Science.gov

Sample records for 2-way crossover phase

  1. Crossover design and its application in late-phase diabetes studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Malone, James; Fu, Haoda; Heilmann, Cory; Qu, Yongming; Huster, William J

    2016-09-01

    Crossover design has been widely used in late-phase clinical studies, as well as in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic, bioequivalence, and medical device studies; however, its interpretability and applicability continue to be debated. Herein we provide discussions around a crossover design's scientific benefit, applicability, and how it can be implemented in late-phase diabetes studies by properly handling key issues: carryover effect, washout period, and baseline selection. Specifically, detailed considerations are provided about the validity and situations of having appropriate length of study duration to deal with carryover effects so that a washout period may not be needed. A simulation study and data mining results on 12 crossover late-phase insulin clinical trials are presented to examine the discussion points and proposals. PMID:27100270

  2. Examining the Crossover from the Hadronic to Partonic Phase in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Mingmei; Yu Meiling; Liu Lianshou

    2008-03-07

    A mechanism, consistent with color confinement, for the transition between perturbative and physical vacua during the gradual crossover from the hadronic to partonic phase is proposed. The essence of this mechanism is the appearance and growing up of a kind of grape-shape perturbative vacuum inside the physical one. A percolation model based on simple dynamics for parton delocalization is constructed to exhibit this mechanism. The crossover from hadronic matter to sQGP (strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma) as well as the transition from sQGP to weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma with increasing temperature is successfully described by using this model.

  3. Analysis of phase transitions in spin-crossover compounds by using atom - phonon coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gîndulescu, A.; Rotaru, A.; Linares, J.; Dimian, M.; Nasser, J.

    2011-01-01

    The spin - crossover compounds (SCO) have become of great interest recently due to their potential applications in memories, sensors, switches, and display devices. These materials are particularly interesting because upon application of heat, light, pressure or other physical stimulus, they feature a phase transition between a low-spin (LS) diamagnetic ground state and a high-spin (HS) paramagnetic state, accompanied in some cases by color change. The phase transition can be discontinuous (with hysteresis), in two steps or gradual. Our analysis is performed by using the atom - phonon coupling (APC) model which considers that neighboring molecules are connected through a spring characterized by an elastic constant depending on molecules electronic state. By associating a fictitious spin to each molecule that has -1 and +1 eigenvalues corresponding to LS and HS levels respectively, an Ising type model can be developed for the analysis of metastable states and phase transitions in spin-crossover compounds. This contribution is aimed at providing a review of our recent results in this area, as well as novel aspects related to SCO compounds behavior at low temperature. In the framework of the APC model, we will discuss about the existence of metastable and unstable states, phase transitions and hysteresis phenomena, as well as their dependence on sample size.

  4. BCS-BEC crossover and phase structure of relativistic systems: A variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Bhaswar; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Mishra, Amruta

    2009-01-01

    We investigate here the BCS-BEC crossover in relativistic systems using a variational construct for the ground state and the minimization of the thermodynamic potential. This is first studied in a four-fermion point interaction model and with a BCS type ansatz for the ground state with fermion pairs. It is shown that the antiparticle degrees of freedom play an important role in the BCS-BEC crossover physics, even when the ratio of Fermi momentum to the mass of the fermion is small. We also consider the phase structure for the case of fermion pairing with imbalanced populations. Within the ansatz, thermodynamically stable gapless modes for both fermions and antifermions are seen for strong coupling in the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regime. We further investigate the effect of fluctuations of the condensate field by treating it as a dynamical field and generalize the BCS ansatz to include quanta of the condensate field also in a boson-fermion model with quartic self-interaction of the condensate field. It is seen that the critical temperature decreases with inclusion of fluctuations.

  5. Topological Weyl superconductor to diffusive thermal Hall metal crossover in the B phase of UPt3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Pallab; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H.

    2015-12-01

    The recent phase-sensitive measurements in the superconducting B phase of UPt3 provide strong evidence for the triplet, chiral kz(kx±i ky) 2 pairing symmetries, which endow the Cooper pairs with orbital angular momentum projections Lz=±2 along the c axis. In the absence of disorder such pairing can support both line and point nodes, and both types of nodal quasiparticles exhibit nontrivial topology in the momentum space. The point nodes, located at the intersections of the closed Fermi surfaces with the c axis, act as the double monopoles and the antimonopoles of the Berry curvature, and generalize the notion of Weyl quasiparticles. Consequently, the B phase should support an anomalous thermal Hall effect, the polar Kerr effect, in addition to the protected Fermi arcs on the (1 ,0 ,0 ) and the (0 ,1 ,0 ) surfaces. The line node at the Fermi surface equator acts as a vortex loop in the momentum space and gives rise to the zero-energy, dispersionless Andreev bound states on the (0 ,0 ,1 ) surface. At the transition from the B phase to the A phase, the time-reversal symmetry is restored, and only the line node survives inside the A phase. As both line and double-Weyl point nodes possess linearly vanishing density of states, we show that weak disorder acts as a marginally relevant perturbation. Consequently, an infinitesimal amount of disorder destroys the ballistic quasiparticle pole, while giving rise to a diffusive phase with a finite density of states at the zero energy. The resulting diffusive phase exhibits T -linear specific heat, and an anomalous thermal Hall effect. We predict that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties display a crossover between a ballistic thermal Hall semimetal and a diffusive thermal Hall metal. By contrast, the diffusive phase obtained from a time-reversal-invariant pairing exhibits only the T -linear specific heat without any anomalous thermal Hall effect.

  6. Structural crossover in a supercooled metallic liquid and the link to a liquid-to-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, S.; Blodgett, M.; Kelton, K. F.; Ma, J. L.; Fan, J.; Wang, X.-L.

    2016-05-01

    Time-resolved synchrotron measurements were carried out to capture the structure evolution of an electrostatically levitated metallic-glass-forming liquid during free cooling. The experimental data shows a crossover in the liquid structure at ˜1000 K, about 115 K below the melting temperature and 150 K above the crystallization temperature. The structure change is characterized by a dramatic growth in the extended-range order below the crossover temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations have identified that the growth of the extended-range order was due to an increased correlation between solute atoms. These results provide structural evidence for a liquid-to-liquid-phase-transition in the supercooled metallic liquid.

  7. Dynamics of social contagions with heterogeneous adoption thresholds: crossover phenomena in phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Shu, Panpan; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous adoption thresholds exist widely in social contagions, such as behavior spreading, but were always neglected in previous studies. To this end, we introduce heterogeneous adoption threshold distribution into a non-Markovian spreading threshold model, in which an individual adopts a behavior only when the received cumulative pieces of behavioral information from neighbors exceeds his adoption threshold. In order to understand the effects of heterogeneous adoption thresholds quantitatively, an edge-based compartmental theory is developed. A two-state spreading threshold model is taken as an example, in which some individuals have a low adoption threshold (i.e., activists) while the remaining ones hold a relatively higher adoption threshold (i.e., bigots). We find a hierarchical characteristic in adopting behavior, i.e., activists first adopt the behavior and then stimulate bigots to adopt the behavior. Interestingly, two types of crossover phenomena in phase transition occur: for a relatively low adoption threshold of bigots, a change from first-order to second-order phase transition can be triggered by increasing the fraction of activists; for a relatively higher adoption threshold of bigots, a change from hybrid to second-order phase transition can be induced by varying the fraction of activists, decreasing mean degree or enhancing network heterogeneity. The theoretical predictions based on the suggested theory agree very well with the simulation results.

  8. Field-induced superconducting phase of FeSe in the BCS-BEC cross-over.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Shigeru; Watashige, Tatsuya; Hanaguri, Tetsuo; Kohsaka, Yuhki; Yamashita, Takuya; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Mizukami, Yuta; Endo, Ryota; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Kazushi; Terashima, Taichi; Uji, Shinya; Wolf, Thomas; von Löhneysen, Hilbert; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji

    2014-11-18

    Fermi systems in the cross-over regime between weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and strongly coupled Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits are among the most fascinating objects to study the behavior of an assembly of strongly interacting particles. The physics of this cross-over has been of considerable interest both in the fields of condensed matter and ultracold atoms. One of the most challenging issues in this regime is the effect of large spin imbalance on a Fermi system under magnetic fields. Although several exotic physical properties have been predicted theoretically, the experimental realization of such an unusual superconducting state has not been achieved so far. Here we show that pure single crystals of superconducting FeSe offer the possibility to enter the previously unexplored realm where the three energies, Fermi energy εF, superconducting gap Δ, and Zeeman energy, become comparable. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that εF of FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio Δ/εF ~ 1(~0.3) in the electron (hole) band. Moreover, thermal-conductivity measurements give evidence of a distinct phase line below the upper critical field, where the Zeeman energy becomes comparable to εF and Δ. The observation of this field-induced phase provides insights into previously poorly understood aspects of the highly spin-polarized Fermi liquid in the BCS-BEC cross-over regime. PMID:25378706

  9. Phase diagram of mixtures of colloids and polymers in the thermal crossover from good to θ solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Adamo, Giuseppe; Pelissetto, Andrea; Pierleoni, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    We determine the phase diagram of mixtures of spherical colloids and neutral nonadsorbing polymers in the thermal crossover region between the θ point and the good-solvent regime. We use the generalized free-volume theory, which takes into account the polymer-concentration dependence of the depletion thickness and of the polymer compressibility. This approach turns out to be quite accurate as long as q = Rg/Rc ≲ 1 (Rg is the radius of gyration of the polymer and Rc is the colloid radius). We find that, close to the θ point, the phase diagram is not very sensitive to solvent quality, while, close to the good-solvent region, changes of the solvent quality modify significantly the position of the critical point and of the binodals. We also analyze the phase behavior of aqueous solutions of charged colloids and polymers, using the approach proposed by Fortini et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, 7783 (2005)].

  10. Phase diagram of mixtures of colloids and polymers in the thermal crossover from good to θ solvent.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Giuseppe; Pelissetto, Andrea; Pierleoni, Carlo

    2014-07-14

    We determine the phase diagram of mixtures of spherical colloids and neutral nonadsorbing polymers in the thermal crossover region between the θ point and the good-solvent regime. We use the generalized free-volume theory, which takes into account the polymer-concentration dependence of the depletion thickness and of the polymer compressibility. This approach turns out to be quite accurate as long as q = Rg/Rc ≲ 1 (Rg is the radius of gyration of the polymer and Rc is the colloid radius). We find that, close to the θ point, the phase diagram is not very sensitive to solvent quality, while, close to the good-solvent region, changes of the solvent quality modify significantly the position of the critical point and of the binodals. We also analyze the phase behavior of aqueous solutions of charged colloids and polymers, using the approach proposed by Fortini et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, 7783 (2005)]. PMID:25028041

  11. BCS-BEC crossover and quantum hydrodynamics in p-wave superfluids with a symmetry of the A1 phase

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, M. Yu. Efremov, D. V.

    2010-03-15

    We solve the Leggett equations for the BCS-BEC crossover in a three dimensional resonance p-wave superfluid with the symmetry of the A1 phase. We calculate the sound velocity, the normal density, and the specific heat for the BCS domain ({mu} > 0), for the BEC domain ({mu} < 0), and close to the important point {mu} = 0 in the 100% polarized case. We find the indications of a quantum phase transition close to the point {mu}(T = 0) = 0. Deep in the BCS and BEC domains, the crossover ideas of Leggett, Nozieres, and Schmitt-Rink work quite well. We discuss the spectrum of orbital waves, the paradox of intrinsic angular momentum and the complicated problem of chiral anomaly in the BCS A1 phase at T = 0. We present two different approaches to the chiral anomaly, based on supersymmetric hydrodynamics and on the formal analogy with the Dirac equation in quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the damping of nodal fermions due to different decay processes in the superclean case at T = 0 and find that a ballistic regime {omega}{tau} >> 1 occurs. We propose to use aerogel or nonmagnetic impurities to reach the hydrodynamic regime {omega}{tau} << 1 at T = 0. We discuss the concept of the spectral flow and exact cancelations between time derivatives of anomalous and quasiparticle currents in the equation for the total linear momentum conservation. We propose to derive and solve the kinetic equation for the nodal quasiparticles in both the hydrodynamic and ballistic regimes to demonstrate this cancelation explicitly. We briefly discuss the role of the other residual interactions different from damping and invite experimentalists to measure the spectrum and damping of orbital waves in the A phase of {sup 3}He at low temperatures.

  12. Lattice crossover and phase transitions in NdAlO3-GdAlO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylechko, L.; Shmanko, H.; Ohon, N.; Prots, Yu.; Hoffmann, S.; Ubizskii, S.

    2013-02-01

    Phase and structural behaviour in the (1-x)NdAlO3-xGdAlO3 system in a whole concentration range has been studied by means of in situ high-resolution X-ray synchrotron powder diffraction technique and differential thermal analysis. Two kinds of solid solutions Nd1-xGdxAlO3 have been found at room temperature: one with rhombohedral (x<0.15) and one with orthorhombic (x≥0.20) symmetry. A morphotropic phase transition occurs at x≈0.15, where the co-existence of both phases was observed. Peculiarity of the orthorhombic solid solution is the lattice parameter crossover at the compositions with x=0.33, 0.49 and 0.62. First-order structural transition Pbnm↔R3¯с has been detected both from in situ powder diffraction and thermal analysis data. Continuous phase transformation R3¯с↔Pm3¯m above 2140 K has been predicted for Nd-rich sample Nd0.85Gd0.15AlO3 from the extrapolation of high-temperature behaviour of the lattice parameter ratio of the rhombohedral phase. Based on the experimental data, the phase diagram of the pseudo-binary system NdAlO3-GdAlO3 has been constructed.

  13. Two-dimensional two-phase mass transport model for methanol and water crossover in air-breathing direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dingding; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Li, Jun; Fu, Qian

    A two-dimensional two-phase mass transport model has been developed to predict methanol and water crossover in a semi-passive direct methanol fuel cell with an air-breathing cathode. The mass transport in the catalyst layer and the discontinuity in liquid saturation at the interface between the diffusion layer and catalyst layer are particularly considered. The modeling results agree well with the experimental data of a home-assembled cell. Further studies on the typical two-phase flow and mass transport distributions including species, pressure and liquid saturation in the membrane electrode assembly are investigated. Finally, the methanol crossover flux, the net water transport coefficient, the water crossover flux, and the total water flux at the cathode as well as their contributors are predicted with the present model. The numerical results indicate that diffusion predominates the methanol crossover at low current densities, while electro-osmosis is the dominator at high current densities. The total water flux at the cathode is originated primarily from the water generated by the oxidation reaction of the permeated methanol at low current densities, while the water crossover flux is the main source of the total water flux at high current densities.

  14. A randomized phase II crossover study of imatinib or rituximab for cutaneous sclerosis after hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Sally; Pidala, Joseph; Pusic, Iskra; Chai, Xiaoyu; Jaglowski, Samantha; Khera, Nandita; Palmer, Jeanne; Chen, George L; Jagasia, Madan H; Mayer, Sebastian A; Wood, William A; Green, Michael; Hyun, Teresa S.; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Storer, Barry E; Miklos, David B; Shulman, Howard M.; Martin, Paul J; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cutaneous sclerosis (CS) occurs in 20% of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and can compromise mobility and quality of life. Experimental design We conducted a prospective, multi-center, randomized, two-arm phase II crossover trial of imatinib (200 mg daily) or rituximab (375 mg/m2 intravenously weekly × 4 doses, repeatable after 3 months) for treatment of CS diagnosed within 18 months (NCT01309997). The primary endpoint was significant clinical response (SCR) at 6 months, defined as quantitative improvement in skin sclerosis or joint range of motion. Treatment success was defined as SCR at 6 months without crossover, recurrent malignancy or death. Secondary end points included changes of B cell profiles in blood (BAFF levels and cellular subsets), patient-reported outcomes, and histopathology between responders and non-responders with each therapy. Results SCR was observed in 9 of 35 (26%, 95% CI 13-43%) participants randomized to imatinib and 10 of 37 (27%, 95% CI 14-44%) randomized to rituximab. Six (17%, 95% CI 7-34%) patients in the imatinib arm and 5 (14%, 95% CI 5-29%) in the rituximab arm had treatment success. Higher percentages of activated B cells (CD27+) were seen at enrollment in rituximab-treated patients who had treatment success (p = 0.01), but not in imatinib-treated patients. Conclusion These results support the need for more effective therapies for CS and suggest that activated B cells define a subgroup of patients with CS who are more likely to respond to rituximab. PMID:26378033

  15. Pressure driven spin crossover and isostructural phase transition in LaFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Javaid, Saqib; Javed Akhtar, M. Younas, Muhammad; Ahmad, Irfan; Shah, Shafqat H.; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2013-12-28

    We have studied the behavior of LaFeO{sub 3} under pressure (P) using density functional theory (DFT) and atomistic simulations. Ground state structural properties of LaFeO{sub 3} are correctly described by atomistic simulations. The effect of high pressure shows that there is an isotropic compression up to 100 GPa. However, DFT calculations show that within pressure range 0 < P < 32.4 GPa, LaFeO{sub 3} retains its ground state electronic structure. On the other hand, at P ∼32.4 GPa high to low spin magnetic phase transition is observed, which is accompanied by 6.9% volume collapse of LaFeO{sub 3} unit cell, while retaining the ground state orthorhombic crystal structure, i.e., isostructural phase transition. Furthermore, the band gap is closed leading insulator to metal transition. This differing behavior observed by the two techniques can be attributed to the omission of magnetic effects in static simulations. The simultaneous magnetic, electrical, and structural (volume collapse) phase transitions of LaFeO{sub 3} under compression as revealed by DFT calculations corroborate experimental findings. From these results, we can elaborate the mechanism of phase transition in LaFeO{sub 3}: increasing crystal field induces a high spin to low spin transition, which in turn drives the electrical transitions and volume collapse.

  16. Dimensional crossover in a spin liquid to helimagnet quantum phase transition.

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Vasile O; Zheludev, Andrey I; Habicht, Klaus; Meissner, Michael; Grenier, B.; Regnault, L.-P.; Ressouche, E.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering is used to study magnetic field induced ordering in the quasi-1D quantum spin-tube compound Sul-Cu2Cl4 that in zero field has a non-magnetic spin-liquid ground state. The experiments reveal an incommensurate chiral high-field phase stabilized by a geometric frustration of the magnetic interactions. The measured critical exponents \\beta= 0.235 and \

  17. Robust spin crossover platforms with synchronized spin switch and polymer phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Novio, F.; Evangelio, E.; Vazquez-Mera, N.; González-Monje, P.; Bellido, E.; Mendes, S.; Kehagias, N.; Ruiz-Molina, D.

    2013-01-01

    The idea of developing magnetic molecular materials into real functional electronic devices with low-cost and scalable techniques appeared with the emergence of the field several years ago. Today, even though great advances have been done with this aim, the promise of a functional device working at the micro-/nanoscale and at room temperature has unfortunately not completely materialized yet, as their use still strongly depends on the fabrication methodology of a robust device that can be handled and integrated without compromising their functionality. Here we propose the use of polymeric matrices as a platform for the development of such robust switchable structures exhibiting reproducible results independently of the dimension -from macro to micro-/nanoscale- and morphology -from thin-films to nanoparticles and nanoimprinted motives- while allowing to induce an irreversible hysteresis, reminiscent of a non-volatile memory, by synchronization with the polymer phase transition.

  18. Antithrombotic properties of rafigrelide: a phase 1, open-label, non-randomised, single-sequence, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, K; Viswanathan, G; Dragone, J; Grose-Hodge, R; Martin, P; Troy, S; Preston, P; Zaman, A G

    2014-07-01

    Platelets play a central role in atherothrombotic events. We investigated the effect of a novel platelet-lowering agent, rafigrelide, on thrombus formation and characteristics. In this phase 1, open-label, non-randomised, single-sequence, crossover study, healthy male volunteers received rafigrelide for 14 days (Period 1). Following a ≥6-week washout period, they then received rafigrelide + acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for 14 days (Period 2). Thrombus formation was assessed ex vivo using the Badimon perfusion chamber, and thrombus characteristics were assessed using thromboelastography. A total of 15 volunteers were enrolled in the study and were assigned to Panel A or Panel B, which had different schedules of assessments. In Panel A, after treatment with rafigrelide alone (Period 1), mean (± standard deviation) platelet count was reduced from 283 (± 17) × 10⁹/l at Day 1, to 125 (± 47) × 10⁹/l at Day 14 (n=6) and thrombus area reduced under high and low shear conditions. Reductions in thrombus area under high shear conditions correlated with reductions in platelet count (r²=0.11, p=0.022; n=12). Rafigrelide treatment prolonged clot formation time and reduced clot strength. The addition of ASA to rafigrelide (Period 2) had no additional effect on platelet count or thrombus area under high or low shear conditions. Similar results were seen in Panel B for all parameters. The most common adverse events (≥3 participants per period) were thrombocytopenia and headache. While confirming the platelet-lowering effects of rafigrelide, this early phase study also indicates that rafigrelide has antithrombotic properties under both high and low shear conditions. PMID:24553755

  19. Crossover Phase Diagram and Electronic State in the Heavy-Fermion Metamagnets UIr2Zn20 and UCo2Zn20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Yusuke; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Honda, Fuminori; Yoshiuchi, Shingo; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Haga, Yoshinori; Settai, Rikio; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2015-07-01

    Crossover phase diagrams in the magnetic field versus temperature (H-T) plane of the nonmagnetic heavy-fermion metamagnets UT2Zn20 (T:Ir, Co) are studied by measuring the magnetic and electronic transport properties. The crossover phase diagrams of UIr2Zn20 and UCo2Zn20 are composed of a low-magnetic-field region (LFR) and a high-magnetic-field region (HFR), which are characterized by magnetic properties and the Hall effect, respectively. The LFR is found to form a closed area in the H-T plane, which is a quite different feature from the conventional uranium heavy-fermion compounds and the first observation in uranium compounds. From the drastic anomaly in the Hall effect at a metamagnetic field of UIr2Zn20, it is found that the metamagnetic behavior in UIr2Zn20 corresponds to a crossover from the heavy-fermion state to the field-induced ferromagnetic or polarized paramagnetic state accompanied by the reconstruction or topology change of Fermi surfaces. In UCo2Zn20, on the other hand, no sign of abrupt change in the electronic state at the metamagnetic field is observed. These contrastive crossover phase diagrams and the electronic state changes at the metamagnetic field are due to the different hybridization strengths between the 5f electrons of U atoms and the d electrons of Ir and Co atoms, leading to the differences in magnetic correlation and crystalline electric field ground state or the degree of itinerancy of 5f electrons.

  20. Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Leonardo W. T.; Barros, Vitor F.; Silva, Sandro G.

    2014-01-01

    In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS) process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs) with phased arrays (PAs). These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs), the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs). For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence. PMID:25196013

  1. Crossover from crossing to tilted vortex phase in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals near ab-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkovic, Jovan; Buzdin, Alexandre; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In extremely anisotropic layered superconductors of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ the stacks of vortex pancakes (PV) and the Josephson vortex (JV) interpenetrate, and due to PV-JV mutual pinning energy, weakly interact and form various tilted and crossing lattice structures including vortex chains, stripes, mixed chain + lattice phases, etc. In order to study these phenomena, it is decisive to have excellent quality of samples and the ideal experimental techniques. The vortex phases in high-quality Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals were studied by in-plane resistivity measurement and local ac magnetic permeability. The sharp crossover was shown by both techniques, deep in the vortex solid state separating the Abrikosov dominant ‘strong pinning’ phase from the Josephson dominant ‘weak pinning’ phase. Those two vortex states were recognized as the mixed chain + lattice vortex phase and chains (tilted) vortex phase, respectively.

  2. Crossover between two-dimensional surface state and three-dimensional bulk phase in Fe-doped Bi2Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Na Hyun; Lee, Kyujoon; Kim, Jinsu; Jang, Jungwon; Kim, Jinhee; Jung, Myung-Hwa

    2014-06-01

    In Fe-doped Bi2Te3, we have observed higher mobility, larger linear magnetoresistance, and anomalous quantum oscillations. The angle dependence of Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations gives two different periodicities depending on the angle from the c-axis. The low-angle SdH period is identified with a surface origin, while the high-angle period is against the surface origin. The high-angle SdH period well agrees with the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) period with a bulk origin. The physical parameters obtained from the quantum oscillations support the crossover between two-dimensional surface state and three-dimensional bulk phase by Fe doping in Bi2Te3.

  3. Crossover between two-dimensional surface state and three-dimensional bulk phase in Fe-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Na Hyun; Lee, Kyujoon; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Jinsu; Jang, Jungwon; Kim, Jinhee

    2014-06-23

    In Fe-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, we have observed higher mobility, larger linear magnetoresistance, and anomalous quantum oscillations. The angle dependence of Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations gives two different periodicities depending on the angle from the c-axis. The low-angle SdH period is identified with a surface origin, while the high-angle period is against the surface origin. The high-angle SdH period well agrees with the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) period with a bulk origin. The physical parameters obtained from the quantum oscillations support the crossover between two-dimensional surface state and three-dimensional bulk phase by Fe doping in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}.

  4. Population-imbalanced lattice fermions near the BCS-BEC crossover: Thermal physics of the breached pair and Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Madhuparna; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2016-05-01

    We study s -wave superconductivity in the two-dimensional attractive Hubbard model in an applied magnetic field, assume the extreme Pauli limit, and examine the role of spatial fluctuations in the coupling regime corresponding to BCS-BEC crossover. We use a decomposition of the interaction in terms of an auxiliary pairing field, retain the static mode, and sample the pairing field via a Monte Carlo approach. The method requires iterative solution of the Bogoliubov-de-Gennes equations for amplitude- and phase-fluctuating configurations of the pairing field. We establish the full thermal phase diagram of this strong-coupling problem. At low field we observe the magnetized but homogeneous "breached pair" superfluid phase. It reveals that Tc scales an order of magnitude below the mean-field estimate, spontaneous inhomogeneity in the field-induced magnetization, and a strong nonmonotonicity in the temperature dependence of the low-energy density of states. We compare our results to the experimental phase diagram of the imbalanced Fermi gas at unitarity. At higher field we obtain the modulated Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phases. The thermal transition from the FFLO phases to the normal state is strongly first order. We track the fermionic momentum distribution, the density of states, and the pairing structure factor deep into the normal state. The pairing structure factor retains weak signature of finite momentum pairing to a high temperature despite the low Tc itself, while the spin-resolved density of states changes from the "pseudogapped" FFLO character to gapless and pseudogapped again with increasing temperature.

  5. Crossover of persistent photoconductivity in a phase-separated La0.325Pr0.3Ca0.375MnO3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ling; Sheng, Zhigao; Luo, Xuan; Liu, Yu; Huang, Zhonghao; Song, Wenhai; Sun, Yuping

    2013-05-01

    A crossover from positive to negative persistent photoconductivity (PPC) has been observed in the thermal hysteresis region of a La0.325Pr0.3Ca0.375MnO3 thin film. In the cooling process, the resistance shows downward relaxation in darkness. Light illumination induces a resistance drop and positive PPC is observed. However, upon warming, the resistance exhibits upward relaxation without illumination. Moreover, the response of the film to light illumination shows distinct behavior. The resistance decreases to a lower value when the illumination is switched on and then shows upward relaxation during illumination. It recovers to a higher value when the illumination is stopped, which characterizes negative PPC. The PPC ratio is -30.2% at 125 K with a light intensity of 3.06 mW mm-2. These results are discussed based on the phase competition and phase stability switch between ferromagnetic metal and charge/orbital-ordered insulator states. The results may be important for practical applications in photoelectric devices.

  6. Superfluid phase transition and effects of mass imbalance in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas: A self-consistent T-matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji

    2014-03-01

    We investigate a two-component Fermi gas with mass imbalance (m↑ ≠m↓ , where mσ is an atomic mass in the σ-component) in the BCS-BEC crossover region. Including pairing fluctuations within a self-consistent T-matrix theory, we examine how the superfluid instability is affected by the presence of mass imbalance. We determine the superfluid region in the phase diagram of a Fermi gas in terms of the temperature, the strength of a pairing interaction, and the ratio of mass imbalance. The superfluid phase transition is shown to always occur even when m↑ ≠m↓ .[2] This behavior of Tc is quite different from the previous result in an extended T-matrix theory,[3] where Tc vanishes at a certain value of m↑ /m↓ > 0 in the BCS regime. Since Fermi condensates with mass imbalance have been discussed in various systems, such as a cold Fermi gas, an exciton(polariton) condensate, as well as color superconductivity, our results would be useful for further understandings of these novel Fermi superfluids. R.H. was supported by Graduate School Doctoral Student Aid Program, Keio University.

  7. Magnetic first-order phase transition and crossover associated with random anisotropy in crystalline Dy[sub [ital x

    SciTech Connect

    del Moral, A.; Arnaudas, J.I. ); Gehring, P.M. ); Salamon, M.B. ); Ritter, C. ); Joven, E. ); Cullen, J. (Magnetics Group, Naval Surface Warfare Center, 10901 New Hampshire Avenue, White Oak, Silver Spring, Maryland 20903-5000 (United State

    1993-04-01

    The low-temperature ([ital T]=0 K) first-order phase transition, predicted to drive systems with both weak random and uniform cubic anisotropy from a correlated spin glass to a ferromagnet, has been observed. At higher temperatures the transition is to a quasi- or random ferromagnet. The transition occurs at a concentration [ital x][sub [ital t

  8. Microscopic analysis of the superconducting quantum critical point: Finite-temperature crossovers in transport near a pair-breaking quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Nayana; Lopatin, Andrei

    2007-09-01

    A microscopic analysis of the superconducting quantum critical point realized via a pair-breaking quantum phase transition is presented. Finite-temperature crossovers are derived for the electrical conductivity, which is a key probe of superconducting fluctuations. By using the diagrammatic formalism for disordered systems, we are able to incorporate the interplay between fluctuating Cooper pairs and electrons, that is outside the scope of a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau or effective bosonic action formalism. It is essential to go beyond the standard approximation in order to capture the zero-temperature correction which results purely from the (dynamic) quantum fluctuations and dictates the behavior of the conductivity in an entire low-temperature quantum regime. All dynamic contributions are of the same order and conspire to add up to a negative total, thereby inhibiting the conductivity as a result of superconducting fluctuations. On the contrary, the classical and the intermediate regimes are dominated by the positive bosonic channel. Our theory is applicable in one, two, and three dimensions and is relevant for experiments on superconducting nanowires, doubly connected cylinders, thin films, and bulk in the presence of magnetic impurities, magnetic field, or other pair breakers. A window of nonmonotonic behavior is predicted to exist as either the temperature or the pair-breaking parameter is swept.

  9. Enhanced cooperative interactions at the nanoscale in spin-crossover materials with a first-order phase transition.

    PubMed

    Félix, Gautier; Nicolazzi, William; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Perrier, Marine; Maurin, Guillaume; Larionova, Joulia; Long, Jérôme; Guari, Yannick; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed the size effect on a first-order spin transition governed by elastic interactions. This study was performed in the framework of a nonextensive thermodynamic core-shell model. When decreasing the particle size, differences in surface energies between the two phases lead to the shrinking of the thermal hysteresis width, the lowering of the transition temperature, and the increase of residual fractions at low temperature, in good agreement with recent experimental observations on spin transition nanomaterials. On the other hand, a modification of the particle-matrix interface may allow for the existence of the hysteresis loop even at very low sizes. In addition, an unexpected reopening of the hysteresis, when the size decreases, is also possible due to the hardening of the nanoparticles at very small sizes, which we deduced from the size dependence of the Debye temperature of a series of coordination nanoparticles. PMID:25167512

  10. Enhanced Cooperative Interactions at the Nanoscale in Spin-Crossover Materials with a First-Order Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Félix, Gautier; Nicolazzi, William; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Perrier, Marine; Maurin, Guillaume; Larionova, Joulia; Long, Jérôme; Guari, Yannick; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed the size effect on a first-order spin transition governed by elastic interactions. This study was performed in the framework of a nonextensive thermodynamic core-shell model. When decreasing the particle size, differences in surface energies between the two phases lead to the shrinking of the thermal hysteresis width, the lowering of the transition temperature, and the increase of residual fractions at low temperature, in good agreement with recent experimental observations on spin transition nanomaterials. On the other hand, a modification of the particle-matrix interface may allow for the existence of the hysteresis loop even at very low sizes. In addition, an unexpected reopening of the hysteresis, when the size decreases, is also possible due to the hardening of the nanoparticles at very small sizes, which we deduced from the size dependence of the Debye temperature of a series of coordination nanoparticles.

  11. Unexpected Spin-Crossover and a Low-Pressure Phase Change in an Iron(II)/Dipyrazolylpyridine Complex Exhibiting a High-Spin Jahn- Teller Distortion.

    PubMed

    Kershaw Cook, Laurence J; Thorp-Greenwood, Flora L; Comyn, Tim P; Cespedes, Oscar; Chastanet, Guillaume; Halcrow, Malcolm A

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of 4-methyl-2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine (L) and four salts of [FeL2]X2 (X– = BF(4)(–), 1; X– = ClO(4)(–), 2; X– = PF(6)(–), 3; X– = CF3SO(3)(–), 4) are reported. Powder samples of 1 and 2 both exhibit abrupt, hysteretic spin-state transitions on cooling, with T(1/2)↓ = 204 and T(1/2)↑ = 209 K (1), and T(1/2)↓ = 175 and T(1/2)↑ = 193 K (2). The 18 K thermal hysteresis loop for 2 is unusually wide for a complex of this type. Single crystal structures of 2 show it to exhibit a Jahn–Teller-distorted six-coordinate geometry in its high-spin state, which would normally inhibit spin-crossover. Bulk samples of 1 and 2 are isostructural by X-ray powder diffraction, and undergo a crystallographic phase change during their spin-transitions. At temperatures below T(1/2), exposing both compounds to 10(–5) Torr pressure inside the powder diffractometer causes a reversible transformation back to the high-temperature crystal phase. Consideration of thermodynamic data implies this cannot be accompanied by a low → high spin-state change, however. Both compounds also exhibit the LIESST effect, with 2 exhibiting an unusually high T(LIESST) of 112 K. The salts 3 and 4 are respectively high-spin and low-spin between 3 and 300 K, with crystalline 3 exhibiting a more pronounced version of the same Jahn–Teller distortion. PMID:26351707

  12. Unexpected Spin-Crossover and a Low-Pressure Phase Change in an Iron(II)/Dipyrazolylpyridine Complex Exhibiting a High-Spin Jahn-Teller Distortion.

    PubMed

    Kershaw Cook, Laurence J; Thorp-Greenwood, Flora L; Comyn, Tim P; Cespedes, Oscar; Chastanet, Guillaume; Halcrow, Malcolm A

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of 4-methyl-2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine (L) and four salts of [FeL2]X2 (X(-) = BF4(-), 1; X(-) = ClO4(-), 2; X(-) = PF6(-), 3; X(-) = CF3SO3(-), 4) are reported. Powder samples of 1 and 2 both exhibit abrupt, hysteretic spin-state transitions on cooling, with T1/2↓ = 204 and T1/2↑ = 209 K (1), and T1/2↓ = 175 and T1/2↑ = 193 K (2). The 18 K thermal hysteresis loop for 2 is unusually wide for a complex of this type. Single crystal structures of 2 show it to exhibit a Jahn-Teller-distorted six-coordinate geometry in its high-spin state, which would normally inhibit spin-crossover. Bulk samples of 1 and 2 are isostructural by X-ray powder diffraction, and undergo a crystallographic phase change during their spin-transitions. At temperatures below T1/2, exposing both compounds to 10(-5) Torr pressure inside the powder diffractometer causes a reversible transformation back to the high-temperature crystal phase. Consideration of thermodynamic data implies this cannot be accompanied by a low → high spin-state change, however. Both compounds also exhibit the LIESST effect, with 2 exhibiting an unusually high T(LIESST) of 112 K. The salts 3 and 4 are respectively high-spin and low-spin between 3 and 300 K, with crystalline 3 exhibiting a more pronounced version of the same Jahn-Teller distortion. PMID:26052980

  13. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial of oros-methylphenidate (CONCERTA®) and generic novo-methylphenidate ER-C (NOVO-generic)

    PubMed Central

    Fallu, Angelo; Dabouz, Farida; Furtado, Melissa; Anand, Leena; Katzman, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child’s development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA® to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C®. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial consisted of two phases in which participants with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 3 weeks of treatment with CONCERTA or generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. Following 3 weeks of treatment, participants were crossed-over to receive the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. Primary efficacy was assessed through the use of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Version II (TSQM-II). Results: Participants with ADHD treated with CONCERTA were more satisfied in terms of efficacy and side effects compared to those receiving an equivalent dose of generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. All participants chose to continue with CONCERTA treatment at the conclusion of the study. Conclusion: Although CONCERTA and generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C have been deemed bioequivalent, however the present findings demonstrate clinically and statistically significant differences between generic and branded CONCERTA. Further investigation of these differences is warranted. PMID:27536342

  14. Systolic s/sup 2/-way merge sort is optimal

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeck, H.; Schroder, H.; Starke, C.

    1989-07-01

    The time complexity of Thompson and Kun's s/sup 2/-way merge sort is analyzed and shown to be asymptotically optimal with respect to the recently improved lower bound on sorting on a mesh-connected n x n array. Furthermore, new lower bounds for systolic sorting are derived. A systolic version of s/sup 2/-way merge sort is systematically constructed and shown to be asymptotically optimal as well.

  15. Standard model cross-over on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, Michela; Rummukainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    With the physical Higgs mass the standard model symmetry restoration phase transition is a smooth cross-over. We study the thermodynamics of the cross-over using numerical lattice Monte Carlo simulations of an effective SU (2 )×U (1 ) gauge+Higgs theory, significantly improving on previously published results. We measure the Higgs field expectation value, thermodynamic quantities like pressure, energy density, speed of sound and heat capacity, and screening masses associated with the Higgs and Z fields. While the cross-over is smooth, it is very well defined with a width of only ˜5 GeV . We measure the cross-over temperature from the maximum of the susceptibility of the Higgs condensate, with the result Tc=159.5 ±1.5 GeV . Outside of the narrow cross-over region the perturbative results agree well with nonperturbative ones.

  16. Dimensional crossover of nonrelativistic bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Soeren; Boettcher, Igor; Wetterich, Christof

    2016-06-01

    We investigate how confining a transverse spatial dimension influences the few- and many-body properties of nonrelativistic bosons with pointlike interactions. Our main focus is on the dimensional crossover from three to two dimensions, which is of relevance for ultracold-atom experiments. Using functional-renormalization-group equations and T -matrix calculations we study how the phase transition temperature changes as a function of the spatial extent of the transverse dimension and relate the three- and two-dimensional s -wave scattering lengths. The analysis reveals how the properties of the lower-dimensional system are inherited from the higher-dimensional one during renormalization-group evolution. We limit the discussion to confinements in a potential well with periodic boundary conditions and argue why this qualitatively captures the physics of other compactifications such as transverse harmonic confinement as in cold-atom experiments.

  17. Structural crossover from nonmodulated to long-period modulated tetragonal phase and anomalous change in ferroelectric properties in the lead-free piezoelectric N a1 /2B i1 /2Ti O3-BaTi O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Badari Narayana; Khatua, Dipak Kumar; Garg, Rohini; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-06-01

    The highly complex structure-property interrelationship in the lead-free piezoelectric (x )N a1 /2B i1 /2Ti O3- (1 -x ) BaTi O3 is a subject of considerable contemporary debate. Using comprehensive x-ray, neutron diffraction, dielectric, and ferroelectric studies, we have shown the existence of a new criticality in this system at x =0.80 , i.e., well within the conventional tetragonal phase field. This criticality manifests as a nonmonotonic variation of the tetragonality and coercivity and is shown to be associated with a crossover from a nonmodulated tetragonal phase (for x <0.8 ) to a long-period modulated tetragonal phase (for x >0.80 ). It is shown that the stabilization of long-period modulation introduces a characteristic depolarization temperature in the system. While differing qualitatively from the two-phase model often suggested for the critical compositions of this system, our results support the view with regard to the tendency in perovskites to stabilize long-period modulated structures as a result of complex interplay of antiferrodistortive modes [Bellaiche and Iniguez, Phys. Rev. B 88, 014104 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.014104; Prosandeev, Wang, Ren, Iniguez, ands Bellaiche, Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 234 (2013), 10.1002/adfm.201201467].

  18. A Phase 1, Randomized, Single-Dose Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study to Investigate the Effect of Food Intake on Absorption of Orteronel (TAK-700) in Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Suri, Ajit; Pham, Theresa; MacLean, David B

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of food on the pharmacokinetics of orteronel, an investigational nonsteroidal, reversible selective inhibitor of 17,20-lyase. In this open-label, randomized crossover study, healthy subjects received single doses of orteronel 400 mg with a low-fat meal, a high-fat meal, and under fasting conditions in a randomized sequence. Plasma concentrations of orteronel and its primary M-I metabolite were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated using mixed-effects analysis of variance model. Compared with fasting conditions, the oral bioavailability of orteronel was increased under fed conditions. The least-squares mean ratio for area under the plasma concentration-time curve after a low-fat breakfast was 135% (90% confidence interval [CI], 126%-145%) compared with fasting conditions. Similarly, after a high-fat breakfast, the corresponding value was 142% (90%CI, 132%-152%). No unexpected safety concerns were raised with orteronel 400 mg administered in the fasted state or after either a high-fat or a low-fat meal; mild adverse events were experienced by 36% of the healthy male subjects. PMID:27163497

  19. A crossover in the mechanical response of nanocrystalline ceramics.

    PubMed

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2005-08-01

    Multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulation of indentation of nanocrystalline silicon carbide reveals unusual deformation mechanisms in brittle nanophase materials, resulting from the coexistence of brittle grains and soft amorphous grain boundary phases. Simulations predict a crossover from intergranular continuous deformation to intragrain discrete deformation at a critical indentation depth. The crossover arises from the interplay between cooperative grain sliding, grain rotations, and intergranular dislocation formation similar to stick-slip behavior. The crossover is also manifested in switching from deformation dominated by indentation-induced crystallization to deformation dominated by disordering, leading to amorphization. This interplay between deformation mechanisms is critical for the design of ceramics with superior mechanical properties. PMID:16081730

  20. Crossover sexual offenses.

    PubMed

    Heil, Peggy; Ahlmeyer, Sean; Simons, Dominique

    2003-10-01

    Crossover sexual offenses are defined as those in which victims are from multiple age, gender, and relationship categories. This study investigates admissions of crossover sexual offending from sex offenders participating in treatment who received polygraph testing. For 223 incarcerated and 266 paroled sexual offenders, sexual offenses were recorded from criminal history records and admissions during treatment coupled with polygraph testing. The majority of incarcerated offenders admitted to sexually assaulting both children and adults from multiple relationship types. In addition, there was a substantial increase in offenders admitting to sexually assaulting victims from both genders. In a group of incarcerated offenders who sexually assaulted children, the majority of offenders admitted to sexually assaulting both relatives and nonrelatives, and there was a substantial increase in the offenders admitting to assaulting both male and female children. Although similar trends were observed for the sample of parolees, the rates were far less dramatic. Parolees appeared to have greater levels of denial, had participated in fewer treatment sessions, and perceived greater supervision restrictions as a result of admitting additional offenses. These findings support previous research indicating that many sexual offenders do not exclusively offend against a preferred victim type. PMID:14571530

  1. The impacts of mantle phase transitions and the iron spin crossover in ferropericlase on convective mixing—is the evidence for compositional convection definitive? New results from a Yin-Yang overset grid-based control volume model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahnas, M. H.; Peltier, W. R.

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution seismic tomographic images from several subduction zones provide evidence for the inhibition of the downwelling of subducting slabs at the level of the 660 km depth seismic discontinuity. Furthermore, the inference of old (~140 Myr) sinking slabs below fossil subduction zones in the lower mantle has yet to be explained. We employ a control volume methodology to develop a new anelastically compressible model of three-dimensional thermal convection in the "mantle" of a terrestrial planet that fully incorporates the influence of large variations in material properties. The model also incorporates the influence of (1) multiple solid-solid pressure-induced phase transitions, (2) transformational superplasticity at 660 km depth, and (3) the high spin-low spin iron spin transition in ferropericlase at midmantle pressures. The message passing interface-parallelized code is successfully tested against previously published benchmark results. The high-resolution control volume models exhibit the same degree of radial layering as previously shown to be characteristic of otherwise identical 2-D axisymmetric spherical models. The layering is enhanced by the presence of moderate transformational superplasticity, and in the presence of the spin crossover in ferropericlase, stagnation of cold downwellings occurs in the range of spin crossover depths (~1700 km). Although this electronic spin transition has been suggested to be invisible seismically, recent high-pressure ab initio calculations suggest it to have a clear signature in body wave velocities which could provide an isochemical explanation of a seismological signature involving the onset of decorrelation between Vp and Vs that has come to be interpreted as requiring compositional layering.

  2. Hysteretic behavior of spin-crossover noise driven system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudyma, Iurii; Maksymov, Artur; Dimian, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    The influence of white Gaussian noise on hysteretic behavior of spin-crossover system is analyzed in the framework of stochastic Langevin dynamics. Various stochastic simulations are performed and several important properties of spin-transition in spin-crossover system driven by noise are reproduced. The numerical results are tested against the stationary probability function and the associated dynamic potential obtained from Fokker-Planck equation corresponding to spin-crossover Langevin dynamics. The dependence of light-induced optical hysteresis width and non-hysteretic transition curve slope on the noise intensity is illustrated. The role of low-spin and high-spin phase stabilities in the hysteretic behavior of noise-driven spin-crossover system is discussed.

  3. Critical behavior of La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 manganites exhibiting the crossover of first- and second-order phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, The-Long; Tran, Q. T.; Thanh, P. Q.; Yen, P. D. H.; Thanh, T. D.; Yu, S. C.

    2014-04-01

    We used Banerjee's criteria, modified Arrott plots, and the scaling hypothesis to analyze magnetic-field dependences of magnetization near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) phase-transition temperature (TC) of perovskite-type manganites La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 (x=0.09, 0.12 and 0.15). In the FM region, experimental results for the critical exponent β (=0.171 and 0.262 for x=0.09 and 0.12, respectively) reveal two first samples exhibiting tricriticality associated with the crossover of first- and second-order phase transitions. Increasing Ni-doping content leads to the shift of the β value (=0.320 for x=0.15) towards that expected for the 3D Ising model (β=0.325). This is due to the fact that the substitution of Ni ions into the Mn site changes structural parameters and dilutes the FM phase, which act as fluctuations and influence the FM-interaction strength of double-exchange Mn3+-Mn4+ pairs, and the phase-transition type. For the critical exponent γ (=0.976-0.990), the stability in its value demonstrates the PM behavior above TC of the samples. Particularly, around TC of La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 compounds, magnetic-field dependences of the maximum magnetic-entropy change can be described by a power law of |ΔSmax|∝Hn, where values n=0.55-0.77 are quite far from those (n=0.33-0.48) calculated from the theoretical relation n=1+(β-1)/(β+γ). This difference is related to the use of the mean-field theory for the samples exhibiting the magnetic inhomogeneity.

  4. Crossover studies with survival outcomes.

    PubMed

    Buyze, Jozefien; Goetghebeur, Els

    2013-12-01

    Crossover designs are well known to have major advantages when comparing the effect of two treatments which do not interact. With a right-censored survival endpoint, however, this design is quickly abandoned in favour of the more costly parallel design. Motivated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies which lacked power, we evaluate what may be gained in this setting and compare parallel with crossover designs. In a heterogeneous population, we find and explain a substantial increase in power for the crossover study using a non-parametric logrank test. With frailties in a proportional hazards model, crossover designs equally lead to substantially smaller variance for the subject-specific hazard ratio (HR), while the population-averaged HR sees negligible gain. Its efficiency benefit is recovered when the population-averaged HR is reconstructed from estimated subject-specific hazard rates. We derive the time point for treatment crossover that optimizes efficiency and end with the analysis of two recent HIV prevention trials. We find that a Cellulose sulphate trial could have hardly gained efficiency from a crossover design, while a Nonoxynol-9 trial stood to gain substantial power. We conclude that there is a role for effective crossover designs in important classes of survival problems. PMID:21715438

  5. Evaluation of the effect of food and age on the pharmacokinetics of oral netupitant and palonosetron in healthy subjects: A randomized, open-label, crossover phase 1 study.

    PubMed

    Calcagnile, Selma; Lanzarotti, Corinna; Gutacker, Michaela; Jakob-Rodamer, Verena; Peter Kammerer, Klaus; Timmer, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Antiemetic treatment compliance is important to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, a feared chemotherapy side effect. NEPA, a new oral fixed combination of netupitant, a highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), and palonosetron, a second-generation 5-HT3 RA, targets dual antiemetic pathways with a single dose. This study investigated the effect of food intake and age on NEPA pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety. In this open-label, single-center, randomized, phase 1 study, 24 adults (18-45 years) received NEPA in a fed or fasted state during the first treatment period and in the alternative state in the next treatment period. Twelve elderly subjects (≥65 years) received NEPA in a fasted state. Blood samples were taken for netupitant and palonosetron PK analysis. In the fed condition, netupitant plasma exposure increased, whereas palonosetron PK parameters were not affected. Furthermore, elderly subjects showed increased netupitant and palonosetron exposure compared with adults. All adverse events were mild/moderate, with constipation and headache the most common. Although food intake and age altered NEPA PK, dose adjustments were not needed, as netupitant and palonosetron exposure increases did not lead to safety concerns in healthy subjects. PMID:27137147

  6. Y-doped La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} manganites exhibiting a large magnetocaloric effect and the crossover of first-order and second-order phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, The-Long; Jung, C. U.; Lee, B. W.; Ho, T. A.; Manh, T. V.; Dang, N. T.; Thanh, T. D.

    2015-10-14

    We prepared orthorhombic La{sub 0.7−x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} samples (x = 0, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08) by conventional solid-state reaction and then studied their magnetic properties and magnetocaloric (MC) effect based on magnetization versus temperature and magnetic-field measurements, M(T, H). The experimental results revealed that an x increase in La{sub 0.7−x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} reduced the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature (T{sub C}) from 260 K (for x = 0) to ∼126 K (for x = 0.08). Around the T{sub C}, maximum magnetic-entropy changes for a magnetic-field variation interval H = 50 kOe are about 10.7, 8.5, 7.4, and 5.8 J·kg{sup −1}·K{sup −1} for x = 0, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08, respectively, corresponding to refrigerant capacities RC = 250–280 J·kg{sup −1}. These values are comparable to those of some conventional MC materials, revealing the applicability of La{sub 0.7−x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} in magnetic refrigeration. Using the Arrott method and scaling hypothesis as analyzing high-field M(H, T) data, and the universal-curve construction of the magnetic entropy change, we found a magnetic-phase separation. While the samples x = 0−0.06 exhibit a first-order magnetic phase transition, x = 0.08 exhibits the crossover of the first-to-second-order phase transformation (with its critical-exponent values close to those expected for the tricritical mean-field theory) and has the presence of ferromagnetic clusters even above the T{sub C}. Such the variations in the magnetism and MC effect are related to the changes in structural parameters caused by the Y substitution for La because Y doping does not change the concentration ratio of Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+}.

  7. Microelectronic superconducting crossover and coil

    DOEpatents

    Wellstood, Frederick C.; Kingston, John J.; Clarke, John

    1994-01-01

    A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T.sub.c superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO.sub.3 ; and a third high T.sub.c superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps and which can be opened to the atmosphere between depositions.

  8. The BCS-BEC Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Meera M.

    2015-09-01

    This chapter presents the crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of weakly correlated pairs of fermions to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of diatomic molecules in the atomic Fermi gas. Our aim is to provide a pedagogical review of the BCS-BEC crossover, with an emphasis on the basic concepts, particularly those that are not generally known or are difficult to find in the literature. We shall not attempt to give an exhaustive survey of current research in the limited space here; where possible, we will direct the reader to more extensive reviews.

  9. Microelectronic superconducting crossover and coil

    DOEpatents

    Wellstood, F.C.; Kingston, J.J.; Clarke, J.

    1994-03-01

    A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T[sub c] superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO[sub 3]; and a third high T[sub c] superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps and which can be opened to the atmosphere between depositions. 13 figures.

  10. Crossover scaling for moments in multifractal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstrom, Preben; Hansen, Lars K.; Rasmussen, Dan R.

    1987-07-01

    Invoking the formalism known from second-order phase transitions and thermodynamics, we analyze the step structure obtained at transitions to chaos in dynamical systems or where Cantor sets evolve in general. As examples, we treat the skew tent map analytically and Arnold's sine map numerically, but the presented formalism employed for embedding dimension d=1 is readily extended to higher dimensions. We outline the scaling behavior for the counting, the measure, and higher moments. In particular, we consider the crossover exponent ν which enters the scaling functions and for the measure is related to the critical exponent β and fractal dimension D. We emphasize that the general presence of a multifractal structure results in a value of ν which depends on from which moment it is defined, and deduce the saturation value of ν in the high-moment limit. Also, we derive the connection to thermodynamical functions as pressure, entropy, and escape rate. Finally, we examine the scaling behavior of the moments and scaling relations for exponents when either a ``ghost'' field or noise is introduced as a conjugated field involving the critical exponents α, γ, and δ as well as the crossover exponent μ.

  11. Multiferroic crossover in perovskite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, L.; Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P.; Stampfl, C.

    2016-04-01

    The coexistence of ferroelectricity and magnetism in A B O3 perovskite oxides is rare, a phenomenon that has become known as the ferroelectric "d0 rule." Recently, the perovskite BiCoO3 has been shown experimentally to be isostructural with PbTiO3, while simultaneously the d6Co3 + ion has a high-spin ground state with C -type antiferromagnetic ordering. It has been suggested that the hybridization of Bi 6 s states with the O 2 p valence band stabilizes the polar phase, however, we have recently demonstrated that Co3 + ions in the perovskite structure can facilitate a ferroelectric distortion via the Co 3 d -O 2 p covalent interaction [L. Weston, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 247601 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.247601]. In this paper, using accurate hybrid density functional calculations, we investigate the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structure of BiCoO3 to elucidate the origin of the multiferroic state. To begin with, we perform a more general first-principles investigation of the role of d electrons in affecting the tendency for perovskite materials to exhibit a ferroelectric distortion; this is achieved via a qualitative trend study in artificial cubic and tetragonal La B O3 perovskites. We choose La as the A cation so as to remove the effects of Bi 6 s hybridization. The lattice instability is identified by the softening of phonon modes in the cubic phase, as well as by the energy lowering associated with a ferroelectric distortion. For the La B O3 series, where B is a d0-d8 cation from the 3 d block, the trend study reveals that increasing the d orbital occupation initially removes the tendency for a polar distortion, as expected. However, for high-spin d5-d7 and d8 cations a strong ferroelectric instability is recovered. This effect is explained in terms of increased pseudo-Jahn-Teller (PJT) p -d vibronic coupling. The PJT effect is described by the competition between a stabilizing force (K0) that favors the cubic phase, and a vibronic term that

  12. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Matthew P; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5-10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies. PMID:27577091

  13. The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Mallamace, Domenico; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2013-12-07

    We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (ϕ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T − ϕ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and ϕ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of ϕ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects.

  14. The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Mallamace, Domenico; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2013-12-01

    We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (ϕ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T - ϕ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and ϕ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of ϕ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects.

  15. The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems.

    PubMed

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H Eugene; Mallamace, Domenico; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2013-12-01

    We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (φ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T - φ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and φ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of φ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects. PMID:24320386

  16. An Analysis of Semantic Aware Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uy, Nguyen Quang; Hoai, Nguyen Xuan; O'Neill, Michael; McKay, Bob; Galván-López, Edgar

    It is well-known that the crossover operator plays an important role in Genetic Programming (GP). In Standard Crossover (SC), semantics are not used to guide the selection of the crossover points, which are generated randomly. This lack of semantic information is the main cause of destructive effects from SC (e.g., children having lower fitness than their parents). Recently, we proposed a new semantic based crossover known GP called Semantic Aware Crossover (SAC) [25]. We show that SAC outperforms SC in solving a class of real-value symbolic regression problems. We clarify the effect of SAC on GP search in increasing the semantic diversity of the population, thus helping to reduce the destructive effects of crossover in GP.

  17. Reversible Photoswitching of a Spin-Crossover Molecular Complex in the Solid State at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Rösner, Benedikt; Milek, Magdalena; Witt, Alexander; Gobaut, Benoît; Torelli, Piero; Fink, Rainer H; Khusniyarov, Marat M

    2015-10-26

    Spin-crossover metal complexes are highly promising magnetic molecular switches for prospective molecule-based devices. The spin-crossover molecular photoswitches developed so far operate either at very low temperatures or in the liquid phase, which hinders practical applications. Herein, we present a molecular spin-crossover iron(II) complex that can be switched between paramagnetic high-spin and diamagnetic low-spin states with light at room temperature in the solid state. The reversible photoswitching is induced by alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light and proceeds at the molecular level. PMID:26480333

  18. Becoming a crossover-competent DSB.

    PubMed

    Lake, Cathleen M; Hawley, R Scott

    2016-06-01

    The proper execution of meiotic recombination (or crossing over) is essential for chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division, and thus this process is regulated by multiple, and often elaborate, mechanisms. Meiotic recombination begins with the programmed induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), of which only a subset are selected to be repaired into crossovers. This crossover selection process is carried out by a number of pro-crossover proteins that regulate the fashion in which DSBs are repaired. Here, we highlight recent studies regarding the process of DSB fate selection by a family of pro-crossover proteins known as the Zip-3 homologs. PMID:26806636

  19. Flow equations for the BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, S.; Gies, H.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Wetterich, C.

    2007-08-15

    The functional renormalization group is used for the BCS-BEC crossover in gases of ultracold fermionic atoms. In a simple truncation, we see how universality and an effective theory with composite bosonic diatom states emerge. We obtain a unified picture of the whole phase diagram. The flow reflects different effective physics at different scales. In the BEC limit as well as near the critical temperature, it describes an interacting bosonic theory.

  20. Direct observation in 3d of structural crossover in binary hard sphere mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statt, Antonia; Pinchaipat, Rattachai; Turci, Francesco; Evans, Robert; Royall, C. Patrick

    2016-04-01

    For binary fluid mixtures of spherical particles in which the two species are sufficiently different in size, the dominant wavelength of oscillations of the pair correlation functions is predicted to change from roughly the diameter of the large species to that of the small species along a sharp crossover line in the phase diagram [C. Grodon et al., J. Chem. Phys. 121, 7869 (2004)]. Using particle-resolved colloid experiments in 3d we demonstrate that crossover exists and that its location in the phase diagram is in quantitative agreement with the results of both theory and our Monte-Carlo simulations. In contrast with previous work [J. Baumgartl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 198303 (2007)], where a correspondence was drawn between crossover and percolation of both species, in our 3d study we find that structural crossover is unrelated to percolation.

  1. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) "CRover", which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0, it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M_{odot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M_{odot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated.

  2. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section...

  5. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section...

  7. BCS to Bose crossover: Broken-symmetry state

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, J.R. |; Randeria, M. |; Sa de Melo, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    A functional integral formulation, used previously to calculate T{sub c} and describe normal state properties of the BCS-Bose crossover, is extended to T{lt}T{sub c}. The saddle point approximation is shown to be qualitatively correct for T{lt}T{sub c} for {ital all} couplings, in contrast to the situation above T{sub c}. Several features of the crossover are described. The difference between the T=0 {open_quotes}pair size{close_quotes} and the (prefactor of the T dependent) Ginzburg-Landau coherence length is pointed out: the two quantities are the same only in the BCS limit. The evolution of the collective modes from the BCS to the Bose regime is discussed together with the mixing of the amplitude and phase in the absence of a particle-hole symmetry. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Spin crossover in ferropericlase and velocity heterogeneities in the lower mantle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongqing; Wentzcovitch, Renata M

    2014-07-22

    Deciphering the origin of seismic velocity heterogeneities in the mantle is crucial to understanding internal structures and processes at work in the Earth. The spin crossover in iron in ferropericlase (Fp), the second most abundant phase in the lower mantle, introduces unfamiliar effects on seismic velocities. First-principles calculations indicate that anticorrelation between shear velocity (VS) and bulk sound velocity (Vφ) in the mantle, usually interpreted as compositional heterogeneity, can also be produced in homogeneous aggregates containing Fp. The spin crossover also suppresses thermally induced heterogeneity in longitudinal velocity (VP) at certain depths but not in VS. This effect is observed in tomography models at conditions where the spin crossover in Fp is expected in the lower mantle. In addition, the one-of-a-kind signature of this spin crossover in the RS/P (∂ ln VS/∂ ln VP) heterogeneity ratio might be a useful fingerprint to detect the presence of Fp in the lower mantle. PMID:25002507

  9. Standard Model thermodynamics across the electroweak crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Laine, M.; Meyer, M.

    2015-07-22

    Even though the Standard Model with a Higgs mass m{sub \\tiny H}=125 GeV possesses no bulk phase transition, its thermodynamics still experiences a “soft point” at temperatures around T=160 GeV, with a deviation from ideal gas thermodynamics. Such a deviation may have an effect on precision computations of weakly interacting dark matter relic abundances if their mass is in the few TeV range, or on leptogenesis scenarios operating in this temperature range. By making use of results from lattice simulations based on a dimensionally reduced effective field theory, we estimate the relevant thermodynamic functions across the crossover. The results are tabulated in a numerical form permitting for their insertion as a background equation of state into cosmological particle production/decoupling codes. We find that Higgs dynamics induces a non-trivial “structure” visible e.g. in the heat capacity, but that in general the largest radiative corrections originate from QCD effects, reducing the energy density by a couple of percent from the free value even at T>160 GeV.

  10. Dynamical and orientational structural crossovers in low-temperature glycerol.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Salman; Martin, Daniel R; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2016-07-01

    Mean-square displacements of hydrogen atoms in glass-forming materials and proteins, as reported by incoherent elastic neutron scattering, show kinks in their temperature dependence. This crossover, known as the dynamical transition, connects two approximately linear regimes. It is often assigned to the dynamical freezing of subsets of molecular modes at the point of equality between their corresponding relaxation times and the instrumental observation window. The origin of the dynamical transition in glass-forming glycerol is studied here by extensive molecular dynamics simulations. We find the dynamical transition to occur for both the center-of-mass translations and the molecular rotations at the same temperature, insensitive to changes of the observation window. Both the translational and rotational dynamics of glycerol show a dynamic crossover from the structural to a secondary relaxation at the temperature of the dynamical transition. A significant and discontinuous increase in the orientational Kirkwood factor and in the dielectric constant is observed in the same range of temperatures. No indication is found of a true thermodynamic transition to an ordered low-temperature phase. We therefore suggest that all observed crossovers are dynamic in character. The increase in the dielectric constant is related to the dynamic freezing of dipolar domains on the time scale of simulations. PMID:27575188

  11. Dynamical and orientational structural crossovers in low-temperature glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedi, Salman; Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-07-01

    Mean-square displacements of hydrogen atoms in glass-forming materials and proteins, as reported by incoherent elastic neutron scattering, show kinks in their temperature dependence. This crossover, known as the dynamical transition, connects two approximately linear regimes. It is often assigned to the dynamical freezing of subsets of molecular modes at the point of equality between their corresponding relaxation times and the instrumental observation window. The origin of the dynamical transition in glass-forming glycerol is studied here by extensive molecular dynamics simulations. We find the dynamical transition to occur for both the center-of-mass translations and the molecular rotations at the same temperature, insensitive to changes of the observation window. Both the translational and rotational dynamics of glycerol show a dynamic crossover from the structural to a secondary relaxation at the temperature of the dynamical transition. A significant and discontinuous increase in the orientational Kirkwood factor and in the dielectric constant is observed in the same range of temperatures. No indication is found of a true thermodynamic transition to an ordered low-temperature phase. We therefore suggest that all observed crossovers are dynamic in character. The increase in the dielectric constant is related to the dynamic freezing of dipolar domains on the time scale of simulations.

  12. Universal crossovers between entanglement entropy and thermal entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swingle, Brian; Senthil, T.

    2013-01-01

    We postulate the existence of universal crossover functions connecting the universal parts of the entanglement entropy to the low-temperature thermal entropy in gapless quantum many-body systems. These scaling functions encode the intuition that the same low-energy degrees of freedom which control low-temperature thermal physics are also responsible for the long-range entanglement in the quantum ground state. We demonstrate the correctness of the proposed scaling form and determine the scaling function for certain classes of gapless systems whose low-energy physics is described by a conformal field theory. We also use our crossover formalism to argue that local systems which are “natural” can violate the boundary law at most logarithmically. In particular, we show that several non-Fermi-liquid phases of matter have entanglement entropy that is at most of order Ld-1log(L) for a region of linear size L thereby confirming various earlier suggestions in the literature. We also briefly apply our crossover formalism to the study of fluctuations in conserved quantities and discuss some subtleties that occur in systems that spontaneously break a continuous symmetry.

  13. Crossover from superdiffusive to diffusive dynamics in fluctuating light fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marqués, Manuel I.

    2016-06-01

    The expressions for the optical drag force, the equilibrium kinetic energy, and the diffusion constant of an electric dipole in a light field consisting of electromagnetic plane waves with polarizations randomly distributed and fluctuating phases are obtained. The drag force is proportional to the extinction cross section of the dipole and to the intensity. The diffusion constant does not depend on the amplitude of the electromagnetic field and is proportional to the time interval between fluctuations. Numerical simulations for the dynamics of a resonant dipole, initially at rest, show the crossover between the superdiffusive and the diffusive regimes theoretically predicted.

  14. An open-label, phase 2, single centre, randomized, crossover design bioequivalence study of AndroForte 5 testosterone cream and Testogel 1% testosterone gel in hypogonadal men: study LP101.

    PubMed

    Wittert, G A; Harrison, R W; Buckley, M J; Wlodarczyk, J

    2016-01-01

    We compared a novel 5% testosterone (T) cream (AndroForte 5, Lawley Pharmaceuticals, Australia) with a 1% T gel (Testogel, Besins Healthcare, Australia). Using an open-label crossover design, subjects were randomized to one of two treatment sequences using either the T gel or T cream first in a 1 : 1 ratio. Each treatment period was 30 days with a 7-14 days washout period between them. On Days 1 and 30 of each treatment period blood was sampled at -15, -5 min, 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 16 h post study drug administration. Sixteen men with established androgen deficiency aged between 29 and 73 years, who had undertaken a washout from prior testosterone therapy participated in the study. One subject failed to complete both arms and another was excluded post-completion because of a major protocol violation. Bioequivalence was established based on key pharmacokinetic (PK) variables: AUC, C(avg), C(max), T(max), % fluctuation (with and without baseline correction) for the two formulations of testosterone on Day 1 and Day 30. The ratio and 90% CI of AUC 0.99 (0.86-1.14), C(max) 1.02 (0.84-1.24) and C(avg) 0.99 (0.86-1.14) for T cream/T gel were within the predetermined bio-equivalence criteria of 80% to 125% at Day 30. There were no statistically significant differences between secondary biochemical markers: serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT), oestradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and (FSH). The two testosterone formulations were shown to be bioequivalent. PMID:26754331

  15. Spin-crossover molecule based thermoelectric junction

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Dibyajyoti; Parida, Prakash; Pati, Swapan K.

    2015-05-11

    Using ab-initio numerical methods, we explore the spin-dependent transport and thermoelectric properties of a spin-crossover molecule (i.e., iron complex of 2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)pyridine) based nano-junction. We demonstrate a large magnetoresistance, efficient conductance-switching, and spin-filter activity in this molecule-based two-terminal device. The spin-crossover process also modulates the thermoelectric entities. It can efficiently switch the magnitude as well as spin-polarization of the thermocurrent. We find that thermocurrent is changed by ∼4 orders of magnitude upon spin-crossover. Moreover, it also substantially affects the thermopower and consequently, the device shows extremely efficient spin-crossover magnetothermopower generation. Furthermore, by tuning the chemical potential of electrodes into a certain range, a pure spin-thermopower can be achieved for the high-spin state. Finally, the reasonably large values of figure-of-merit in the presence and absence of phonon demonstrate a large heat-to-voltage conversion efficiency of the device. We believe that our study will pave an alternative way of tuning the transport and thermoelectric properties through the spin-crossover process and can have potential applications in generation of spin-dependent current, information storage, and processing.

  16. Modeling the covariance structure in pharmacokinetic crossover trials.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, J K; Wang, J; Byrom, W D; Jones, B

    1999-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies of drug and metabolite concentrations in the blood are usually conducted as crossover trials, especially in phases I and II. A longitudinal series of measurements is collected on each subject within each period. However, much of the dependence among such observations, within and between periods, is generally ignored in analyzing this type of data. Usually, only a random coefficient model is fitted for the parameters in the nonlinear mean function, along with allowing the variance to depend on the mean so that it changes over time. Here, we develop models to allow more fully for the structure of the crossover study. We introduce two levels of variance components, for the subjects and for the periods within subjects, and also an autocorrelation within periods. We also retain the time-varying variance, using a separate variance function for this, different from that for the mean. We apply this model to a phase I study of the drug flosequinan and its metabolite. This drug was developed for the treatment of heart failure. Because the metabolite also exhibits an active pharmacologic effect, study of both the parent drug and the metabolite is of interest. We find that the autocorrelation is the element in the covariance structure that most improves the fit of the model but that two levels of variance components can also be necessary. PMID:10473030

  17. Spin Crossover in Ferropericlase From First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmstrom, E.; Stixrude, L. P.

    2013-12-01

    Ferropericlase is believed to be the second-most abundant mineral of the lower mantle of the Earth. It is experimentally known that with increasing pressure, the iron ions in the mineral begin to collapse from a high-spin to low-spin state. This spin crossover looks certain to have geophysical effects, and hence a good theoretical understanding of the phenomenon is necessary. Using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with thermodynamic integration, we construct a phase diagram of the spin crossover as a function of pressure and temperature. In addition, we predict that the mineral loses its electrically insulating character within the lower mantle.

  18. The Design of Cluster Randomized Crossover Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietbergen, Charlotte; Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    The inefficiency induced by between-cluster variation in cluster randomized (CR) trials can be reduced by implementing a crossover (CO) design. In a simple CO trial, each subject receives each treatment in random order. A powerful characteristic of this design is that each subject serves as its own control. In a CR CO trial, clusters of subjects…

  19. Crossover Pedagogy: The Collaborative Search for Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the author's cross-pedagogical approach to co-teaching with student affairs colleagues. The central goal of this approach is to help students create meaning for their lives. The author also gives an account of an incident that occurred in one seminar and illustrates the benefits of a crossover approach.

  20. Cedarwood: cross-over pressure research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the cross-over pressure for cedarwood oil in carbon dioxide. A closed stirrer reactor with an in-line loop connected to the injector of a GC was used to measure the concentration of cedarwood oil in the carbon dioxide. Both neat cedarwood oil as ...

  1. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J.; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers.

  2. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers. PMID:27425776

  3. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer

    PubMed Central

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers. PMID:27425776

  4. Superconductor-Insulator Transition and Fermi-Bose Crossovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Yen Lee; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini; Chang, Chia-Chen; Scalettar, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The direct transition from an insulator to a superconductor (SC) in Fermi systems is a problem of long-standing interest, which necessarily goes beyond the standard BCS paradigm of superconductivity as a Fermi surface instability. We introduce here a simple, translationally invariant lattice fermion model that undergoes a SC-insulator transition (SIT) and elucidate its properties using analytical methods and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We show that there is a fermionic band insulator to bosonic insulator crossover in the insulating phase and a BCS-to-BEC crossover in the SC. The SIT is always found to be from a bosonic insulator to a BEC-like SC, with an energy gap for fermions that remains finite across the SIT. The energy scales that go critical at the SIT are the gap to pair excitations in the insulator and the superfluid stiffness in the SC. In addition to giving insight into important questions about the SIT in solid-state systems, our model should be experimentally realizable using ultracold fermions in optical lattices.

  5. Superconductor-Insulator Transition and Fermi-Bose Crossovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Nandini; Loh, Yen Lee; Randeria, Mohit; Chang, Chia-Chen; Scalettar, Richard

    The direct transition from an insulator to a superconductor (SC) in Fermi systems is a problem of long-standing interest, which necessarily goes beyond the standard BCS paradigm of superconductivity as a Fermi surface instability. We introduce here a simple, translationally-invariant lattice fermion model that undergoes a SC-insulator transition (SIT) and elucidate its properties using analytical methods and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We show that there is a fermionic band insulator to bosonic insulator crossover in the insulating phase and a BCS-to-BEC crossover in the SC. The SIT is always found to be from a bosonic insulator to a BEC-like SC, with an energy gap for fermions that remains finite across the SIT. The energy scales that go critical at the SIT are the gap to pair excitations in the insulator and the superfluid stiffness in the SC. In addition to giving insights into important questions about the SIT in solid state systems, our model should be experimentally realizable using ultracold fermions in optical lattices. Ref: arXiv:1507.05641 We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF DMR-1410364 (MR), DOE DE-FG02-07ER46423 (NT), and from the UC Office of the President (CC, RTS).

  6. Crossover from quantum to classical transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morr, Dirk K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the crossover from quantum to classical transport has become of fundamental importance not only for technological applications due to the creation of sub-10-nm transistors - an important building block of our modern life - but also for elucidating the role played by quantum mechanics in the evolutionary fitness of biological complexes. This article provides a basic introduction into the nature of charge and energy transport in the quantum and classical regimes. It discusses the characteristic transport properties in both limits and demonstrates how they can be connected through the loss of quantum mechanical coherence. The salient features of the crossover physics are identified, and their importance in opening new transport regimes and in understanding efficient and robust energy transport in biological complexes are demonstrated.

  7. Development of methanol evaporation plate to reduce methanol crossover in a direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruiming

    This research focuses on methanol crossover reduction in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) through separating the methanol vapor from its liquid phase and feeding the vapor passively at low temperature range. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated by using commercial available membrane with different thickness at different anode catalyst loading levels, and tested under the operating conditions below 100°C in cell temperature and cathode exit open to ambient pressure. Liquid methanol transport from the anode through the membrane into cathode ("methanol crossover") is identified as one of the major efficiency losses in a DMFC. It is known that the methanol crossover rate in the vapor phase is much lower than in liquid phase. Vapor feed can be achieved by heating the liquid methanol to elevated temperatures (>100°C), but other issues limit the performance of the cell when operating above 100°C. High temperature membranes and much more active cathode catalyst structures are required, and a complex temperature control system must be employed. However, methanol vapor feed can also occur at a lower temperature range (<100°C) by separating its vapor from the liquid phase by evaporation through a porous body. The methanol crossover with this vapor feed mode is lower compared with the direct liquid methanol feed. A new method of using a methanol evaporation plate (MEP) to separate the vapor from its liquid phase to reduce the liquid methanol crossover at low temperature range is developed. A MEP plays the roles of liquid/vapor methanol phase separation and evaporation in a DMFC. The goal of this study is to develop a MEP with the proper properties to achieve high methanol phase separation efficiency and fast methanol evaporation rate over a wide range of temperature, i.e., from room temperature up to near boiling temperature (100°C). MEP materials were selected and characterized. MEPs made from three different types were tested extensively with different

  8. Stress- and pressure-induced iron spin-state crossover in lower mantle minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazyrin, K.; Miyajima, N.; Smith, J.; Lee, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The spin-state crossover of ferric and ferrous iron is an important feature of major lower mantle minerals, namely magnesium silicate perovskite (Pv) and ferropericlase (Fp). This electronic transition observed in compressed Pv and Fp was initially discovered at ambient temperatures, however it is also expected for the extreme high pressure-high temperature (HP-HT) conditions endemic to planetary interiors, in particular to the Earth's lower mantle. The pressure-induced spin-state crossover of iron in Pv and Fp has been under focus of many studies, however, some aspects have not been explored in great detail. One of these aspects is the influence of non-hydrostatic macro and micro stresses on the spin-state transitions. Hydrostatic pressure is the important thermodynamic property and distinguishing effects of undesirable stresses is important from both a theoretical and experimental point of view. In this work we compress a two-phase polycrystalline mixture containing magnesium silicate Pv (Fe, Al bearing) and Fp. Using high-resolution synchrotron diffraction on laser-heated diamond-anvil cell samples, we explore characteristic signatures for non-hydrostatic stresses and their influence on the spin-state crossover of ferrous and ferric iron in Pv and Fp. We demonstrate how non-hydrostatic stresses affect the starting pressure and width of the ferrous iron spin-state crossover in Fp and compare available literature data with our results with powder and single crystal diffraction data. Finally, we use the dependence of high-spin to low-spin crossover on the ferrous iron concentration in Fp to support a recently predicted gradual decrease of ferrous iron partitioning coefficient value for Pv and Fp under compression. Our results suggest that this change occurs at HP-HT conditions even before the actual spin-state crossover of ferrous iron in Fp.

  9. Spin crossover in ferropericlase and velocity heterogeneities in the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ferropericlase (Fp) is believed to be the second most abundant phase in the lower mantle. Since the discovery of the high spin (HS) to low spin (LS) crossover in iron in Fp [1], this phenomenon has been investigated extensively experimentally and theoretically. This is a broad and smooth crossover that takes place throughout most of the lower mantle and does not produce an obvious signature in radial velocity or density profiles [2]. Therefore, the spin transition has been generally considered to be invisible to seismic waves. This study, however, shows that it can produce a peculiar effect on lateral velocity heterogeneities at certain depths[3]. Deciphering the origin of seismic velocity heterogeneities in the mantle is crucial to understanding internal structures and processes at work in the Earth. The spin crossover in iron introduces unfamiliar effects on seismic velocities. First principles calculations indicate that anti-correlation between shear velocity (VS) and bulk sound velocity (Vφ) in the mantle, usually interpreted as compositional heterogeneity, can also be produced in homogeneous aggregates containing Fp. The spin crossover also suppresses thermally induced heterogeneity in VP but not in VS. This effect is observed in tomographic models at conditions where the spin crossover in Fp is expected in the lower mantle. In addition, the one-of-a-kind signature of this spin crossover in the RS/P () heterogeneity ratio might be a useful "fingerprint" to detect the presence of Fp in the lower mantle. [1] Badro J, et al. (2003) Science 300(5620):789-791. [2] Wu Z, Justo J. F., and Wentzcovitch R. M., (2013). Phys. Rev. Lett. 110. 228501-5 [3]Wu Z., and Wentzcovitch R. M., (2014) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1322427111

  10. JavaGenes: Evolving Graphs with Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Atsatt, Sean; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms usually use string or tree representations. We have developed a novel crossover operator for a directed and undirected graph representation, and used this operator to evolve molecules and circuits. Unlike strings or trees, a single point in the representation cannot divide every possible graph into two parts, because graphs may contain cycles. Thus, the crossover operator is non-trivial. A steady-state, tournament selection genetic algorithm code (JavaGenes) was written to implement and test the graph crossover operator. All runs were executed by cycle-scavagging on networked workstations using the Condor batch processing system. The JavaGenes code has evolved pharmaceutical drug molecules and simple digital circuits. Results to date suggest that JavaGenes can evolve moderate sized drug molecules and very small circuits in reasonable time. The algorithm has greater difficulty with somewhat larger circuits, suggesting that directed graphs (circuits) are more difficult to evolve than undirected graphs (molecules), although necessary differences in the crossover operator may also explain the results. In principle, JavaGenes should be able to evolve other graph-representable systems, such as transportation networks, metabolic pathways, and computer networks. However, large graphs evolve significantly slower than smaller graphs, presumably because the space-of-all-graphs explodes combinatorially with graph size. Since the representation strongly affects genetic algorithm performance, adding graphs to the evolutionary programmer's bag-of-tricks should be beneficial. Also, since graph evolution operates directly on the phenotype, the genotype-phenotype translation step, common in genetic algorithm work, is eliminated.

  11. Dynamical Landau theory of the glass crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Tommaso

    2016-07-01

    I introduce a dynamical field theory to describe the glassy behavior in supercooled liquids. The mean-field approximation of the theory predicts a dynamical arrest transition, as in the ideal mode-coupling theory and mean-field discontinuous spin-glass models. Instead, beyond the mean-field approximation, the theory predicts that the transition is avoided and transformed into a crossover, as observed in experiments and simulations. To go beyond mean-field, a standard perturbative loop expansion is performed at first. Approaching the ideal critical point this expansion is divergent at all orders and I show that the leading divergent term at any given order is the same as a dynamical stochastic equation, called stochastic-beta relaxation (SBR) in Europhys. Lett. 106, 56003 (2014), 10.1209/0295-5075/106/56003. At variance with the original theory, SBR can be studied beyond mean-field directly, without the need to resort to a perturbative expansion. Thus it provides a qualitative and quantitative description of the dynamical crossover. For consistency reasons, it is important to establish the connection between the dynamical field theory and SBR beyond perturbation theory. This can be done with the help of a stronger result: the dynamical field theory is exactly equivalent to a theory with quenched disorder. Qualitatively, the nonperturbative mechanism leading to the crossover is therefore the same as the mechanism of SBR. Quantitatively, SBR is equivalent to making the mean-field approximation once the quenched disorder has been generated.

  12. Quantum-classical crossover in electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, Janos

    2006-09-15

    A classical field theory is proposed for the electric current and the electromagnetic field interpolating between microscopic and macroscopic domains. It represents a generalization of the density functional for the dynamics of the current and the electromagnetic field in the quantum side of the crossover and reproduces standard classical electrodynamics on the other side. The effective action derived in the closed time path formalism and the equations of motion follow from the variational principle. The polarization of the Dirac-sea can be taken into account in the quadratic approximation of the action by the introduction of the deplacement field strengths as in conventional classical electrodynamics. Decoherence appears naturally as a simple one-loop effect in this formalism. It is argued that the radiation time arrow is generated from the quantum boundary conditions in time by decoherence at the quantum-classical crossover and the Abraham-Lorentz force arises from the accelerating charge or from other charges in the macroscopic or the microscopic side, respectively. The functional form of the quantum renormalization group, the generalization of the renormalization group method for the density matrix, is proposed to follow the scale dependence through the quantum-classical crossover in a systematical manner.

  13. Observing the 1D-3D Crossover in a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-05-01

    Trapped two-component Fermi gases phase separate into superfluid and normal phases when their spin populations are imbalanced. In 3D, a balanced superfluid core is surrounded by shells of partially polarized and normal phases, while in 1D, the balanced superfluid occupies the low density wings. We explored the crossover from 3D to 1D using a two-spin component ultracold atomic gas of 6 Li prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels, where the interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. The atoms are confined to 1D tubes where the tunneling rate t between tubes is varied by changing the depth of a 2D optical lattice. We observe the transition from 1D to 3D-like phase separation by varying t and interaction strength which changes the pair binding energy ɛB. We find a universal scaling of the dimensional crossover with t /ɛB , in agreement with previous theory. The crossover region is believed to be the most promising to find the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by the NSF and the Welch Foundation.

  14. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover in a photonic lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Eran; Pugatch, Rami; Silberberg, Yaron

    2011-01-15

    We show that a periodic two-dimensional (2D) photonic lattice with Kerr nonlinearity exhibits a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) crossover associated with a vortex-unbinding transition. We find that averaging over random initial conditions is equivalent to Boltzmann thermal averaging with the discrete nonlinear Schro{center_dot}{center_dot}dinger Hamiltonian. By controlling the initial randomness we can continuously vary the effective temperature. Since this Hamiltonian is in the 2D XY universality class, a BKT transition ensues. We verify this prediction using experimentally accessible observables and find good agreement between theory and simulations. This opens the possibility of experimental access to interesting phase transitions known in condensed matter using nonlinear optics.

  15. Photoinduced 2-way electron transfer in composites of metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Navendu; Paul, Sneha; Samanta, Anunay

    2016-07-01

    In order to explore the potential of nanocomposites comprising semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoclusters (NCs) in photovoltaic and catalytic applications, the interaction between CdTe QDs and gold NCs, Au10 and Au25, stabilized by histidine, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutathione, is studied by an ultrafast transient absorption (TA) technique. Temporal and spectral studies of the transients reveal photoinduced 2-way electron transfer between the two constituents of the nanocomposites, where Au NCs, which generally act as electron donors when used as photosensitizers, perform the role of the efficient electron acceptor. Interestingly, it is found that the electron transfer dynamics in these composites is governed not by the distance of separation of the constituents but by the nature of the surface capping ligands. Despite a large separation between the QDs and NCs in a giant BSA-capped system, a higher electron transfer rate in this composite suggests that unlike other smaller capping agents, which act more like insulators, BSA allows much better electron conduction, as indicated previously.In order to explore the potential of nanocomposites comprising semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoclusters (NCs) in photovoltaic and catalytic applications, the interaction between CdTe QDs and gold NCs, Au10 and Au25, stabilized by histidine, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutathione, is studied by an ultrafast transient absorption (TA) technique. Temporal and spectral studies of the transients reveal photoinduced 2-way electron transfer between the two constituents of the nanocomposites, where Au NCs, which generally act as electron donors when used as photosensitizers, perform the role of the efficient electron acceptor. Interestingly, it is found that the electron transfer dynamics in these composites is governed not by the distance of separation of the constituents but by the nature of the surface capping ligands. Despite a large separation

  16. Photoinduced 2-way electron transfer in composites of metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Navendu; Paul, Sneha; Samanta, Anunay

    2016-08-01

    In order to explore the potential of nanocomposites comprising semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoclusters (NCs) in photovoltaic and catalytic applications, the interaction between CdTe QDs and gold NCs, Au10 and Au25, stabilized by histidine, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutathione, is studied by an ultrafast transient absorption (TA) technique. Temporal and spectral studies of the transients reveal photoinduced 2-way electron transfer between the two constituents of the nanocomposites, where Au NCs, which generally act as electron donors when used as photosensitizers, perform the role of the efficient electron acceptor. Interestingly, it is found that the electron transfer dynamics in these composites is governed not by the distance of separation of the constituents but by the nature of the surface capping ligands. Despite a large separation between the QDs and NCs in a giant BSA-capped system, a higher electron transfer rate in this composite suggests that unlike other smaller capping agents, which act more like insulators, BSA allows much better electron conduction, as indicated previously. PMID:27396603

  17. Crossover from first-order to second-order phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.91}Ni{sub 0.09}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, The-Long; Zhang, P.; Yu, S. C.; Thanh, T. D.

    2014-05-07

    We have prepared La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.91}Ni{sub 0.09}O{sub 3} and then studied its critical behavior and magnetocaloric effect. Analyzing temperature and field dependences of magnetization around the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition reveals the sample undergoing the second-order magnetic phase transition with the critical parameters T{sub C} ≈ 199.4 K, β = 0.171 ± 0.006, and γ = 0.976 ± 0.012. A considerable difference of these critical exponents compared with those expected for the standard models is due to the sample exhibiting the crossover property (tricriticality); its exponent values are more close to those expected for the tricritical mean-field theory with β = 0.25 and γ = 1. Under the field 40 kOe, the maximum magnetic entropy change (−ΔS{sub max}) around T{sub C} is about 7.1 J·kg{sup −1}·K{sup −1}, corresponding to a refrigerant capacity RC ≈ 170 J/kg. Particularly, its magnetic-field dependence obeys a power law |ΔS{sub max}| ∝ H{sup n}, where n = 0.55 is quite far from the value calculated from the relation n = 1 + (β − 1)/(β + γ)

  18. Crossover Equation of State Models Applied to the Critical Behavior of Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrabos, Y.; Lecoutre, C.; Marre, S.; Guillaument, R.; Beysens, D.; Hahn, I.

    2015-03-01

    The turbidity () measurements of Güttinger and Cannell (Phys Rev A 24:3188-3201, 1981) in the temperature range along the critical isochore of homogeneous xenon are reanalyzed. The singular behaviors of the isothermal compressibility () and the correlation length () predicted from the master crossover functions are introduced in the turbidity functional form derived by Puglielli and Ford (Phys Rev Lett 25:143-146, 1970). We show that the turbidity data are thus well represented by the Ornstein-Zernike approximant, within 1 % precision. We also introduce a new crossover master model (CMM) of the parametric equation of state for a simple fluid system with no adjustable parameter. The CMM model and the phenomenological crossover parametric model are compared with the turbidity data and the coexisting liquid-gas density difference (). The excellent agreement observed for , , , and in a finite temperature range well beyond the Ising-like preasymptotic domain confirms that the Ising-like critical crossover behavior of xenon can be described in conformity with the universal features estimated by the renormalization-group methods. Only 4 critical coordinates of the vapor-liquid critical point are needed in the (pressure, temperature, molecular volume) phase surface of xenon.

  19. Spin crossover in liquid (Mg,Fe)O at extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmström, E.; Stixrude, L.

    2016-05-01

    We use first-principles free-energy calculations to predict a pressure-induced spin crossover in the liquid planetary material (Mg,Fe)O, whereby the magnetic moments of Fe ions vanish gradually over a range of hundreds of GPa. Because electronic entropy strongly favors the nonmagnetic low-spin state of Fe, the crossover has a negative effective Clapeyron slope, in stark contrast to the crystalline counterpart of this transition-metal oxide. Diffusivity of liquid (Mg,Fe)O is similar to that of MgO, displaying a weak dependence on element and spin state. Fe-O and Mg-O coordination increases from approximately 4 to 7 as pressure goes from 0 to 200 GPa. We find partitioning of Fe to induce a density inversion between the crystal and melt, implying separation of a basal magma ocean from a surficial one in the early Earth. The spin crossover induces an anomaly into the density contrast, and the oppositely signed Clapeyron slopes for the crossover in the liquid and crystalline phases imply that the solid-liquid transition induces a spin transition in (Mg,Fe)O.

  20. Spin crossover in ferropericlase and velocity heterogeneities in the lower mantle

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongqing; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the origin of seismic velocity heterogeneities in the mantle is crucial to understanding internal structures and processes at work in the Earth. The spin crossover in iron in ferropericlase (Fp), the second most abundant phase in the lower mantle, introduces unfamiliar effects on seismic velocities. First-principles calculations indicate that anticorrelation between shear velocity (VS) and bulk sound velocity (Vφ) in the mantle, usually interpreted as compositional heterogeneity, can also be produced in homogeneous aggregates containing Fp. The spin crossover also suppresses thermally induced heterogeneity in longitudinal velocity (VP) at certain depths but not in VS. This effect is observed in tomography models at conditions where the spin crossover in Fp is expected in the lower mantle. In addition, the one-of-a-kind signature of this spin crossover in the RS/P (∂⁡ln⁡VS/∂⁡ln⁡VP) heterogeneity ratio might be a useful fingerprint to detect the presence of Fp in the lower mantle. PMID:25002507

  1. Elastic anomalies in a spin-crossover system: ferropericlase at lower mantle conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongqing; Justo, João F; Wentzcovitch, Renata M

    2013-05-31

    The discovery of a pressure induced iron-related spin crossover in Mg((1-x))Fe(x)O ferropericlase (Fp) and Mg-silicate perovskite, the major phases of Earth's lower mantle, has raised new questions about mantle properties which are of central importance to seismology. Despite extensive experimental work on the anomalous elasticity of Fp throughout the crossover, inconsistencies reported in the literature are still unexplained. Here we introduce a formulation for thermoelasticity of spin crossover systems, apply it to Fp by combining it with predictive first principles density-functional theory with on-site repulsion parameter U calculations, and contrast results with available data on samples with various iron concentrations. We explain why the shear modulus of Fp should not soften along the crossover, as observed in some experiments, predict its velocities at lower mantle conditions, and show the importance of constraining the elastic properties of minerals without extrapolations for analyses of the thermochemical state of this region. PMID:23767753

  2. The joy of six: how to control your crossovers.

    PubMed

    Globus, Samuel T; Keeney, Scott

    2012-03-30

    Meiotic cells tightly regulate the number and distribution of crossovers to promote accurate chromosome segregation. Yokoo and colleagues uncover a metazoan-specific, cyclin-like protein that is crucial for crossover formation. They utilize this protein's unique properties to explore a remarkable example of biological numerology, whereby nearly every meiotic cell in C. elegans makes precisely six crossovers, one for each of its six chromosome pairs. PMID:22464316

  3. Modified Fermi sphere, pairing gap, and critical temperature for the BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Floerchinger, S.; Wetterich, C.; Scherer, M. M.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate the phase diagram of two-component fermions in the BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensate) crossover. Using functional renormalization-group equations we calculate the effect of quantum fluctuations on the fermionic self-energy parametrized by a wave-function renormalization, an effective Fermi radius, and the gap. This allows us to follow the modifications of the Fermi surface and the dispersion relation for fermionic excitations throughout the whole crossover region. We also determine the critical temperature of the second-order phase transition to superfluidity. Our results are in agreement with BCS theory including Gorkov's correction for a small negative scattering length a and with an interacting Bose gas for a small positive a. At the unitarity point the result for the gap at zero temperature agrees well with quantum Monte Carlo simulations, while the critical temperature differs.

  4. Design and numerical characterization of a crossover EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, Sabrina Langbein, A. Meusel, Oliver; Kester, Oliver

    2015-01-09

    For the investigation of highly charged ions, a crossover EBIS (XEBIS) was developed at the University of Frankfurt. In contrast to conventional EBIS/T devices the compression of the electron beam is achieved by electrostatic focusing to a crossover point in the interaction region. This concept allows a compact and simple design. Simulations performed with EGUN show a perveance of 2.1×10{sup −7} A/V{sup 3/2} for the realized gun system. In the interaction region the electron beam has a density of around 10 A/cm{sup 2} and a minimum radius of 0.15 mm. The XEBIS has a total length of 112 mm with a trap length of 26 mm. It is designed for electron beam energies of up to 6 keV/q. The storage capacity of the trap region is in the order of 1×10{sup 8} charges. Charge state breeding studies with CBSIM indicate for the noble gases as maximal achievable charge state Ar{sup 16+}, Kr{sup 30+} and Xe{sup 35+}. Thus ion beam currents of around 2.04 nA assuming 50 Hz repetition rate can be expected. The emittance of the extracted beam is approximated to 8 mm mrad. After completion of the construction phase, the XEBIS will be installed for first performance investigations at a dedicated test bench, equipped with a fast Faraday Cup (FC), a retarding field spectrometer, a luminescence screen and optical diagnostics. Subsequently the XEBIS will serve as source for highly charged ions at different experimental setups.

  5. Universal entanglement crossover of coupled quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Romain; Jacobsen, Jesper; Saleur, Hubert

    2014-03-01

    We consider the entanglement between two one-dimensional quantum wires (Luttinger Liquids) coupled by tunneling through a quantum impurity. The physics of the system involves a crossover between weak and strong coupling regimes characterized by an energy scale TB, and methods of conformal field theory therefore cannot be applied. The evolution of the entanglement in this crossover has led to many numerical studies, but has remained little understood, analytically or even qualitatively. This is, in part, due to the fact that the entanglement in this case is non-perturbative in the tunneling amplitude. We argue that the correct universal scaling form of the entanglement entropy S (for an arbitrary interval containing the impurity) is ∂S / ∂lnL = f(LTB) . In the special case where the coupling to the impurity can be refermionized, we show how the universal function f(LTB) can be obtained analytically using recent results on form factors of twist fields and a defect massless-scattering formalism. Our results are carefully checked against numerical simulations. This work was supported by the the French ANR (ANR Projet 2010 Blanc SIMI 4 : DIME), the US DOE (grant number DE-FG03-01ER45908), the Quantum Materials program of LBNL (RV) and the Institut Universitaire de France (JLJ).

  6. Regulation of Spatial Selectivity by Crossover Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Cafaro, Jon; Rieke, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Signals throughout the nervous system diverge into parallel excitatory and inhibitory pathways that later converge on downstream neurons to control their spike output. Converging excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs can exhibit a variety of temporal relationships. A common motif is feedforward inhibition, in which an increase (decrease) in excitatory input precedes a corresponding increase (decrease) in inhibitory input. The delay of inhibitory input relative to excitatory input originates from an extra synapse in the circuit shaping inhibitory input. Another common motif is push-pull or “crossover” inhibition, in which increases (decreases) in excitatory input occur together with decreases (increases) in inhibitory input. Primate On midget ganglion cells receive primarily feedforward inhibition and On parasol cells receive primarily crossover inhibition; this difference provides an opportunity to study how each motif shapes the light responses of cell types that play a key role in visual perception. For full-field stimuli, feedforward inhibition abbreviated and attenuated responses of On midget cells, while crossover inhibition, though plentiful, had surprisingly little impact on the responses of On parasol cells. Spatially structured stimuli, however, could cause excitatory and inhibitory inputs to On parasol cells to increase together, adopting a temporal relation very much like that for feedforward inhibition. In this case, inhibitory inputs substantially abbreviated a cell’s spike output. Thus inhibitory input shapes the temporal stimulus selectivity of both midget and parasol ganglion cells, but its impact on responses of parasol cells depends strongly on the spatial structure of the light inputs. PMID:23575830

  7. Viscosity of liquid Ag-In-Sb-Te: Evidence of a fragile-to-strong crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orava, J.; Weber, H.; Kaban, I.; Greer, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    The temperature-dependent viscosity η(T) is measured for the equilibrium liquid of the chalcogenide Ag-In-Sb-Te (AIST), the first time this has been reported for a material of actual interest for phase-change memory. The measurements, in the range 829-1254 K, are made using an oscillating-crucible viscometer, and show a liquid with high fragility and low viscosity, similar to liquid pure metals. Combining the high-temperature viscosity measurements with values inferred from crystal growth rates in the supercooled liquid allows the form of η(T) to be estimated over the entire temperature range from above the melting point down to the glass transition. It is then clear that η(T) for liquid AIST cannot be described with a single fragility value, unlike other phase-change chalcogenides such as liquid Ge-Sb-Te. There is clear evidence for a fragile-to-strong crossover on cooling liquid AIST, similar to that analyzed in Te85Ge15. The change in fragility associated with the crossover in both these cases is rather weak, giving a broad temperature range over which η(T) is near-Arrhenius. We discuss how such behavior may be beneficial for the performance of phase-change memory. Consideration of the fragile-to-strong crossover in liquid chalcogenides may be important in tuning compositions to optimize the device performance.

  8. Viscosity of liquid Ag-In-Sb-Te: Evidence of a fragile-to-strong crossover.

    PubMed

    Orava, J; Weber, H; Kaban, I; Greer, A L

    2016-05-21

    The temperature-dependent viscosity η(T) is measured for the equilibrium liquid of the chalcogenide Ag-In-Sb-Te (AIST), the first time this has been reported for a material of actual interest for phase-change memory. The measurements, in the range 829-1254 K, are made using an oscillating-crucible viscometer, and show a liquid with high fragility and low viscosity, similar to liquid pure metals. Combining the high-temperature viscosity measurements with values inferred from crystal growth rates in the supercooled liquid allows the form of η(T) to be estimated over the entire temperature range from above the melting point down to the glass transition. It is then clear that η(T) for liquid AIST cannot be described with a single fragility value, unlike other phase-change chalcogenides such as liquid Ge-Sb-Te. There is clear evidence for a fragile-to-strong crossover on cooling liquid AIST, similar to that analyzed in Te85Ge15. The change in fragility associated with the crossover in both these cases is rather weak, giving a broad temperature range over which η(T) is near-Arrhenius. We discuss how such behavior may be beneficial for the performance of phase-change memory. Consideration of the fragile-to-strong crossover in liquid chalcogenides may be important in tuning compositions to optimize the device performance. PMID:27208954

  9. Crossover ensembles of random matrices and skew-orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Santosh; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > We study crossover ensembles of Jacobi family of random matrices. > We consider correlations for orthogonal-unitary and symplectic-unitary crossovers. > We use the method of skew-orthogonal polynomials and quaternion determinants. > We prove universality of spectral correlations in crossover ensembles. > We discuss applications to quantum conductance and communication theory problems. - Abstract: In a recent paper (S. Kumar, A. Pandey, Phys. Rev. E, 79, 2009, p. 026211) we considered Jacobi family (including Laguerre and Gaussian cases) of random matrix ensembles and reported exact solutions of crossover problems involving time-reversal symmetry breaking. In the present paper we give details of the work. We start with Dyson's Brownian motion description of random matrix ensembles and obtain universal hierarchic relations among the unfolded correlation functions. For arbitrary dimensions we derive the joint probability density (jpd) of eigenvalues for all transitions leading to unitary ensembles as equilibrium ensembles. We focus on the orthogonal-unitary and symplectic-unitary crossovers and give generic expressions for jpd of eigenvalues, two-point kernels and n-level correlation functions. This involves generalization of the theory of skew-orthogonal polynomials to crossover ensembles. We also consider crossovers in the circular ensembles to show the generality of our method. In the large dimensionality limit, correlations in spectra with arbitrary initial density are shown to be universal when expressed in terms of a rescaled symmetry breaking parameter. Applications of our crossover results to communication theory and quantum conductance problems are also briefly discussed.

  10. Stress Crossover in Newlywed Marriage: A Longitudinal and Dyadic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Lisa A.; Karney, Benjamin R.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of stress and marital quality often assess stress as an intrapersonal phenomenon, examining how spouses' stress may influence their own relationship well-being. Yet spouses' stress also may influence partners' relationship evaluations, a phenomenon referred to as stress crossover. This study examined stress crossover, and conditions that…

  11. Electromagnetic pump stator frame having power crossover struts

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1995-01-01

    A stator frame for an electromagnetic pump includes a casing joined to a hub by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. At least one electrically insulated power crossover lead extends through the hub, through a crossover one of the struts, and through the casing for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  12. Density response of a trapped Fermi gas: A crossover from the pair vibration mode to the Goldstone mode

    SciTech Connect

    Korolyuk, A.; Kinnunen, J. J.; Toermae, P.

    2011-09-15

    We consider the density response of a trapped two-component Fermi gas. Combining the Bogoliubov-deGennes method with the random phase approximation allows the study of both collective and single-particle excitations. Calculating the density response across a wide range of interactions, we observe a crossover from a weakly interacting pair vibration mode to a strongly interacting Goldstone mode. The crossover is associated with a depressed collective mode frequency and an increased damping rate, in agreement with density response experiments performed in strongly interacting atomic gases.

  13. Crossover from Classical to Quantum Kibble-Zurek Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvi, Pietro; Morigi, Giovanna; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone

    2016-06-01

    The Kibble-Zurek (KZ) hypothesis identifies the relevant time scales in out-of-equilibrium dynamics of critical systems employing concepts valid at equilibrium: It predicts the scaling of the defect formation immediately after quenches across classical and quantum phase transitions as a function of the quench speed. Here, we study the crossover between the scaling dictated by a slow quench, which is ruled by the critical properties of the quantum phase transition, and the excitations due to a faster quench, where the dynamics is often well described by the classical model. We estimate the value of the quench rate that separates the two regimes and support our argument using numerical simulations of the out-of-equilibrium many-body dynamics. For the specific case of a ϕ4 model we demonstrate that the two regimes exhibit two different power-law scalings, which are in agreement with the KZ theory when applied to the quantum and classical cases. This result contributes to extending the prediction power of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism and to providing insight into recent experimental observations in systems of cold atoms and ions.

  14. Extended precedence preservative crossover for job shop scheduling problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Chung Sin; Moin, Noor Hasnah; Omar, Mohd

    2013-04-01

    Job shop scheduling problems (JSSP) is one of difficult combinatorial scheduling problems. A wide range of genetic algorithms based on the two parents crossover have been applied to solve the problem but multi parents (more than two parents) crossover in solving the JSSP is still lacking. This paper proposes the extended precedence preservative crossover (EPPX) which uses multi parents for recombination in the genetic algorithms. EPPX is a variation of the precedence preservative crossover (PPX) which is one of the crossovers that perform well to find the solutions for the JSSP. EPPX is based on a vector to determine the gene selected in recombination for the next generation. Legalization of children (offspring) can be eliminated due to the JSSP representation encoded by using permutation with repetition that guarantees the feasibility of chromosomes. The simulations are performed on a set of benchmarks from the literatures and the results are compared to ensure the sustainability of multi parents recombination in solving the JSSP.

  15. Neutrino dynamics below the electroweak crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.

    2016-07-01

    We estimate the thermal masses and damping rates of active (m < eV) and sterile (M ~ GeV) neutrinos with thermal momenta k~ 3T at temperatures below the electroweak crossover (5 GeV < T < 160 GeV) . These quantities fix the equilibration or ``washout'' rates of Standard Model lepton number densities. Sterile neutrinos interact via direct scatterings mediated by Yukawa couplings, and via their overlap with active neutrinos. Including all leading-order reactions we find that the washout rate generally exceeds the Hubble rate for 5 GeV < T < 30 GeV . Therefore it is challenging to generate a large lepton asymmetry facilitating dark matter computations operating at T < 5 GeV, whereas the generation of a baryon asymmetry at T > 130 GeV remains an option. Our differential rates are tabulated in a form suitable for studies of specific scenarios with given neutrino Yukawa matrices.

  16. Shocks generate crossover behavior in lattice avalanches.

    PubMed

    Burridge, James

    2013-11-22

    A spatial avalanche model is introduced, in which avalanches increase stability in the regions where they occur. Instability is driven globally by a driving process that contains shocks. The system is typically subcritical, but the shocks occasionally lift it into a near- or supercritical state from which it rapidly retreats due to large avalanches. These shocks leave behind a signature-a distinct power-law crossover in the avalanche size distribution. The model is inspired by landslide field data, but the principles may be applied to any system that experiences stabilizing failures, possesses a critical point, and is subject to an ongoing process of destabilization that includes occasional dramatic destabilizing events. PMID:24313528

  17. Nonequilibrium spin crossover in copper phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, Benjamin; Donarini, Andrea; Grifoni, Milena

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the nonequilibrium tip induced control of the spin state of copper phthalocyanine on an insulator coated substrate. We find that, under the condition of energetic proximity of many-body neutral excited states to the anionic ground state, the system can undergo a population inversion towards these excited states. The resulting state of the system is accompanied by a change in the total spin quantum number. Experimental signatures of the crossover are the appearance of additional nodal planes in the topographical scanning tunneling microscopy images as well as a strong suppression of the current near the center of the molecule. The robustness of the effect against moderate charge conserving relaxation processes has also been tested.

  18. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; York, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  19. Lattice thermal conductivity crossovers in semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mingo, N; Broido, D A

    2004-12-10

    For binary compound semiconductor nanowires, we find a striking relationship between the nanowire's thermal conductivity kappa(nwire), the bulk material's thermal conductivity kappa(bulk), and the mass ratio of the material's constituent atoms, r, as kappa(bulk)/kappa(nwire) (alpha) (1+1/r)(-3/2). A significant consequence is the presence of crossovers in which a material with higher bulk thermal conductivity than the rest is no longer the best nanowire thermal conductor. We show that this behavior stems from a change in the dominant phonon scattering mechanism with decreasing nanowire size. The results have important implications for nanoscale heat dissipation, thermoelectricity, and thermal conductivity of nanocomposites. PMID:15697834

  20. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lianyi; Lü, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia-Ji

    2015-08-01

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show that the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2 D. We find aB≃0.56 a2 D , in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. We compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.

  1. Motion of a Solitonic Vortex in the BEC-BCS Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Mark J. H.; Ji, Wenjie; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Guardado-Sanchez, Elmer; Cheuk, Lawrence W.; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2014-08-01

    We observe a long-lived solitary wave in a superfluid Fermi gas of Li6 atoms after phase imprinting. Tomographic imaging reveals the excitation to be a solitonic vortex, oriented transverse to the long axis of the cigar-shaped atom cloud. The precessional motion of the vortex is directly observed, and its period is measured as a function of the chemical potential in the BEC-BCS crossover. The long period and the correspondingly large ratio of the inertial to the bare mass of the vortex are in good agreement with estimates based on superfluid hydrodynamics that we derive here using the known equation of state in the BEC-BCS crossover.

  2. Nucleation of spontaneous vortices in trapped Fermi gases undergoing a BCS-BEC crossover.

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, A.; Roberts, H.; Aranson, I. S.; Levin, K.

    2011-01-01

    We study the spontaneous formation of vortices during the superfluid condensation in a trapped fermionic gas subjected to a rapid thermal quench via evaporative cooling. Our work is based on the numerical solution of the time-dependent crossover Ginzburg-Landau equation coupled to the heat diffusion equation. We quantify the evolution of condensate density and vortex length as a function of a crossover phase parameter from BCS to BEC. The more interesting phenomena occur somewhat nearer to the BEC regime and should be experimentally observable; during the propagation of the cold front, the increase in condensate density leads to the formation of supercurrents toward the center of the condensate as well as possible condensate volume oscillations.

  3. Spin crossover in ferropericlase from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmstrom, Eero; Stixrude, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Ferropericlase is the second-most abundant mineral of the lower mantle of the Earth. It is experimentally known that with increasing pressure, the iron ions in the mineral begin to collapse from a high-spin to low-spin state. This spin crossover alters various properties of the material, and hence a good theoretical understanding of the phenomenon is necessary. Using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with thermodynamic integration, we construct a phase diagram of the spin crossover as a function of pressure and temperature. In addition, we present the thermal equation of state of the mineral up to 140 GPa and 4000 K, and predict that the electrical conductivity of ferropericlase reaches semi-metallic values within the lower mantle.

  4. Hydration-dependent dynamic crossover phenomenon in protein hydration water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Fratini, Emiliano; Li, Mingda; Le, Peisi; Mamontov, Eugene; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2014-10-01

    The characteristic relaxation time τ of protein hydration water exhibits a strong hydration level h dependence. The dynamic crossover is observed when h is higher than the monolayer hydration level hc=0.2-0.25 and becomes more visible as h increases. When h is lower than hc, τ only exhibits Arrhenius behavior in the measured temperature range. The activation energy of the Arrhenius behavior is insensitive to h, indicating a local-like motion. Moreover, the h dependence of the crossover temperature shows that the protein dynamic transition is not directly or solely induced by the dynamic crossover in the hydration water.

  5. Deformation mechanism crossover and mechanical behaviour in nanocrystalline materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakov, V.; Wolf, D.; Phillpot, S. R.; Mukherjee, A. K.; Gleiter, H.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California-Davis; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    2003-06-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the transition with decreasing grain size from a dislocation- to a grain-boundary-based deformation mechanism in nanocrystalline fcc metals. Our simulations reveal that this crossover is accompanied by a pronounced transition in the mechanical behaviour of the material; namely, at the grain size where the crossover occurs (the 'strongest size'), the strain rate under tensile elongation goes through a minimum. This simultaneous transition in both the deformation mechanism and the corresponding mechanical behaviour offers an explanation for the experimentally observed crossover in the yield strength of nanocrystalline materials, from Hall-Petch hardening to 'inverse Hall-Petch' softening.

  6. Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Linares, Jorge; Boulmaali, Ayoub; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Rotaru, Aurelian; Garcia, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices. PMID:26848663

  7. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point

    SciTech Connect

    Vasin, M.; Ryzhov, V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-12-21

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transition from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d+zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T)ε[0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T=0) = 1 and Λ(T →∞) = 0. Lastly, our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.

  8. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vasin, M.; Ryzhov, V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-12-21

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transitionmore » from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d+zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T)ε[0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T=0) = 1 and Λ(T →∞) = 0. Lastly, our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.« less

  9. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasin, M.; Ryzhov, V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transition from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d + zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T) ∈ [0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T = 0) = 1 and Λ(T → ∞) = 0. Our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.

  10. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point

    PubMed Central

    Vasin, M.; Ryzhov, V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transition from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d + zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T) ∈ [0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T = 0) = 1 and Λ(T → ∞) = 0. Our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover. PMID:26688102

  11. Crystallography and spin-crossover. A view of breathing materials.

    PubMed

    Guionneau, Philippe

    2014-01-14

    The spin-crossover phenomenon (SCO) is a fascinating field that potentially concerns any material containing a (d(4)-d(7)) transition metal complex finding therefore an echo in as diverse research fields as chemistry, physics, biology and geology. Particularly, molecular and coordination-polymers SCO solids are thoroughly investigated since their bistability promises new routes towards a large panel of potential applications including smart pigments, optical switches or memory devices. Notwithstanding these motivating applicative targets, numerous fundamental aspects of SCO are still debated. Among them, the investigation of the structure-property relationships is unfailingly at the heart of the SCO research field. All the facets of the richness of the structural behaviors shown by SCO compounds are only revealed when exploring the whole sample scales -from atomic to macroscopic- all the external stimuli-temperature, pressure, light and any combinations and derived perturbations- and the various forms of the SCO compounds in the solid state -crystalline powders, single-crystals, poorly crystalline or nano-sized particles. Crystallography allows investigating all these aspects of SCO solids. In the past few years, crystallography has certainly been in a significant phase of development pushing the frontiers of investigations, in particular thanks to the progress in X-ray diffraction techniques. The encounter between SCO materials and crystallography is captivating, taking advantages from each other. In this paper, a personal account mainly based on our recent results provides perspectives and new approaches that should be developed in the investigation of SCO materials. PMID:24201509

  12. Laser frequency stabilization using bichromatic crossover spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Taek; Seb Moon, Han

    2015-03-07

    We propose a Doppler-free spectroscopic method named bichromatic crossover spectroscopy (BCS), which we then use for the frequency stabilization of an off-resonant frequency that does not correspond to an atomic transition. The observed BCS in the 5S{sub 1/2} → 5P{sub 1/2} transition of {sup 87}Rb is related to the hyperfine structure of the conventional saturated absorption spectrum of this transition. Furthermore, the Doppler-free BCS is numerically calculated by considering all of the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S{sub 1/2} → 5P{sub 1/2} transition in an atomic vapor cell, and is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, we successfully achieve modulation-free off-resonant locking at the center frequency between the two 5S{sub 1/2}(F = 1 and 2) → 5P{sub 1/2}(F′ = 1) transitions using a polarization rotation of the BCS. The laser frequency stability was estimated to be the Allan variance of 2.1 × 10{sup −10} at 1 s.

  13. Vortices and flux tubes: The crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, A.; Spiegel, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    The sun has magnetic flux tubes that cause sunspots by locally inhibiting convection near its surface. Jupiter has vortices that make the great red spot and other such blemishes. Why are there no similar vortices on the sun? How is the difference in the two kinds of system controlled by the magnetic Prandtl number? What happens at the crossover between the two behaviors? The transition between velocity and magnetically dominated regimes is the driving question of this work. It should occur somewhere in the enormous range in Prandtl number between the sun and planets like Jupiter. Objects that lie in between these vastly different extremes are Brown Dwarfs that have such low mass that they do not burn hydrogen in their cores. These objects are now being actively observed though there is as yet no direct evidence bearing on the present calculations. Other possibly interesting conditions may arise in certain disks around newborn stars where planetary systems are thought to be forming. These may be cool enough to place them in an interesting parameter range for the competition we describe. Using 2D calculations, we seek a quantitative measure of the relative importance of the two vector fields seen in the calculations, statistical or spectral, topological or structural.

  14. Microelectromechanical systems integrating molecular spin crossover actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique-Juarez, Maria D.; Rat, Sylvain; Mathieu, Fabrice; Saya, Daisuke; Séguy, Isabelle; Leïchlé, Thierry; Nicu, Liviu; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2016-08-01

    Silicon MEMS cantilevers coated with a 200 nm thin layer of the molecular spin crossover complex [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(phen)] (H2B(pz)2 = dihydrobis(pyrazolyl)borate and phen = 1,10-phenantroline) were actuated using an external magnetic field and their resonance frequency was tracked by means of integrated piezoresistive detection. The light-induced spin-state switching of the molecules from the ground low spin to the metastable high spin state at 10 K led to a well-reproducible shift of the cantilever's resonance frequency (Δfr = -0.52 Hz). Control experiments at different temperatures using coated as well as uncoated devices along with simple calculations support the assignment of this effect to the spin transition. This latter translates into changes in mechanical behavior of the cantilever due to the strong spin-state/lattice coupling. A guideline for the optimization of device parameters is proposed so as to efficiently harness molecular scale movements for large-scale mechanical work, thus paving the road for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) actuators based on molecular materials.

  15. Electrostatically-tuned dimensional crossover in nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Michelle; Cheng, Guanglei; Huang, Mengchen; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    The electron system at the interface of two complex oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, exhibits a number of interesting strongly-correlated electronic properties, such as superconductivity and spin-orbit coupling. Reduced dimensionality is made accessible through nanowire devices created with conducting AFM lithography. Here, we describe an electrostatically-controlled dimensionality crossover in weak antilocalization behavior of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanowires at low temperature. These measurements give insight to the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and dimensionality. Characterizing the behavior of the strongly-correlated electronic properties in these reduced dimensions is necessary in order to develop this system as a multifunctional nanoelectronics platform. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the following agencies and grants: ARO (W911NF-08-1-0317), AFOSR FA9550-10-1-0524 (JL) and FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE), and NSF (DMR-1104191, DMR-1124131 (JL), ONR N00014-15-1-2847 (JL) and DMR-1234096 (CBE).

  16. Spin crossover in solid and liquid (Mg,Fe)O at extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stixrude, Lars; Holmstrom, Eero

    Ferropericlase, (Mg,Fe)O, is a major constituent of the Earth's lower mantle (24-136 GPa). Understanding the properties of this component is important not only in the solid state, but also in the molten state, as the planet almost certainly hosted an extensive magma ocean initially. With increasing pressure, the Fe ions in the material begin to collapse from a magnetic to a nonmagnetic spin state. This crossover affects thermodynamic, transport, and electrical properties. Using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, thermodynamic integration, and adiabatic switching, we present a phase diagram of the spin crossover. In both solid and liquid, we find a broad pressure range of coexisting magnetic and non-magnetic ions due to the favorable enthalpy of mixing of the two. In the solid increasing temperature favors the high spin state, while in the liquid the opposite occurs, due to the higher electronic entropy of the low spin state. Because the physics of the crossover differ in solid and liquid, melting produces a large change in spin state that may affect the buoyancy of crystals freezing from the magma ocean in the earliest Earth. This research was supported by the European Research Council under Advanced Grant No. 291432 ``MoltenEarth'' (FP7/2007-2013).

  17. Electronic Spin Crossover of Iron in Ferroperclase in Earth?s Lower Mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J F; Vanko, G; Jacobsen, S D; Iota, V; Struzhkin, V V; Prakapenka, V B; Kuznetsov, A; Yoo, C S

    2007-01-25

    Pressure-induced electronic spin-pairing transitions of iron and associated effects on the physical properties have been reported to occur in the lower-mantle ferropericlase, silicate perosvkite, and perhaps in post silicate perovskite at high pressures and room temperature. These recent results are motivating geophysicists and geodynamicists to reevaluate the implications of spin transitions on the seismic heterogeneity, composition, as well as the stability of the thermal upwellings of the Earth's lower mantle. Here we have measured the spin states of iron in ferropericlase and its crystal structure up to 95 GPa and 2000 K using a newly constructed X-ray emission spectroscopy and diffraction with the laser-heated diamond cell. Our results show that an isosymmetric spin crossover occurs over a pressure-temperature range extending from the upper part to the lower part of the lower mantle, and low-spin ferropericlase likely exists in the lowermost mantle. Although continuous changes in physical and chemical properties are expected to occur across the spin crossover, the spin crossover results in peculiar behavior in the thermal compression and sound velocities. Therefore, knowledge of the fraction of the spin states in the lower-mantle phases is thus essential to correctly evaluate the composition, geophysics, and dynamics of the Earth's lower mantle.

  18. High-order jamming crossovers and density anomalies.

    PubMed

    Pica Ciamarra, Massimo; Sollich, Peter

    2013-10-28

    We demonstrate that particles interacting via core-softened potentials exhibit a series of successive density anomalies upon isothermal compression, leading to oscillations in the diffusivity and thermal expansion coefficient, with the latter reaching negative values. These finite-temperature density anomalies are then shown to correspond to zero-temperature high-order jamming crossovers. These occur when particles are forced to come into contact with neighbours in successive coordination shells upon increasing the density. The crossovers induce anomalous behavior of the bulk modulus, which oscillates with density. We rationalize the dependence of these crossovers on the softness of the interaction potential, and relate the jamming crossovers and the anomalous diffusivity via the properties of the vibrational spectrum. PMID:26029762

  19. Spin-Crossover Molecular Solids Beyond Rigid Crystal Approximation.

    PubMed

    Gudyma, Iurii V; Ivashko, Victor V

    2016-12-01

    The qualitative analysis of the spin-crossover molecular solid with distortion effect is presented. A spin-crossover solid with effect of distortion is studied in the framework of the Ising-like model with two-order parameters under statistical approach, where the effect of elastic strain on inter-ion interaction is considered. These considerations lead to examination of the relation between the primary and secondary order parameters during temperature and pressure changes. PMID:27075338

  20. Spin-Crossover Molecular Solids Beyond Rigid Crystal Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudyma, Iurii V.; Ivashko, Victor V.

    2016-04-01

    The qualitative analysis of the spin-crossover molecular solid with distortion effect is presented. A spin-crossover solid with effect of distortion is studied in the framework of the Ising-like model with two-order parameters under statistical approach, where the effect of elastic strain on inter-ion interaction is considered. These considerations lead to examination of the relation between the primary and secondary order parameters during temperature and pressure changes.

  1. MS-Electronic Nose Performance Improvement Using GC Retention Times And 2-Way And 3-Way Data Processing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, Cosmin; Llobet, Eduard; Vilanova, Xavier; Canellas, Nicolau; Brezmes, Jesus; Vinaixa, Maria; Correig, Xavier

    2009-05-23

    We have designed a challenging experimental sample set in the form of 20 solutions with a high degree of similarity in order to study whether the addition of chromatographic separation information improves the performance of regular MS based electronic noses. In order to make an initial study of the approach, two different chromatographic methods were used. By processing the data of these experiments with 2 and 3-way algorithms, we have shown that the addition of chromatographic separation information improves the results compared to the 2-way analysis of mass spectra or total ion chromatogram treated separately. Our findings show that when the chromatographic peaks are resolved (longer measurement times), 2-way methods work better than 3-way methods, whereas in the case of a more challenging measurement (more coeluted chromatograms, much faster GC-MS measurements) 3-way methods work better.

  2. The kinetochore prevents centromere-proximal crossover recombination during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Vincenten, Nadine; Kuhl, Lisa-Marie; Lam, Isabel; Oke, Ashwini; Kerr, Alastair Rw; Hochwagen, Andreas; Fung, Jennifer; Keeney, Scott; Vader, Gerben; Marston, Adèle L

    2015-01-01

    During meiosis, crossover recombination is essential to link homologous chromosomes and drive faithful chromosome segregation. Crossover recombination is non-random across the genome, and centromere-proximal crossovers are associated with an increased risk of aneuploidy, including Trisomy 21 in humans. Here, we identify the conserved Ctf19/CCAN kinetochore sub-complex as a major factor that minimizes potentially deleterious centromere-proximal crossovers in budding yeast. We uncover multi-layered suppression of pericentromeric recombination by the Ctf19 complex, operating across distinct chromosomal distances. The Ctf19 complex prevents meiotic DNA break formation, the initiating event of recombination, proximal to the centromere. The Ctf19 complex independently drives the enrichment of cohesin throughout the broader pericentromere to suppress crossovers, but not DNA breaks. This non-canonical role of the kinetochore in defining a chromosome domain that is refractory to crossovers adds a new layer of functionality by which the kinetochore prevents the incidence of chromosome segregation errors that generate aneuploid gametes. PMID:26653857

  3. The kinetochore prevents centromere-proximal crossover recombination during meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Vincenten, Nadine; Kuhl, Lisa-Marie; Lam, Isabel; Oke, Ashwini; Kerr, Alastair RW; Hochwagen, Andreas; Fung, Jennifer; Keeney, Scott; Vader, Gerben; Marston, Adèle L

    2015-01-01

    During meiosis, crossover recombination is essential to link homologous chromosomes and drive faithful chromosome segregation. Crossover recombination is non-random across the genome, and centromere-proximal crossovers are associated with an increased risk of aneuploidy, including Trisomy 21 in humans. Here, we identify the conserved Ctf19/CCAN kinetochore sub-complex as a major factor that minimizes potentially deleterious centromere-proximal crossovers in budding yeast. We uncover multi-layered suppression of pericentromeric recombination by the Ctf19 complex, operating across distinct chromosomal distances. The Ctf19 complex prevents meiotic DNA break formation, the initiating event of recombination, proximal to the centromere. The Ctf19 complex independently drives the enrichment of cohesin throughout the broader pericentromere to suppress crossovers, but not DNA breaks. This non-canonical role of the kinetochore in defining a chromosome domain that is refractory to crossovers adds a new layer of functionality by which the kinetochore prevents the incidence of chromosome segregation errors that generate aneuploid gametes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10850.001 PMID:26653857

  4. A Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose, Two-Way Crossover Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Sildenafil in Men With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury and Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ergin, Sureyya; Gunduz, Berrin; Ugurlu, Hatice; Sivrioglu, Koncuy; Oncel, Sema; Gok, Haydar; Erhan, Belgin; Levendoglu, Funda; Senocak, Ozlem

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: To show the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of sildenafil in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess its effects on quality of life (QoL) using the Life-Satisfaction Check List. Methods: This was a placebo-controlled, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose, 2-way crossover study with a 2-week washout period between each phase. Patients with ED attributable to SCI (Sexual Health Inventory—Male score ≤21) received 50 to 100 mg sildenafil (n = 24) or placebo (n = 26). Results: Compared with placebo, sildenafil produced higher levels of successful sexual stimulation, intercourse success, satisfaction with sexual life and sexual relationship, erectile function, overall sexual satisfaction, and an improved Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction score, with no clinically relevant effects on vital signs. Sildenafil seemed more effective in patients with incomplete SCI than in those with complete SCI, producing significant improvements, compared with placebo, in a number of measures only in patients with incomplete SCI. All patients who expressed a preference selected sildenafil over placebo, although the drug had no effect on patient QoL. Sildenafil was well tolerated, with a profile comparable to that of placebo. Conclusions: Compared with placebo, treatment with oral sildenafil safely and effectively improved erectile function in patients with ED attributable to SCI, especially in those with incomplete injury, and was the agent of choice in those who expressed a preference. PMID:19086709

  5. Crossover Cutting During Hamstring Fatigue Produces Transverse Plane Knee Control Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Nyland, John A.; Caborn, David N.M.; Shapiro, Robert; Johnson, Darren L.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of eccentric work-induced hamstring fatigue on sagittal and transverse plane (axial) knee and ankle biodynamics and kinetics during a running crossover cut directional change (functional pivot shift). Design and Setting: A pretest-posttest, single-group intervention experimental design was employed. All data were collected in a biodynamics laboratory. Subjects: Twenty healthy athletic females were trained for 3 weeks in crossover cutting before testing. Measurements: Data were sampled during 3 unfatigued and 3 fatigued (20% eccentric isokinetic knee-flexor torque reduction) crossover cut trials. Three-dimensional kinematic and ground reaction-force data were sampled at 200 Hz and 1000 Hz, respectively, and joint moment estimates were calculated. Data were standardized to initial force-plate heelstrike for comparisons of mean differences between conditions using paired t tests with Bonferroni adjustments. Pearson product-moment correlations compared kinematic and eccentric hamstring-torque relationships. Results: During internal rotation phase 1, between heelstrike and impact absorption, mean internal rotation velocity increased by 21.2°/s ± 114°/s. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak transverse plane knee rotation during propulsion decreased by 3.1° ± 9°. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak ankle plantar flexor moment onsets occurred 12.7 ± 53 milliseconds earlier, and this activation demonstrated a moderately positive relationship with the onset of mean peak knee internal rotation during propulsion and a weak negative relationship with mean peak hamstring torque/lean body weight. Conclusions: The increased knee internal rotation velocity during phase I indicates transverse plane dynamic knee-control deficits during hamstring fatigue. Earlier peak ankle plantar-flexor moments and decreased internal rotation during phase II in the presence of hamstring fatigue may represent compensatory attempts at dynamic

  6. Exotic superfluid of trapped Fermi gases with spin–orbit coupling in dimensional crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Shi, Cheng; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Wen, Lin; Chen, Peng; Li, Deng-Feng

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the ground state properties of Fermi gases in a planar array of one-dimensional potential tubes with spin–orbit coupling where the motion of atoms is free in the \\hat{{x}}-direction and the tunneling between nearest tubes in the \\hat{{y}}-direction is permitted. By using the mean-field method, the phase diagrams of the system at the dimensional crossover from quasi-one dimension to quasi-two dimensions is obtained. We find the existence of the topological state and Majorana mode in the weak tunneling case, and a rich phase diagram including two kinds of nodal superfluid phase and gapped superfluid phase, in the opposite case. The results show that topological pairing is favored in quasi-one dimension while nodal pairing state is favored in quasi-two dimensions.

  7. Transient regimes and crossover for epitaxial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Haselwandter, Christoph A; Vvedensky, Dimitri D

    2010-02-01

    We apply a formalism for deriving stochastic continuum equations associated with lattice models to obtain equations governing the transient regimes of epitaxial growth for various experimental scenarios and growth conditions. The first step of our methodology is the systematic transformation of the lattice model into a regularized stochastic equation of motion that provides initial conditions for differential renormalization-group (RG) equations for the coefficients in the regularized equation. The solutions of the RG equations then yield trajectories that describe the original model from the transient regimes, which are of primary experimental interest, to the eventual crossover to the asymptotically stable fixed point. We first consider regimes defined by the relative magnitude of deposition noise and diffusion noise. If the diffusion noise dominates, then the early stages of growth are described by the Mullins-Herring (MH) equation with conservative noise. This is the classic regime of molecular-beam epitaxy. If the diffusion and deposition noise are of comparable magnitude, the transient equation is the MH equation with nonconservative noise. This behavior has been observed in a recent report on the growth of aluminum on silicone oil surfaces [Z.-N. Fang, Thin Solid Films 517, 3408 (2009)]. Finally, the regime where deposition noise dominates over diffusion noise has been observed in computer simulations, but does not appear to have any direct experimental relevance. For initial conditions that consist of a flat surface, the Villain-Lai-Das Sarma (VLDS) equation with nonconservative noise is not appropriate for any transient regime. If, however, the initial surface is corrugated, the relative magnitudes of terms can be altered to the point where the VLDS equation with conservative noise does indeed describe transient growth. This is consistent with the experimental analysis of growth on patterned surfaces [H.-C. Kan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 146101 (2004); T

  8. Long-wavelength fluctuations lead to a model of the glass crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Tommaso

    2014-06-01

    The effect of long-wavelength fluctuations on the Mode-Coupling-Theory (MCT) dynamical singularity at Tc in the β-regime is studied by means of the standard field-theoretical procedure for a genuine second-order phase transition. The resulting perturbative loop expansion can be resummed leading to an extension of the MCT equation for the critical correlator with local random fluctuations of the separation parameter. The corresponding model explains both qualitatively and quantitatively why the MCT dynamical singularity is transformed into a crossover from relaxational to activated dynamics. Dynamical Heterogeneities emerge naturally as the ergodicity-restoring mechanism instead of ad hoc hopping processes.

  9. Josephson effect in fermionic superfluids across the BEC-BCS crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtolina, Giacomo; Burchianti, Alessia; Amico, Andrea; Neri, Elettra; Xhani, Klejdja; Seman, Jorge Amin; Trombettoni, Andrea; Smerzi, Augusto; Zaccanti, Matteo; Inguscio, Massimo; Roati, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The Josephson effect is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon that reveals the broken symmetry associated with any superfluid state. Here we report on the observation of the Josephson effect between two fermionic superfluids coupled through a thin tunneling barrier. We show that the relative population and phase are canonically conjugate dynamical variables throughout the crossover from the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid regime. For larger initial excitations from equilibrium, the dynamics of the superfluids become dissipative, which we ascribe to the propagation of vortices through the superfluid bulk. Our results highlight the robust nature of resonant superfluids.

  10. Josephson effect in fermionic superfluids across the BEC-BCS crossover.

    PubMed

    Valtolina, Giacomo; Burchianti, Alessia; Amico, Andrea; Neri, Elettra; Xhani, Klejdja; Seman, Jorge Amin; Trombettoni, Andrea; Smerzi, Augusto; Zaccanti, Matteo; Inguscio, Massimo; Roati, Giacomo

    2015-12-18

    The Josephson effect is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon that reveals the broken symmetry associated with any superfluid state. Here we report on the observation of the Josephson effect between two fermionic superfluids coupled through a thin tunneling barrier. We show that the relative population and phase are canonically conjugate dynamical variables throughout the crossover from the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid regime. For larger initial excitations from equilibrium, the dynamics of the superfluids become dissipative, which we ascribe to the propagation of vortices through the superfluid bulk. Our results highlight the robust nature of resonant superfluids. PMID:26680193

  11. Electronic structure in the crossover regimes in lower dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batabyal, R.; Dev, B. N.

    2014-11-01

    Modern growth and fabrication techniques can produce lower dimensional structures in the crossover regimes. Such structures in the crossover regimes can provide tunability of various properties of materials. For example, a zero-dimensional (0-D) structure (quantum dot) evolving towards a 3-D structure (bulk) shows electronic structure, which is neither 0-D-like, nor 3-D-like in the dimensional crossover regime. Within the crossover regime the electronic density of states (DOS) at Fermi level (Ef) keeps on changing as the size of the system changes. DOS at Ef determines many properties of materials, such as electronic specific heat, spin susceptibility, etc. Such properties can be tuned by controlling the size of the system in the crossover regimes. Keeping the importance of DOS at Ef in mind, we determine their values and other details of electronic structure of lower dimensional structures, in the 0-D to 1-D, 1-D to 2-D, 2-D to 3-D, 0-D to 2-D, 0-D to 3-D and 1-D to 3-D crossover regimes, in a simple free electron model. We compare our results with analytical theory and experimental results, wherever available. We also present some results obtained by scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements on Ag islands on Si(1 1 1) substrates evolving from a 0-D to a 2-D structure. This simple model is quite useful in understanding lower dimensional structures in the crossover regimes and, in general, in nanoscale science. Fabrication of such structures would provide control on materials properties.

  12. [Case-crossover design: Basic essentials and applications].

    PubMed

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Tobías, Aurelio; Saez, Marc; Taracido, Margarita; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    Case-crossover analysis is an observational epidemiological design that was proposed by Maclure in 1991 to assess whether a given intermittent or unusual exposure may have triggered an immediate short-term, acute event. The present article outlines the basics of case-crossover designs, as well as their applications and limitations. The case-crossover design is based on exclusively selecting case subjects. To calculate relative risk, exposure during the period of time prior to the event (case period) is compared against the same subject's exposure during one or more control periods. This method is only appropriate when the exposures are transient in time and have acute short-term effects. For exposures in which there is no trend, a unidirectional approach is the most frequent and consists of selecting one or more control periods prior to the case period. When the exposure displays a time trend (e.g., air pollution), a unidirectional approach will yield biased estimates, and therefore bidirectional case-crossover designs are used, which select control time intervals preceding and subsequent to that of the event. The case-crossover design is being increasingly used across a wide range of fields, including factors triggering traffic, occupational and domestic accidents and acute myocardial infarction, and those involved in air pollution and health and pharmacoepidemiology, among others. Insofar as data-analysis is concerned, case-crossover designs can generally be regarded as matched case-control studies and consequently conditional logistic regression can be applied. Lastly, this study analyzes practical examples of distinct applications of the case-crossover design. PMID:19303669

  13. Detection of crossover time scales in multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Erjia; Leung, Yee

    2013-04-01

    Fractal is employed in this paper as a scale-based method for the identification of the scaling behavior of time series. Many spatial and temporal processes exhibiting complex multi(mono)-scaling behaviors are fractals. One of the important concepts in fractals is crossover time scale(s) that separates distinct regimes having different fractal scaling behaviors. A common method is multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The detection of crossover time scale(s) is, however, relatively subjective since it has been made without rigorous statistical procedures and has generally been determined by eye balling or subjective observation. Crossover time scales such determined may be spurious and problematic. It may not reflect the genuine underlying scaling behavior of a time series. The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical procedure to model complex fractal scaling behaviors and reliably identify the crossover time scales under MF-DFA. The scaling-identification regression model, grounded on a solid statistical foundation, is first proposed to describe multi-scaling behaviors of fractals. Through the regression analysis and statistical inference, we can (1) identify the crossover time scales that cannot be detected by eye-balling observation, (2) determine the number and locations of the genuine crossover time scales, (3) give confidence intervals for the crossover time scales, and (4) establish the statistically significant regression model depicting the underlying scaling behavior of a time series. To substantive our argument, the regression model is applied to analyze the multi-scaling behaviors of avian-influenza outbreaks, water consumption, daily mean temperature, and rainfall of Hong Kong. Through the proposed model, we can have a deeper understanding of fractals in general and a statistical approach to identify multi-scaling behavior under MF-DFA in particular.

  14. Magnetic properties of the Fe{sup II} spin crossover complex in emulsion polymerization of trifluoroethylmethacrylate using poly(vinyl alcohol)

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Iguchi, Motoi; Oku, Takeo; Fujiwara, Motoyasu

    2010-04-15

    Influence of chemical substitution in the Fe{sup II} spin crossover complex on magnetic properties in emulsion polymerization of trifluoroethylmethacrylate using poly(vinyl alcohol) as a protective colloid was investigated near its high spin/low spin (HS/LS) phase transition. The obvious bi-stability of the HS/LS phase transition was considered by the identification of multiple spin states between the quintet (S=2) states to single state (S=0) across the excited triplet state (S=1). Magnetic parameters of gradual shifts of anisotropy g-tensor supported by the molecular distortion of the spin crossover complex would arise from a Jahn-Teller effect regarding ligand field theory on the basis of a B3LYP density functional theory using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum and X-ray powder diffraction. - Graphical abstract: AFM surface image of the emulsion particles with the spin crossover complex.

  15. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  16. Temperature dependence of the pair coherence and healing lengths for a fermionic superfluid throughout the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palestini, F.; Strinati, G. C.

    2014-06-01

    We calculate the pair correlation function and the order parameter correlation function, which probe, respectively, the intrapair and interpair correlations of a Fermi gas with attractive interparticle interaction, in terms of a diagrammatic approach as a function of coupling throughout the BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover and of temperature, both in the superfluid and normal phase across the critical temperature Tc. Several physical quantities are obtained from this calculation, including the pair coherence and healing lengths, the Tan's contact, the crossover temperature T* below which interpair correlations begin to build up in the normal phase, and the signature for the disappearance of the underlying Fermi surface which tends to survive in spite of pairing correlations. A connection is also made with recent experimental data on the temperature dependence of the normal coherence length as extracted from the proximity effect measured in high-temperature (cuprate) superconductors.

  17. Orbital Transfer Vehicle Engine Technology High Velocity Ratio Diffusing Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lariviere, Brian W.

    1992-01-01

    High speed, high efficiency head rise multistage pumps require continuous passage diffusing crossovers to effectively convey the pumped fluid from the exit of one impeller to the inlet of the next impeller. On Rocketdyne's Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), the MK49-F, a three stage high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump, utilizes a 6.23 velocity ratio diffusing crossover. This velocity ratio approaches the diffusion limits for stable and efficient flow over the operating conditions required by the OTV system. The design of the high velocity ratio diffusing crossover was based on advanced analytical techniques anchored by previous tests of stationary two-dimensional diffusers with steady flow. To secure the design and the analytical techniques, tests were required with the unsteady whirling characteristics produced by an impeller. A tester was designed and fabricated using a 2.85 times scale model of the MK49-F turbopumps first stage, including the inducer, impeller, and the diffusing crossover. Water and air tests were completed to evaluate the large scale turbulence, non-uniform velocity, and non-steady velocity on the pump and crossover head and efficiency. Suction performance tests from 80 percent to 124 percent of design flow were completed in water to assess these pump characteristics. Pump and diffuser performance from the water and air tests were compared with the actual MK49-F test data in liquid hydrogen.

  18. Interference-mediated synaptonemal complex formation with embedded crossover designation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangran; Espagne, Eric; de Muyt, Arnaud; Zickler, Denise; Kleckner, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Biological systems exhibit complex patterns at length scales ranging from the molecular to the organismic. Along chromosomes, events often occur stochastically at different positions in different nuclei but nonetheless tend to be relatively evenly spaced. Examples include replication origin firings, formation of chromatin loops along chromosome axes and, during meiosis, localization of crossover recombination sites (“crossover interference”). We present evidence in the fungus Sordaria macrospora that crossover interference is part of a broader pattern that includes synaptonemal complex (SC) nucleation. This pattern comprises relatively evenly spaced SC nucleation sites, among which a subset are crossover sites that show a classical interference distribution. This pattern ensures that SC forms regularly along the entire length of the chromosome as required for the maintenance of homolog pairing while concomitantly having crossover interactions locally embedded within the SC structure as required for both DNA recombination and structural events of chiasma formation. This pattern can be explained by a threshold-based designation and spreading interference process. This model can be generalized to give diverse types of related and/or partially overlapping patterns, in two or more dimensions, for any type of object. PMID:25380597

  19. A Link between Meiotic Prophase Progression and Crossover Control

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Peter M; Farruggio, Alfonso P; Dernburg, Abby F

    2006-01-01

    During meiosis, most organisms ensure that homologous chromosomes undergo at least one exchange of DNA, or crossover, to link chromosomes together and accomplish proper segregation. How each chromosome receives a minimum of one crossover is unknown. During early meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans and many other species, chromosomes adopt a polarized organization within the nucleus, which normally disappears upon completion of homolog synapsis. Mutations that impair synapsis even between a single pair of chromosomes in C. elegans delay this nuclear reorganization. We quantified this delay by developing a classification scheme for discrete stages of meiosis. Immunofluorescence localization of RAD-51 protein revealed that delayed meiotic cells also contained persistent recombination intermediates. Through genetic analysis, we found that this cytological delay in meiotic progression requires double-strand breaks and the function of the crossover-promoting heteroduplex HIM-14 (Msh4) and MSH-5. Failure of X chromosome synapsis also resulted in impaired crossover control on autosomes, which may result from greater numbers and persistence of recombination intermediates in the delayed nuclei. We conclude that maturation of recombination events on chromosomes promotes meiotic progression, and is coupled to the regulation of crossover number and placement. Our results have broad implications for the interpretation of meiotic mutants, as we have shown that asynapsis of a single chromosome pair can exert global effects on meiotic progression and recombination frequency. PMID:16462941

  20. A Link between Meiotic Prophase Progression and CrossoverControl

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Peter M.; Farruggio, Alfonso P.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2005-07-06

    During meiosis, most organisms ensure that homologous chromosomes undergo at least one exchange of DNA, or crossover, to link chromosomes together and accomplish proper segregation. How each chromosome receives a minimum of one crossover is unknown. During early meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans and many other species, chromosomes adopt a polarized organization within the nucleus, which normally disappears upon completion of homolog synapsis. Mutations that impair synapsis even between a single pair of chromosomes in C. elegans delay this nuclear reorganization. We quantified this delay by developing a classification scheme for discrete stages of meiosis. Immunofluorescence localization of RAD-51 protein revealed that delayed meiotic cells also contained persistent recombination intermediates. Through genetic analysis, we found that this cytological delay in meiotic progression requires double-strand breaks and the function of the crossover-promoting heteroduplex HIM-14 (Msh4) and MSH-5. Failure of X chromosome synapsis also resulted in impaired crossover control on autosomes, which may result from greater numbers and persistence of recombination intermediates in the delayed nuclei. We conclude that maturation of recombination events on chromosomes promotes meiotic progression, and is coupled to the regulation of crossover number and placement. Our results have broad implications for the interpretation of meiotic mutants, as we have shown that asynapsis of a single chromosome pair can exert global effects on meiotic progression and recombination frequency.

  1. Crossover Analysis of CHANG'E-1 Laser Altimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Yue, Z.; Di, K.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a preliminary result of crossover analysis and adjustment of Chang'E-1(CE-1) Laser Altimeter (LAM) data of the Moon for global and regional mapping applications. During the operation of Chang'E-1 from November 28, 2007 to December 4, 2008, the laser altimeter acquired 1400 orbital profiles with about 9.12 million altimetric points. In our experiment, we derived more than 1.38 million crossovers from 1395 ground tracks covering the entire lunar surface after eliminating outliers of orbits and altimetric points. A method of least-squares crossover adjustment with a series of basis functions of time (trigonometric functions and polynomials) is developed to reconcile the LAM data by minimizing the crossover residuals globally. The normal equations are very large but sparse; therefore they are stored and solved using sparse matrix technique. In a test area (0°N~60°N, 50°W~0°W), the crossover residuals are reduced from 62.1m to 32.8m, and the quality of the DEM generated from the adjusted LAM data is improved accordingly. We will optimize the method for the global adjustment to generate a high precision consistent global DEM, which can be used as absolute control for lunar mapping with orbital images.

  2. The first jamming crossover: geometric and mechanical features.

    PubMed

    Pica Ciamarra, Massimo; Sollich, Peter

    2013-03-28

    The jamming transition characterizes athermal systems of particles interacting via finite range repulsive potentials, and occurs on increasing the density when particles cannot avoid making contacts with those of their first coordination shell. We have recently shown [M. Pica Ciamarra and P. Sollich, e-print arXiv:1209.3334] that the same systems are also characterized by a series of jamming crossovers. These occur at higher volume fractions as particles are forced to make contact with those of subsequent coordination shells. At finite temperature, the crossovers give rise to dynamic and thermodynamic density anomalies, including a diffusivity anomaly and a negative thermal expansion coefficient. Density anomalies may therefore be related to structural changes occurring at the jamming crossovers. Here we elucidate these structural changes, investigating the evolution of the structure and of the mechanical properties of a jammed system as its volume fraction varies from the jamming transition to and beyond the first jamming crossover. We show that the first jamming crossover occurs at a well defined volume fraction, and that it induces a rearrangement of the force network causing a softening of the system. It also causes qualitative changes in the normal mode density of states and the spatial properties of the normal mode vectors. PMID:23556780

  3. The first jamming crossover: Geometric and mechanical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciamarra, Massimo Pica; Sollich, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The jamming transition characterizes athermal systems of particles interacting via finite range repulsive potentials, and occurs on increasing the density when particles cannot avoid making contacts with those of their first coordination shell. We have recently shown [M. Pica Ciamarra and P. Sollich, e-print arXiv:1209.3334] that the same systems are also characterized by a series of jamming crossovers. These occur at higher volume fractions as particles are forced to make contact with those of subsequent coordination shells. At finite temperature, the crossovers give rise to dynamic and thermodynamic density anomalies, including a diffusivity anomaly and a negative thermal expansion coefficient. Density anomalies may therefore be related to structural changes occurring at the jamming crossovers. Here we elucidate these structural changes, investigating the evolution of the structure and of the mechanical properties of a jammed system as its volume fraction varies from the jamming transition to and beyond the first jamming crossover. We show that the first jamming crossover occurs at a well defined volume fraction, and that it induces a rearrangement of the force network causing a softening of the system. It also causes qualitative changes in the normal mode density of states and the spatial properties of the normal mode vectors.

  4. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji

    2015-08-14

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show thatmore » the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2D. We find aB ≃ 0.56a2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.« less

  5. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji

    2015-08-14

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show that the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2D. We find aB ≃ 0.56a2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.

  6. Hadron-quark crossover and hot neutron stars at birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-02-01

    We construct a new isentropic equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature, "Rover," on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover at high density. By using the new EOS, we study the structure of hot neutron stars at birth with typical lepton fraction (Y_l=0.3-0.4) and typical entropy per baryon (hat {S}=1{-}2). Due to the gradual appearance of quark degrees of freedom at high density, the temperature T and the baryon density ρ at the center of hot neutron stars with hadron-quark crossover are found to be smaller than those without the crossover by a factor of two or more. Typical energy release due to the contraction of a hot neutron star to a cold neutron star with mass M=1.4 M_{⊙} is shown to be about 0.04 M_{⊙}, with a spin-up rate of about 14%.

  7. Licensing MLH1 sites for crossover during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Martín, Azahara C; Shaw, Peter; Phillips, Dylan; Reader, Steve; Moore, Graham

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes synapse and recombine at sites marked by the binding of the mismatch repair protein MLH1. In hexaploid wheat, the Ph1 locus has a major effect on whether crossover occurs between homologues or between related homoeologues. Here we report that--in wheat-rye hybrids where homologues are absent--Ph1 affects neither the level of synapsis nor the number of MLH1. Thus in the case of wheat-wild relative hybrids, Ph1 must affect whether MLH1 sites are able to progress to crossover. The observed level of synapsis implies that Ph1 functions to promote homologue pairing rather than suppress homoeologue pairing in wheat. Therefore, Ph1 stabilises polyploidy in wheat by both promoting homologue pairing and preventing MLH1 sites from becoming crossovers on paired homoeologues during meiosis. PMID:25098240

  8. Sound modes at the BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Heiselberg, H.

    2006-01-15

    First and second sound speeds are calculated for a uniform superfluid gas of Fermi atoms as a function of temperature, density, and interaction strength. The second sound speed is of particular interest as it is a clear signal of a superfluid component and it determines the critical temperature. The sound modes and their dependence on density, scattering length, and temperature are calculated in the BCS, molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), and unitarity limits and a smooth crossover is extrapolated. It is found that first and second sounds undergo avoided crossing on the BEC side due to mixing. Consequently, they are detectable at crossover both as density and thermal waves in traps.

  9. Interpretation and bias in case-crossover studies.

    PubMed

    Redelmeier, D A; Tibshirani, R J

    1997-11-01

    The case-crossover design is an innovative epidemiologic technique with distinct strengths and limitations. We review the fundamental logic of this self-matching non-randomized design and direct attention to 15 concerns related to the available data, unavailable data, analytic technique, quantitative statistics, and etiologic model. Implications for each concern are discussed in the context of a recent report on whether cellular telephone calls are associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle collision. We suggest that an understanding of the case-crossover design may help investigators explore selected questions in behavioral medical research. PMID:9393384

  10. Crossover from Ballistic to Diffusive Thermal Transport in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Konabe, Satoru; Shiomi, Junichiro; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2009-09-01

    We present a theoretical scheme that seamlessly handles the crossover from fully ballistic to diffusive thermal transport regimes and apply it to carbon nanotubes. At room temperature, micrometer-length nanotubes belong to the intermediate regime in which ballistic and diffusive phonons coexist. According to our scheme, the thermal conductance of these nanotubes exhibit anomalous nonlinear dependence of tube length due to this coexistence. This result is in excellent agreement with molecular-dynamics simulation results showing the nonlinear thermal conductance. Additionally, we clarify the mechanism of crossover in terms of the length-dependent characteristic frequency.

  11. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, D.; Rovere, M.; Gallo, P.

    2015-09-21

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  12. Experimental evidence for a liquid-liquid crossover in deeply cooled confined water.

    PubMed

    Cupane, Antonio; Fomina, Margarita; Piazza, Irina; Peters, Judith; Schirò, Giorgio

    2014-11-21

    In this work we investigate, by means of elastic neutron scattering, the pressure dependence of mean square displacements (MSD) of hydrogen atoms of deeply cooled water confined in the pores of a three-dimensional disordered SiO2 xerogel; experiments have been performed at 250 and 210 K from atmospheric pressure to 1200 bar. The "pressure anomaly" of supercooled water (i.e., a mean square displacement increase with increasing pressure) is observed in our sample at both temperatures; however, contrary to previous simulation results and to the experimental trend observed in bulk water, the pressure effect is smaller at lower (210 K) than at higher (250 K) temperature. Elastic neutron scattering results are complemented by differential scanning calorimetry data that put in evidence, besides the glass transition at about 170 K, a first-order-like endothermic transition occurring at about 230 K that, in view of the neutron scattering results, can be attributed to a liquid-liquid crossover. Our results give experimental evidence for the presence, in deeply cooled confined water, of a crossover occurring at about 230 K (at ambient pressure) from a liquid phase predominant at 210 K to another liquid phase predominant at 250 K; therefore, they are fully consistent with the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis. PMID:25479506

  13. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments.

    PubMed

    Corradini, D; Rovere, M; Gallo, P

    2015-09-21

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones. PMID:26395714

  14. Spin-Polarized Fermi Gases in 1D, 3D, and Crossover Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jacob A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2015-05-01

    We report recent results on mapping the superfluid transition as a function of atomic interaction and global spin polarization in a two-component, 3D gas of fermionic lithium. The atomic interactions are controlled using a Feshbach resonance to tune between the strongly interacting BEC regime and the weakly interacting BCS regime. Previously, a 3D gas was found to have an unpolarized superfluid core that is enclosed by polarized shells. By applying a 2D optical lattice we confine our gas in one-dimensional tubes. In this 1D gas, in contrast to the 3D gas, we found a partially polarized superfluid core and either fully polarized or fully paired wings depending on the overall spin polarization. In the current experiment, we have mapped the phase diagram of the 1D/3D crossover by increasing the inter-tube coupling. The exotic superfluid state, FFLO, is predicted to occupy a large portion of the phase diagram in the crossover regime, making it an ideal location in parameter space for its detection. ARO, NSF, ONR, and The Welch Foundation.

  15. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, D.; Rovere, M.; Gallo, P.

    2015-09-01

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  16. PREFACE: Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2012-02-01

    dynamics of the water molecules in the solution is observed in the single-particle relaxational dynamics in the μeV (nanosecond) time scale, but not in the collective dynamics on the meV (picosecond) time scale. Mallamace et al discuss the dynamic crossover phenomenon in both bulk water and protein hydration water. They collect previous and new experimental data from different experimental techniques and molecular dynamic simulations, and are able to develop a unified picture for the different dynamical findings. Gallo et al present a MD study of confined water in MCM-41S-15 in order to test the applicability of Mode Coupling Theory (MCT) to the dynamics of the hydration water confined in the cylindrical pores of nominal diameter 15 Å. They find that the self dynamics of the hydration water is well described by MCT down to the crossover temperature TC. However, below TC the predictions of idealized MCT no longer apply, since hopping processes intervene and water turns into a strong liquid. Soper raises some questions as to the validity of the analysis method employed to determine the density of water confined in porous silica material MCM-41-S15 from recent neutron scattering experiments. Professors Stanley, Franzese and his collaborators describe an efficient Monte Carlo simulation of a coarse-grained model of water to study the phase diagram of a water monolayer confined in a fixed disordered matrix of hydrophobic nanoparticles between two hydrophobic plates. They find a drastic change of phase behavior of the confined water, such as shortening of the liquid-liquid phase transition line, upon increasing the concentration of the hydrophobic nano-particles. Sciortino and collaborators compute the equilibrium phase diagram of two simple models for patchy particles with three and five patches in a very broad range of pressure and temperature. The three-patch model produces a stable gas-liquid critical point. Yun Liu et al investigate, via small angle neutron scattering and

  17. Estimating crossover frequencies and testing for numerical interference with highly polymorphic markers

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, J.

    1996-12-31

    Interference maybe viewed as having two aspects, numerical interference referring to the numbers of crossovers occurring, and positional interference referring to the positions of crossovers. Here, the focus is on numerical interference and on methods of testing for its presence. A dense map of highly polymorphic markers is assumed so that each crossover can be observed. General relationships are worked out between crossover distributions and underlying chiasma distributions. It is shown that crossover distributions may be invalid, and methods are developed to estimate valid crossover distributions from observed counts of crossovers. Based on valid estimates of crossover distributions, tests for interference and development of empirical map functions are outlined. The methods are applied to published data on human chromosomes 9 and 19. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Size-dependent dielectrophoretic crossover frequency of spherical particles.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ping-You; Chen, I-An; Yeh, Che-Kai; Chen, Pin-Yi; Juang, Jia-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been extensively used in lab-on-a-chip systems for trapping, separating, and manipulating of micro particles suspended in a liquid medium. The most widely used analytic model, the dipole model, provides an accurate prediction on the crossover frequency of submicron particles, but cannot explain the significant drop in crossover frequency of larger particles. Here, we present numerical simulations using the Maxwell stress tensor (MST) and finite element method to study the size effect of the DEP crossover frequency of spherical polystyrene particles suspended in de-ionized water. Our results show that the surface conductance due to the electrical double layer plays a key role, and the size dependency of crossover frequency obtained by the MST method agrees reasonably well with published experimental data. The exponents of the power law are approximately -1.0 and -4.3 for smaller (diameter < 4.6 μm) and larger particles (diameter  > 4.6 μm), respectively. The free surface charge distribution reveals that the charge begins accumulating on the particle equator for particle diameters larger than a critical diameter of 4.6 μm, a result not captured by the dipolar approximation. This method may be extended to analyze bioparticles with complex shapes and composition, and provides new insights into the interpretation of dielectrophoresis applications using lab-on-a-chip systems. PMID:26909121

  19. Crossover between work and home in dyadic partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Dikkers, Josje S E; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kinnunen, Ulla; Kompier, Michiel A J; Taris, Toon W

    2007-12-01

    This study aimed at providing insight into the processes underlying crossover between "work" and "home" in dyadic partner relationships. Specifically, we examined to what extent husbands' work demands (work load and overtime hours) and psychological health (fatigue and depressive symptoms) "cross over" to their wives' home demands (home load) and psychological health. These associations were investigated among three couple groups, based on wives' working hours (i.e., more than 20 hours per week, from 1 to 20 hours per week, and not engaged in paid work) (253 couples in total). All husbands worked for at least 35 hours a week. Three possible crossover mechanisms were hypothesized: (i) time-based, (ii) strain-based, and (iii) empathy-based crossover. The results partially supported mechanisms (i) and (ii): when husbands reported higher work load (mechanism i) and more psychological health complaints (mechanism ii), their wives experienced higher home load. The results further supported mechanism (iii) that wives' and husbands' psychological health were associated. It is concluded that crossover from husbands to wives may occur through various mechanisms. PMID:18028075

  20. Crossover Improvement for the Genetic Algorithm in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrajitoru, Dana

    1998-01-01

    In information retrieval (IR), the aim of genetic algorithms (GA) is to help a system to find, in a huge documents collection, a good reply to a query expressed by the user. Analysis of phenomena seen during the implementation of a GA for IR has led to a new crossover operation, which is introduced and compared to other learning methods.…

  1. Academic Crossover Study, University of Hawaii Community Colleges, Fall 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of the Chancellor for Community Colleges.

    The academic crossover study was developed to answer two questions: (1) What is the course-taking pattern of the different groups of academic majors? (e.g. what is proportion of academic load taken outside the major); and (2) What is the client-serving pattern of the different subject disciplines? (e.g. what are the groups of students served by…

  2. Crossover dynamics at large metastability in gas-liquid nucleation.

    PubMed

    Santra, Mantu; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-03-01

    We have developed an alternate description of dynamics of nucleation in terms of an extended set of order parameters. The order parameters consist of an ordered set of kth largest clusters, ordered such that k= 1 is the largest cluster in the system, k= 2 is the second largest cluster, and so on. We have derived an analytic expression for the free energy for the kth largest cluster, which is in excellent agreement with the simulated results. At large supersaturation, the free energy barrier for the growth of the kth largest cluster disappears and the nucleation becomes barrierless. The major success of this extended theoretical formalism is that it can clearly explain the observed change in mechanism at large metastability [P. Bhimalapuram et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 206104 (2007)] and the associated dynamical crossover. The classical nucleation theory cannot explain this crossover. The crossover from activated to barrierless nucleation is found to occur at a supersaturation where multiple clusters cross the critical size. We attribute the crossover as the onset of the kinetic spinodal. We have derived an expression for the rate of nucleation in the barrierless regime by modeling growth as diffusion on the free energy surface of the largest cluster. The model reproduces the slower increase in the rate of growth as a function of supersaturation, as observed in experiments. PMID:21517508

  3. Ligand Induced Spin Crossover in Penta-Coordinated Ferric Dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, P.; Iyer, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    On addition of lewis bases to Fe(dtc)2X, ligand exchange takes place through a SN2 mechanism, with a parallel spin crossover in the ferric ion. The two species (S = 3/2 and S = 5/2) formed are in dynamic chemical equilibrium, and a slow decomposition is then initiated.

  4. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  5. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  6. Ergodic crossover in partially self-avoiding stochastic walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbert, Juliana M.; González, Rodrigo Silva; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2013-09-01

    Consider a one-dimensional environment with N randomly distributed sites. An agent explores this random medium moving deterministically with a spatial memory μ. A crossover from local to global exploration occurs in one dimension at a well-defined memory value μ1=log2N. In its stochastic version, the dynamics is ruled by the memory and by temperature T, which affects the hopping displacement. This dynamics also shows a crossover in one dimension, obtained computationally, between exploration schemes, characterized yet by the trajectory size (Np) (aging effect). In this paper we provide an analytical approach considering the modified stochastic version where the parameter T plays the role of a maximum hopping distance. This modification allows us to obtain a general analytical expression for the crossover, as a function of the parameters μ, T, and Np. Differently from what has been proposed by previous studies, we find that the crossover occurs in any dimension d. These results have been validated by numerical experiments and may be of great value for fixing optimal parameters in search algorithms.

  7. Ergodic crossover in partially self-avoiding stochastic walks.

    PubMed

    Berbert, Juliana M; González, Rodrigo Silva; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2013-09-01

    Consider a one-dimensional environment with N randomly distributed sites. An agent explores this random medium moving deterministically with a spatial memory μ. A crossover from local to global exploration occurs in one dimension at a well-defined memory value μ_{1}=log_{2}N. In its stochastic version, the dynamics is ruled by the memory and by temperature T, which affects the hopping displacement. This dynamics also shows a crossover in one dimension, obtained computationally, between exploration schemes, characterized yet by the trajectory size (N_{p}) (aging effect). In this paper we provide an analytical approach considering the modified stochastic version where the parameter T plays the role of a maximum hopping distance. This modification allows us to obtain a general analytical expression for the crossover, as a function of the parameters μ, T, and N_{p}. Differently from what has been proposed by previous studies, we find that the crossover occurs in any dimension d. These results have been validated by numerical experiments and may be of great value for fixing optimal parameters in search algorithms. PMID:24125225

  8. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  9. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  10. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  11. Uniform spin susceptibility and spin-gap phenomenon in the BCS-BEC-crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Hiroyuki; Kashimura, Takashi; Hanai, Ryo; Watanabe, Ryota; Ohashi, Yoji

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the uniform spin susceptibility χs in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas. Including pairing fluctuations within the framework of an extended T-matrix approximation, we show that χs exhibits nonmonotonic temperature dependence in the normal state. In particular, χs is suppressed near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc due to strong pairing fluctuations. To characterize this anomalous behavior, we introduce the spin-gap temperature Ts as the temperature at which χs takes a maximum value. Determining Ts in the whole BCS-BEC crossover region, we identify the spin-gap regime in the phase diagram of a Fermi gas in terms of the temperature and the strength of a pairing interaction. We also clarify how the spin-gap phenomenon is related to the pseudogap phenomenon appearing in the single-particle density of states. Our results indicate that an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region is a very useful system to examine the pseudogap phenomenon and the spin-gap phenomenon in a unified manner.

  12. Spin susceptibility and effects of fluctuating Cooper pairs in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of a superfluid Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji

    2015-03-01

    We theoretically discuss the spin susceptibility χ and effects of strong-coupling corrections in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas. Using an extended T-matrix approximation, we calculate χ over the entire BCS-BEC crossover region, showing that this magnetic quantity is very sensitive to pairing fluctuations in both the normal and the superfluid phase. In the normal state, it is suppressed by preformed singlet Cooper pairs near Tc, being similar to the spin-gap phenomenon in high-Tc cuprates. Below Tc, on the other hand, pairing fluctuations enhance χ, in the sense that the suppression of this quantity by the superfluid order is weakened due to partial dissociation of Cooper pairs. From these, we determine the region where pairing fluctuations strongly affect spin excitations in the phase diagram of a Fermi gas with respect to the temperature and the strength of a pairing interaction. We also compare our results with the recent experiments on a 6Li Fermi gas. Our results indicate that the spin susceptibility is a useful observable in understanding strong-coupling properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region. H. T. was supported by Graduate School Doctoral Student Aid Program from Keio University.

  13. Altered Crossover Distribution and Frequency in Spermatocytes of Infertile Men with Azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Ren, He; Ferguson, Kyle; Kirkpatrick, Gordon; Vinning, Tanya; Chow, Victor; Ma, Sai

    2016-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair to facilitate the exchange of DNA at crossover sites along the chromosomes. The frequency and distribution of crossover formation are tightly regulated to ensure the proper progression of meiosis. Using immunofluorescence techniques, our group and others have studied the meiotic proteins in spermatocytes of infertile men, showing that this population displays a reduced frequency of crossovers compared to fertile men. An insufficient number of crossovers is thought to promote chromosome missegregation, in which case the faulty cell may face meiotic arrest or contribute to the production of aneuploid sperm. Increasing evidence in model organisms has suggested that the distribution of crossovers may also be important for proper chromosome segregation. In normal males, crossovers are shown to be rare near centromeres and telomeres, while frequent in subtelomeric regions. Our study aims to characterize the crossover distribution in infertile men with non-obstructive (NOA) and obstructive azoospermia (OA) along chromosomes 13, 18 and 21. Eight of the 16 NOA men and five of the 21 OA men in our study displayed reduced crossover frequency compared to control fertile men. Seven NOA men and nine OA men showed altered crossover distributions on at least one of the chromosome arms studied compared to controls. We found that although both NOA and OA men displayed altered crossover distributions, NOA men may be at a higher risk of suffering both altered crossover frequencies and distributions compared to OA men. Our data also suggests that infertile men display an increase in crossover formation in regions where they are normally inhibited, specifically near centromeres and telomeres. Finally, we demonstrated a decrease in crossovers near subtelomeres, as well as increased average crossover distance to telomeres in infertile men. As telomere-guided mechanisms are speculated to play a role in crossover formation in subtelomeres, future

  14. Altered Crossover Distribution and Frequency in Spermatocytes of Infertile Men with Azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Ren, He; Ferguson, Kyle; Kirkpatrick, Gordon; Vinning, Tanya; Chow, Victor; Ma, Sai

    2016-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair to facilitate the exchange of DNA at crossover sites along the chromosomes. The frequency and distribution of crossover formation are tightly regulated to ensure the proper progression of meiosis. Using immunofluorescence techniques, our group and others have studied the meiotic proteins in spermatocytes of infertile men, showing that this population displays a reduced frequency of crossovers compared to fertile men. An insufficient number of crossovers is thought to promote chromosome missegregation, in which case the faulty cell may face meiotic arrest or contribute to the production of aneuploid sperm. Increasing evidence in model organisms has suggested that the distribution of crossovers may also be important for proper chromosome segregation. In normal males, crossovers are shown to be rare near centromeres and telomeres, while frequent in subtelomeric regions. Our study aims to characterize the crossover distribution in infertile men with non-obstructive (NOA) and obstructive azoospermia (OA) along chromosomes 13, 18 and 21. Eight of the 16 NOA men and five of the 21 OA men in our study displayed reduced crossover frequency compared to control fertile men. Seven NOA men and nine OA men showed altered crossover distributions on at least one of the chromosome arms studied compared to controls. We found that although both NOA and OA men displayed altered crossover distributions, NOA men may be at a higher risk of suffering both altered crossover frequencies and distributions compared to OA men. Our data also suggests that infertile men display an increase in crossover formation in regions where they are normally inhibited, specifically near centromeres and telomeres. Finally, we demonstrated a decrease in crossovers near subtelomeres, as well as increased average crossover distance to telomeres in infertile men. As telomere-guided mechanisms are speculated to play a role in crossover formation in subtelomeres, future

  15. Smooth crossover transition from the {delta}-string to the Y-string three-quark potential

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitrasinovic, V.; Sato, Toru; Suvakov, Milovan

    2009-09-01

    We comment on the assertion made by Caselle et al.[M. Caselle, G. Delfino, P. Grinza, O. Jahn, and N. Magnoli, J. Stat. Mech. (2006) P008.] that the confining (string) potential for three quarks 'makes a smooth crossover transition from the {delta}-string to the Y-string configuration at interquark distances of around 0.8 fm'. We study the functional dependence of the three-quark confining potentials due to a Y-string, and the {delta} string and show that they have different symmetries, which lead to different constants of the motion (i.e. they belong to different 'universality classes' in the parlance of the theory of phase transitions). This means that there is no 'smooth crossover' between the two, when their string tensions are identical, except at the vanishing hyper-radius. We also comment on a certain two-body potential approximation to the Y-string potential.

  16. Estimating the sea state bias of the Jason-1 altimeter from Jason/TOPEX tandem mission dual crossovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckley, B.

    2003-04-01

    Resolving the sea state bias for the Jason-1 altimeter is an essential component in achieving a seamless transition from the decade-long sea surface height time series provided by TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) for climate research. The initial calibration phase of Jason-1 flying in a tandem configuration with T/P separated by only 72 seconds has provided a unique data set of dual crossovers spanning over 200 days. Employment of these dual crossovers within a parametric model (Gaspar, et al., 1992) based on significant wave height and wind speed, further minimizes ocean dynamics and geoid induced errors, as well as avoiding geophysical and range correction inconsistencies between the two missions. In this presentation, we compute the sea state bias for both TOPEX and Jason-1 and examine the extent of the reduction in sea surface height variance and the relative bias between the two altimeters.

  17. Sources and Structures of Mitotic Crossovers That Arise When BLM Helicase Is Absent in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    LaFave, Matthew C.; Andersen, Sabrina L.; Stoffregen, Eric P.; Holsclaw, Julie K.; Kohl, Kathryn P.; Overton, Lewis J.; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, has numerous functions that prevent mitotic crossovers. We used unique features of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate origins and properties of mitotic crossovers that occur when BLM is absent. Induction of lesions that block replication forks increased crossover frequencies, consistent with functions for BLM in responding to fork blockage. In contrast, treatment with hydroxyurea, which stalls forks, did not elevate crossovers, even though mutants lacking BLM are sensitive to killing by this agent. To learn about sources of spontaneous recombination, we mapped mitotic crossovers in mutants lacking BLM. In the male germline, irradiation-induced crossovers were distributed randomly across the euchromatin, but spontaneous crossovers were nonrandom. We suggest that regions of the genome with a high frequency of mitotic crossovers may be analogous to common fragile sites in the human genome. Interestingly, in the male germline there is a paucity of crossovers in the interval that spans the pericentric heterochromatin, but in the female germline this interval is more prone to crossing over. Finally, our system allowed us to recover pairs of reciprocal crossover chromosomes. Sequencing of these revealed the existence of gene conversion tracts and did not provide any evidence for mutations associated with crossovers. These findings provide important new insights into sources and structures of mitotic crossovers and functions of BLM helicase. PMID:24172129

  18. What's Mine Is Yours: The Crossover of Day-Specific Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Angela; Sonnentag, Sabine; Niessen, Cornelia; Unger, Dana

    2012-01-01

    This diary study examines the daily crossover of self-esteem within working couples. By integrating self-esteem research into the crossover framework, we hypothesized that the day-specific self-esteem experienced by one partner after work crosses over to the other partner. Furthermore, we proposed that this daily crossover process is moderated by…

  19. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand operated crossover between main tracks..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection. At hand-operated crossover between main tracks, protection shall be provided by...

  20. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand operated crossover between main tracks..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection. At hand-operated crossover between main tracks, protection shall be provided by...

  1. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand operated crossover between main tracks..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection. At hand-operated crossover between main tracks, protection shall be provided by...

  2. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand operated crossover between main tracks..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection. At hand-operated crossover between main tracks, protection shall be provided by...

  3. Thermo- and photoswitchable spin-crossover nanoparticles of an iron(II) complex trapped in transparent silica thin films.

    PubMed

    Tissot, Antoine; Bardeau, Jean-François; Rivière, Eric; Brisset, François; Boillot, Marie-Laure

    2010-09-01

    The elaboration and study of hybrid nanocomposites based on photoswitchable spin-crossover nanoparticles is reported. A silica polymeric gel is used as the confining medium to control the kinetics of nucleation and growth of a molecular spin-crossover prototype [Fe((mepy)(3)tren)](PF(6))(2). The precipitation of nanoparticles in the matrix is triggered by spin-coating of the doped gel on a convenient substrate. This process leads to spherical particles of controlled size from 730 (+/- 80) to 47 (+/- 10) nm homogeneously dispersed in transparent silica thin films. The chemical integrity of the coordination compound is checked by EDS and Raman spectroscopies. UV-Vis measurements confirm the persistence of a spin-crossover regime for these nanocomposites. Indeed, the MLCT absorption features are typical of the molecules being in the high-spin state at high temperature and in the low-spin state at low temperature. With respect to the microcrystalline parent compound, the spin-crossover curves afforded by the nanoparticles do not significantly vary over the explored size range. In addition, they are strongly shifted toward lower temperatures. This feature is accounted for by the in-silica formation of a quenched product which behaves like a new phase generated by sudden precipitation of [Fe((mepy)(3)tren)](PF(6))(2). Indeed the precipitated bulk phase, characterized by powder XRD, exhibits both magnetic and optical characteristics very close to those of the nanoparticles. The photoswitching properties based on light-induced excited spin-state trapping (LIESST) are probed by UV-Vis and magnetic measurements. The complexes embedded in silica thin films can be efficiently photoexcited and evidences are provided for the formation of a metastable HS state. PMID:20652206

  4. Velocity Crossover Between Hydrous and Anhydrous Forsterite at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Z.; Jacobsen, S; Smyth, R; Holl, C; Frost, D; Duffy, T

    2010-01-01

    The elastic properties of hydrous forsterite, Mg{sub 2-x}SiO{sub 4}H{sub 2x}, are relevant to interpreting seismic velocity anomalies in the Earth's mantle. In this study, we used Brillouin scattering to determine the single-crystal elasticity of forsterite with 0.9(1) wt.% H{sub 2}O (x = 0.14) to 14 GPa. Aggregate bulk and shear moduli of hydrous forsterite increase with pressure at a greater rate than those of the corresponding anhydrous phase. Compared with anhydrous forsterite, we observe a 7% increase in the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (K{prime}{sub S0} = 4.50(5)), and a 25% increase in the pressure derivative of the shear modulus (G{prime}{sub 0} = 1.75(5)) for forsterite with near maximum possible water content. Using our results, we calculated the compressional, V{sub P}, and shear, V{sub S}, velocities of forsterite as a function of pressure at 300 K. Whereas V{sub P} and V{sub S} of hydrous forsterite are 0.6% and 0.4% slower than those of anhydrous forsterite at ambient pressure, velocity crossovers at {approx} 3-4 GPa result in higher hydrous forsterite velocities at pressures corresponding to depths below {approx} 120 km. At the pressure of the 410-km discontinuity, V{sub P} and V{sub S} of hydrous forsterite exceed those of anhydrous forsterite by 1.1(1)% and 1.9(1)%, respectively. This implies that incorporation of water could decrease the magnitude of the velocity contrast at 410-km depth between forsterite and wadsleyite. Although the effects of hydration on temperature derivatives of the elastic moduli of forsterite and wadsleyite are not yet known, from the current data we estimate that the presence of {approx} 0.4 wt.% H{sub 2}O in forsterite (at 60 mol%) could lower the P and S velocity contrast at 410-km depth to 3.8(4)% and 4.8(6)%, respectively. At high pressures, hydration also decreases the V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratio of forsterite, and lowers the maximum P wave azimuthal anisotropy and S wave splitting of forsterite.

  5. Two-dimensional metal-insulator transition as a strong localization induced crossover phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Sarma, S.; Hwang, E. H.

    2014-06-01

    Low-disorder and high-mobility two-dimensional (2D) electron (or hole) systems confined in semiconductor heterostructures undergo an apparent metal-insulator transition (MIT) at low temperatures as the carrier density (n) is varied. In some situations, the 2D MIT can be caused at a fixed low carrier density by changing an externally applied in-plane magnetic field parallel to the 2D layer. The goal of the current work is to obtain the critical density (nc) for the 2D MIT with the system being an effective metal (Anderson insulator) for density n above (below) nc. We study the 2D MIT phenomenon theoretically as a possible strong localization induced crossover process controlled by the Ioffe-Regel criterion, kFl=1, where kF(n) is the 2D Fermi wave vector and l (n) is the disorder-limited quantum mean free path on the metallic side. Calculating the quantum mean free path in the effective metallic phase from a realistic Boltzmann transport theory including disorder scattering effects, we solve the integral equation (with l depending on n through multidimensional integrals) defined by the Ioffe-Regel criterion to obtain the nonuniversal critical density nc as a function of the applicable physical experimental parameters including disorder strength, in-plane magnetic field, spin and valley degeneracy, background dielectric constant and carrier effective mass, and temperature. The key physics underlying the nonuniversal parameter dependence of the critical density is the density dependence of the screened Coulomb disorder. Our calculated results for the crossover critical density nc appear to be in qualitative and semiquantitative agreement with the available experimental data in different 2D semiconductor systems lending credence to the possibility that the apparent 2D MIT signals the onset of the strong localization crossover in disordered 2D systems. We also compare the calculated critical density obtained from the Ioffe-Regel criterion with that obtained from a

  6. Comparison of different pairing fluctuation approaches to BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Kathryn Chen Qijin Chien, C.-C. He Yan

    2010-02-15

    The subject of BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is particularly exciting because of its realization in ultracold atomic Fermi gases and its possible relevance to high temperature superconductors. In this paper we review the body of theoretical work on this subject, which represents a natural extension of the seminal papers by Leggett and by Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink (NSR). The former addressed only the ground state, now known as the 'BCS-Leggett' wave-function, and the key contributions of the latter pertain to calculations of the superfluid transition temperature T{sub c}. These two papers have given rise to two main and, importantly, distinct, theoretical schools in the BCS-BEC crossover literature. The first of these extends the BCS-Leggett ground state to finite temperature and the second extends the NSR scheme away from T{sub c} both in the superfluid and normal phases. It is now rather widely accepted that these extensions of NSR produce a different ground state than that first introduced by Leggett. This observation provides a central motivation for the present paper which seeks to clarify the distinctions in the two approaches. Our analysis shows how the NSR-based approach views the bosonic contributions more completely but treats the fermions as 'quasi-free'. By contrast, the BCS-Leggett based approach treats the fermionic contributions more completely but treats the bosons as 'quasi-free'. In a related fashion, the NSR-based schemes approach the crossover between BCS and BEC by starting from the BEC limit and the BCS-Leggett based scheme approaches this crossover by starting from the BCS limit. Ultimately, one would like to combine these two schemes. There are, however, many difficult problems to surmount in any attempt to bridge the gap in the two theory classes. In this paper we review the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches. The flexibility of the BCS-Leggett based approach and its ease of handling make it widely used in T=0

  7. Critical Crossover Functions for Simple Fluids: Non-Analytical Scaling Determination of the Ising-Like Crossover Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Marre, Samuel; LeNeindre, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    A non-analytical scaling determination of the Ising-like crossover parameter is proposed considering the critical isochore of a simple fluid at finite distance from its critical temperature. The mean crossover functions, estimated from the bounded results of the massive renormalization scheme in field theory applied to the ( Φ 2) d2( n) model in three dimensions (d=3) and scalar order parameter (n=1), are used to formulate the corresponding scaling equations valid in two well-defined temperature ranges from the critical temperature. The validity range and the Ising-like nature of the corresponding crossover description are discussed in terms of a single Ising-like scale factor characterizing the critical isochore. The asymptotic value of this scale factor can be predicted within the Ising-like preasymptotic domain. Unfortunately, the absence of precise experimental data in such a close vicinity of the critical point leads the direct testing impossible. A contrario, from our scaling equations and the use of precise measurements performed at finite distance from the critical point, its local value can be estimated beyond the Ising-like preasymptotic domain. This non-analytical scaling determination only needs to make reference to the universal features estimated from the mean crossover functions and to introduce a single master dimensionless length common to all the simple fluids. This latter parameter guaranties the uniqueness of the physical length unit used for the theoretical crossover functions and the fluid singular properties when the generalized critical coordinates of the vapor-liquid critical point of each fluid are known. Xenon case along its critical isochore is considered as a typical example to demonstrate the singleness of the Ising-like crossover parameter. With the measurements at finite temperature range of the effective singular behaviors of the isothermal compressibility in the homogeneous domain, and the vapor-liquid coexisting densities in the

  8. Crossover Fields in Grain-Boundary Flux Pinning in Magnesium Diboride Films with Columnar Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. H.; Hwang, T. J.; Seong, W. K.; Kang, W. N.

    We studied temperature and magnetic-field dependence of grain boundary pinning effect in MgB2 films with columnar grains by measuring the angular dependence of the resistivity and the critical current density (Jc). MgB2 films grown by using a hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition method under appropriate conditions exhibit a peculiar columnar growth with their columns oriented along the c axis. The pinning effect by grain boundaries was manifested in the comparable or even higher Jc for magnetic fields (H) parallel to the c axis (H‖c) than that for fields parallel to the ab plane (H‖ab) below certain temperature-dependent crossover fields. The crossover field, Bcr, was around 1.6 T at 5 K and decreased to around 0.9 T at 30 K depending weakly on the sample characters, and Bcr lay well below the upper critical fields in the phase diagram. Above Bcr, Jc for H‖c decreased very rapidly. The vortex spacing at Bcr was closely correlated with the temperature dependence of the penetration depth, indicating that the degree of the vortex-vortex overlap is an important parameter to determine the number of vortices allowed per unit length of grain boundaries. Thus, Bcr was thought to demarcate the accommodation capability of flux lines by the grain boundaries, and a rapid decrease of Jc above Bcr was ascribed to flux motion of the less strongly pinned vortices located away from the grain boundaries.

  9. Numerical Evidence of Quantum Melting of Spin Ice: Quantum-to-Classical Crossover.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yasuyuki; Onoda, Shigeki

    2015-08-14

    Unbiased quantum Monte Carlo simulations are performed on the nearest-neighbor spin-1/2 pyrochlore XXZ model with an antiferromagnetic longitudinal and the weak ferromagnetic transverse exchange couplings, J and J_{⊥}. The specific heat exhibits a broad peak at T_{CSI}~0.2J associated with a crossover to a classical Coulomb liquid regime showing a suppressed spin-ice monopole density, a broadened pinch-point singularity, and the Pauling entropy for |J_{⊥}|≪J, as in classical spin ice. On further cooling, the entropy restarts decaying for J_{⊥}>J_{⊥c}∼-0.104J, producing another broad specific heat peak for a crossover to a bosonic quantum Coulomb liquid, where the spin correlation contains both photon and quantum spin-ice monopole contributions. With negatively increasing J_{⊥} across J_{⊥c}, a first-order thermal phase transition occurs from the quantum Coulomb liquid to an XY ferromagnet. Relevance to magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore oxides is discussed. PMID:26317744

  10. A real space auxiliary field approach to the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarat, Sabyasachi; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2015-03-01

    The BCS to BEC crossover in attractive Fermi systems is a prototype of weak to strong coupling evolution in many body physics. While extensive numerical results are available, and several approximate methods have been developed, most of these schemes are unsuccessful in the presence of spatial inhomogeneity. Such situations call for a real space approach that can handle large spatial scales and retain the crucial thermal fluctuations. With this in mind we present comprehensive results of a real space auxiliary field approach to the BCS to BEC crossover in the attractive Hubbard model in two dimensions. The scheme reproduces the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov ground state, and leads to a T c scale that agrees with quantum Monte Carlo estimates to within a few percent. We provide results on the T c , amplitude and phase fluctuations, density of states, and the momentum resolved spectral function, over the entire interaction and temperature window. We suggest how the method generalises successfully to the presence of disorder, trapping, and population imbalance.

  11. Thermoelasticity of Fe3+- and Al-bearing bridgmanite: Effects of iron spin crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Gaurav; Cococcioni, Matteo; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2016-06-01

    We report ab initio (LDA + Usc) calculations of thermoelastic properties of ferric iron (Fe3+)- and aluminum (Al)-bearing bridgmanite (MgSiO3 perovskite), the main Earth forming phase, at relevant pressure and temperature conditions and compositions. Three coupled substitutions, namely, [Al]Mg-[Al]Si, [Fe3+]Mg-[Fe3+]Si, and [Fe3+]Mg-[Al]Si have been investigated. Aggregate elastic moduli and sound velocities are successfully compared with limited experimental data available. In the case of [Fe3+]Mg-[Fe3+]Si substitution, the high-spin (S = 5/2) to low-spin (S = 1/2) crossover in [Fe3+]Si induces a volume collapse and elastic anomalies across the transition region. However, the associated anomalies should disappear in the presence of aluminum in the most favorable substitution, i.e., [Fe3+]Mg-[Al]Si. Calculated elastic properties along a lower mantle model geotherm suggest that the elastic behavior of bridgmanite with simultaneous substitution of Fe2O3 and Al2O3 in equal proportions or with Al2O3 in excess should be similar to that of (Mg,Fe2+)SiO3 bridgmanite. However, excess of Fe2O3 should produce elastic anomalies in the crossover pressure region.

  12. PREFACE: Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2012-02-01

    dynamics of the water molecules in the solution is observed in the single-particle relaxational dynamics in the μeV (nanosecond) time scale, but not in the collective dynamics on the meV (picosecond) time scale. Mallamace et al discuss the dynamic crossover phenomenon in both bulk water and protein hydration water. They collect previous and new experimental data from different experimental techniques and molecular dynamic simulations, and are able to develop a unified picture for the different dynamical findings. Gallo et al present a MD study of confined water in MCM-41S-15 in order to test the applicability of Mode Coupling Theory (MCT) to the dynamics of the hydration water confined in the cylindrical pores of nominal diameter 15 Å. They find that the self dynamics of the hydration water is well described by MCT down to the crossover temperature TC. However, below TC the predictions of idealized MCT no longer apply, since hopping processes intervene and water turns into a strong liquid. Soper raises some questions as to the validity of the analysis method employed to determine the density of water confined in porous silica material MCM-41-S15 from recent neutron scattering experiments. Professors Stanley, Franzese and his collaborators describe an efficient Monte Carlo simulation of a coarse-grained model of water to study the phase diagram of a water monolayer confined in a fixed disordered matrix of hydrophobic nanoparticles between two hydrophobic plates. They find a drastic change of phase behavior of the confined water, such as shortening of the liquid-liquid phase transition line, upon increasing the concentration of the hydrophobic nano-particles. Sciortino and collaborators compute the equilibrium phase diagram of two simple models for patchy particles with three and five patches in a very broad range of pressure and temperature. The three-patch model produces a stable gas-liquid critical point. Yun Liu et al investigate, via small angle neutron scattering and

  13. In-Network Processing of an Iceberg Join Query in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on 2-Way Fragment Semijoins

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the in-network processing of an iceberg join query in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). An iceberg join is a special type of join where only those joined tuples whose cardinality exceeds a certain threshold (called iceberg threshold) are qualified for the result. Processing such a join involves the value matching for the join predicate as well as the checking of the cardinality constraint for the iceberg threshold. In the previous scheme, the value matching is carried out as the main task for filtering non-joinable tuples while the iceberg threshold is treated as an additional constraint. We take an alternative approach, meeting the cardinality constraint first and matching values next. In this approach, with a logical fragmentation of the join operand relations on the aggregate counts of the joining attribute values, the optimal sequence of 2-way fragment semijoins is generated, where each fragment semijoin employs a Bloom filter as a synopsis of the joining attribute values. This sequence filters non-joinable tuples in an energy-efficient way in WSNs. Through implementation and a set of detailed experiments, we show that our alternative approach considerably outperforms the previous one. PMID:25774710

  14. Stochastic Resonance Crossovers in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Pinamonti, Giovanni; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2012-01-01

    Here we numerically study the emergence of stochastic resonance as a mild phenomenon and how this transforms into an amazing enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio at several levels of a disturbing ambient noise. The setting is a cooperative, interacting complex system modelled as an Ising-Hopfield network in which the intensity of mutual interactions or “synapses” varies with time in such a way that it accounts for, e.g., a kind of fatigue reported to occur in the cortex. This induces nonequilibrium phase transitions whose rising comes associated to various mechanisms producing two types of resonance. The model thus clarifies the details of the signal transmission and the causes of correlation among noise and signal. We also describe short-time persistent memory states, and conclude on the limited relevance of the network wiring topology. Our results, in qualitative agreement with the observation of excellent transmission of weak signals in the brain when competing with both intrinsic and external noise, are expected to be of wide validity and may have technological application. We also present here a first contact between the model behavior and psychotechnical data. PMID:23272090

  15. Dynamic crossover in deeply cooled water confined in MCM-41 at 4 kbar and its relation to the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Le, Peisi; Ito, Kanae; Leão, Juscelino B; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-09-21

    With quasi-elastic neutron scattering, we study the single-particle dynamics of the water confined in a hydrophilic silica material, MCM-41, at 4 kbar. A dynamic crossover phenomenon is observed at 219 K. We compare this dynamic crossover with the one observed at ambient pressure and find that (a) above the crossover temperature, the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time at ambient pressure exhibits a more evident super-Arrhenius behavior than that at 4 kbar. Especially, at temperatures below about 230 K, the relaxation time at 4 kbar is even smaller than that at ambient pressure. This feature is different from many other liquids. (b) Below the crossover temperature, the Arrhenius behavior found at ambient pressure has a larger activation energy compared to the one found at 4 kbar. We ascribe the former to the difference between the local structure of the low-density liquid (LDL) phase and that of the high-density liquid (HDL) phase, and the latter to the difference between the strength of the hydrogen bond of the LDL and that of the HDL. Therefore, we conclude that the phenomena observed in this paper are consistent with the LDL-to-HDL liquid-liquid transition hypothesis. PMID:26395720

  16. Dynamic crossover in deeply cooled water confined in MCM-41 at 4 kbar and its relation to the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Le, Peisi; Ito, Kanae; Leão, Juscelino B.; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-09-01

    With quasi-elastic neutron scattering, we study the single-particle dynamics of the water confined in a hydrophilic silica material, MCM-41, at 4 kbar. A dynamic crossover phenomenon is observed at 219 K. We compare this dynamic crossover with the one observed at ambient pressure and find that (a) above the crossover temperature, the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time at ambient pressure exhibits a more evident super-Arrhenius behavior than that at 4 kbar. Especially, at temperatures below about 230 K, the relaxation time at 4 kbar is even smaller than that at ambient pressure. This feature is different from many other liquids. (b) Below the crossover temperature, the Arrhenius behavior found at ambient pressure has a larger activation energy compared to the one found at 4 kbar. We ascribe the former to the difference between the local structure of the low-density liquid (LDL) phase and that of the high-density liquid (HDL) phase, and the latter to the difference between the strength of the hydrogen bond of the LDL and that of the HDL. Therefore, we conclude that the phenomena observed in this paper are consistent with the LDL-to-HDL liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  17. Dynamic crossover in deeply cooled water confined in MCM-41 at 4 kbar and its relation to the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhe; Le, Peisi; Ito, Kanae; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Leão, Juscelino B.; Tyagi, Madhusudan

    2015-09-21

    With quasi-elastic neutron scattering, we study the single-particle dynamics of the water confined in a hydrophilic silica material, MCM-41, at 4 kbar. A dynamic crossover phenomenon is observed at 219 K. We compare this dynamic crossover with the one observed at ambient pressure and find that (a) above the crossover temperature, the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time at ambient pressure exhibits a more evident super-Arrhenius behavior than that at 4 kbar. Especially, at temperatures below about 230 K, the relaxation time at 4 kbar is even smaller than that at ambient pressure. This feature is different from many other liquids. (b) Below the crossover temperature, the Arrhenius behavior found at ambient pressure has a larger activation energy compared to the one found at 4 kbar. We ascribe the former to the difference between the local structure of the low-density liquid (LDL) phase and that of the high-density liquid (HDL) phase, and the latter to the difference between the strength of the hydrogen bond of the LDL and that of the HDL. Therefore, we conclude that the phenomena observed in this paper are consistent with the LDL-to-HDL liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  18. Strategy Uniform Crossover Adaptation Evolution in a Minority Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei-Song; Wang, Bing-Hong; Quan, Hong-Jun; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2003-10-01

    We propose and study a new adaptation minority game for understanding of the complex dynamical behaviour characterized by agent interactions competing limited resource in many natural and social systems. Intelligent agents may modify a part of strategies held by them periodically, depending on the strategy performances. In the new model, the strategies will be updated according to uniform-crossover variation process inspired by genetic evolution algorithm in biology. The performances of the agents in the new model are calculated for different parameter conditions. It has been found that the new system may evolve via the strategy uniform crossover adaptation mechanism into a frozen equilibrium state in which the performance of the system may reach the best limit, implying the strongest cooperation among agents and the most effective utilization of the social resources.

  19. Isospin Dependent Pairing Interactions and BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Sagawa, H.; Margueron, J.; Hagino, K.

    2008-11-11

    We propose new types of density dependent contact pairing interaction which reproduce the pairing gaps in symmetric and neutron matters obtained by a microscopic treatment based on the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. The BCS-BEC crossover of neutrons pairs in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matters is studied by using these contact interactions. It is shown that the bare and screened pairing interactions lead to different features of the BCS-BEC crossover in symmetric nuclear matter. We perform Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations for semi-magic Calcium, Nickel, Tin and Lead isotopes and N = 20, 28, 50 and 82 isotones using these density-dependent pairing interactions. Our calculations well account for the experimental data for the neutron number dependence of binding energy, two neutrons separation energy, and odd-even mass staggering of these isotopes. Especially the interaction IS+IV Bare without the medium polarization effect gives satisfactory results for all the isotopes.

  20. Crossover behavior in hydrogen sensing mechanism for palladium ultrathin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S. B.; Ramanathan, M.; Skudlarek, G.; Wang, H. H.; Illinois Math and Science Academy

    2010-01-01

    Palladium has been extensively studied as a material for hydrogen sensors because of the simplicity of its reversible resistance change when exposed to hydrogen gas. Various palladium films and nanostructures have been used, and different responses have been observed with these diverse morphologies. In some cases, such as with nanowires, the resistance will decrease, whereas in others, such as with thick films, the resistance will increase. Each of these mechanisms has been explored for several palladium structures, but the crossover between them has not been systematically investigated. Here we report on a study aimed at deciphering the nanostructure-property relationships of ultrathin palladium films used as hydrogen gas sensors. The crossover in these films is observed at a thickness of {approx} 5 nm. Ramifications for future sensor developments are discussed.

  1. Meiotic recombination and the crossover assurance checkpoint in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhouliang; Kim, Yumi; Dernburg, Abby F

    2016-06-01

    During meiotic prophase, chromosomes pair and synapse with their homologs and undergo programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation to initiate meiotic recombination. These DSBs are processed to generate a limited number of crossover recombination products on each chromosome, which are essential to ensure faithful segregation of homologous chromosomes. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has served as an excellent model organism to investigate the mechanisms that drive and coordinate these chromosome dynamics during meiosis. Here we focus on our current understanding of the regulation of DSB induction in C. elegans. We also review evidence that feedback regulation of crossover formation prolongs the early stages of meiotic prophase, and discuss evidence that this can alter the recombination pattern, most likely by shifting the genome-wide distribution of DSBs. PMID:27013114

  2. Stress-Based Crossover Operator for Structural Topology Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuimin; Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Miki, Mitsunori

    In this paper, we propose a stress-based crossover (SX) operator to solve the checkerboard-like material distributation and disconnected topology that is common for simple genetic algorithm (SGA) to structural topology optimization problems (STOPs). A penalty function is defined to evaluate the fitness of each individual. A number of constrained problems are adopted to experiment the effectiveness of SX for STOPs. Comparison of 2-point crossover (2X) with SX indicates that SX can markedly suppress the checkerboard-like material distribution phenomena. Comparison of evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) and SX demonstrates the global search ability and flexibility of SX. Experiments of a Michell-type problem verifies the effectiveness of SX for STOPs. For a multi-loaded problem, SX searches out alternate solutions on the same parameters that shows the global search ability of GA.

  3. Particle-hole fluctuations in BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Floerchinger, S.; Scherer, M.; Wetterich, C.; Diehl, S.

    2008-11-01

    The effect of particle-hole fluctuations for the BCS-BEC crossover is investigated by use of functional renormalization. We compute the Gorkov effect and the critical temperature for the whole range in the scattering length a. On the BCS side for small negative a we recover the Gorkov approximation, while on the BEC side of small positive a the particle-hole fluctuations play no important role, and we find a system of interacting bosons. In the unitarity limit of infinite scattering length our quantitative estimate yields T{sub c}/T{sub F}=0.264. We also investigate the crossover from broad to narrow Feshbach resonances - for the latter we obtain T{sub c}/T{sub F}=0.204 for a{sup -1}=0. A key ingredient for our treatment is the computation of the momentum dependent four-fermion vertex and its bosonization in terms of an effective bound-state exchange.

  4. Growth Performance, Carcass Yield, and Quality and Chemical Traits of Meat from Commercial Korean Native Ducks with 2-Way Crossbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Heo, K. N.; Hong, E. C.; Kim, C. D.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, M. J.; Choo, H. J.; Choi, H. C.; Mushtaq, M. M. H.; Parvin, R.; Kim, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the performance and meat characteristics of commercial Korean native duck (KND). A total of 180 1-d-old ducklings of 2-way crossbreds from A and B lines (from National Institute of Animal Science) were used in this work and divided into 4 groups (3 replicates/group, 15 birds/replicate). The four groups were 4 crossbreds as AA (A line [♀]×A line [♂]), AB (A line [♀]×B line [♂]), BB (Pure line B strains) and BA (B strains [♀]×A strain [♂]). Ducks were fed diets based on corn-soybean meal for 0 to 3 wk (22.4% crude protein [CP], 2,945 kcal/kg metabolizable energy [ME]) and 3 to 8 wk (18.4% CP, 3,047 kcal/kg ME). As a result of this study, average body weight of 4 crossbreds were 625, 1,617, 2,466, and 2,836 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, and significantly increased over the period of time (p<0.05). Body weight of BB group was greater than other crossbreds at the age of 6 weeks (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in weekly body weight gains (p<0.05), which were 573, 991, 850, and 371 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks old, respectively. Uniformity of 4 crossbreds was 84.9%, 80.5%, and 72.5% at 6, 7, and 8 weeks, respectively, and there was no difference among crossbreds. Body weight gain of BB crossbred was highest among crossbreds (p<0.05). Weekly feed intake significantly increased with weeks as 669, 1,839, 2,812, and 3,381 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks respectively (p<0.05). Feed intakes of AA and BB crossbreds were higher at 2 to 4 weeks old than others and that of BB crossbred was highest at 4 to 6 weeks old (p<0.05). Weekly feed conversion ratios were 1.17, 1.86, 3.32, and 9.37 at 0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, and 6 to 8 weeks old, respectively, and it increased with age (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in feed conversion ratio among crossbreds. Carcass yields of 4 crossbreds were 73.6%, 71.6%, 73.5%, and 71.7%, respectively, so there was no significant difference among crossbreds. There was no

  5. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multicomponent metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamical aspects of a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulations with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (self diffusion coefficient, self relaxation time, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx˜1300 K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs well above the melting point of the system (Tm˜900 K) in the equilibrium liquid state; and the crossover temperature Tx is roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature of the system (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a nonparametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter α2 and the four-point correlation function χ4.

  6. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multi-component metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamic aspects of such a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulation with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (diffusion coefficient, relaxation times, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx ~1300K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs in the equilibrium liquid state well above the melting temperature of the system (Tm ~ 900K), and the crossover temperature ismore » roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a non-parametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter and the four-point correlation function.« less

  7. Analysis of first order reversal curves in the thermal hysteresis of spin-crossover nanoparticles within the mechanoelastic model

    SciTech Connect

    Stoleriu, Laurentiu E-mail: cristian.enachescu@uaic.ro; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian E-mail: cristian.enachescu@uaic.ro; Chakraborty, Pradip; Hauser, Andreas

    2015-05-07

    The recently obtained spin-crossover nanoparticles are possible candidates for applications in the recording media industry as materials for data storage, or as pressure and temperature sensors. For these applications, the intermolecular interactions and interactions between spin-crossover nanoparticles are extremely important, as they may be essential factors in triggering the transition between the two stable phases: the high-spin and low-spin ones. In order to find correlations between the distributions in size and interactions and the transition temperatures distribution, we apply the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method, using simulations based on a mechanoelastic model applied to 2D triangular lattices composed of molecules linked by springs and embedded in a surfactant. We consider two Gaussian distributions: one is the size of the nanoparticles and another is the elastic interactions between edge spin-crossover molecules and the surfactant molecules. In order to disentangle the kinetic and non-kinetic parts of the FORC distributions, we compare the results obtained for different temperature sweeping rates. We also show that the presence of few larger particles in a distribution centered around much smaller particles dramatically increases the hysteresis width.

  8. Nanoparticles of iron(II) spin-crossover.

    PubMed

    Forestier, Thibaut; Mornet, Stéphane; Daro, Nathalie; Nishihara, Taishi; Mouri, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Koichiro; Fouché, Olivier; Freysz, Eric; Létard, Jean-François

    2008-09-28

    We report the synthesis of spin crossover 69 nm spherical nanoparticles of [Fe(NH2-trz)3](Br)2.3H2O.0.03(surfactant) (NH2trz = 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole, surfactant = Lauropal), prepared by the reverse micelle technique, which exhibit at room temperature a thermal hysteresis characterized by magnetic, diffuse reflectivity and Raman studies. PMID:18802559

  9. Crossover from percolation to self-organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drossel, Barbara; Clar, Siegfried; Schwabl, Franz

    1994-10-01

    We include immunity against fire into the self-organized critical forest-fire model. When the immunity assumes a critical value, clusters of burnt trees are identical to percolation clusters of random bond percolation. As long as the immunity is below its critical value, the asymptotic critical exponents are those of the original self-organized critical model, i.e., the system performs a crossover from percolation to self-organized criticality. We present a scaling theory and computer simulation results.

  10. Automatic identification of vessel crossovers in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, L.; Barreira, N.; Penedo, M. G.; Cancela, B.

    2015-02-01

    Crossovers and bifurcations are interest points of the retinal vascular tree useful to diagnose diseases. Specifically, detecting these interest points and identifying which of them are crossings will give us the opportunity to search for arteriovenous nicking, this is, an alteration of the vessel tree where an artery is crossed by a vein and the former compresses the later. These formations are a clear indicative of hypertension, among other medical problems. There are several studies that have attempted to define an accurate and reliable method to detect and classify these relevant points. In this article, we propose a new method to identify crossovers. Our approach is based on segmenting the vascular tree and analyzing the surrounding area of each interest point. The minimal path between vessel points in this area is computed in order to identify the connected vessel segments and, as a result, to distinguish between bifurcations and crossovers. Our method was tested using retinographies from public databases DRIVE and VICAVR, obtaining an accuracy of 90%.

  11. Pressure and Temperature Spin Crossover Sensors with Optical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Jorge; Codjovi, Epiphane; Garcia, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Iron(II) spin crossover molecular materials are made of coordination centres switchable between two states by temperature, pressure or a visible light irradiation. The relevant macroscopic parameter which monitors the magnetic state of a given solid is the high-spin (HS) fraction denoted nHS, i.e., the relative population of HS molecules. Each spin crossover material is distinguished by a transition temperature T1/2 where 50% of active molecules have switched to the low-spin (LS) state. In strongly interacting systems, the thermal spin switching occurs abruptly at T1/2. Applying pressure induces a shift from HS to LS states, which is the direct consequence of the lower volume for the LS molecule. Each material has thus a well defined pressure value P1/2. In both cases the spin state change is easily detectable by optical means thanks to a thermo/piezochromic effect that is often encountered in these materials. In this contribution, we discuss potential use of spin crossover molecular materials as temperature and pressure sensors with optical detection. The ones presenting smooth transitions behaviour, which have not been seriously considered for any application, are spotlighted as potential sensors which should stimulate a large interest on this well investigated class of materials. PMID:22666041

  12. Role of surface vibrational properties on cooperative phenomena in spin-crossover nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolasek, Mirko; Félix, Gautier; Molnár, Gábor; Terki, Férial; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2014-08-01

    The influence of surface/interface on the lattice dynamics of spin crossover nanoparticles has been investigated by a spring-ball model solved by Monte Carlo methods. The bond cohesion energy of the model has been extracted from Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements performed on the model compound Ni3[Fe(CN)6]. We show that the coupling between bulk and surface vibrational properties, which drastically affects the mechanical properties of the whole particle below a characteristic size, has a major impact on the phase stability of the particles. In the case of free surfaces, the Debye temperature decreases with the size and the first-order nature of the spin transition disappears. On the other hand, a hardening of the surface bonds leads to increasing particle stiffness with the size reduction. In this case, a persistence of the hysteretic behavior in the spin transition curve is also predicted in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results.

  13. Nanoporosity, Inclusion Chemistry, and Spin Crossover in Orthogonally Interlocked Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Romero-Morcillo, Tania; De la Pinta, Noelia; Callejo, Lorena M; Piñeiro-López, Lucía; Muñoz, M Carmen; Madariaga, Gotzon; Ferrer, Sacramento; Breczewski, Tomasz; Cortés, Roberto; Real, José A

    2015-08-17

    [Fe(tvp)2 (NCS)2 ] (1) (tvp=trans-(4,4'-vinylenedipyridine)) consists of two independent perpendicular stacks of mutually interpenetrated two-dimensional grids. This uncommon supramolecular conformation defines square-sectional nanochannels (diagonal≈2.2 nm) in which inclusion molecules are located. The guest-loaded framework 1@guest displays complete thermal spin-crossover (SCO) behavior with the characteristic temperature T1/2 dependent on the guest molecule, whereas the guest-free species 1 is paramagnetic whatever the temperature. For the benzene-guest derivatives, the characteristic SCO temperature T1/2 decreases as the Hammet σp parameter increases. In general, the 1@guest series shows large entropy variations associated with the SCO and conformational changes of the interpenetrated grids that leads to a crystallographic-phase transition when the guest is benzonitrile or acetonitrile/H2 O. PMID:26178258

  14. Nematic Crossover in BaFe(2)As(2) under Uniaxial Stress.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao; Duan, Lian; Hu, Yuwen; Li, Jiarui; Zhang, Rui; Luo, Huiqian; Dai, Pengcheng; Li, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Raman scattering can detect spontaneous point-group symmetry breaking without resorting to single-domain samples. Here, we use this technique to study BaFe(2)As(2), the parent compound of the "122" Fe-based superconductors. We show that an applied compression along the Fe-Fe direction, which is commonly used to produce untwinned orthorhombic samples, changes the structural phase transition at temperature T(s) into a crossover that spans a considerable temperature range above T(s). Even in crystals that are not subject to any applied force, a distribution of substantial residual stress remains, which may explain phenomena that are seemingly indicative of symmetry breaking above T(s). Our results are consistent with an onset of spontaneous nematicity only below T(s). PMID:26588407

  15. Nematic Crossover in BaFe2As2 under Uniaxial Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiao; Duan, Lian; Hu, Yuwen; Li, Jiarui; Zhang, Rui; Luo, Huiqian; Dai, Pengcheng; Li, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Raman scattering can detect spontaneous point-group symmetry breaking without resorting to single-domain samples. Here, we use this technique to study BaFe2As2 , the parent compound of the "122" Fe-based superconductors. We show that an applied compression along the Fe-Fe direction, which is commonly used to produce untwinned orthorhombic samples, changes the structural phase transition at temperature Ts into a crossover that spans a considerable temperature range above Ts. Even in crystals that are not subject to any applied force, a distribution of substantial residual stress remains, which may explain phenomena that are seemingly indicative of symmetry breaking above Ts. Our results are consistent with an onset of spontaneous nematicity only below Ts.

  16. Study of the fast photoswitching of spin crossover nanoparticles outside and inside their thermal hysteresis loop

    SciTech Connect

    Galle, G.; Degert, J.; Freysz, E.; Etrillard, C.; Letard, J.-F.; Guillaume, F.

    2013-02-11

    We have studied the low spin to high spin phase transition induced by nanosecond laser pulses outside and within the thermal hysteresis loop of the [Fe(Htrz){sub 2} trz](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}-H{sub 2}O spin crossover nanoparticles. We demonstrate that, whatever the temperature of the compound, the photo-switching is achieved in less than 12.5 ns. Outside the hysteresis loop, the photo-induced high spin state remains up to 100 {mu}s and then relaxes. Within the thermal hysteresis loop, the photo-induced high spin state remains as long as the temperature of the sample is kept within the thermal loop. A Raman study indicates that the photo-switching can be completed using single laser pulse excitation.

  17. Fine Scale Analysis of Crossover and Non-Crossover and Detection of Recombination Sequence Motifs in the Honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Bessoltane, Nadia; Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Solignac, Michel; Mougel, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Background Meiotic exchanges are non-uniformly distributed across the genome of most studied organisms. This uneven distribution suggests that recombination is initiated by specific signals and/or regulations. Some of these signals were recently identified in humans and mice. However, it is unclear whether or not sequence signals are also involved in chromosomal recombination of insects. Methodology We analyzed recombination frequencies in the honeybee, in which genome sequencing provided a large amount of SNPs spread over the entire set of chromosomes. As the genome sequences were obtained from a pool of haploid males, which were the progeny of a single queen, an oocyte method (study of recombination on haploid males that develop from unfertilized eggs and hence are the direct reflect of female gametes haplotypes) was developed to detect recombined pairs of SNP sites. Sequences were further compared between recombinant and non-recombinant fragments to detect recombination-specific motifs. Conclusions Recombination events between adjacent SNP sites were detected at an average distance of 92 bp and revealed the existence of high rates of recombination events. This study also shows the presence of conversion without crossover (i. e. non-crossover) events, the number of which largely outnumbers that of crossover events. Furthermore the comparison of sequences that have undergone recombination with sequences that have not, led to the discovery of sequence motifs (CGCA, GCCGC, CCGCA), which may correspond to recombination signals. PMID:22567142

  18. Fine-Scale Crossover Rate Variation on the Caenorhabditis elegans X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Max R.; Rockman, Matthew V.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination creates genotypic diversity within species. Recombination rates vary substantially across taxa, and the distribution of crossovers can differ significantly among populations and between sexes. Crossover locations within species have been found to vary by chromosome and by position within chromosomes, where most crossover events occur in small regions known as recombination hotspots. However, several species appear to lack hotspots despite significant crossover heterogeneity. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was previously found to have the least fine-scale variation in crossover distribution among organisms studied to date. It is unclear whether this pattern extends to the X chromosome given its unique compaction through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase in hermaphrodites. We generated 798 recombinant nested near-isogenic lines (NILs) with crossovers in a 1.41 Mb region on the left arm of the X chromosome to determine if its recombination landscape is similar to that of the autosomes. We find that the fine-scale variation in crossover rate is lower than that of other model species, and is inconsistent with hotspots. The relationship of genomic features to crossover rate is dependent on scale, with GC content, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy being negatively associated with crossovers. We also find that the abundances of 4- to 6-bp DNA motifs significantly explain crossover density. These results are consistent with recombination occurring at unevenly distributed sites of open chromatin. PMID:27172189

  19. Fine-Scale Crossover Rate Variation on the Caenorhabditis elegans X Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Max R; Rockman, Matthew V

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination creates genotypic diversity within species. Recombination rates vary substantially across taxa, and the distribution of crossovers can differ significantly among populations and between sexes. Crossover locations within species have been found to vary by chromosome and by position within chromosomes, where most crossover events occur in small regions known as recombination hotspots. However, several species appear to lack hotspots despite significant crossover heterogeneity. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was previously found to have the least fine-scale variation in crossover distribution among organisms studied to date. It is unclear whether this pattern extends to the X chromosome given its unique compaction through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase in hermaphrodites. We generated 798 recombinant nested near-isogenic lines (NILs) with crossovers in a 1.41 Mb region on the left arm of the X chromosome to determine if its recombination landscape is similar to that of the autosomes. We find that the fine-scale variation in crossover rate is lower than that of other model species, and is inconsistent with hotspots. The relationship of genomic features to crossover rate is dependent on scale, with GC content, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy being negatively associated with crossovers. We also find that the abundances of 4- to 6-bp DNA motifs significantly explain crossover density. These results are consistent with recombination occurring at unevenly distributed sites of open chromatin. PMID:27172189

  20. Dimer Involvement and Origin of Crossover in Nickel-Catalyzed Aldehyde–Alkyne Reductive Couplings

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of nickel(0)-catalyzed reductive coupling of aldehydes and alkynes has been studied. Extensive double-labeling crossover studies have been conducted. While previous studies illustrated that phosphine- and N-heterocyclic carbene-derived catalysts exhibited differing behavior, the origin of these effects has now been evaluated in detail. Many variables, including ligand class, sterics of the ligand and alkyne, temperature, and ring size being formed in intramolecular versions, all influence the extent of crossover observed. A computational evaluation of these effects suggests that dimerization of a key metallacyclic intermediate provides the origin of crossover. Protocols that proceed with crossover are typically less efficient than those without crossover given the thermodynamic stability and low reactivity of the dimeric metallacycles involved in crossover pathways. PMID:25401337

  1. Crossover of marital dissatisfaction during military downsizing among Russian army officers and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mina; Vinokur, Amiram D; Hamilton, V Lee; Roziner, Ilan

    2004-10-01

    This study examined mechanisms of strain crossover within couples and the moderating role of gender. Data were collected at a time of military downsizing from a sample of 1,250 Russian army officers and their spouses. The authors tested a model that incorporated 3 mechanisms for the crossover of marital dissatisfaction among dual-earner couples. The model provided support for 2 suggested crossover mechanisms: direct reactions of crossover and indirect mediated effects through social undermining. Strong evidence was also provided for gender asymmetry in the crossover process. Marital dissatisfaction crossed over from husbands to wives but not vice versa, and social undermining behavior played a role in the process of crossover of marital dissatisfaction for husbands but not for wives. PMID:15506859

  2. Crossover from anomalous to normal diffusion in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.; di Caprio, Dung

    2014-06-01

    Random walks (RW) of particles adsorbed in the internal walls of porous deposits produced by ballistic-type growth models are studied. The particles start at the external surface of the deposits and enter their pores in order to simulate an external flux of a species towards a porous solid. For short times, the walker concentration decays as a stretched exponential of the depth z, but a crossover to long-time normal diffusion is observed in most samples. The anomalous concentration profile remains at long times in very porous solids if the walker steps are restricted to nearest neighbors and is accompanied with subdiffusion features. These findings are correlated with a decay of the explored area with z. The study of RW of tracer particles left at the internal part of the solid rules out an interpretation by diffusion equations with position-dependent coefficients. A model of RW in a tube of decreasing cross section explains those results by showing long crossovers from an effective subdiffusion regime to an asymptotic normal diffusion. The crossover position and density are analytically calculated for a tube with area decreasing exponentially with z and show good agreement with numerical data. The anomalous decay of the concentration profile is interpreted as a templating effect of the tube shape on the total number of diffusing particles at each depth, while the volumetric concentration in the actually explored porous region may not have significant decay. These results may explain the anomalous diffusion of metal atoms in porous deposits observed in recent works. They also confirm the difficulty in interpreting experimental or computational data on anomalous transport reported in recent works, particularly if only the concentration profiles are measured.

  3. Computational approach to the study of thermal spin crossover phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Rudavskyi, Andrii; Broer, Ria; Sousa, Carmen

    2014-05-14

    The key parameters associated to the thermally induced spin crossover process have been calculated for a series of Fe(II) complexes with mono-, bi-, and tridentate ligands. Combination of density functional theory calculations for the geometries and for normal vibrational modes, and highly correlated wave function methods for the energies, allows us to accurately compute the entropy variation associated to the spin transition and the zero-point corrected energy difference between the low- and high-spin states. From these values, the transition temperature, T{sub 1/2}, is estimated for different compounds.

  4. Meige syndrome: double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate.

    PubMed Central

    Snoek, J W; van Weerden, T W; Teelken, A W; van den Burg, W; Lakke, J P

    1987-01-01

    A double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate and placebo was conducted in five patients with Meige syndrome. CSF neurotransmitter studies were performed at the end of each treatment period. GABA levels were not influenced by the administration of sodium valproate. An increase in HVA levels was observed in every patient, which may reflect an increase in central dopaminergic activity. This finding may explain the trend towards clinical deterioration which was observed during treatment with sodium valproate. Sodium valproate appears to be ineffective in Meige syndrome. PMID:3121795

  5. DNA methylation epigenetically silences crossover hot spots and controls chromosomal domains of meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yelina, Nataliya E.; Lambing, Christophe; Hardcastle, Thomas J.; Zhao, Xiaohui; Santos, Bruno; Henderson, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which is typically concentrated in narrow hot spots that are controlled by genetic and epigenetic information. Arabidopsis chromosomes are highly DNA methylated in the repetitive centromeres, which are also crossover-suppressed. Here we demonstrate that RNA-directed DNA methylation is sufficient to locally silence Arabidopsis euchromatic crossover hot spots and is associated with increased nucleosome density and H3K9me2. However, loss of CG DNA methylation maintenance in met1 triggers epigenetic crossover remodeling at the chromosome scale, with pericentromeric decreases and euchromatic increases in recombination. We used recombination mutants that alter interfering and noninterfering crossover repair pathways (fancm and zip4) to demonstrate that remodeling primarily involves redistribution of interfering crossovers. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we show that crossover remodeling is driven by loss of CG methylation within the centromeric regions. Using cytogenetics, we profiled meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci in met1 and found them unchanged relative to wild type. We propose that met1 chromosome structure is altered, causing centromere-proximal DSBs to be inhibited from maturation into interfering crossovers. These data demonstrate that DNA methylation is sufficient to silence crossover hot spots and plays a key role in establishing domains of meiotic recombination along chromosomes. PMID:26494791

  6. Hot Regions of Noninterfering Crossovers Coexist with a Nonuniformly Interfering Pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Basu-Roy, Sayantani; Gauthier, Franck; Giraut, Laurène; Mézard, Christine; Falque, Matthieu; Martin, Olivier C.

    2013-01-01

    In most organisms that have been studied, crossovers formed during meiosis exhibit interference: nearby crossovers are rare. Here we provide an in-depth study of crossover interference in Arabidopsis thaliana, examining crossovers genome-wide in >1500 backcrosses for both male and female meiosis. This unique data set allows us to take a two-pathway modeling approach based on superposing a fraction p of noninterfering crossovers and a fraction (1 − p) of interfering crossovers generated using the gamma model characterized by its interference strength nu. Within this framework, we fit the two-pathway model to the data and compare crossover interference strength between chromosomes and then along chromosomes. We find that the interfering pathway has markedly higher interference strength nu in female than in male meiosis and also that male meiosis has a higher proportion p of noninterfering crossovers. Furthermore, we test for possible intrachromosomal variations of nu and p. Our conclusion is that there are clear differences between left and right arms as well as between central and peripheral regions. Finally, statistical tests unveil a genome-wide picture of small-scale heterogeneities, pointing to the existence of hot regions in the genome where crossovers form preferentially without interference. PMID:24026099

  7. Juxtaposition of heterozygous and homozygous regions causes reciprocal crossover remodelling via interference during Arabidopsis meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Ziolkowski, Piotr A; Berchowitz, Luke E; Lambing, Christophe; Yelina, Nataliya E; Zhao, Xiaohui; Kelly, Krystyna A; Choi, Kyuha; Ziolkowska, Liliana; June, Viviana; Sanchez-Moran, Eugenio; Franklin, Chris; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    During meiosis homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination. Sequence differences between homologs can locally inhibit crossovers. Despite this, nucleotide diversity and population-scaled recombination are positively correlated in eukaryote genomes. To investigate interactions between heterozygosity and recombination we crossed Arabidopsis lines carrying fluorescent crossover reporters to 32 diverse accessions and observed hybrids with significantly higher and lower crossovers than homozygotes. Using recombinant populations derived from these crosses we observed that heterozygous regions increase crossovers when juxtaposed with homozygous regions, which reciprocally decrease. Total crossovers measured by chiasmata were unchanged when heterozygosity was varied, consistent with homeostatic control. We tested the effects of heterozygosity in mutants where the balance of interfering and non-interfering crossover repair is altered. Crossover remodeling at homozygosity-heterozygosity junctions requires interference, and non-interfering repair is inefficient in heterozygous regions. As a consequence, heterozygous regions show stronger crossover interference. Our findings reveal how varying homolog polymorphism patterns can shape meiotic recombination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03708.001 PMID:25815584

  8. An alternative approach for neural network evolution with a genetic algorithm: crossover by combinatorial optimization.

    PubMed

    García-Pedrajas, Nicolás; Ortiz-Boyer, Domingo; Hervás-Martínez, César

    2006-05-01

    In this work we present a new approach to crossover operator in the genetic evolution of neural networks. The most widely used evolutionary computation paradigm for neural network evolution is evolutionary programming. This paradigm is usually preferred due to the problems caused by the application of crossover to neural network evolution. However, crossover is the most innovative operator within the field of evolutionary computation. One of the most notorious problems with the application of crossover to neural networks is known as the permutation problem. This problem occurs due to the fact that the same network can be represented in a genetic coding by many different codifications. Our approach modifies the standard crossover operator taking into account the special features of the individuals to be mated. We present a new model for mating individuals that considers the structure of the hidden layer and redefines the crossover operator. As each hidden node represents a non-linear projection of the input variables, we approach the crossover as a problem on combinatorial optimization. We can formulate the problem as the extraction of a subset of near-optimal projections to create the hidden layer of the new network. This new approach is compared to a classical crossover in 25 real-world problems with an excellent performance. Moreover, the networks obtained are much smaller than those obtained with classical crossover operator. PMID:16343847

  9. High-Resolution Mapping of Crossover and Non-crossover Recombination Events by Whole-Genome Re-sequencing of an Avian Pedigree.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Linnéa; Mugal, Carina F; Qvarnström, Anna; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Recombination is an engine of genetic diversity and therefore constitutes a key process in evolutionary biology and genetics. While the outcome of crossover recombination can readily be detected as shuffled alleles by following the inheritance of markers in pedigreed families, the more precise location of both crossover and non-crossover recombination events has been difficult to pinpoint. As a consequence, we lack a detailed portrait of the recombination landscape for most organisms and knowledge on how this landscape impacts on sequence evolution at a local scale. To localize recombination events with high resolution in an avian system, we performed whole-genome re-sequencing at high coverage of a complete three-generation collared flycatcher pedigree. We identified 325 crossovers at a median resolution of 1.4 kb, with 86% of the events localized to <10 kb intervals. Observed crossover rates were in excellent agreement with data from linkage mapping, were 52% higher in male (3.56 cM/Mb) than in female meiosis (2.28 cM/Mb), and increased towards chromosome ends in male but not female meiosis. Crossover events were non-randomly distributed in the genome with several distinct hot-spots and a concentration to genic regions, with the highest density in promoters and CpG islands. We further identified 267 non-crossovers, whose location was significantly associated with crossover locations. We detected a significant transmission bias (0.18) in favour of 'strong' (G, C) over 'weak' (A, T) alleles at non-crossover events, providing direct evidence for the process of GC-biased gene conversion in an avian system. The approach taken in this study should be applicable to any species and would thereby help to provide a more comprehensive portray of the recombination landscape across organism groups. PMID:27219623

  10. High-Resolution Mapping of Crossover and Non-crossover Recombination Events by Whole-Genome Re-sequencing of an Avian Pedigree

    PubMed Central

    Qvarnström, Anna; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Recombination is an engine of genetic diversity and therefore constitutes a key process in evolutionary biology and genetics. While the outcome of crossover recombination can readily be detected as shuffled alleles by following the inheritance of markers in pedigreed families, the more precise location of both crossover and non-crossover recombination events has been difficult to pinpoint. As a consequence, we lack a detailed portrait of the recombination landscape for most organisms and knowledge on how this landscape impacts on sequence evolution at a local scale. To localize recombination events with high resolution in an avian system, we performed whole-genome re-sequencing at high coverage of a complete three-generation collared flycatcher pedigree. We identified 325 crossovers at a median resolution of 1.4 kb, with 86% of the events localized to <10 kb intervals. Observed crossover rates were in excellent agreement with data from linkage mapping, were 52% higher in male (3.56 cM/Mb) than in female meiosis (2.28 cM/Mb), and increased towards chromosome ends in male but not female meiosis. Crossover events were non-randomly distributed in the genome with several distinct hot-spots and a concentration to genic regions, with the highest density in promoters and CpG islands. We further identified 267 non-crossovers, whose location was significantly associated with crossover locations. We detected a significant transmission bias (0.18) in favour of ‘strong’ (G, C) over ‘weak’ (A, T) alleles at non-crossover events, providing direct evidence for the process of GC-biased gene conversion in an avian system. The approach taken in this study should be applicable to any species and would thereby help to provide a more comprehensive portray of the recombination landscape across organism groups. PMID:27219623