts for about 3.4% of the total mass. The results show a loss of about 90% of K and Cl, 50% of Mg and P, and 20% of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Rb by the leaves after the infusion. The volume of water used in the infusion affects only the concentration of elements such as Cl, P, K, and Mg until the first 600 mL of water, where a steep decrease in the concentration of these elements was observed in brewed leaves. Furthermore, higher water temperatures (typical temperatures used in infusions, between 80 and 100 degrees C) favor the extraction of K and Cl into the infusion, while the concentration of other elements remains practically constant as a function of temperature. PMID:17263469
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khonina, S. N.; Kotlyar, V. V.; Soifer, V. A.; Jefimovs, K.; Pääkkönen, P.; Turunen, J.
2004-05-01
The oblique incidence of a He-Ne laser beam onto a phase-only diffractive optical element (DOE) that simultaneously produces several unimode different-order Bessel beams propagating at various angles with respect to the optical axis is studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that, under obliquely incident illumination of a DOE that forms Bessel beams, the resulting astigmatic diffraction pattern can be used to unambiguously identify the direction of the Bessel beam's phase rotation and the order of the Bessel mode.
Assoufid, L.; Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.
1994-10-01
In this paper, we give the results of a series of thermal and distortion finite element analyses performed on room temperature silicon for the three standard APS sources, namely, the bending magnet, Wiggler A, and Undulator A. The modeling was performed with the silicon cooled directly with water or liquid gallium through rectangular channels.
Assoufid, L.; Lee, W.; Mills, D.M. )
1995-03-01
In this paper, the results of a series of thermal and distortion finite element analyses performed on room-temperature silicon for the three standard APS sources, namely, the bending magnet, wiggler A, and undulator A, are reported. The modeling was performed with the silicon cooled directly with water or liquid gallium through rectangular channels.
Assoufid, L.; Lee, W.; Mills, D.M. )
1995-02-01
In this paper, the results of a series of thermal and distortion finite element analyses performed on room-temperature silicon for the three standard APS sources, namely, the bending magnet, wiggler A, and undulator A, are reported. The modeling was performed with the silicon cooled directly with water or liquid gallium through rectangular channels.
Xu, Jing-Yuan; Xie, Cheng-Zhi; Xue, Fei; Hao, Lan-Fang; Ma, Zhong-Ying; Liao, Dai-Zheng; Yan, Shi-Ping
2010-08-14
The directed assembly of N,N-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl-methyl)amine (BMA) with Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) salts based on dicyanamide (mu(1,5)-dca) and terephthalate (mu-ta) linear bridging ligands, respectively, leads to four novel compounds: [Cu(BMA)(mu(1,5)-dca)(ClO(4))](n) (1), {[Mn(BMA)(mu(1,5)-dca)(CH(3)OH)] x ClO(4) x C(10)H(9)N(3)O x CH(3)OH}(n) (2), {[Ni(2)(BMA)(2)(mu-ta)(mu(1,5)-dca)] x ClO(4) x CH(3)OH x H(2)O}(n) (3), and {[Zn(2)(BMA)(2)(mu-ta)(mu(1,5)-dca)] x ClO(4) x CH(3)OH}(n) (4), which were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR, fluorescence spectroscopy, and magnetic measurement. X-Ray analysis revealed that 1 and 2 are two infinite 1D coordination polymers, in which dca units serving as an end-to-end out-of-plane bridge bring about linear chains for 1 and zigzag chains for 2. Complexes 3 and 4 are similar, in which the metal atoms are bridged alternately by terephthalate and mu(1,5)-dicyanamide ligands into 1D zigzag chains. In all these complexes, each BMA ligand adopts a tridentate chelating mode to coordinate with a transition metal forming a [M(BMA)](2+) node. Different rigidity bridging ligands together with the stereochemistry and supramolecular effects of benzimidazol planes may result in the dramatic structural changes from 1D to multidimensional networks for all 1-4. Fluorescent measurements established that, in solution, complex 3 displays weak blue luminescence which originates from the BMA but is significantly red-shifted and has a much lower emission intensity, compared to the free BMA ligand. Complex 4 shows stronger luminescence than 3 and still reduces luminescence efficiency compared to the free BMA ligand. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements (2-300 K) of 1 and 3 show the dominant weak ferromagnetic interactions between the copper(II) centers with J = 3.02 cm(-1), zJ' = -2.70 cm(-1) for 1, and the nickel(II) centers with J = 1.94 cm(-1), J'; = -0.38 cm(-1) for 3
Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott
1992-01-01
A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.
GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, P. L.
1994-01-01
In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.
Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G; D'Agostini, F
2016-02-01
In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed. PMID:26932055
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manzolaro, M.; Meneghetti, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Vivian, G.; D'Agostini, F.
2016-02-01
In isotope separation on line facilities the target system and the related ion source are two of the most critical components. In the context of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) project, a 40 MeV 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The radioactive isotopes produced in this way are then directed to the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work both the surface ion source and the plasma ion source adopted for the SPES facility are presented and studied by means of numerical thermal-electric models. Then, numerical results are compared with temperature and electric potential difference measurements, and finally the main advantages of the proposed simulation approach are discussed.
Hybrid laser-beam-shaping system for rotatable dual beams with long depth of focus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Fu-Lung; Chen, Cheng-Huan; Lin, Yu-Chung; Lin, Mao-Chi
2016-08-01
A laser processing system consisting of two diffractive elements and one refractive element is proposed enabling a Gaussian laser beam to be transformed into two beams with a depth of focus of up to 150 µm and focal spot smaller than 5 µm. For specific laser processing, the two beams are rotatable when the beam-splitting diffractive element is rotated. The overall system is versatile for laser cutting and drilling.
Erdmann, N; Kratz, J-V; Trautmann, N; Passler, G
2009-11-01
Micro-particles containing actinides are of interest for risk assessments of contaminated areas, nuclear forensic analyses, and IAEA as well as Euratom safeguards programs. For their analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been established as the state-of-the-art standard technique. In the case of actinide mixtures within the particles, however, SIMS suffers from isobaric interferences (e.g., (238)U/(238)Pu, (241)Am/(241)Pu). This can be eliminated by applying resonance ionization mass spectrometry which is based on stepwise resonant excitation and ionization of atoms with laser light, followed by mass spectrometric detection of the produced ions, combining high elemental selectivity with the analysis of isotopic compositions. This paper describes the instrumental modifications for coupling a commercial time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS apparatus with three-step resonant post-ionization of the sputtered neutrals using a high-repetition-rate (kHz) Nd:YAG laser pumped tunable titanium:sapphire laser system. Spatially resolved ion images obtained from actinide-containing particles in TOF-SIMS mode demonstrate the capability for isotopic and spatial resolution. Results from three-step resonant post-ionization of bulk Gd and Pu samples successfully demonstrate the high elemental selectivity of this process. PMID:19557397
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poli, Louis C.; Kondek, Christine A.; Shoop, Barry L.; McLane, George F.
1995-06-01
Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are becoming important as optical signal processing elements in increasingly diverse applications. These elements, fabricated on quartz, may be used as phase shift type masks or as embedded components that implement a transfer function within a processing network. A process is under development for the fabrication of a DOE implementing a Jervis error diffusion kernel for research in half tone image processing. Dry etching is performed after lithography and pattern transfer through a nickel mask. This results in etched areal features on the substrate. An optical diffraction medium is thus created. Lithographic patterning is done by e-beam lithography (EBL) to realize small features, but also offers the important advantage of a large depth of field which relaxes the problem of complex surface topology. The recent availability of high energy (100 KeV) lithography tools provides a capability for precision overlay, small feature resolution, and enhanced image contrast through a lower induced proximity effect. Patterning by EBL on insulating substrates is complicated by the necessity of providing a vehicle for the avoidance of charge buildup on the surface. In a previously presented paper a methodology was shown for the use of TQV-501 (Nitto Chemical) antistatic compound as a final spin on film for use with PMMA and SAL-601 (Shipley). In this current work, a process is described using EBL and a high performance positive resist working with a final film layer of antistatic TQV-501 on a nickel coated wafer. The process may then be reapplied to realize additional lithographic levels in registration, for multilevel DOE components. High energy (100 KeV) EBL is used to provide high quality pattern definition. The e-beam sensitive resist, ZEP-320-37 (Nagase Chemical) in dilution, together with a top film layer of TQV-501 serves as a bilevel resist system and is used for patterning the desired image before definition of the nickel mask through
pBEAM Documentation: Release 0.1.0
Ning, S. A.
2013-09-01
The Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module (pBEAM) is a finite element code for beam-like structures. It was originally written to analyze tower/monopiles and rotor blades of wind turbines but can be used for any beam-like structure. This document discusses installation, usage, and documentation of the module.
Gaussian-Beam Laser-Resonator Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, Patricia L.; Bair, Clayton H.; Barnes, Norman
1989-01-01
Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators by use of Gaussian-beam-propagation techniques. Used to determine radii of beams as functions of position in laser resonators. Algorithm used in program has three major components. First, ray-transfer matrix for laser resonator must be calculated. Next, initial parameters of beam calculated. Finally, propagation of beam through optical elements computed. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01).
Metallic beam development for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beam
Machicoane, Guillaume Cole, Dallas; Leitner, Daniela; Neben, Derek; Tobos, Larry
2014-02-15
The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University (MSU) will accelerate a primary ion beam to energies beyond 200 MeV/u using a superconducting RF linac and will reach a maximum beam power of 400 kW on the fragmentation target. The beam intensity needed from the ECR ion source is expected to be between 0.4 and 0.5 emA for most medium mass to heavy mass elements. Adding to the challenge of reaching the required intensity, an expanded list of primary beams of interest has been established based on the production rate and the number of isotope beams that could be produced with FRIB. We report here on the development done for some of the beam in the list including mercury (natural), molybdenum ({sup 98}Mo), and selenium ({sup 82}Ser)
Resolving two beams in beam splitters with a beam position monitor
Kurennoy, S.
2002-01-01
The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters. Monitoring two separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on diagnostics for these sections. In this note we explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the positions of the two beams with a single diagnostic device. In the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF), 20-ns beam pulses (bunches) are extracted from the 50-GeV main proton synchrotron and then are transported to the target by an elaborated transport system. The beam transport system splits the beam bunches into equal parts in its splitting sections so that up to 12 synchronous beam pulses can be delivered to the target for the multi-axis proton radiography. Information about the transverse positions of the beams in the splitters, and possibly the bunch longitudinal profile, should be delivered by some diagnostic devices. Possible candidates are the circular wall current monitors in the circular pipes connecting the splitter elements, or the conventional stripline BPMs. In any case, we need some estimates on how well the transverse positions of the two beams can be resolved by these monitors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez-Ramos, M. C.; Eriksson, M.; García-López, J.; Ranebo, Y.; García-Tenorio, R.; Betti, M.; Holm, E.
2010-09-01
In order to validate and to gain confidence in two micro-beam techniques: particle induced X-ray emission with nuclear microprobe technique (μ-PIXE) and synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence in a confocal alignment (confocal SR μ-XRF) for characterization of microscopic particles containing actinide elements (mixed plutonium and uranium) a comparative study has been performed. Inter-comparison of the two techniques is essential as the X-ray production cross-sections for U and Pu are different for protons and photons and not well defined in the open literature, especially for Pu. The particles studied consisted of nuclear weapons material, and originate either in the so called Palomares accident in Spain, 1966 or in the Thule accident in Greenland, 1968. In the determination of the average Pu/U mass ratios (not corrected by self-absorption) in the analysed microscopic particles the results from both techniques show a very good agreement. In addition, the suitability of both techniques for the analysis with good resolution (down to a few μm) of the Pu/U distribution within the particles has been proved. The set of results obtained through both techniques has allowed gaining important information concerning the characterization of the remaining fissile material in the areas affected by the aircraft accidents. This type of information is essential for long-term impact assessments of contaminated sites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aleshin, A. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Ermakova, M. A.; Ruban, O. A.
2016-03-01
The crystallographic parameters of elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) heterostructure with In0.4Ga0.6As quantum well are determined using reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure has been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle of 2° from the (001) plane. The structure consists of a metamorphic step-graded buffer (composed of six layers, including an inverse step), a high-temperature buffer of constant composition, and active high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) layers. The InAs content in the metamorphic buffer layers varies from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space mapping has been performed for the 004 and 224 reflections (the latter in glancing exit geometry). Based on map processing, the lateral and vertical lattice parameters of In x Ga1- x As ternary solid solutions of variable composition have been determined. The degree of layer lattice relaxation and the compressive stress are found within the linear elasticity theory. The high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition (on which active MHEMT layers are directly formed) is shown to have the highest (close to 100%) degree of relaxation in comparison with all other heterostructure layers and a minimum compressive stress.
Infrared trace element detection system
Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.
1988-01-01
An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.
Infrared trace element detection system
Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.
1988-11-15
An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.
Silicon microfabricated beam expander
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.
2015-03-01
The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.
Silicon microfabricated beam expander
Othman, A. Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.
2015-03-30
The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.
Verification of Orthogrid Finite Element Modeling Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steeve, B. E.
1996-01-01
The stress analysis of orthogrid structures, specifically with I-beam sections, is regularly performed using finite elements. Various modeling techniques are often used to simplify the modeling process but still adequately capture the actual hardware behavior. The accuracy of such 'Oshort cutso' is sometimes in question. This report compares three modeling techniques to actual test results from a loaded orthogrid panel. The finite element models include a beam, shell, and mixed beam and shell element model. Results show that the shell element model performs the best, but that the simpler beam and beam and shell element models provide reasonable to conservative results for a stress analysis. When deflection and stiffness is critical, it is important to capture the effect of the orthogrid nodes in the model.
Beam moments and angular momentum in non-uniformly polarized beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serna, Julio; Piquero, Gemma
2009-05-01
The angular momentum of non-uniformly totally polarized beams is investigated using methods from the beam characterization approach. The relationship between the elements of the beam matrix for the two components of the field and the angular momentum is given. The unconventional distribution of the polarization across the beam profile could result in contributions to both the spin and orbital terms of the angular momentum. To illustrate this, a particular example with a vortex beam is considered.
Funneling: An intial beam-dynamics study
Guy, F.W.; Wangler, T.P.
1986-04-25
Funneling two H/sup -/ beams into a single beam of twice the current has been examined as a means of doubling beam current without significantly increasing transverse emittance. Using the PARMILA particle-following code, two 100-mA RFQ output beams at 2 MeV were injected into idealized transport lines for merging two beams into one. Two approaches were studied: (1) the ''minimum-element'' method, in which a minimum number of discrete elements such as quadrupole triplets, buncher cavities, and bending magnets were used to transport and deflect the beam; and (2) the ''quasi-adiabatic'' method, in which a periodic lattice similar to the RFQ provided focusing and minimized abrupt changes in the beam environment. The minimum-element method resulted in an emittance growth ratio epsilon/sub 0//epsilon/sub i/ = 2.5, whereas the quasi-adiabatic emittance growth ratio was about 1.1 (albeit with an idealized line configuration).
Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.
1995-08-01
The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the {open_quotes}Booster{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ATLAS{close_quotes} linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The Periodic Table of the elements will now have to be updated. An international team of researchers has added element 110 to the Earth's armory of elements. Though short-lived—of the order of microseconds, element 110 bottoms out the list as the heaviest known element on the planet. Scientists at the Heavy Ion Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany, made the 110-proton element by colliding a lead isotope with nickel atoms. The element, which is yet to be named, has an atomic mass of 269.
Phased laser array for generating a powerful laser beam
Holzrichter, John F.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.
2004-02-17
A first injection laser signal and a first part of a reference laser beam are injected into a first laser element. At least one additional injection laser signal and at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are injected into at least one additional laser element. The first part of a reference laser beam and the at least one additional part of a reference laser beam are amplified and phase conjugated producing a first amplified output laser beam emanating from the first laser element and an additional amplified output laser beam emanating from the at least one additional laser element. The first amplified output laser beam and the additional amplified output laser beam are combined into a powerful laser beam.
Adamson, P.; Anderson, K.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Anghel, I.; Augustine, D.; Aurisano, A.; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, D. S.; Baller, B.; et al
2015-10-20
Our paper describes the hardware and operations of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab. It elaborates on the design considerations for the beam as a whole and for individual elements. The most important part of our design details pertaining to individual components is described. Beam monitoring systems and procedures, including the tuning and alignment of the beam and NuMI long-term performance, are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamson, P.; Anderson, K.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Anghel, I.; Augustine, D.; Aurisano, A.; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, D. S.; Baller, B.; Barish, B.; Barr, G.; Barrett, W. L.; Bernstein, R. H.; Biggs, J.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bocean, V.; Bock, G. J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Bourkland, K.; Cao, S. V.; Castromonte, C. M.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Cobb, J. H.; Corwin, L.; Crane, D.; Cravens, J. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Ducar, R. J.; De Jong, J. K.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Erwin, A. R.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Fields, T. H.; Ford, R.; Frohne, M. V.; Gallagher, H. R.; Garkusha, V.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grossman, N.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Harding, D.; Harris, D.; Harris, P. G.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Hays, S.; Heller, K.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Ibrahim, A.; Indurthy, D.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Johnstone, J.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kopp, S.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Laughton, C.; Lefeuvre, G.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Loiacono, L.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marchionni, A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Michael, D. G.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, J. L.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Morfín, J.; Mualem, L.; Mufson, S.; Murgia, S.; Murtagh, M.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O`Connor, J.; Oliver, W. P.; Olsen, M.; Orchanian, M.; Osprey, S.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Para, A.; Patterson, R. B.; Patzak, T.; Pavlović, Ž.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Peterson, E. A.; Petyt, D. A.; Pfützner, M. M.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Prieto, P.; Pushka, D.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Ratchford, J.; Rebel, B.; Reilly, R.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Ruddick, K.; Sanchez, M. C.; Saoulidou, N.; Sauer, L.; Schneps, J.; Schoo, D.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Shanahan, P.; Sharma, R.; Smart, W.; Smith, C.; Sousa, A.; Stefanik, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Tassotto, G.; Thomas, J.; Thompson, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Tinsley, D.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Trostin, I.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Vaziri, K.; Villegas, E.; Viren, B.; Vogel, G.; Webber, R. C.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; Wehmann, A.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wong-Squires, M. L.; Yang, T.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Zarucheisky, V.; Zwaska, R.
2016-01-01
This paper describes the hardware and operations of the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab. It elaborates on the design considerations for the beam as a whole and for individual elements. The most important design details of individual components are described. Beam monitoring systems and procedures, including the tuning and alignment of the beam and NuMI long-term performance, are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, Ji Yao; Abu-Saba, Elias G.; Mcginley, William M.; Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.
1992-01-01
Distributed parameter modeling offers a viable alternative to the finite element approach for modeling large flexible space structures. The introduction of the transfer matrix method into the continuum modeling process provides a very useful tool to facilitate the distributed parameter model applied to some more complex configurations. A uniform Timoshenko beam model for the estimation of the dynamic properties of beam-like structures has given comparable results. But many aeronautical and aerospace structures are comprised of non-uniform sections or sectional properties, such as aircraft wings and satellite antennas. This paper proposes a piecewise continuous Timoshenko beam model which is used for the dynamic analysis of tapered beam-like structures. A tapered beam is divided into several segments of uniform beam elements. Instead of arbitrarily assumed shape functions used in finite element analysis, the closed-form solution of the Timoshenko beam equation is used. Application of the transfer matrix method relates all the elements as a whole. By corresponding boundary conditions and compatible conditions a characteristic equation for the global tapered beam has been developed, from which natural frequencies can be derived. A computer simulation is shown in this paper, and compared with the results obtained from the finite element analysis. While piecewise continuous Timoshenko beam model decreases the number of elements significantly; comparable results to the finite element method are obtained.
Beam Positior Monitor Engineering
Smith, Stephen R.
1996-12-31
The design of beam position monitors often involves challenging system design choices. Position transducers must be robust, accurate, and generate adequate position signal without unduly disturbing the beam. Electronics must be reliable and affordable, usually while meeting tough requirements on precision. accuracy, and dynamic range. These requirements may be difficult to achieve simultaneously, leading the designer into interesting opportunities for optimization or compromise. Some useful techniques and tools are shown. Both finite element analysis and analytic techniques will be used to investigate quasi-static aspects of electromagnetic fields such as the impedance of and the coupling of beam to striplines or buttons. Finite-element tools will be used to understand dynamic aspects of the electromagnetic fields of beams, such as wake-fields and transmission-line and cavity effects in vacuum-to-air feed through. Mathematical modeling of electrical signals through a processing chain will be demonstrated, in particular to illuminate areas where neither a pure time-domain nor a pure frequency-domain analysis is obviously advantageous. Emphasis will be on calculational techniques, in particular on using both time-domain and frequency domain approaches to the applicable parts of interesting problems.
Mass spectrometer and methods of increasing dispersion between ion beams
Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.; Delmore, James E.
2006-01-10
A mass spectrometer includes a magnetic sector configured to separate a plurality of ion beams, and an electrostatic sector configured to receive the plurality of ion beams from the magnetic sector and increase separation between the ion beams, the electrostatic sector being used as a dispersive element following magnetic separation of the plurality of ion beams. Other apparatus and methods are provided.
Beam optics of the AmPS extraction line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoekstra, R.
1991-01-01
The beam optics of the AmPS (Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher) are described. Definitions are outlined, and the beam elements and parameters are given. Developments relating to the electrostatic septum, chicane, beam transformer and bending through 90 degrees are described. The performance of the AmPS and beam diagnostics are discussed.
Interactive Beam-Dynamics Program
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2001-01-08
TRACE3D is an interactive program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined system. The transport system may consist of the following elements: drift, thin lens, quadrupole, permanent magnet quadrupole, solenoid, doublet, triplet, bending magnet, edge angle (for bend), RF gap, radio-frequency-quadrupole cell, RF cavity, coupled-cavity tank, user-desired element, coordinate rotation, and identical element. The beam is represented by a 6X6 matrix defining a hyper-ellipsoid in six-dimensional phasemore » space. The projection of this hyperellipsoid on any two-dimensional plane is an ellipse that defines the boundary of the beam in that plane.« less
Pardo, R.C.; Zinkann, G.P.
1995-08-01
A program for configuring the linac, based on previously run configurations for any desired beam was used during the past year. This program uses only a small number of empirical tunes to scale resonator fields to properly accelerate a beam with a different charge-to-mass (q/A) ratio from the original tune configuration. The program worked very well for the PII linac section where we can easily match a new beam`s arrival phase and velocity to the tuned value. It was also fairly successful for the Booster and ATLAS sections of the linac, but not as successful as for the PII linac. Most of the problems are associated with setting the beam arrival time correctly for each major linac section. This problem is being addressed with the development of the capacitive pickup beam phase monitor discussed above. During the next year we expect to improve our ability to quickly configure the linac for new beams and reduce the time required for linac tuning. Already the time required for linac tuning as a percentage of research hours has decreased from 22% in FY 1993 to 15% in the first quarter of FY 1995.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Z.; Challamel, N.; Wang, C. M.
2013-09-01
This paper presents the determination of Eringen's small length scale coefficient e0 for buckling of nonlocal Timoshenko beam from a microstructured beam model. The microstructured beam model is composed of discrete rigid elements (of equal length), which are connected by rotational and shear springs that model the bending and shearing behaviors in a beam. The exact solution of e0 is given for nonlocal Timoshenko beam with small length scale term appearing in the normal stress-strain relation only. It is shown that e0 approaches 1/√12 ≈0.289 which coincides with the one calibrated for nonlocal Euler beams.
TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers
Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.
1993-11-01
The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET.
Beam-beam deflection and signature curves for elliptic beams
Ziemann, V.
1990-10-22
In this note we will present closed expressions for the beam-beam deflection angle for arbitrary elliptic beams including tilt. From these expressions signature curves, i.e., systematic deviations from the round beam deflection curve due to ellipticity or tilt are derived. In the course of the presentation we will prove that it is generally impossible to infer individual beam sizes from beam-beam deflection scans. 3 refs., 2 figs.
Tonneson, L.C.
1997-01-01
Trace elements used in nutritional supplements and vitamins are discussed in the article. Relevant studies are briefly cited regarding the health effects of selenium, chromium, germanium, silicon, zinc, magnesium, silver, manganese, ruthenium, lithium, and vanadium. The toxicity and food sources are listed for some of the elements. A brief summary is also provided of the nutritional supplements market.
Scattering apodizer for laser beams
Summers, M.A.; Hagen, W.F.; Boyd, R.D.
1984-01-01
A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.
Scattering apodizer for laser beams
Summers, Mark A.; Hagen, Wilhelm F.; Boyd, Robert D.
1985-01-01
A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.
Kuchnir, Moyses; Mills, Frederick E.
1987-01-01
A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.
Kuchnir, M.; Mills, F.E.
1984-09-28
A current sensor for measuring the dc component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivities in the nano-ampere range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, S.
1998-06-01
The search for new elements is part of the broader field of investigations of nuclei at the limits of stability. In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements 0034-4885/61/6/002/img2 were synthesized via fusion reactions using 1n-deexcitation channels and lead or bismuth targets. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of 0034-4885/61/6/002/img3 correlations. Alpha decay, not fission, is the dominant decay mode. The collected decay data establish a means of comparison with theoretical data. This aids in the selection of appropriate models that describe the properties of known nuclei. Predictions based on these models are useful in the preparation of the next generation of experiments. Cross sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z = 107) to element 112, for which a cross section of 1 pb was measured. The development of intense beam currents and sensitive detection methods is essential for the production and identification of still heavier elements and new isotopes of already known elements, as well as the measurement of small 0034-4885/61/6/002/img4-, 0034-4885/61/6/002/img5- and fission-branching ratios. An equally sensitive set-up is needed for the measurement of excitation functions at low cross sections. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical superheavy elements (SHEs) could be achieved by fusion reactions using 0034-4885/61/6/002/img6 targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHEs using 1n-emission channels. The likelihood of broadening the energy window by investigation of radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets is discussed.
Integrated particles sensor formed on single substrate using fringes formed by diffractive elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gharib, Morteza (Inventor); Fourguette, Dominique (Inventor); Modarress, Darius (Inventor); Taugwalder, Frederic (Inventor); Forouhar, Siamak (Inventor)
2005-01-01
Integrated sensors are described using lasers on substrates. In one embodiment, a first sensor forms a laser beam and uses a quartz substrate to sense particle motion by interference of the particles with a diffraction beam caused by a laser beam. A second sensor uses gradings to produce an interference. In another embodiment, an integrated sensor includes a laser element, producing a diverging beam, and a single substrate which includes a first diffractive optical element placed to receive the diverging beam and produce a fringe based thereon, a scattering element which scatters said fringe beam based on particles being detected, and a second diffractive element receiving scattered light.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
VanGinneken, A.; Edwards, D.; Harrison, M.
1989-04-01
This paper presents results from simulations of beam losses during the operation of a superconducting accelerator. The calculations use a combination of hadron/electromagnetic cascade plus elastic scattering codes with accelerator tracking routines. These calculations have been used in conjunction with the design of the Fermilab Tevatron. First accelerator geometry is described. The rest of the paper discusses a detailed attempt to simulate a fast extraction cycle, essentially in chronological order. Beginning with an unperturbed beam, the simulation generates proton phase-space distributions incident on the electrostatic septum. These interact either elastically or inelastically with the septum wires, and the products of these interactions are traced through the machine. Where these leave the accelerator, energy deposition levels in the magnets are calculated together with the projected response of the beam-loss monitors in this region. Finally, results of the calculation are compared with experimental data. (AIP)
A pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy
Fuchs, Hermann; Stroebele, Julia; Schreiner, Thomas; Hirtl, Albert; Georg, Dietmar
2012-11-15
Purpose: To develop a flexible pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy. Dose distributions were calculated using the newly developed pencil beam algorithm and validated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Methods: The algorithm was based on the established theory of fluence weighted elemental pencil beam (PB) kernels. Using a new real-time splitting approach, a minimization routine selects the optimal shape for each sub-beam. Dose depositions along the beam path were determined using a look-up table (LUT). Data for LUT generation were derived from MC simulations in water using GATE 6.1. For materials other than water, dose depositions were calculated by the algorithm using water-equivalent depth scaling. Lateral beam spreading caused by multiple scattering has been accounted for by implementing a non-local scattering formula developed by Gottschalk. A new nuclear correction was modelled using a Voigt function and implemented by a LUT approach. Validation simulations have been performed using a phantom filled with homogeneous materials or heterogeneous slabs of up to 3 cm. The beams were incident perpendicular to the phantoms surface with initial particle energies ranging from 50 to 250 MeV/A with a total number of 10{sup 7} ions per beam. For comparison a special evaluation software was developed calculating the gamma indices for dose distributions. Results: In homogeneous phantoms, maximum range deviations between PB and MC of less than 1.1% and differences in the width of the distal energy falloff of the Bragg-Peak from 80% to 20% of less than 0.1 mm were found. Heterogeneous phantoms using layered slabs satisfied a {gamma}-index criterion of 2%/2mm of the local value except for some single voxels. For more complex phantoms using laterally arranged bone-air slabs, the {gamma}-index criterion was exceeded in some areas giving a maximum {gamma}-index of 1.75 and 4.9% of the voxels showed {gamma}-index values larger than one. The calculation precision of the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Saat, Rohaida Mohd.
2001-01-01
Introduces a learning module integrating three disciplines--physics, chemistry, and biology--and based on four elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and silicon. Includes atomic model and silicon-based life activities. (YDS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsang, Chin Fu
1975-01-01
Discusses the possibility of creating elements with an atomic number of around 114. Describes the underlying physics responsible for the limited extent of the periodic table and enumerates problems that must be overcome in creating a superheavy nucleus. (GS)
Sputter metalization of Wolter type optical elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ledger, A. M.
1977-01-01
An analytical task showed that the coating thickness distribution for both internal and external optical elements coated using either electron beam or sputter sources can be made uniform and will not affect the surface figure of coated elements. Also, sputtered samples of nickel, molybdenum, iridium and ruthenium deposited onto both hot and cold substrates showed excellent adhesion.
3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1996-07-15
TAURUS is an interactive post-processing application supporting visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. TAURUS provides the ability to display deformed geometries and contours or fringes of a large number of derived results on meshes consisting of beam, plate, shell, and solid type finite elements. Time history plotting is also available.
Cumulative Beam Breakup in Linear Accelerators with Arbitrary Beam Current Profile
Jean Delayen
2003-06-01
An analytical formalism for the solution of cumulative beam breakup in linear accelerators with arbitrary time dependence of beam current is presented, and a closed-form expression for the time and position dependence of the transverse displacement is obtained. It is applied to the behavior of single bunches and to the steady state and transient behavior of dc beams and beams composed of point-like and finite length bunches. This formalism is also applied to the problem of cumulative beam breakup in the presence of random displacement of cavities and focusing elements, and a general solution is presented.
Emelyanov, E. A. Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.; Feklin, D. F.; Preobrazhensky, V. V.
2015-02-15
The effect of substrate temperature, As{sub 2} and P{sub 2} molecular flux densities, and growth rate on the composition of III-P{sub x}As{sub 1−x} solid solution layers prepared by molecular beam epitaxy is experimentally investigated. Experimental data in a wide range of growth conditions are analyzed. The results obtained are presented in the form of a kinetic model for describing the process of formation of the composition in the Group V sublattice of the III-P{sub x}As{sub 1−x} solid solution upon molecular beam epitaxy. The model can be used for choosing the growth conditions of the III-P{sub x}As{sub 1−x} (001) solid-solution layers of a specified composition.
Bean, R.W.
1963-11-19
A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)
Electrostatically tunable resonance frequency beam utilizing a stress-sensitive film
Thundat, Thomas G.; Wachter, Eric A.; Davis, J. Kenneth
2001-01-01
Methods and apparatus for detecting particular frequencies of acoustic vibration utilize an electrostatically-tunable beam element having a stress-sensitive coating and means for providing electrostatic force to controllably deflect the beam element thereby changing its stiffness and its resonance frequency. It is then determined from the response of the electrostatically-tunable beam element to the acoustical vibration to which the beam is exposed whether or not a particular frequency or frequencies of acoustic vibration are detected.
Magnetically tunable resonance frequency beam utilizing a stress-sensitive film
Davis, J. Kenneth; Thundat, Thomas G.; Wachter, Eric A.
2001-01-01
Methods and apparatus for detecting particular frequencies of vibration utilize a magnetically-tunable beam element having a stress-sensitive coating and means for providing magnetic force to controllably deflect the beam element thereby changing its stiffness and its resonance frequency. It is then determined from the response of the magnetically-tunable beam element to the vibration to which the beam is exposed whether or not a particular frequency or frequencies of vibration are detected.
A Refined Zigzag Beam Theory for Composite and Sandwich Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tessler, Alexander; Sciuva, Marco Di; Gherlone, Marco
2009-01-01
A new refined theory for laminated composite and sandwich beams that contains the kinematics of the Timoshenko Beam Theory as a proper baseline subset is presented. This variationally consistent theory is derived from the virtual work principle and employs a novel piecewise linear zigzag function that provides a more realistic representation of the deformation states of transverse-shear flexible beams than other similar theories. This new zigzag function is unique in that it vanishes at the top and bottom bounding surfaces of a beam. The formulation does not enforce continuity of the transverse shear stress across the beam s cross-section, yet is robust. Two major shortcomings that are inherent in the previous zigzag theories, shear-force inconsistency and difficulties in simulating clamped boundary conditions, and that have greatly limited the utility of these previous theories are discussed in detail. An approach that has successfully resolved these shortcomings is presented herein. Exact solutions for simply supported and cantilevered beams subjected to static loads are derived and the improved modelling capability of the new zigzag beam theory is demonstrated. In particular, extensive results for thick beams with highly heterogeneous material lay-ups are discussed and compared with corresponding results obtained from elasticity solutions, two other zigzag theories, and high-fidelity finite element analyses. Comparisons with the baseline Timoshenko Beam Theory are also presented. The comparisons clearly show the improved accuracy of the new, refined zigzag theory presented herein over similar existing theories. This new theory can be readily extended to plate and shell structures, and should be useful for obtaining relatively low-cost, accurate estimates of structural response needed to design an important class of high-performance aerospace structures.
Dynamic analysis of very flexible beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fotouhi, R.
2007-08-01
The dynamic analysis of flexible beams with large deformations is difficult and few studies have been performed. In this paper, the vibration analysis of several very flexible beams with large deflections using the finite element approach is studied. The examples were a cantilever beam and rotating flexible robot arms. The results were compared with the results available in the published literature. Several successful checks on the finite element results were performed to ensure the accuracy of the solutions. Due to the geometrical nonlinearity, several static equilibrium shapes can exist for large deflections of a cantilever beam for a given load. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analysis was implemented to investigate the stability of these shapes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herald, Christine
2001-01-01
Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge
... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, S.
The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell closure beyond 208Pb is at a proton number Z=114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N=172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical `SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods have been developed which allowed for the identification of new elements at production rates of one atom per month. Using cold fusion reactions which are based on lead and bismuth targets, relatively neutron-deficient isotopes of the elements from 107 to 113 were synthesized at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, and/or at RIKEN in Wako, Japan. In hot fusion reactions of 48Ca projectiles with actinide targets more neutron-rich isotopes of the elements from 112 to 116 and even 118 were produced at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. Recently, part of these data which represent the first identification of nuclei located on the predicted island of SHEs were confirmed in two independent experiments. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is α emission rather than fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical studies. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques. At a higher sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will be in the center of interest of future experimental work. New data will certainly challenge theoretical studies on the mechanism of the synthesis, on the nuclear decay properties, and on the chemical behavior of these heaviest atoms at the limit of stability.
Klystron beam-bunching lecture
Carlsten, B.
1996-10-01
Electron beam current modulation in a klystron is the key phenomenon that accounts for klystron gain and rf power generation. Current modulation results from the beams` interaction with the rf fields in a cavity, and in turn is responsible for driving modulation in the next rf cavity. To understand the impact of the current modulation in a klystron, we have to understand both the mechanism leading to the generation of the current modulation and the interaction of a current-modulated electron beam with an rf cavity. The cavity interaction is subtle, because the fields in the cavity modify the bunching of the beam within the cavity itself (usually very dramatically). We will establish the necessary formalism to understand klystron bunching phenomena which can be used to describe rf accelerator cavity/beam interactions. This formalism is strictly steady-state; no transient behavior will be considered. In particular, we will discuss the following: general description of klystron operation; beam harmonic current; how beam velocity modulation induced by an rf cavity leads to current modulation in both the ballistic and space-charge dominated regimes; use of Ramo`s theorem to define the power transfer between a bunched electron beam and the cavity; general cavity model with external coupling (including an external generator if needed), used to describe the input cavity, idler cavities, and the output cavity, including the definition of beam loaded-cavity impedance. Although all these are conceptually straight-forward, they represent a fair amount of physics, and to derive some elements of the formalism from first principles requires excessive steps. Our approach will be to present a self-consistent set of equations to provide a mechanism that leads to a quantifiable description of klystron behavior; derivations for moderately complex formulas will be outlined, and a relatively complex derivation of the self-consistent set of equations can be found in the Appendix. 6 figs.
Ursic, R.; Mahoney, K.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Sinclair, C.
1995-12-31
This paper describes the design and implementation of a beam loss accounting system for the CEBAF electron accelerator. This system samples the beam curent throughout the beam path and measures the beam current accurately. Personnel Safety and Machine Protection systems use this system to turn off the beam when hazardous beam losses occur.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlowicz, Michael
He set out to prove that ocean sediments contain elevated levels of the rare element iridium because of the natural weathering of the continents. Instead, what Ariel Anbar found was new evidence that a meteorite may have had a role in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous era.By studying the geochemical properties of iridium, Anbar, a professor of earth and environmental sciences and chemistry at the University of Rochester, found that the residence time—a measure of the rate at which an element settles out of water into sediments—of iridium in ocean water is 2000 to 20,000 years. That finding suggests that a large deposit of iridium could have lingered in the world's oceans long enough to explain the thickness of the iridium-rich sediment layers at the K-T boundary.
Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.
1961-11-28
A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)
Adolphsen, C.; Barklow, T.; Burke, D.
1993-05-01
The Stanford Linear collider was designed to operate with round beams; horizontal and vertical emittance made equal in the damping rings. The main motivation was to facilitate the optical matching through beam lines with strong coupling elements like the solenoid spin rotator magnets and the SLC arcs. Tests in 1992 showed that ``flat`` beams with a vertical to horizontal emittance ratio of around 1/10 can be successfully delivered to the end of the linac. Techniques developed to measure and control the coupling of the SLC arcs allow these beams to be transported to the Interaction Point (IP). Before flat beams could be used for collisions with polarized electrons, a new method of rotating the electron spin orientation with vertical arc orbit bumps had to be developed. Early in the 1993 run, the SLC was switched to ``flat`` beam operation. Within a short time the peak luminosity of the previous running cycle was reached and then surpassed. The average daily luminosity is now a factor of about two higher than the best achieved last year. In the following we present an overview of the problems encountered and their solutions for different parts of the SLC.
Beam quality measure for vector beams.
Ndagano, Bienvenu; Sroor, Hend; McLaren, Melanie; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew
2016-08-01
Vector beams have found a myriad of applications, from laser materials processing to microscopy, and are now easily produced in the laboratory. They are usually differentiated from scalar beams by qualitative measures, for example, visual inspection of beam profiles after a rotating polarizer. Here we introduce a quantitative beam quality measure for vector beams and demonstrate it on cylindrical vector vortex beams. We show how a single measure can be defined for the vector quality, from 0 (purely scalar) to 1 (purely vector). Our measure is derived from a quantum toolkit, which we show applies to classical vector beams. PMID:27472580
Beam based alignment of sector-1 of the SLC linac
Emma, P.
1992-03-01
A technique is described which uses the beam to simultaneously measure quadrupole magnet and beam position monitor (BPM) transverse misalignments. The technique is applied to sector-1 of the SLC linac where simultaneous acceleration of electron and positron beams with minimal steering elements and BPMs makes quadrupole alignment critical for high transmission of the large transverse emittance positron beam. Simulation results as well as measurements are presented.
Conceptual Design of Neutral Beam Injection System for EAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Chundong; NBI Team
2012-06-01
Neutral beam injection (NBI) system with two neutral beam injections will be constructed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in two stages for high power auxiliary plasmas heating and non-inductive current drive. Each NBI can deliver 2~4 MW beam power with 50~80 keV beam energy in 10~100 s pulse length. Each elements of the NBI system are presented in this contribution.
Partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gori, F.; Santarsiero, M.; Piquero, G.; Borghi, R.; Mondello, A.; Simon, R.
2001-01-01
We consider a class of beams that are both partially polarized and partially coherent from the spatial standpoint. They are characterized by a correlation matrix whose elements have the same form as the mutual intensity of a Gaussian Schell-model beam. We focus our attention on those beams that would appear identical to ordinary Gaussian Schell-model beams in a scalar treatment. After establishing some inequalities that limit the choice of the matrix parameters, we study the main effects of propagation. Starting from the source plane, in which the beam is assumed to be uniformly polarized, we find that in the course of propagation the degree of polarization generally becomes non-uniform across a typical section of the beam. Furthermore, we find that the intensity distribution at the output of an arbitrarily oriented linear polarizer is Gaussian shaped at the source plane whereas it can be quite different at other planes.
Multi-segment coherent beam combining
Neal, D.R.; Tucker, S.D.; Morgan, R.; Smith, T.G.; Warren, M.E.; Gruetzner, J.K.; Rosenthal, R.R.; Bentley, A.E.
1994-12-31
Scaling laser systems to large sizes for power beaming and other applications can sometimes be simplified by combing a number of smaller lasers. However, to fully utilize this scaling, coherent beam combination is necessary. This requires measuring and controlling each beam`s pointing and phase relative to adjacent beams using an adaptive optical system. We have built a sub-scale brass-board to evaluate various methods for beam-combining. It includes a segmented adaptive optic and several different specialized wavefront sensors that are fabricated using diffractive optics methods. We have evaluated a number of different phasing algorithms, including hierarchical and matrix methods, and have demonstrated phasing of several elements. The system is currently extended to a large number of segments to evaluate various scaling methodologies.
Free Vibration of Curved Layered Composite Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yavuz, Mustafa; Ergzgüven, M. Ertaç
In practice, fibrous and layered composite beams have periodically and locally curved layers because of the design considerations and manufacturing processes. In this study, the effect of these curvatures and composite material properties to the natural frequencies of the beams is investigated. The periodically curved layered composite material of the considered beam is modelled with the use of the continuum theory proposed by Akbarov and Guz. The free vibration problems are solved by employing the finite element method. Obtained natural frequencies of the beams are presented for the different parameters of the curvature, modulus of elasticity and support condition of the beams. For the case that the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the layers equals to one and the parameter of the curvature equals to zero, the results converge to natural frequencies of a classical Euler-Bernoulli beam. Results are in good agreement with the literature.
Funneling: an initial beam dynamics study
Guy, F.W.; Wangler, T.P.
1985-04-20
Funneling two H/sup -/ beams into a single beam of twice the current has been examined as a means of doubling beam current without significantly increasing transverse emittance. Using the PARMILA particle-following code, two 100-mA RFQ output beams at 2 MeV were injected into idealized transport lines for merging two beams into one. Two approaches were studied: (1) the minimum-element method, in which a minimum number of discrete elements such as quadrupole triplets, buncher cavities, and bending magnets were used to transport and deflect the beam; and (2) the quasi-adiabatic method, in which a periodic lattice similar to the RFQ provided focusing and minimized abrupt changes in the beam environment. The minimum-element method resulted in an emittance growth ratio epsilon/sub 0//epsilon/sub i/ = 2.5, whereas the quasi-adiabatic emittance growth ratio was about 1.1 (albeit with an idealized line configuration). 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.
1962-03-01
A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)
Kim, Hyung Jin; /Fermilab
2011-12-01
In high energy storage-ring colliders, the nonlinear effect arising from beam-beam interactions is a major source that leads to the emittance growth, the reduction of beam life time, and limits the collider luminosity. In this paper, two models of beam-beam interactions are introduced, which are weak-strong and strong-strong beam-beam interactions. In addition, space-charge model is introduced.
Fatigue of fiberglass beam substructures
Mandell, J.F.; Combs, D.W.; Samborsky, D.D.
1995-09-01
Composite material beams representative of wind turbine blade substructure have been designed, fabricated, and tested under constant amplitude flexural fatigue loading. Beam stiffness, strength, and fatigue life are predicted based on detailed finite element analysis and the materials fatigue database developed using standard test coupons and special high frequency minicoupons.Beam results are in good agreement with predictions when premature adhesive and delamination failures are avoided in the load transfer areas. The results show that fiberglass substructures can be designed and fabricated to withstand maximum strain levels on the order of 8,000 microstrain for about 10{sup 6} cycles with proper structural detail design and the use of fatigue resistant laminate constructions. The study also demonstrates that the materials fatigue database and accurate analysis can be used to predict the fatigue life of composite substructures typical of blades.
Optics of electron beam in the Recycler
Burov, Alexey V.; Kazakevich, G.; Kroc, T.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tiunov, M.; Warner, A.; /Fermilab /Novosibirsk, IYF
2005-11-01
Electron cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring (Fermilab) requires high current and good quality of the DC electron beam. Electron trajectories of {approx}0.2 A or higher DC electron beam have to be parallel in the cooling section, within {approx}0.2 mrad, making the beam envelope cylindrical. These requirements yielded a specific scheme of the electron transport from a gun to the cooling section, with electrostatic acceleration and deceleration in the Pelletron. Recuperation of the DC beam limits beam losses at as tiny level as {approx}0.001%, setting strict requirements on the return electron line to the Pelletron and a collector. To smooth the beam envelope in the cooling section, it has to be linear and known at the transport start. Also, strength of the relevant optic elements has to be measured with good accuracy. Beam-based optic measurements are being carried out and analyzed to get this information. They include beam simulations in the Pelletron, differential optic (beam response) measurements and simulation, beam profile measurements with optical transition radiation, envelope measurements and analysis with orifice scrapers. Current results for the first half-year of commissioning are presented. Although electron cooling is already routinely used for pbar stacking, its efficiency is expected to be improved.