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Sample records for 20-core prostate biopsy

  1. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate gland biopsy; Transrectal prostate biopsy; Fine needle biopsy of the prostate; Core biopsy of the prostate; Targeted prostate biopsy; Prostate biopsy - transrectal ultrasound (TRUS); Stereotactic ...

  2. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Aliotta PJ, Fowler GC. Prostate and seminal vesicle ultrasonography and biopsy. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... 1/2015. Trabulsi EJ, Halpern EJ, Gomella LG. Ultrasonography and biopsy of the prostate. In: Wein AJ, ...

  3. Optimization of prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Weir, James; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Connelly, Roger R.; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    1999-05-01

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We have developed a novel 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator based upon 201 whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. Computerized prostate models have been developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. We obtained 18-biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. As a result, the 10- and 12- pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0 percent detection rate, while the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6 percent. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5 percent detection rate. the lateral sextant pattern revealed a detection rate of 95.5 percent, whereas the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5 percent detection rate. Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon the five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

  4. [Blindness after prostate biopsy].

    PubMed

    Heinzelbecker, J; von Zastrow, C; Alken, P

    2009-02-01

    We report on a case of sepsis-associated irreversible blindness in a patient after transrectal rebiopsy of the prostate. The patient was on immunosuppressive and long-term antibiotic treatment. Such a severe complication after transrectal biopsy of the prostate is unusual. Peri-interventional antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the general risk for infections after needle biopsy of the prostate. To avoid severe complications, suitable antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients is recommended. PMID:19037622

  5. Simulated prostate biopsy: prostate cancer distribution and clinical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Dean, Robert; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-04-01

    Our group has recently obtained data based upon whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator that suggests an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. A new 10-core biopsy pattern was demonstrated to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. This patter includes the traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland. The objective of this study is to confirm the higher prostate cancer defection rate obtained using our simulated 10-core biopsy pattern in a small clinical trial. We retrospectively reviewed 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent of patients were diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. Our results suggest that biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern.

  6. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Two Different Prostate Biopsy Schemes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-03

    Prostate Cancer; Local Anesthesia; Prostate-Specific Antigen/Blood; Biopsy/Methods; Image-guided Biopsy/Methods; Prostatic Neoplasms/Diagnosis; Prostate/Pathology; Prospective Studies; Humans; Male; Ultrasonography, Interventional/Methods

  7. Hepatitis C Transmission after Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ferhi, Karim; Rouprêt, Morgan; Mozer, Pierre; Ploussard, Guillaume; Haertig, Alain; de La Taille, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Prostate biopsy is a current and well-codified procedure; antibiotic prophylaxis and rectal enema limit the risk of infection. To date, there has been no reported viral transmission between patients due to a contaminated ultrasound probe. In this study, we report the case of a patient who contracted the hepatitis C virus after transrectal prostate biopsy as part of an individual screening for prostate cancer. PMID:23533934

  8. Prostate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael; Mozer, Pierre; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2012-04-01

    Transrectal biopsies under 2D ultrasound (US) control are the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. The isoechogenic nature of prostate carcinoma makes it necessary to sample the gland systematically, resulting in a low sensitivity. Also, it is difficult for the clinician to follow the sampling protocol accurately under 2D US control and the exact anatomical location of the biopsy cores is unknown after the intervention. Tracking systems for prostate biopsies make it possible to generate biopsy distribution maps for intra- and post-interventional quality control and 3D visualisation of histological results for diagnosis and treatment planning. They can also guide the clinician toward non-ultrasound targets. In this paper, a volume-swept 3D US based tracking system for fast and accurate estimation of prostate tissue motion is proposed. The entirely image-based system solves the patient motion problem with an a priori model of rectal probe kinematics. Prostate deformations are estimated with elastic registration to maximize accuracy. The system is robust with only 17 registration failures out of 786 (2%) biopsy volumes acquired from 47 patients during biopsy sessions. Accuracy was evaluated to 0.76±0.52 mm using manually segmented fiducials on 687 registered volumes stemming from 40 patients. A clinical protocol for assisted biopsy acquisition was designed and implemented as a biopsy assistance system, which allows to overcome the draw-backs of the standard biopsy procedure. PMID:21705263

  9. Adequate histologic sectioning of prostate needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Kahane, Hillel

    2013-08-01

    No standard method exists for sampling prostate needle biopsies, although most reports claim to embed 3 cores per block and obtain 3 slices from each block. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of histologic sectioning necessary for optimal examination of prostate biopsies. We prospectively compared the impact on cancer yield of submitting 1 biopsy core per cassette (biopsies from January 2010) with 3 cores per cassette (biopsies from August 2010) from a large national reference laboratory. Between 6 and 12 slices were obtained with the former 1-core method, resulting in 3 to 6 slices being placed on each of 2 slides; for the latter 3-core method, a limit of 6 slices was obtained, resulting in 3 slices being place on each of 2 slides. A total of 6708 sets of 12 to 18 core biopsies were studied, including 3509 biopsy sets from the 1-biopsy-core-per-cassette group (January 2010) and 3199 biopsy sets from the 3-biopsy-cores-percassette group (August 2010). The yield of diagnoses was classified as benign, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer and was similar with the 2 methods: 46.2%, 8.2%, 4.5%, and 41.1% and 46.7%, 6.3%, 4.4%, and 42.6%, respectively (P = .02). Submission of 1 core or 3 cores per cassette had no effect on the yield of atypical small acinar proliferation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, or cancer in prostate needle biopsies. Consequently, we recommend submission of 3 cores per cassette to minimize labor and cost of processing. PMID:23764163

  10. Prevention of sepsis prior to prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Liam; Bolton, Damien M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Urosepsis is the most feared complication of transrectal prostate biopsy. The incidence may be increasing from <1% to 2%–3% in contemporary series. Historically, fluoroquinolones have been effective antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective complications but antibiotic resistance is increasing. The increase in antibiotic resistance may contribute to reported increases in urosepsis and hospitalization after transrectal biopsy. This article will review other methods clinicians may employ to reduce the incidence of infective complications after prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using literature databases PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE in August 2015 in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) criteria. Results Effective strategies to reduce infective complications after transrectal prostate biopsy include augmented prophylaxis with other antibiotics, rectal swab culture directed antibiotic prophylaxis or a transperineal biopsy approach. Needle disinfection, minimizing the number of biopsy needles and rectal disinfectants may also be of use. These methods may be of particular utility in patients with risk factors for developing urosepsis such as recent antibiotic use and overseas travel. Conclusions The scientific literature describes various techniques designed to reduce infective complications caused by prostate biopsy. Clinicians should consider incorporating these novel techniques into their contemporary practice. PMID:26981590

  11. [Prostate biopsy under magnetic resonance imaging guidance].

    PubMed

    Kuplevatskiy, V I; CherkashiN, M A; Roshchin, D A; Berezina, N A; Vorob'ev, N A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most important problems in modern oncology. According to statistical data, PC ranks second in the cancer morbidity structure in the Russian Federation and developed countries and its prevalence has been progressively increasing over the past decade. A need for early diagnosis and maximally accurate morphological verification of the diagnosis in difficult clinical cases (inconvenient tumor location for standard transrectal biopsy; gland scarring changes concurrent with prostatitis and hemorrhage; threshold values of prostate-specific antigen with unclear changes in its doubling per unit time; suspicion of biochemical recurrence or clinical tumor progression after special treatment) leads to revised diagnostic algorithms and clinically introduced new high-tech invasive diagnostic methods. This paper gives the first analysis of literature data on Russian practice using one of the new methods to verify prostate cancer (transrectal prostate cancer under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance). The have sought the 1995-2015 data in the MEDLINE and Pubmed. PMID:27192773

  12. [Optimization of prostate biopsy strategy in diagnosis of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Go

    2016-01-01

    The prostate gland is the sole organ that uses not targeted but systematic biopsy in the pathological diagnosis of prostate cancer due to its anatomical location and lack of adequate imaging modality to depict cancer nodules clearly. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published that the harms of PSA based screening outweigh the benefits, yielding a grade D recommendation against screening. In this current situation, what we need is to optimize a biopsy template that maximizes the detection rate of clinically significant cancer and provides adequate pathological information for a treatment plan while minimizing the detection of indolent cancers and has good cost-effectiveness and safety. In this manuscript, optimal systematic biopsy templates and possible role of MRI-guided biopsy are reviewed. PMID:26793884

  13. Prostatic biopsy after irradiation therapy for prostatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Scardino, P.T.; Wheeler, T.M.

    1985-02-01

    To determine the prognostic significance of a routine needle biopsy of the prostate performed six to thirty-six months after the completion of definitive radiotherapy, biopsy results were analyzed in 146 patients who had no evidence of disease at the time of biopsy and who received no other therapy before proved recurrence of the tumor. Patients were followed up a mean of 3.9 years after radioactive gold seed implantation and external beam irradiation. The total dose was 8,000 rad. Among 146 patients, 56 (38%) had one or more positive biopsy results within this time interval. The positive biopsy rate correlated with the clinical stage ranging from 17 per cent in Stage B1N to 59 per cent in Stage C1. The risk of developing local recurrence or distant metastases at any given time after irradiation therapy was markedly greater in those patients with a positive biopsy result (p less than 0.0005). Prostatic biopsy is an accurate means of measuring the success of radiotherapy. A positive postirradiation biopsy result carries grave prognostic implications for the patient and indicates that the treatment has failed.

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency Predicts Prostate Biopsy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Adam B.; Nyame, Yaw; Martin, Iman K.; Catalona, William J.; Hollowell, Courtney M.P.; Nadler, Robert B.; Kozlowski, James M.; Perry, Kent T.; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Kittles, Rick A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The association between vitamin D and prostate biopsy outcomes has not been evaluated. We examine serum vitamin D levels with prostate biopsy results in men with abnormal PSA and/or digital rectal examination. Experimental Design Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) was obtained from 667 men, age 40-79, prospectively enrolled from Chicago urology clinics undergoing first prostate biopsy. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between 25-OH D status and incident prostate cancer (PCa), Gleason score, and tumor stage. Results Among European American (EA) men, there was an association of 25-OH D < 12 ng/ml with higher Gleason score ≥ 4+4 (OR = 3.66 [1.41, 9.50], p = 0.008) and tumor stage (stage ≥ cT2b vs. ≤ cT2a, OR = 2.42 [1.14, 5.10], p = 0.008). In African American (AA) men, we find increased odds of PCa diagnosis on biopsy with 25-OH D < 20 ng/ml (OR = 2.43 [1.20, 4.94], p = 0.01). AA men demonstrated an association between 25-OH D < 12ng/ml and Gleason ≥ 4+4 (OR = 4.89 [1.59, 15.07]; p = 0.006). There was an association with tumor stage ≥ cT2b vs. ≤ cT2a (OR: 4.22, [1.52 – 11.74], p = 0.003). Conclusions In AA men, vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased odds of PCa diagnosis on biopsy. In both EA and AA men, severe deficiency was positively associated with higher Gleason grade and tumor stage. PMID:24789033

  15. The technique of ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Romics, Imre

    2004-11-01

    This article discusses the preparations for ultrasound guided prostate biopsy, the conditions used and the process of performing a biopsy. The first step in preparing the patient is a cleansing enema before biopsy. Every author proposes the use of a preoperative antibiotic based prophylaxis. Differences may be found in the type, dosage and the duration of this preoperative application, which can last from 2 h to 2 days. For anaesthesia, lidocaine has been proposed, which may be used as a gel applied in the rectum or in the form of a prostate infiltrate. Quite a few colleagues administer a brief intravenous narcosis. A major debate goes on in respect of defining the number of biopsy samples needed. Hodge proposed sextant biopsy in 1989, for which we had false negative findings in 20% of all cases. Because of this, it has recently been suggested that eight or rather ten samples be taken. There are some who question even this. Twelve biopsy samples do offer an advantage compared to six, although in the case of eight this is not the case. We shall present an in depth discussion of the various opinions on the different numbers of biopsies samples required. For the sample site, the apex, the base and the middle part are proposed, and (completing the process) two additional samples can also be taken from the transition zone (TZ), since 20% of all prostate cancers originate from TZ. In case of a palpable nodule or any lesion made visible by TRUS, an additional, targeted, biopsy has to be performed. Certain new techniques like the 3-D Doppler, contrast, intermittent and others shall also be presented. The control of the full length of samples taken by a gun, as well as the proper conservation of the samples, are parts of pathological processing and of the technical tasks. A repeated biopsy is necessary in the case of PIN atypia, beyond which the author also discusses other indications for a repeated biopsy. We may expect the occurrence of direct postoperative complications

  16. Recent advances in image-guided targeted prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna M; Elbuluk, Osama; Mertan, Francesca; Sankineni, Sandeep; Margolis, Daniel J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in the United States that results in over 30,000 deaths per year. The current state of prostate cancer diagnosis, based on PSA screening and sextant biopsy, has been criticized for both overdiagnosis of low-grade tumors and underdiagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (Gleason score ≥7). Recently, image guidance has been added to perform targeted biopsies of lesions detected on multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans. These methods have improved the ability to detect clinically significant cancer, while reducing the diagnosis of low-grade tumors. Several approaches have been explored to improve the accuracy of image-guided targeted prostate biopsy, including in-bore MRI-guided, cognitive fusion, and MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. This review will examine recent advances in these image-guided targeted prostate biopsy techniques. PMID:25596716

  17. How to perform transrectal ultrasound and prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bruce; Drudge-Coates, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to support patients who require a prostate biopsy to diagnose or exclude prostate cancer. Nurses will also gain an understanding of the procedure for transrectal biopsy. ▶ A transrectal biopsy is commonly used to access the prostate. ▶ Indications for a biopsy include elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen in the blood, identification of abnormal areas on digital rectal examination and active surveillance of low-risk prostate cancer. ▶ The healthcare professional uses an ultrasound probe to guide them to specific areas of the prostate to obtain biopsy specimens. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you would identify a patient with post-biopsy sepsis. 2. Psychological support needs of a patient undergoing prostate biopsy. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27050013

  18. Strategies for prevention of ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy infections

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane D; Raman, Jay D

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male patients and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in males. To confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer, an ultrasound-guided needle biopsy is necessary to obtain prostate tissue sufficient for histologic analysis by pathologists. Ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy can be accomplished via a transperineal or transrectal approach. The latter biopsy technique involves placing an ultrasound probe into the rectum, visualizing the prostate located just anterior to it, and then obtaining 12–14 biopsies. Each biopsy core requires piercing of the rectal mucosa which can inherently contribute to infection. The increasing infectious risk of prostate needle biopsy requires refinement and re-evaluation of the process in which the technique is performed. Such processes include (but are not limited to) prebiopsy risk stratification, antibiotic prophylaxis, use of rectal preparations, and equipment processing. In the subsequent review, we highlight the current available information on different strategies to reduce the risk of infection following prostate needle biopsy. PMID:27468242

  19. Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to

  20. Carcinoma of the prostate: results of post-irradiation biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Freiha, F.S.; Bagshaw, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six patients with clinically localized carcinoma of the prostate were surgically staged and treated with external beam irradiation to the prostate and to the lymph node-bearing areas. Sixty-four (44%) of these patients had needle biopsy of the prostate 18 months or more following completion of therapy. Thirty-nine (61%) of the biopsies were interpreted as positive and 25 (39%) as negative. Twenty-eight (72%) of the 39 patients with a positive biopsy have subsequently developed metastases as compared to only 6 of 25 (24%) of the patients with a negative biopsy. It is concluded that an apparently positive postirradiation biopsy is likely to indicate active disease and identifies patients at a higher risk for development of metastases. Other details of staging, grading, and outcomes that compare these two groups are discussed.

  1. Targeted prostate biopsy and MR-guided therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Woodrum, David A; Kawashima, Akira; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Mynderse, Lance A

    2016-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and second-leading cause of death in men. Many patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer undergo definitive treatment of the whole gland including radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and cryosurgery. Active surveillance is a growing alternative option for patients with documented low-volume, low-grade prostate cancer. With recent advances in software and hardware of MRI, multiparametric MRI of the prostate has been shown to improve the accuracy in detecting and characterizing clinically significant prostate cancer. Targeted biopsy is increasingly utilized to improve the yield of MR-detected, clinically significant prostate cancer and to decrease in detection of indolent prostate cancer. MR-guided targeted biopsy techniques include cognitive MR fusion TRUS biopsy, in-bore transrectal targeted biopsy using robotic transrectal device, and in-bore direct MR-guided transperineal biopsy with a software-based transperineal grid template. In addition, advances in MR compatible thermal ablation technology allow accurate focal or regional delivery of optimal thermal energy to the biopsy-proved, MRI-detected tumor, utilizing cryoablation, laser ablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation under MR guidance and real-time or near simultaneous monitoring of the ablation zone. Herein we present a contemporary review of MR-guided targeted biopsy techniques of MR-detected lesions as well as MR-guided focal or regional thermal ablative therapies for localized naïve and recurrent cancerous foci of the prostate. PMID:26907717

  2. Does length of prostate biopsy cores have an impact on diagnosis of prostate cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Ergün, Müslüm; İslamoğlu, Ekrem; Yalçınkaya, Soner; Tokgöz, Hüsnü; Savaş, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether core length is a significant biopsy parameter in the detection of prostate cancer. Material and methods We retrospectively analyzed pathology reports of the specimens of 188 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer who had undergone initial transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy, and compared biopsy core lengths of the patients with, and without prostate cancer. The biopsy specimens of prostate cancer patients were divided into 3 groups according to core length, and the data obtained were compared (Group 1; total core length <10 mm, Group 2; total core length 10 mm–19 mm, and Group 3; total core length >20 mm). Biopsy core lengths of the patients diagnosed as prostate cancer, and benign prostatic hyperplasia were compared, and a certain cut-off value for core length with optimal diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for prostate cancer was calculated. Results Mean age, PSA and total length of cores were 65.08±7.41 years, 9.82±6.34 ng/mL and 11.2±0.2 mm, respectively. Assessment of biopsy core lengths showed that cores with cancer (n=993, median length 12.5 mm) were significantly longer than benign cores (n=1185, median length=11.3 mm) (p<0.001). Core length analysis yielded 12 mm cores have an optimal sensitivity (41.9%) and specificity (62%) for detection of cancer (odds ratio: 1.08). Conclusion Biopsy core length is one of the most important parameter that determines the quality of biopsy and detection of prostate cancer. A median sample length of 12 mm is ideal lower limit for cancer detection, and biopsy procedures which yield shorter biopsy cores should be repeated.

  3. Greater Biopsy Core Number Is Associated With Improved Biochemical Control in Patients Treated With Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, Nathan; Wallner, Kent E.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Standard prostate biopsy schemes underestimate Gleason score in a significant percentage of cases. Extended biopsy improves diagnostic accuracy and provides more reliable prognostic information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that greater biopsy core number should result in improved treatment outcome through better tailoring of therapy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to May 2006, 1,613 prostate cancer patients were treated with permanent brachytherapy. Patients were divided into five groups stratified by the number of prostate biopsy cores ({<=}6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-20, and >20 cores). Biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated as a function of core number. Results: The median patient age was 66 years, and the median preimplant prostate-specific antigen was 6.5 ng/mL. The overall 10-year bPFS, CSS, and OS were 95.6%, 98.3%, and 78.6%, respectively. When bPFS was analyzed as a function of core number, the 10-year bPFS for patients with >20, 13-20, 10-12, 7-9 and {<=}6 cores was 100%, 100%, 98.3%, 95.8%, and 93.0% (p < 0.001), respectively. When evaluated by treatment era (1995-2000 vs. 2001-2006), the number of biopsy cores remained a statistically significant predictor of bPFS. On multivariate analysis, the number of biopsy cores was predictive of bPFS but did not predict for CSS or OS. Conclusion: Greater biopsy core number was associated with a statistically significant improvement in bPFS. Comprehensive regional sampling of the prostate may enhance diagnostic accuracy compared to a standard biopsy scheme, resulting in better tailoring of therapy.

  4. MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy of Native and Recurrent Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Woodrum, David A; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Greenwood, Bernadette; Mynderse, Lance A

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and second-leading cause of death in men. Many patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer undergo definitive, curative treatment of the whole gland with either radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. However, many men are reluctant to take the definitive step due to potential morbidity associated with either therapy. A growing interest in active surveillance or focal therapy has emerged as realistic alternatives for many patients. With each of these management strategies, it is critical to accurately quantify and stage the cancer with improved biopsy targeting and more precise imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Furthermore, having dependable prostate imaging allows for targeted biopsies to improve the yield of clinically significant prostate cancer and decrease detection of indolent prostate cancer. MRI-guided targeted biopsy techniques include cognitive MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsy, in-bore transrectal targeted biopsy using a calibrated guidance device, and in-bore direct MR-guided transperineal biopsy with a software-based transperineal grid template. Herein we present a contemporary review of MRI-guided targeted biopsy techniques for new and recurrent cancerous foci of the prostate. PMID:27582607

  5. Evaluation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio prior to prostate biopsy to predict biopsy histology: Results of 1836 patients

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Mehmet Ilker; Hamidi, Nurullah; Suer, Evren; Tangal, Semih; Huseynov, Adil; Ibiş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the role of NLR prior to prostate biopsy to predict biopsy histology and Gleason score in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated data of patients underwent prostate biopsy between May 2005 and March 2015. We collected the following data: age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy histology, Gleason score (GS) in prostate cancer patients, neutrophil counts, and lymphocyte counts. Patients were grouped as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The Chi square test was used to compare categorical variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for continuous variables. Results: Data of 1836 patients were investigated. The mean age, total PSA and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of the population were 66.8 ± 8.17 years, 9.38 ± 4.7 ng/dL, and 3.11 ± 1.71, respectively. Patients were divided as follows: 625 in the group with BPH history, 600 in the prostatitis group, and 611 in the prostate cancer histology group. The mean NLR of the prostatitis group was higher compared to the prostate cancer and BPH groups (p = 0.0001). The mean NLR of the prostate cancer group was significantly higher compared to the BPH group (p = 0.002). The GS 8–10 group had a significantly higher mean NLR compared to GS 5–6 (3.64 vs. 2.54, p = 0.0001) and GS 7 (3.64 vs. 2.58, p = 0.0001) patients. Conclusions: NLR was found to differ with regard to histology of prostate biopsy and higher GS was associated with higher NLR in patients with prostate cancer. However prostatitis prevents the use of NLR in predicting prostate cancer before a prostate biopsy. Also, the retrospective nature and lack of multivariate analysis in this study somewhat limits the relevance of these results. PMID:26600880

  6. Epidural abscess with associated spondylodiscitis following prostatic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Dobson, G; Cowie, C J A; Holliman, D

    2015-07-01

    Spondylodiscitis is often iatrogenic in nature. We report the case of a 69-year-old man presenting with spondylodiscitis and associated epidural abscess following transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy despite ciprofloxacin cover. To our knowledge, this is the first case of spondylodiscitis secondary to fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli. PMID:26264110

  7. The global burden of major infectious complications following prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H Y; Roberts, M J; Doi, S A R; Gardiner, R A

    2016-06-01

    We present a systematic review providing estimates of the overall and regional burden of infectious complications following prostate biopsy. A directly standardized prevalence estimate was used because it reflects the burden of disease more explicitly. Complications included sepsis, hospitalization, bacteraemia, bacteriuria, and acute urinary retention after biopsy. There were 165 articles, comprising 162 577 patients, included in the final analysis. Our findings demonstrate that transrectal biopsy was associated with a higher burden of hospitalization (1·1% vs. 0·9%) and sepsis (0·8% vs. 0·1%) compared to transperineal biopsy, while acute urinary retention was more prevalent after transperineal than transrectal biopsy (4·2% vs. 0·9%). The differences were statistically non-significant because of large heterogeneity across countries. We also demonstrate and discuss regional variations in complication rates, with Asian studies reporting higher rates of sepsis and hospitalization. PMID:26645476

  8. Motion and deformation compensation for freehand prostate biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khallaghi, Siavash; Nouranian, Saman; Sojoudi, Samira; Ashab, Hussam A.; Machan, Lindsay; Chang, Silvia; Black, Peter; Gleave, Martin; Goldenberg, Larry; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a registration pipeline to compensate for prostate motion and deformation during targeted freehand prostate biopsies. We perform 2D-3D registration by reconstructing a thin-volume around the real-time 2D ultrasound imaging plane. Constrained Sum of Squared Differences (SSD) and gradient descent optimization are used to rigidly align the moving volume to the fixed thin-volume. Subsequently, B-spline de- formable registration is performed to compensate for remaining non-linear deformations. SSD and zero-bounded Limited memory Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb Shannon (LBFGS) optimizer are used to find the optimum B-spline parameters. Registration results are validated on five prostate biopsy patients. Initial experiments suggest thin- volume-to-volume registration to be more effective than slice-to-volume registration. Also, a minimum consistent 2 mm improvement of Target Registration Error (TRE) is achieved following the deformable registration.

  9. Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

  10. Saturation biopsy improves preoperative Gleason scoring of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Philip; Wolf, Susanne; Adam, Alexander; Heukamp, Lukas Carl; Ellinger, Jörg; Vorreuther, Roland; Solleder, Gerold; Buettner, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the differences between conventional needle biopsy (CB) and saturation biopsy (SB) techniques with regard to the prediction of Gleason score, tumor stage, and insignificant prostate cancer. Data from a total number of 240 patients were analyzed. The main group, consisting of 185 patients, was diagnosed according to a saturation prostate needle biopsy protocol (SB), by which more than 12 cores were taken per biopsy. The control group was diagnosed using CB, by which 12 or less than 12 cores were taken per biopsy (n=55). In the main group, the Gleason score of the biopsy was confirmed in 19.5%, in the control group in 23.5% according to the prostatectomy specimen (p=0.50). Upgrading after the operation was found in 56.7% in the main group and in 60% in the control group (p=0.24). Downgrading after the operation was found in 23.9% in the main group and in 16.3% in the control group (p=0.24). If the Gleason score of the postoperative specimens differed by only one point from the biopsy, we considered this a minor deviation. In the main group, 59% of the carcinomas were preoperatively classified correctly or revealed minor deviation in Gleason scores. In contrast, only 47% of the carcinomas in the control group were assessed correctly or with minor deviation in Gleason scores. Thus, the main group demonstrated a better rate of preoperative prediction in tumor grading assessed by Gleason score (p=0.05). In addition, the Gleason scores of both protocols were assigned to three groups (Gleason <7; Gleason 7; Gleason >7), and the group changes from the biopsy to the prostatectomy specimen were found to be significantly more frequent in the CB group (p=0.04). There was no significant difference between the two types of biopsy techniques regarding tumor stage or the detection of insignificant carcinomas. The advantage of the extensive prostate needle biopsy technique (SB) is a better preoperative prediction of the Gleason score as well as the risk groups with

  11. Anterior prostate biopsy at initial and repeat evaluation: is it useful to detect significant prostate cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Pepe, Pietro; Pennisi, Michele; Fraggetta, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Detection rate for anterior prostate cancer (PCa) in men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy has been prospectively evaluated. Materials and Methods: From January 2013 to March 2014, 400 patients all of Caucasian origin (median age 63.5 years) underwent initial (285 cases) and repeat (115 cases) prostate biopsy; all the men had negative digital rectal examination and the indications to biopsy were: PSA values > 10 ng/mL, PSA between 4.1-10 or 2.6-4 ng/mL with free/total PSA≤25% and ≤20%, respectively. A median of 22 (initial biopsy) and 31 cores (repeat biopsy) were transperineally performed including 4 cores of the anterior zone (AZ) and 4 cores of the AZ plus 2 cores of the transition zone (TZ), respectively. Results: Median PSA was 7.9 ng/mL; overall, a PCa was found in 180 (45%) patients: in 135 (47.4%) and 45 (36%) of the men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy, respectively. An exclusive PCa of the anterior zone was found in the 8.9 (initial biopsy) vs 13.3% (repeat biopsy) of the men: a single microfocus of cancer was found in the 61.2% of the cases; moreover, in 7 out 18 AZ PCa the biopsy histology was predictive of significant cancer in 2 (28.5%) and 5 (71.5%) men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy, respectively. Conclusions: However AZ biopsies increased detection rate for PCa (10% of the cases), the majority of AZ PCa with histological findings predictive of clinically significant cancer were found at repeat biopsy (about 70% of the cases). PMID:26689509

  12. Infection after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ju

    2015-05-01

    Infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) appear to be increasing, which reflects the high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae. Identifying patients at high risk for antibiotic resistance with history taking is an important initial step. Targeted prophylaxis with a prebiopsy rectal swab culture or augmented antibiotic prophylaxis can be considered for patients at high risk of antibiotic resistance. If infectious complications are suspected, the presence of urosepsis should be evaluated and adequate antibiotic treatment should be started immediately. PMID:25964834

  13. [Antibacterial prophylaxis of bacteriuria at transrectal multifocal prostatic biopsy].

    PubMed

    Veliev, E I

    2002-01-01

    It was shown that prophylactic use of ciprofloxacin (500 mg per os 30 min prior to and 5 days after transrectal multifocal prostatic biopsy) along with topical treatment with 40 ml 1% povidone-iodine and evacuant enema provided negative bacteriological urine analysis in 24 hours for 94.4 per cent of cases. Positive effect was registered for all patients as no urinary tract infections were demonstrated. Transitory fever over 37.5 degrees C was not registered at 67 (97.2 per cent) patients, for the rest cases no changes of the treatment regime were necessary. The results of the trial proves high bacteriological and clinical efficacy of the therapy regimes and allow to recommend its implementation at transrectal biopsy. PMID:12516189

  14. The predictive value of 2-year posttreatment biopsy after prostate cancer radiotherapy for eventual biochemical outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Waseet; Tucker, Susan L.; Crevoisier, Renaud de; Kuban, Deborah A.; Cheung, M. Rex . E-mail: mrcheung@mdanderson.org

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of a 2-year post-radiotherapy (RT) prostate biopsy for predicting eventual biochemical failure in patients who were treated for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 164 patients who underwent a planned 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy. The independent prognostic value of the biopsy results for forecasting eventual biochemical outcome and overall survival was tested with other factors (the Gleason score, 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, risk group, and RT dose) in a multivariate analysis. The current nadir + 2 (CN + 2) definition of biochemical failure was used. Patients with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or suspicious digital rectal examination before the biopsy were excluded. Results: The biopsy results were normal in 78 patients, scant atypical and malignant cells in 30, carcinoma with treatment effect in 43, and carcinoma without treatment effect in 13. Using the CN + 2 definition, we found a significant association between biopsy results and eventual biochemical failure. We also found that the biopsy status provides predictive information independent of the PSA status at the time of biopsy. Conclusion: A 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy may be useful for forecasting CN + 2 biochemical failure. Posttreatment prostate biopsy may be useful for identifying patients for aggressive salvage therapy.

  15. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B; Hricak, Hedvig

    2013-09-16

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot's accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  16. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B.; Hricak, Hedvig

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot’s accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  17. Analysis of repeated 24-core saturation prostate biopsy: Inverse association between asymptomatic histological inflammation and prostate cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tomonori; Komiya, Akira; Morii, Akihiro; Iida, Hiroaki; Ito, Takatoshi; Fuse, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Saturation prostate biopsy protocols have been developed to improve the prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate, particularly in the setting of repeat biopsies. The present study attempted to clarify the association between PCa detection and various risk factors in repeat saturation biopsies. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 78 Japanese patients for whom findings had caused suspicion of PCa despite previous negative prostate biopsies, and who consecutively underwent a 24-core transperineal repeat biopsy at Toyama University Hospital (Toyama, Japan). PCa was confirmed histologically in 16 of the 78 patients (20.5%). A univariate analysis revealed that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at repeat biopsy was higher (P<0.01), the fPSA/tPSA ratio was lower (P=0.04), the total prostate volume was smaller (P=0.01) and the PSA density was higher (P<0.01) in PCa patients than in patients with benign prostatic disease (BPD). Histological inflammation was more frequently observed in BPD patients than in PCa patients (P<0.01). A multivariate analysis revealed that histological inflammation was the only independent predictor of the presence of a malignant lesion on repeat biopsy (odds ratio, 0.027; P=0.01). It must be considered that inflammation may cause a PSA increase in some patients with a negative initial biopsy, leading to unnecessary repeat biopsy. PMID:27446407

  18. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Biopsy of the prostate using ultrasound guidance is the clinical gold standard for diagnosis of prostate adenocarinoma. However, because early stage tumors are rarely visible under US, the procedure carries high false-negative rates and often patients require multiple biopsies before cancer is detected. To improve cancer detection, it is imperative that throughout the biopsy procedure, physicians know where they are within the prostate and where they have sampled during prior biopsies. The current biopsy procedure is limited to using only 2D ultrasound images to find and record target biopsy core sample sites. This information leaves ambiguity as the physician tries to interpret the 2D information and apply it to their 3D workspace. We have developed a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system that provides 3D intra-biopsy information to physicians for needle guidance and biopsy location recording. The system is designed to conform to the workflow of the current prostate biopsy procedure, making it easier for clinical integration. In this paper, we describe the system design and validate its accuracy by performing an in vitro biopsy procedure on US/CT multi-modal patient-specific prostate phantoms. A clinical sextant biopsy was performed by a urologist on the phantoms and the 3D models of the prostates were generated with volume errors less than 4% and mean boundary errors of less than 1 mm. Using the 3D biopsy system, needles were guided to within 1.36 +/- 0.83 mm of 3D targets and the position of the biopsy sites were accurately localized to 1.06 +/- 0.89 mm for the two prostates.

  19. Obesity and future prostate cancer risk among men after an initial benign biopsy of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Rundle, Andrew; Jankowski, Michelle; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background In general population studies, obesity has been associated with risk of high-grade prostate cancer (PCa), but little is known about obesity and future PCa risk among men with an initial benign biopsy of the prostate; a high risk population. Methods Within a cohort of 6,692 men followed up after a biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with benign findings, a nested case-control study was conducted of 494 PCa cases and controls matched on age, race, follow-up duration, biopsy vs. TURP and date of procedure. Body mass index at the time of the initial procedure was abstracted from medical records and initial biopsy specimens were reviewed for the presence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Results Obesity was associated with the presence of PIN in the initial benign specimen (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.13, 4.11). After adjustment for the matching variables, family history of PCa, PSA levels at the initial procedure, the number of PSA tests and DRE during follow-up, obesity (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.07, 2.30) at the time of the initial procedure was associated with PCa incidence during follow-up. Risk associated with obesity was confined to cases with follow-up less than 1,538 days, the median duration of follow-up among cases (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.09, 3.48). Conclusions Obesity is associated with the presence of PIN in benign specimens and with future PCa risk after an initial benign finding. Impact Obesity may be a factor to consider when planning clinical follow-up after a benign biopsy. PMID:23613026

  20. Perineural invasion on prostate needle biopsy does not predict biochemical failure following brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weight, Christopher J.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Zhou Ming; Klein, Eric A.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To determine if the presence of perineural invasion (PNI) predicts biochemical recurrence in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective case control matching study was performed. The records of 651 patients treated with brachytherapy between 1996 and 2003 were reviewed. Sixty-three of these patients developed biochemical failure. These sixty-three patients were then matched in a one-to-one ratio to patients without biochemical failure, controlling for biopsy Gleason score, clinical stage, initial prostate-specific antigen, age, and the use of androgen deprivation. The pathology of the entire cohort was then reviewed for evidence of perineural invasion on initial prostate biopsy specimens. The biochemical relapse free survival rates for these two groups were compared. Results: Cases and controls were well matched, and there were no significant differences between the two groups in age, Gleason grade, clinical stage, initial prostate-specific antigen, and the use of androgen deprivation. PNI was found in 19 (17%) patients. There was no significant difference in the rates of PNI between cases and controls, 19.6% and 14.3% respectively (p 0.45). PNI did not correlate with biochemical relapse free survival (p 0.40). Conclusion: Perineural invasion is not a significant predictor of biochemical recurrence in patients undergoing brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

  1. Percutaneous fine-needle biopsy of radiographically normal lymph nodes in the staging of prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gothlin, J.H.; Hoiem, L.

    1981-11-01

    Bipedal lymphography was interpreted as normal in 24 patients with low-grade prostatic carcinoma. Six to ten pelvic lymph nodes in each patient were biopsied transperitoneally under local anesthesia during fluoroscopy, revealing metastases in 6 patients. This method may replace surgery and internal biopsy in staging not only prostatic carcinoma but also other urogenital tumors.

  2. Effect of prostate volume on the peripheral nerve block anesthesia in the prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Yang; Huang, Tian-bao; Gu, Xiao; Zhou, Guang-Chen; Lu, Sheng-Ming; Tao, Hua-Zhi; Liu, Bi-De; Ding, Xue-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of periprostatic nerve block (PNB) in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy on different prostate volume. Methods: A total of 568 patients received prostate biopsy in our hospital from May 2013 to September 2015 and were retrospectively studied. All patients were divided into local anesthesia group (LAG) and nerve block group (NBG). Then each group was subdivided into 4 subgroups (20–40, 40–60, 60–100, and >100 mL groups) according to different prostate volume range. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and visual numeric scale (VNS) were used to assess the patient's pain and quantify their satisfaction. The scores and complications were compared between the groups. Results: The age and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before biopsy had no significant differences at intergroup or intragroup level. The VAS scores were significantly lower in the NBG than those in the LAG in terms of prostate volume (1 (1–2) versus 2 (1–3), 2 (1–3) versus 2 (2–4), 2 (2–3) versus 3 (2–5), 4 (3–5) versus 5 (4–7), all P < 0.05). Conversely, the VNS scores were higher in the NBG (4 (3–4) versus 3.5 (3–4), 3 (3–4) versus 3 (3–3), 3 (2–4) versus 3 (2–3), 2 (2–2) versus 1 (1–2), all P < 0.05). Patients with smaller prostate volume undergoing PNB or local anesthesia experienced significantly lower pain and higher satisfaction scores than those with large prostate. Whether in PNB or local anesthesia group, patients with large prostate volume had more chance to have hematuria, hemospermia, urinary retention than smaller one except infection (P < 0.05). Those complications had no significant differences between LAG and NBG (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Compared with local anesthesia, ultrasound-guided PNB has superior analgesic effect and equal safety, but for patients with a large prostate volume, the analgesic effect is inefficient. PMID:27428215

  3. The importance of active surveillance, and immediate re-biopsy in low-risk prostate cancer: The largest series from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bayar, Göksel; Horasanlı, Kaya; Acinikli, Hüseyin; Tanrıverdi, Orhan; Dalkılıç, Ayhan; Arısan, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate long-term outcomes of active surveillance (AS) applied in low-risk prostate cancer patients, and the impact of re-biopsy results on the prediction of progression. Material and methods In our clinic, patients who had undergone AS for low-risk localized prostate cancer between the years 2005–2013 were included in the study. Our AS criteria are Gleason score ≤6, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level <10 ng/mL, number of positive cores <3, maximum cancer involvement ratio <50% each core. Immediate re-biopsy (within 3 months) was performed to 65 patients who accepted AS. Finally, 43 patients who met re-biopsy criteria were included in the study. Prostate biopsy specimens were harvested from 12 cores under the guidance of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Re-biopsy was performed within 3 months (1–12 weeks). In re-biopsy, a total of 20 core biopsies were performed including the far lateral (6 cores) and transition zone (2 cores) in addition to standard 12 core biopsy. Our follow-up protocol is PSA measurement and digital rectal examination (DRE) every 3 months within the first 2 years, than every 6 months. Control biopsies was performed one year later and once upon every 3 years to patients whose PSA levels and DREs were normal at follow-up visits. More than 2 tumor invaded cores or 50% tumor in one core, and Gleason score exceeding 6 points were accepted as indications for definitive treatment. Patients were divided into two groups by re-biopsy results and compared according to the time to progression. We have done multivariate regression analysis to predict prognosis by using data on age, PSA level, and detection of tumor in re-biopsy specimens. Results Patients’ median age was 61 years and PSA level was 5 (2.7–9) ng/mL. Tumor was detected in 22 (34%) patients at re-biopsy and they underwent definitive treatment. Additionally tumor was detected in 9 patients, but active surveillance was maintained because their pathologic results met active

  4. Pain during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the role of periprostatic nerve block: what radiologists should know.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Babar

    2014-01-01

    Early prostate cancers are best detected with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided core biopsy of the prostate. Due to increased longevity and improved prostate cancer screening, more men are now subjected to TRUS-guided biopsy. To improve the detection rate of early prostate cancer, the current trend is to increase the number of cores obtained. The significant pain associated with the biopsy procedure is usually neglected in clinical practice. Although it is currently underutilized, the periprostatic nerve block is an effective technique to mitigate pain associated with prostate biopsy. This article reviews contemporary issues pertaining to pain during prostate biopsy and discusses the practical aspects of periprostatic nerve block. PMID:25246816

  5. Pain during Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy and the Role of Periprostatic Nerve Block: What Radiologists Should Know

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Early prostate cancers are best detected with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided core biopsy of the prostate. Due to increased longevity and improved prostate cancer screening, more men are now subjected to TRUS-guided biopsy. To improve the detection rate of early prostate cancer, the current trend is to increase the number of cores obtained. The significant pain associated with the biopsy procedure is usually neglected in clinical practice. Although it is currently underutilized, the periprostatic nerve block is an effective technique to mitigate pain associated with prostate biopsy. This article reviews contemporary issues pertaining to pain during prostate biopsy and discusses the practical aspects of periprostatic nerve block. PMID:25246816

  6. Near-infrared pulsed light to guide prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutet, J.; Debourdeau, M.; Laidevant, A.; Hervé, L.; Allié, C.; Vray, D.; Dinten, J.-M.

    2011-03-01

    The protocol for prostate cancer diagnosis, currently based on ultrasound guided biopsy, is limited by a lack of relevance. To improve this protocol, a new approach was proposed combining optical and ultrasound measurements to guide biopsy specifically to the tumors. Adding an optical measurement modality into an already existing ultrasound probe is challenging as the overall size of the system should not exceed a given dimension so as to fit the operative environment. Moreover, examination should not take more than 15 min to avoid any complication. A combined ultrasound and optical endorectal probe was designed to comply with the constraints of the sterilization protocols, the examination duration and required compactness. Therefore a totally innovative pulsed laser source has been designed to meet compactness requirements while providing accurate time-resolved measurements. A dedicated multi-channel photon counting system was optimized to decrease the examination duration. A fast reconstruction method based on the analysis of the intensity and time of flight of the detected photons has been associated to provide 3D localization of fluorescent dots almost immediately after acquisition. The bi-modal probe was capable of withstanding the sterilization procedures. The performance of the compact laser source has been shown at the same level as that of a standard laboratory Titane:Sapphire laser. The dedicated photon counting solution was capable of acquiring optical data in less than one minute. To evaluate the overall performance of the system in dealing with a realistic background signal, measurements and reconstructions were conducted on prostate mimicking phantom and in vivo.

  7. Resistive index of prostatic capsular arteries as a predictor of prostate cancer in patients undergoing initial prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Li, Gang; Hu, Linkun; Wei, Xuedong; Zha, Yueqin; Yin, Huming; Sun, Mubin; He, Jun; Hou, Jianquan

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the value of resistive index (RI) of prostatic capsular arteries in diagnosis and evaluation of prostate cancer (PCa) in Chinese patients undergoing initial prostate biopsy. A total of 532 consecutive patients undergoing prostate biopsy were enrolled in this study. RI was measured on the largest transverse section of prostate for each individual. The predictive value of RI was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. PCa was identified in 217 (40.79%) patients. RI was 0.69 ± 0.08 and 0.8 ± 0.08 for patients without and with PCa (p < 0.01). On logistic regression RI was significantly associated with PCa (p < 0.01). Using ROC analysis RI outperformed tPSA in prediction of PCa in all patients [area under ROC curve (AUC) = 0.83, 0.78, respectively]. With the cutoff value of 0.73, RI discriminated PCa from non-PCa patients with 81.9% sensitivity, 75.9% specificity and 77.63% diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, The AUC for RI in the discrimination of PCa from non-PCa patients in a subset with PSA of 4 to 10 ng/ml, high grade from non-high grade PCa patients and advanced from localized PCa patients was 0.70, 0.77 and 0.80, higher than other parameters (p < 0.05). RI is proved a practicable parameter in identifying patients at risk for PCa and predicting the grade and stage of PCa before initial prostate biopsy. The value of RI should be further explored in the future. PMID:25380843

  8. Multiparametric MRI and targeted prostate biopsy: Improvements in cancer detection, localization, and risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Mendhiratta, Neil; Wysock, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality that increases the accurate localization of prostate cancer at the time of MRI targeted biopsy, thereby enhancing clinical risk assessment, and improving the ability to appropriately counsel patients regarding therapy. Material and methods We used MEDLINE/PubMed to conduct a comprehensive search of the English medical literature. Articles were reviewed, data was extracted, analyzed, and summarized. In this review, we discuss the mp-MRI prostate exam, its role in targeted prostate biopsy, along with clinical applications and outcomes of MRI targeted biopsies. Results Mp-MRI, consisting of T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and possibly MR spectroscopy, has demonstrated improved specificity in prostate cancer detection as compared to conventional T2-weighted images alone. An MRI suspicion score has been developed and is depicted using an institutional Likert or, more recently, a standardized reporting scale (PI-RADS). Techniques of MRI-targeted biopsy include in-gantry MRI guided biopsy, TRUS-guided visual estimation biopsy, and software co-registered MRI-US guided biopsy (MRI-US fusion). Among men with no previous biopsy, MRI-US fusion biopsy demonstrates up to a 20% increase in detection of clinically significant cancers compared to systematic biopsy while avoiding a significant portion of low risk disease. These data suggest a potential role in reducing over-detection and, ultimately, over-treatment. Among men with previous negative biopsy, 72–87% of cancers detected by MRI targeted biopsy are clinically significant. Among men with known low risk cancer, repeat biopsy by MR-targeting improves risk stratification in selecting men appropriate for active surveillance secondarily reducing the need for repetitive biopsy during surveillance. Conclusions Use of mp-MRI for targeting prostate biopsies has the potential to reduce the

  9. Beyond Diagnosis: Evolving Prostate Biopsy in the Era of Focal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Escrig, J. L.; McCracken, S. R. C.; Greene, D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of use as the “gold standard” in the detection of prostate cancer, the optimal biopsy regimen is still not universally agreed upon. While important aspects such as the need for laterally placed biopsies and the importance of apical cancer are known, repeated studies have shown significant patients with cancer on subsequent biopsy when the original biopsy was negative and an ongoing suspicion of cancer remained. Attempts to maximise the effectiveness of repeat biopsies have given rise to the alternate approaches of saturation biopsy and the transperineal approach. Recent interest in focal treatment of prostate cancer has further highlighted the need for accurate detection of prostate cancer, and in response, the introduction of transperineal template-guided biopsy. While the saturation biopsy approach and the transperineal template approach increase the detection rate of cancer in men with a previous negative biopsy and appear to have acceptable morbidity, there is a lack of clinical trials evaluating the different biopsy strategies. This paper reviews the evolution of prostatic biopsy and current controversies. PMID:22110983

  10. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) as a method for identifying benign and malignant prostate biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Ling, Yuting; Lang, Stephen; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong; Nabi, Ghulam

    2015-03-01

    Objectives. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. Digital rectal examination (DRE) - a known clinical tool based on alteration in the mechanical properties of tissues due to cancer has traditionally been used for screening prostate cancer. Essentially, DRE estimates relative stiffness of cancerous and normal prostate tissue. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) are new optical imaging techniques capable of providing cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure as well as elastogram in vivo and in real time. In this preliminary study, OCE was used in the setting of the human prostate biopsies ex vivo, and the images acquired were compared with those obtained using standard histopathologic methods. Methods. 120 prostate biopsies were obtained by TRUS guided needle biopsy procedures from 9 patients with clinically suspected cancer of the prostate. The biopsies were approximately 0.8mm in diameter and 12mm in length, and prepared in Formalin solution. Quantitative assessment of biopsy samples using OCE was obtained in kilopascals (kPa) before histopathologic evaluation. The results obtained from OCE and standard histopathologic evaluation were compared provided the cross-validation. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for OCE (histopathology was a reference standard). Results. OCE could provide quantitative elasticity properties of prostate biopsies within benign prostate tissue, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical hyperplasia and malignant prostate cancer. Data analysed showed that the sensitivity and specificity of OCE for PCa detection were 1 and 0.91, respectively. PCa had significantly higher stiffness values compared to benign tissues, with a trend of increasing in stiffness with increasing of malignancy. Conclusions. Using OCE, microscopic resolution elastogram is promising in diagnosis of human prostatic diseases. Further studies using this technique to improve the

  11. A molecular image-directed, 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system for the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Baowei; Schuster, David M.; Master, Viraj; Akbari, Hamed; Fenster, Aaron; Nieh, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy is the standard method for a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, this biopsy approach uses two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images to guide biopsy and can miss up to 30% of prostate cancers. We are developing a molecular image-directed, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imageguided biopsy system for improved detection of prostate cancer. The system consists of a 3D mechanical localization system and software workstation for image segmentation, registration, and biopsy planning. In order to plan biopsy in a 3D prostate, we developed an automatic segmentation method based wavelet transform. In order to incorporate PET/CT images into ultrasound-guided biopsy, we developed image registration methods to fuse TRUS and PET/CT images. The segmentation method was tested in ten patients with a DICE overlap ratio of 92.4% +/- 1.1 %. The registration method has been tested in phantoms. The biopsy system was tested in prostate phantoms and 3D ultrasound images were acquired from two human patients. We are integrating the system for PET/CT directed, 3D ultrasound-guided, targeted biopsy in human patients.

  12. High efficiency for prostate biopsy qualification with full-field OCT after training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Ricco, R.; Sisk, A.; Duc, A.; Sibony, M.; Beuvon, F.; Dalimier, E.; Delongchamps, N. B.

    2016-02-01

    Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) offers a fast and non-destructive method of obtaining images of biological tissues at ultrahigh resolution, approaching traditional histological sections. In the context of prostate cancer diagnosis involving multiple biopsies, FFOCT could be used to validate the cores just after they are obtained in order to guide the number of biopsies to be performed. The aim of the study was to define and test a training protocol for efficient FFOCT prostate biopsy assessment. Three readers (a pathologist with previous experience with FFOCT, a pathologist new to FFOCT, and a urologist new to FFOCT) were trained to read FFOCT images of prostate biopsies on a set of 20 commented zooms (1 mm field of view) and 25 complete images. They were later tested on a set of 115 anonymized and randomized images of prostate biopsies. The results showed that an extra 30 images were necessary for more complete training as compared to prior studies. After training, pathologists obtained 100% sensitivity on high-grade cancer detection and 96% overall specificity; the urologist obtained 88% sensitivity on high-grade cancer and 89% overall specificity. Overall, the readers obtained a mean of 93% accuracy of qualifying malignancy on prostate biopsies. Moreover, the two pathologists showed a steeper learning curve than the urologist. This study demonstrates that a training protocol for such a new imaging modality may be implemented and yield very high efficiency for the pre-histologic detection of malignancy on prostate biopsies.

  13. 3D transrectal ultrasound prostate biopsy using a mechanical imaging and needle-guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bax, Jeffrey; Cool, Derek; Gardi, Lori; Montreuil, Jacques; Gil, Elena; Bluvol, Jeremy; Knight, Kerry; Smith, David; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-03-01

    Prostate biopsy procedures are generally limited to 2D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging for biopsy needle guidance. This limitation results in needle position ambiguity and an insufficient record of biopsy core locations in cases of prostate re-biopsy. We have developed a multi-jointed mechanical device that supports a commercially available TRUS probe with an integrated needle guide for precision prostate biopsy. The device is fixed at the base, allowing the joints to be manually manipulated while fully supporting its weight throughout its full range of motion. Means are provided to track the needle trajectory and display this trajectory on a corresponding TRUS image. This allows the physician to aim the needle-guide at predefined targets within the prostate, providing true 3D navigation. The tracker has been designed for use with several end-fired transducers that can be rotated about the longitudinal axis of the probe to generate 3D images. The tracker reduces the variability associated with conventional hand-held probes, while preserving user familiarity and procedural workflow. In a prostate phantom, biopsy needles were guided to within 2 mm of their targets, and the 3D location of the biopsy core was accurate to within 3 mm. The 3D navigation system is validated in the presence of prostate motion in a preliminary patient study.

  14. Upgrading the Gleason Score in Extended Prostate Biopsy: Implications for Treatment Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira Leite, Katia Ramos Camara-Lopes, Luiz H.A.; Dall'Oglio, Marcos F.; Cury, Jose; Antunes, Alberto A.; Sanudo, Adriana; Srougi, Miguel

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of overestimation of Gleason score (GS) in extended prostate biopsy, and consequently circumventing unnecessary aggressive treatment. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective study of 464 patients who underwent prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy between January 2001 and November 2007. The GS from biopsy and radical prostatectomy were compared. The incidence of overestimation of GS in biopsies and tumor volume were studied. Multivariate analysis was applied to find parameters that predict upgrading the GS in prostate biopsy. Results: The exact agreement of GS between prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy occurred in 56.9% of cases. In 29.1% cases it was underestimated, and it was overestimated in 14%. One hundred and six (22.8%) patients received a diagnosis of high GS (8, 9, or 10) in a prostate biopsy. In 29.2% of cases, the definitive Gleason Score was 7 or lower. In cases in which GS was overestimated in the biopsy, tumors were significantly smaller. In multivariate analysis, the total percentage of tumor was the only independent factor in overestimation of GS. Tumors occupying less than 33% of cores had a 5.6-fold greater chance of being overestimated. Conclusion: In the extended biopsy era and after the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus on GS, almost one third of tumors considered to have high GS at the biopsy may be intermediate-risk cancers. In that condition, tumors are smaller in biopsy. This should be remembered by professionals involved with prostate cancer to avoid overtreatment and undesirable side effects.

  15. Confirmatory biopsy for the assessment of prostate cancer in men considering active surveillance: reference centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Cecilia; Cozzi, Gabriele; Kinsella, Janette; Bianchi, Roberto; Acher, Peter; Challacombe, Benjamin; Popert, Rick; Brown, Christian; George, Gincy; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cahill, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how accurate a 12-core transrectal biopsy derived low-risk prostate cancer diagnosis is for an active surveillance programme by comparing the histological outcome with that from confirmatory transperineal sector biopsy. Subjects and methods The cohort included 166 men diagnosed with low volume Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on initial transrectal biopsy who also underwent a confirmatory biopsy. Both biopsy techniques were performed according to standard protocols and samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed according to disease severity at baseline to determine possible disease parameters of upgrading at confirmatory biopsy. Results After confirmatory biopsy, 34% demonstrated Gleason score upgrade, out of which 25% were Gleason score 3+4 and 8.5% primary Gleason pattern 4. Results remained consistent for the subgroup analysis and a weak positive association, but not statistically significant, between prostate specific antigen (PSA), age, and percentage of positive cores, and PCa upgrading at confirmatory biopsy was found. Conclusion In our single centre study, we found that one-third of patients had higher Gleason score at confirmatory biopsy. Furthermore 8.5% of these upgraders had a primary Gleason pattern 4. Our results together with previously published evidence highlight the need for the revision of current guidelines in prostate cancer diagnosis for the selection of men for active surveillance. PMID:27170833

  16. Three-dimensional modeling of biopsy protocols for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, M; Carlbom, I; Busch, C; Douglas, T; Egevad, L; Frimmel, H; Norberg, M; Sesterhenn, I; Frogge, J M

    1998-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignant tumor in American men, yet only a small percentage of men will develop clinically significant disease. Needle core biopsies are used to confirm the presence of cancer prior to surgery. While needle core biopsies have shown some ability to predict tumor volume and grade in prostatectomy specimens, for the individual patient they are neither sensitive nor specific enough to guide therapy. In this paper, we describe a system for simulating needle biopsies on three-dimensional models of cancerous prostates reconstructed from serial sections. First we segment the serial sections, delineating tumors and landmarks. Next, we register the sections using a color-merging scheme, and reconstruct the three-dimensional model using modified-shape-based interpolation. The resulting volume can be rendered, and simulated needle core biopsies can be taken from the reconstructed model. We use our system to simulate two different biopsy protocols on a reconstructed prostate specimen. PMID:9740040

  17. Safety of 12 core transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in patients on aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Vasudeva, Pawan; Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Anup; Singh, Harbinder; Kumar, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To prospectively assess safety outcome of TRUS guided prostate biopsy in patients taking low dose aspirin. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients, who were planned for 12 core TRUS guided prostate biopsy and satisfied eligibility criteria, were included in the study and divided into two Groups: Group A: patients on aspirin during biopsy, Group B: patients not on aspirin during biopsy, including patients in whom aspirin was stopped prior to the biopsy. Parameters included for statistical analysis were: age, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, hemoglobin (Hb %), number of hematuria episodes, number of patient reporting hematuria, hematuria requiring intervention, number of patient reporting hematospermia and number of patient reporting rectal bleeding. Results: Of 681 eligible patients, Group A and B had 191 and 490 patients respectively. The mean age, prostate volume, serum PSA and pre-biopsy hemoglobin were similar in both Groups with no significant differences noted between them. None of the post-biopsy complications, including number of hematuria episodes (p=0.83), number of patients reporting hematuria (p=0.55), number of patients reporting hematospermia (p=0.36) and number of patients reporting rectal bleeding (p=0.65), were significantly different between Groups A and B respectively. None of the hemorrhagic complication in either group required intervention and were self limiting. Conclusion: Continuing low dose aspirin during TRUS guided prostate biopsy neither alters the minor bleeding episodes nor causes major bleeding complication. So, discontinuation of low dose aspirin prior to TRUS guided prostate biopsy is not required. PMID:26742966

  18. Prostate-specific Antigen Density Variation Rate as a Potential Guideline Parameter for Second Prostate Cancer Detection Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gan-Sheng; Lyv, Jin-Xing; Li, Gang; Yan, Chun-Yin; Hou, Jian-Quan; Pu, Jin-Xian; Ding, Xiang; Huang, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic value of current prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests is challenged by the poor detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) in repeat prostate biopsy. In this study, we proposed a novel PSA-related parameter named PSA density variation rate (PSADVR) and designed a clinical trial to evaluate its potential diagnostic value for detecting PCa on a second prostate biopsy. Methods: Data from 184 males who underwent second ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy 6 months after the first biopsy were included in the study. The subjects were divided into PCa and non-PCa groups according to the second biopsy pathological results. Prostate volume, PSA density (PSAD), free-total PSA ratio, and PSADVR were calculated according to corresponding formulas at the second biopsy. These parameters were compared using t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test between PCa and non-PCa groups, and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to evaluate their predictability on PCa detection. Results: PCa was detected in 24 patients on the second biopsy. Mean values of PSA, PSAD, and PSADVR were greater in the PCa group than in the non-PCa group (8.39 μg/L vs. 7.16 μg/L, 0.20 vs. 0.16, 14.15% vs. −1.36%, respectively). PSADVR had the largest area under the curve, with 0.667 sensitivity and 0.824 specificity when the cutoff was 10%. The PCa detection rate was significantly greater in subjects with PSADVR >10% than PSADVR ≤10% (28.6% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.001). In addition, PSADVR was the only parameter in this study that showed a significant correlation with mid-to-high-risk PCa (r = 0.63, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that PSADVR improved the PCa detection rate on second biopsies, especially for mid-to-high-risk cancers requiring prompt treatment. PMID:27453228

  19. Optical biopsy of the prostate: can we TRUST (trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled spectral tomography)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Daqing; Jiang, Zhen; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Holyoak, G. Reed; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Rock, Kendra; Ownby, Charlotte L.; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady

    2011-03-01

    Needle-based core-biopsy to locate prostate cancer relies heavily upon trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging guidance. Ultrasonographic findings of classic hypoechoic peripheral zone lesions have a low specificity of ~28%, a low positive predictive value of ~29%, and an overall accuracy of ~43%, in prostate cancer diagnosis. The prevalence of isoechoic or nearly invisible prostate cancers on ultrasonography ranges from 25 to 42%. As a result, TRUS is useful and convenient to direct the needle trajectory following a systematic biopsy sampling template rather than to target only the potentially malignant lesion for focal-biopsy. To address this deficiency in the first-line of prostate cancer imaging, a trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled spectral tomography (TRUST) approach is being developed to non-invasively resolve the likely optical signatures of prostate malignancy. The approach has evolved from using one NIR wavelength to two NIR bands, and recently to three bands of NIR spectrum information. The concept has been evaluated on one normal canine prostate and three dogs with implanted prostate tumor developed as a model. The initial results implementing TRUST on the canine prostate tumor model includes: (1) quantifying substantially increased total hemoglobin concentration over the time-course of imaging in a rapidly growing prostate tumor; (2) confirming hypoxia in a prostatic cystic lesion; and (3) imaging hypoxic changes of a necrotic prostate tumor. Despite these interesting results, intensive technologic development is necessary for translating the approach to benefiting clinical practice, wherein the ultimate utility is not possibly to eliminate needle-biopsy but to perform focal-biopsy that is only necessary to confirm the cancer, as well as to monitor and predict treatment responses.

  20. 3-D statistical cancer atlas-based targeting of prostate biopsy using ultrasound image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ramkrishnan; Shen, Dinggang; Davatzikos, Christos A.; Crawford, E. David; Barqawi, Albaha; Werahera, Priya; Kumar, Dinesh; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2008-03-01

    Prostate cancer is a multifocal disease and lesions are not distributed uniformly within the gland. Several biopsy protocols concerning spatially specific targeting have been reported urology literature. Recently a statistical cancer atlas of the prostate was constructed providing voxelwise probabilities of cancers in the prostate. Additionally an optimized set of biopsy sites was computed with 94 - 96% detection accuracy was reported using only 6-7 needles. Here we discuss the warping of this atlas to prostate segmented side-fire ultrasound images of the patient. A shape model was used to speed up registration. The model was trained from over 38 expert segmented subjects off-line. This training yielded as few as 15-20 degrees of freedom that were optimized to warp the atlas surface to the patient's ultrasound image followed by elastic interpolation of the 3-D atlas. As a result the atlas is completely mapped to the patient's prostate anatomy along with optimal predetermined needle locations for biopsy. These do not preclude the use of additional biopsies if desired. A color overlay of the atlas is also displayed on the ultrasound image showing high cancer zones within the prostate. Finally current biopsy locations are saved in the atlas space and may be used to update the atlas based on the pathology report. In addition to the optimal atlas plan, previous biopsy locations and alternate plans can also be stored in the atlas space and warped to the patient with no additional time overhead.

  1. The 4Kscore® Test Reduces Prostate Biopsy Rates in Community and Academic Urology Practices

    PubMed Central

    Konety, Badrinath; Zappala, Stephen M; Parekh, Dipen J; Osterhout, Danielle; Schock, Jeffrey; Chudler, Randy M; Oldford, Gregory M; Kernen, Kenneth M; Hafron, Jason

    2015-01-01

    There is significant concern regarding prostate cancer screening because of the potential for overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men who are discovered to have abnormal prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and/or digital rectal examination (DRE) results. The 4Kscore® Test (OPKO Diagnostics, LLC) is a blood test that utilizes four kallikrein levels plus clinical information in an algorithm to calculate an individual’s percentage risk (< 1% to > 95%) for aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥ 7) on prostate biopsy. The 4Kscore Test, as a follow-up test after abnormal PSA and/or DRE test results, has been shown to improve the specificity for predicting the risk of aggressive prostate cancer and reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies. A clinical utility study was conducted to assess the influence of the 4Kscore Test on the decision to perform prostate biopsies in men referred to urologists for abnormal PSA and/or DRE results. The study population included 611 patients seen by 35 academic and community urologists in the United States. Urologists ordered the 4Kscore Test as part of their assessment of men referred for abnormal PSA and/or DRE test results. Results for the patients were stratified into low risk (< 7.5%), intermediate risk (7.5%–19.9%), and high risk (≥ 20%) for aggressive prostate cancer. The 4Kscore Test results influenced biopsy decisions in 88.7% of the men. Performing the 4Kscore Test resulted in a 64.6% reduction in prostate biopsies in patients; the actual percentage of cases not proceeding to biopsy were 94.0%, 52.9%, and 19.0% for men who had low-, intermediate-, and high-risk 4Kscore Test results, respectively. A higher 4Kscore Test was associated with greater likelihood of having a prostate biopsy (P < 0.001). Among the 171 patients who had a biopsy, the 4Kscore risk category is strongly associated with biopsy pathology. The 4Kscore Test, as a follow-up test for an abnormal PSA and/or DRE results, significantly influenced the

  2. Cancer detection rates of different prostate biopsy regimens in patients with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Hoşcan, Mustafa Burak; Özorak, Alper; Oksay, Taylan; Perk, Hakkı; Armağan, Abdullah; Soyupek, Sedat; Serel, Tekin Ahmet; Koşar, Alim

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the cancer detection rates of 6-, 10-, 12-core biopsy regimens and the optimal biopsy protocol for prostate cancer diagnosis in patients with renal failure. A total of 122 consecutive patients with renal failure underwent biopsy with age-specific prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels up to 20 ng/mL. The 12-core biopsy technique (sextant biopsy + lateral base, lateral mid-zone, lateral apex, bilaterally) performed to all patients. Pathology results were examined separately for each sextant, 10-core that exclude parasagittal mid-zones from 12-cores (10a), 10-core that exclude apex zones from 12-cores (10b) and 12-core biopsy regimens. Of 122 patients, 37 (30.3%) were positive for prostate cancer. The cancer detection rates for sextant, 10a, 10b and 12 cores were 17.2%, 29%, 23.7% and 30.7%, respectively. Biopsy techniques of 10a, 10b and 12 cores increased the cancer detection rates by 40%, 27.5% and 43.2% among the sextant technique, respectively. Biopsy techniques of 10a and 12 cores increased the cancer detection rates by 17.1% and 21.6% among 10b biopsy technique, respectively. There were no statistical differences between 12 core and 10a core about cancer detection rate. Adding lateral cores to sextant biopsy improves the cancer detection rates. In our study, 12-core biopsy technique increases the cancer detection rate by 5.4% among 10a core but that was not statistically different. On the other hand, 12-core biopsy technique includes all biopsy regimens. We therefore suggest 12-core biopsy or minimum 10-core strategy incorporating six peripheral biopsies with elevated age- specific PSA levels up to 20 ng/mL in patients with renal failure. PMID:24797801

  3. MRI-Targeted Biopsies versus Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Biopsies for the Diagnosis of Localized Prostate Cancer in Biopsy Naïve Men

    PubMed Central

    Peltier, Alexandre; Aoun, Fouad; Lemort, Marc; Kwizera, Félix; Paesmans, Marianne; Van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. To compare, in the same cohort of men, the detection of clinically significant disease in standard (STD) cores versus multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) targeted (TAR) cores. Material and Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 129 biopsy naïve men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer. These patients underwent prebiopsy mpMRI with STD systematic biopsies and TAR biopsies when lesions were found. The agreement between the TAR and the STD protocols was measured using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results. Cancer detection rate of MRI-targeted biopsy was 62.7%. TAR protocol demonstrated higher detection rate of clinically significant disease compared to STD protocol. The proportion of cores positive for clinically significant cancer in TAR cores was 28.9% versus 9.8% for STD cores (P < 0.001). The proportion of men with clinically significant cancer and the proportion of men with Gleason score 7 were higher with the TAR protocol than with the STD protocol (P = 0.003; P = 0.0008, resp.). Conclusion. mpMRI improved clinically significant prostate cancer detection rate compared to STD protocol alone with less tissue sampling and higher Gleason score. Further development in imaging as well as multicentre studies using the START recommendation is needed to elucidate the role of mpMRI targeted biopsy in the management of prostate cancer. PMID:25692142

  4. Single Dose of Levofloxacin versus Three Dosages for Prophylaxis in Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Linden-Castro, Edgar; Pelayo-Nieto, Marcela; Alias-Melgar, Alejandro; Carreño-de la Rosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound-guided core prostate biopsy is a key event in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, transient side events such as local pain, haematuria, haematospermia, dysuria, and rectal bleeding are reported in a large number of patients. Antimicrobial agents lower the incidence of postbiopsy infectious complications. The timing and duration of the regimen and the route of administration remain controversial. We developed a standard prophylactic regimen, in which safety and efficiency were maximized, while costs and variability were minimized. Accordingly we prospectively evaluated 425 consecutive patients, who underwent outpatient transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy after a single dose versus three doses of levofloxacin.

  5. Is Repeat Prostate Biopsy Associated with a Greater Risk of Hospitalization? Data from SEER-Medicare

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Carter, H. Ballentine; Berndt, Sonja I.; Ricker, Winnie; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We recently reported an increasing risk over time of hospitalization among Medicare participants after undergoing an initial prostate biopsy. Less is known about the relative risks of repeat prostate biopsies, which are frequently performed in prostate cancer screening and in active surveillance programs. We determined whether repeat biopsies are associated with an increased risk of hospitalization compared to the initial biopsy. Materials and Methods Using SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-Medicare linked data from 1991 to 2007 we identified 13,883 men who underwent a single prostate biopsy and 3,640 who had multiple biopsies. The 30-day hospitalization rates were compared between these groups, and with a randomly selected control population of 134,977. ICD-9 codes were then used to examine the frequency of serious infectious and noninfectious urological complications as the primary diagnosis for hospital admissions. Results Initial and repeat biopsies were associated with a significantly increased risk of hospitalization within a 30-day period compared to randomly selected controls (p <0.0001). However, the repeat biopsy session was not associated with a greater risk of infectious (OR 0.81, 95% 0.49–1.32, p = 0.39) or serious noninfectious urological complications (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.54–1.62, p = 0.82) compared to the initial biopsy. Conclusions Each biopsy was associated with a significant risk of complications compared to randomly selected controls. However, the repeat biopsy procedure itself was not associated with a greater risk of serious complications requiring hospital admission compared to the initial biopsy. PMID:23063634

  6. Prostate needle biopsy: what we do and what should be improved.

    PubMed

    Fraggetta, Filippo; Pepe, Pietro; Improta, Giuseppina; Aragona, Francesco; Colecchia, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the cancer most frequently diagnosed in older men and the second most frequent for incidence of all tumors. With the widespread use of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), the detection rate as well as the incidence of localized tumors has been increasing, thus leading to a drop in PCa-related mortality. However, a corresponding estimated rate of overdiagnosis as high as 50% has been reported, and the adverse side effects related to unnecessary treatments make the overall benefit of PSA mass screening unclear. The lower PSA threshold and extended prostate biopsy protocols have led to a marked increase of small, low-grade tumors that will never threaten a patient's survival. Sextant biopsy technique, extended biopsy protocols (12-18 cores) and saturation prostate schemes are already familiar terms, together with quantitative histology in the pathology departments. This brief review will try to focus on what usually is done and what should be improved in prostate needle biopsy in order to answer many critical points such as the clinical implication of different modalities of prostate biopsy (transrectal, transperineal or even targeted), the use of quantitative histology and the importance of the new molecular findings in addition to conventional histological parameters in the era of the active surveillance protocols. PMID:24344499

  7. MRI-guided biopsies and minimally invasive therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Sangeet; Trachtenberg, John

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) have led to a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (PCa). Its sensitivity in detecting clinically significant cancer and the ability to localize the tumor within the prostate gland has opened up discussion on targeted diagnosis and therapy in PCa. Use of mp-MRI in conjunction with prostate-specific antigen followed by targeted biopsy allows for a better diagnostic pathway than transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy and improves the diagnosis of PCa. Improved detection of PCa by mp-MRI has also opened up opportunities for focal therapy within the organ while reducing the incidence of side-effects associated with the radical treatment methods for PCa. This review discusses the evidence and techniques for in-bore MRI-guided prostate biopsy and provides an update on the status of MRI-guided targeted focal therapy in PCa. PMID:26166964

  8. Analysis of Preoperative Detection for Apex Prostate Cancer by Transrectal Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sazuka, Tomokazu; Imamoto, Takashi; Namekawa, Takeshi; Utsumi, Takanobu; Yanagisawa, Mitsuru; Kawamura, Koji; Kamiya, Naoto; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Ueda, Takeshi; Ota, Satoshi; Nakatani, Yukio; Ichikawa, Tomohiko

    2013-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to determine concordance rates for prostatectomy specimens and transrectal needle biopsy samples in various areas of the prostate in order to assess diagnostic accuracy of the transrectal biopsy approach, especially for presurgical detection of cancer in the prostatic apex. Materials and Methods. From 2006 to 2011, 158 patients whose radical prostatectomy specimens had been evaluated were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Concordance rates for histopathology results of prostatectomy specimens and needle biopsy samples were evaluated in 8 prostatic sections (apex, middle, base, and transitional zones bilaterally) from 73 patients diagnosed at this institution, besides factors for detecting apex cancer in total 118 true positive and false negative apex cancers. Results. Prostate cancer was found most frequently (85%) in the apex of all patients. Of 584 histopathology sections, 153 (49%) from all areas were false negatives, as were 45% of apex biopsy samples. No readily available preoperative factors for detecting apex cancer were identified. Conclusions. In Japanese patients, the most frequent location of prostate cancer is in the apex. There is a high false negative rate for transrectal biopsy samples. To improve the detection rate, transperitoneal biopsy or more accurate imaging technology is needed. PMID:23533779

  9. Intrarectal Lidocaine-Diltiazem-Meperidine Gel for Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Farsad; Moghaddam, Yasaman; Shariat Moharari, Reza; Etezadi, Farhad; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: TRUS-guided needle biopsy of the prostate gland is the current standard method used for diagnosis of prostate cancer. Pain control during this procedure is through the use of i.v. sedation or local anaesthetic (LA), depending on clinician preference. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intrarectal lidocaine, lidocaine-diltiazem and lidocaine-meperidine-diltiazem gel for anesthetizing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Patients and Methods: In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, 100 consecutive patients were divided into three groups. The patients received one of the gels before transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy: group A, intrarectal and perianal lidocaine, gel 1 g; group B, intrarectal lidocaine gel, 1 g, + perianal diltiazem, 1 g; group C, intrarectal lidocaine gel, 1 g, + meperidine, 25 mg, and perianal diltiazem, 1 g. Visual analog pain scale was used to estimate pain during probe insertion and biopsy. Heart rate and blood pressure during probe insertion and biopsy were recorded too. Results: The mean of visual analog pain scale was 4.5 in group A, 3.5 in group B, and 2.0 in group C during probe insertion (P value = 0.01). The mean of visual analog pain scale was 5.1 in group A, 3.5 group B, and 2.5 in group C during biopsy (P value = 0.001). The groups were comparable for patients' age, weight, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate size (P > 0.05). No side effects of meperidine and lidocaine including drowsiness, dizziness, tinnitus and light-headedness or requiring assistance for activity were noted. Conclusions: Lidocaine-meperidine-diltiazem gel provides significantly better pain control than lidocaine-diltiazem gel and lidocaine gel alone during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy and probe insertion. This mixture gel is safe, easy to administer and well accepted by patients. PMID:26161317

  10. DNA methylation status is more reliable than gene expression at detecting cancer in prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Paziewska, A; Dabrowska, M; Goryca, K; Antoniewicz, A; Dobruch, J; Mikula, M; Jarosz, D; Zapala, L; Borowka, A; Ostrowski, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: We analysed critically the potential usefulness of RNA- and DNA-based biomarkers in supporting conventional histological diagnostic tests for prostate carcinoma (PCa) detection. Methods: Microarray profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation was performed on 16 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 32 cancerous and non-cancerous prostate samples extracted by radical prostatectomy. The predictive value of the selected biomarkers was validated by qPCR-based methods using tissue samples extracted from the 58 prostates and, separately, using 227 prostate core biopsies. Results: HOXC6, AMACR and PCA3 expression showed the best discrimination between PCa and BPH. All three genes were previously reported as the most promising mRNA-based markers for distinguishing cancerous lesions from benign prostate lesions; however, none were sufficiently sensitive and specific to meet the criteria for a PCa diagnostic biomarker. By contrast, DNA methylation levels of the APC, TACC2, RARB, DGKZ and HES5 promoter regions achieved high discriminating sensitivity and specificity, with area under the curve (AUCs) reaching 0.95−1.0. Only a small overlap was detected between the DNA methylation levels of PCa-positive and PCa-negative needle biopsies, with AUCs ranging between 0.854 and 0.899. Conclusions: DNA methylation-based biomarkers reflect the prostate malignancy and might be useful in supporting clinical decisions for suspected PCa following an initial negative prostate biopsy. PMID:24937670

  11. Preoperative prostate biopsy and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging: reliability in detecting prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Porpiglia, Francesco; Russo, Filippo; Manfredi, Matteo; Mele, Fabrizio; Fiori, Cristian; Regge, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to analyse and compare the ability of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp–MRI) and prostate biopsy (PB) to correctly identify tumor foci in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods 157 patients with clinically localised PCa with a PSA <10 ng/mL and a negative DRE diagnosed on the first (12 samples, Group A) or second (18 samples, Group B) PB were enrolled at our institution. All patients underwent mp-MRI with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI prior to RP. A map of comparison describing each positive biopsy sample was created for each patient, with each tumor focus shown on the MRI and each lesion present on the definitive histological examination in order to compare tumor detection and location. The sensitivity of mp-MRI and PB for diagnosis was compared using Student’s t-test. The ability of the two exams to detect the prevalence of Gleason pattern 4 in the identified lesions was compared using a chi-square test. Results Overall sensitivity of PB and mp-MRI to identify tumor lesion was 59.4% and 78.9%, respectively (p<0.0001). PB missed 144/355 lesions, 59 of which (16.6%) were significant. mp-MRI missed 75/355 lesions, 12 of which (3.4%) were significant. No lesions with a GS≥8 were missed. Sensitivity of PB and mp-MRI to detect the prevalence of Gleason pattern 4 was 88.2% and 97.4%, respectively. Conclusions mp-MRI seems to identify more tumor lesions than PB and to provide more information concerning tumor characteristics. PMID:25928518

  12. Is periprostatic nerve block a gold standard in case of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Griwan, Mahavir Singh; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Sen, Jyotsna; Pawar, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Controversy exists over the pain during prostate biopsy. Periprostatic nerve block (PNB) is a gold standard anesthetic technique during transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. Recent studies showed that PNB alone is insufficient as analgesic. We compared the efficacy of tramadol and intraprostatic nerve block (INB) in addition to PNB. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective double blinded placebo controlled study at our institute in 150 consecutive patients. Patients were randomized into three groups. Group A received PNB with INB with 1% lignocaine. Group B received oral tramadol with PNB. Group C patients were administered PNB only with 1% lignocaine. Patients were asked to grade the pain level using 11 point linear visual analog scale (VAS) at the time of ultrasound probe insertion, at time of anesthesia, during biopsy, and 30 min after biopsy. Results: The study groups were comparable in demographic profile, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, and prostate size. Group A recorded the minimum mean pain score of 2.66 during prostate biopsy which was significantly lower than group 3 (P < 0.001). Group B recorded significantly lower pain score at time of probe insertion and at anesthetic needle insertion than other two groups. Conclusions: PNB provides better pain control in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy but still there is need of additional analgesic in the form of tramadol or INB. Tramadol has advantage of oral intake and analgesic effect at time of probe insertion and at nerve block. Both tramadol and INB may be used in combination along with PNB. PMID:24049376

  13. Current Status of MRI and Ultrasound Fusion Software Platforms for Guidance of Prostate Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jennifer K; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; Gomella, Andrew; Amalou, Hayet; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Prostate MRI is currently the best diagnostic imaging method for detecting prostate cancer • Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion allows the sensitivity and specificity of MRI to be combined with real time capabilities of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). • Multiple approaches and techniques exist for MRI/US fusion and include (1) direct “in bore” MR biopsies, (2) cognitive fusion, and (3) MRI/US fusion via software-based image co-registration platforms. PMID:24298917

  14. Effect of hypertension on bacteria composition of prostate biopsy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer in PSA grey-zone

    PubMed Central

    NI, XIAOFENG; MENG, HONGZHOU; ZHOU, FENG; YU, HAINING; XIANG, JIANJIAN; SHEN, SHENGRONG

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic prostate cancer (PC) is difficult to diagnose by prostate biopsy, even in patients with markedly elevated PSA levels. Therefore, we aimed to identify a new, better technique to detect PC in a more consistent manner. A variety of steps were employed to validate this proposed method, including DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DGGE band sequencing. Four transperineal prostate biopsy specimens were obtained from male patients. The patients were under the age of 65 and PSA levels were 4–10 ng/ml. We also investigated the bacteria composition of transperineal prostate biopsy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and PC by PCR-DGGE profiling. Sequences from selected bands 2 and 4 both matched with Sphingomonas, which is present in lower amounts in PC without hypertension as compared to PC with hypertension, while there were no particular differences in the BPH group. Specific bacteria from the prostate biopsy tissues provide further confidence in PC diagnosis based on a PCR approach as a diagnostic tool, while hypertension was found to be a disturbing factor that can affect the diagnosis of BPH and PC in grey-zone. PMID:27284421

  15. Prostate biopsy after definitive treatment by interstitial iodine 125 implant or external beam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schellhammer, P.F.; el-Mahdi, A.M.; Higgins, E.M.; Schultheiss, T.E.; Ladaga, L.E.; Babb, T.J.

    1987-05-01

    The response to definitive radiation therapy of localized carcinoma of the prostate by iodine 125 implantation or external beam radiotherapy was monitored by examining specimens from biopsies performed after treatment. We analyzed 126 biopsy specimens obtained 18 months or more after treatment: 71 were obtained from 109 patients treated by iodine 125 and 55 from 197 patients treated by external beam radiotherapy. Thereafter, the disease status of these patients was examined at minimum 3-year intervals. No significant statistical difference was found between the negative specimen rates of the 2 treatment modalities: 46 of 71 (65 per cent) after iodine 125 implantation and 39 of 55 (71 per cent) after external beam radiotherapy were negative. To analyze the predictive value of biopsy results 103 patients whose prostatic examination results were normal at biopsy or who showed regression of tumor size and tumor induration after radiation were evaluated. The biopsy results from all patients were combined for analysis. Of 77 patients with negative biopsy specimens 16 (21 per cent) have had recurrent disease, compared to 17 of 26 (65 per cent) with positive biopsy specimens (p equals 0.00005). Of the 77 patients with negative biopsy specimens 7 (9 per cent) had local disease recurrence, compared to 12 of 26 (46 per cent) with a positive biopsy specimen (p equals 0.0001). The value of a positive specimen to predict failure remained significant with patients stratified by pre-treatment clinical stage and grade of the disease. Our results show that patients with positive specimens from the prostate who had been judged clinically by rectal examination to have responded to radiation therapy had a significantly increased incidence of local and distant failure compared to patients who had negative biopsy specimens.

  16. How does prostate biopsy guidance error impact pathologic cancer risk assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter R.; Gaed, Mena; Gómez, José A.; Moussa, Madeleine; Gibson, Eli; Cool, Derek W.; Chin, Joseph L.; Pautler, Stephen; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided "fusion" prostate biopsy aims to reduce the 21-47% false negative rate of clinical 2D TRUS-guided sextant biopsy, but still has a substantial false negative rate. This could be improved via biopsy needle target optimization, accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system errors, image registration errors, and irregular tumor shapes. As an initial step toward the broader goal of optimized prostate biopsy targeting, in this study we elucidated the impact of biopsy needle delivery error on the probability of obtaining a tumor sample, and on the core involvement. These are both important parameters to patient risk stratification and the decision for active surveillance vs. definitive therapy. We addressed these questions for cancer of all grades, and separately for high grade (>= Gleason 4+3) cancer. We used expert-contoured gold-standard prostatectomy histology to simulate targeted biopsies using an isotropic Gaussian needle delivery error from 1 to 6 mm, and investigated the amount of cancer obtained in each biopsy core as determined by histology. Needle delivery error resulted in variability in core involvement that could influence treatment decisions; the presence or absence of cancer in 1/3 or more of each needle core can be attributed to a needle delivery error of 4 mm. However, our data showed that by making multiple biopsy attempts at selected tumor foci, we may increase the probability of correctly characterizing the extent and grade of the cancer.

  17. Effectiveness of stress management in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Li-Pin; Tung, Heng-Hsin; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lai, Yu-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Saint Shiou-Sheng; Chiu, Allen W

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the utilization of stress management in relieving anxiety and pain among patients who undergo transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate. Methods Eighty-two patients admitted to a community hospital for a TRUS biopsy of the prostate participated in this case-controlled study. They were divided into an experimental group that was provided with stress management and a control group that received only routine nursing care. Stress management included music therapy and one-on-one simulation education. Before and after the TRUS biopsy, the patients’ state-anxiety inventory score, pain visual analogue scale (VAS), respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained. Results There were no differences in baseline and disease characteristics between the two groups. The VAS in both groups increased after the TRUS biopsy, but the difference in pre- and postbiopsy VAS scores was significantly lower in the experimental group (P=0.03). Patients in both groups experienced mild anxiety before and after the biopsy, but those in the experimental group displayed a significantly greater decrease in postbiopsy state-anxiety inventory score compared to the control group (P=0.02). Conclusion Stress management can alleviate anxiety and pain in patients who received a TRUS biopsy of the prostate under local anesthesia. PMID:26929606

  18. Rare complication after a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: a giant retroperitoneal hematoma.

    PubMed

    Chiancone, Francesco; Mirone, Vincenzo; Fedelini, Maurizio; Meccariello, Clemente; Pucci, Luigi; Carrino, Maurizio; Fedelini, Paolo

    2016-05-24

    Common complications related to transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostatic needle biopsy are hematuria, hematospermia, and hematochezia. To the best of our knowledge, we report the second case of a very large hematoma extending from the pelvis into the retroperitoneal space in literature.A 66-year-old man with a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 5.4 ng/ml was admitted to our department for a TRUS-guided prostatic needle biopsy. Laboratory values on the day before biopsy, including coagulation studies, were all normal. The patients did not take any anticoagulant drugs. No immediate complications were encountered. Nevertheless, 7 hours after the biopsy, the patient reached our emergency department with severe diffuse abdominal pain, hypotension, tachycardia, and confusional state. He underwent an ultrasonography and then a computed tomography (CT) scan that showed "a blood collection in the pelvis that extending to the lower pole of left kidney associated with a focus of active contrast extravasation, indicating active ongoing prostate bleeding." Consequently, he underwent a diagnostic angiography that showed no more contrast extravasation, without the need of embolization. Management of hematoma has been conservative and hematoma was completely reabsorbed 4 months later. PMID:26616460

  19. Absence of Bladder Outlet Obstruction Is an Independent Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer in Men Undergoing Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Cormio, Luigi; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Selvaggio, Oscar; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Mancini, Vito; Massenio, Paolo; Troiano, Francesco; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Bufo, Pantaleo; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and the risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa). Study population consisted of 2673 patients scheduled for the first prostate biopsy (PBx). All patients underwent uroflowmetry before PBx; those with a peak flow rate (PFR) <10 mL/s were considered to have BOO. The incidence of PCa was 41.3% (1104/2673) in the overall population and 34.1% (659/1905) in patients with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 10 ng/mL. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that patients with BOO had a significantly (P < 0.0001) lower risk than those without BOO of being diagnosed with PCa (33.1% vs 66.9% in the overall population; 30% vs 70% in patients with PSA ≤ 10 ng/mL). As the presence of BOO was significantly correlated to a large prostate volume, another independent predictor of PBx outcome, we tested whether these parameters could be used to identify, in the subset of patients with PSA≤10 ng/mL, those who could potentially be spared from a PBx. If we would have not biopsied patients with BOO and prostate volume ≥60 mL, 14.5% of biopsies could have been avoided while missing only 6% of tumors. Only 10% of the tumors that would have been missed were high-risk cancers. In conclusion, in men undergoing PBx, the absence of BOO, as determined by a PFR ≥10 mL/s, is an independent risk factor for PCa. Our study provides ground for this simple, noninvasive, objective parameter being used, alone or in combination with prostate volume, in the decision-making process of men potentially facing a PBx. PMID:26886598

  20. Prostate biopsy assistance system with gland deformation estimation for enhanced precision.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael; Mozer, Pierre; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted prostate biopsies became a very active research area during the last years. Prostate tracking makes it possible to overcome several drawbacks of the current standard transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy procedure, namely the insufficient targeting accuracy which may lead to a biopsy distribution of poor quality, the very approximate knowledge about the actual location of the sampled tissues which makes it difficult to implement focal therapy strategies based on biopsy results, and finally the difficulty to precisely reach non-ultrasound (US) targets stemming from different modalities, statistical atlases or previous biopsy series. The prostate tracking systems presented so far are limited to rigid transformation tracking. However, the gland can get considerably deformed during the intervention because of US probe pressure and patient movements. We propose to use 3D US combined with image-based elastic registration to estimate these deformations. A fast elastic registration algorithm that copes with the frequently occurring US shadows is presented. A patient cohort study was performed, which yielded a statistically significant in-vivo accuracy of 0.83 +/- 0.54 mm. PMID:20425972

  1. Outbreak of Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Ochrobactrum anthropi Infections after Prostate Biopsies, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Haviari, Skerdi; Cassier, Pierre; Dananché, Cédric; Hulin, Monique; Dauwalder, Olivier; Rouvière, Olivier; Bertrand, Xavier; Perraud, Michel; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    We report an outbreak of healthcare-associated prostatitis involving rare environmental pathogens in immunocompetent patients undergoing transrectal prostate biopsies at Hôpital Édouard Herriot (Lyon, France) during August 13-October 10, 2014. Despite a fluoroquinolone-based prophylaxis, 5 patients were infected with Achromobacter xylosoxidans and 3 with Ochrobactrum anthropi, which has not been reported as pathogenic in nonimmunocompromised persons. All patients recovered fully. Analysis of the outbreak included case investigation, case-control study, biopsy procedure review, microbiologic testing of environmental and clinical samples, and retrospective review of hospital records for 4 years before the outbreak. The cases resulted from asepsis errors during preparation of materials for the biopsies. A low-level outbreak involving environmental bacteria was likely present for years, masked by antimicrobial drug prophylaxis and a low number of cases. Healthcare personnel should promptly report unusual pathogens in immunocompetent patients to infection control units, and guidelines should explicitly mention asepsis during materials preparation. PMID:27434277

  2. Using the Epigenetic Field Defect to Detect Prostate Cancer in Biopsy Negative Patients

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Matthew; Yang, Bing; Livermore, Andrew; Wagner, Jennifer; Weeratunga, Puspha; Huang, Wei; Dhir, Rajiv; Nelson, Joel; Lin, Daniel W.; Jarrard, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We determined whether a novel combination of field defect DNA methylation markers could predict the presence of prostate cancer using histologically normal transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy cores. Materials and Methods Methylation was assessed using quantitative Pyrosequencing® in a training set consisting of 65 nontumor and tumor associated prostate tissues from University of Wisconsin. A multiplex model was generated using multivariate logistic regression and externally validated in blinded fashion in a set of 47 nontumor and tumor associated biopsy specimens from University of Washington. Results We observed robust methylation differences in all genes at all CpGs assayed (p <0.0001). Regression models incorporating individual genes (EVX1, CAV1 and FGF1) and a gene combination (EVX1 and FGF1) discriminated nontumor from tumor associated tissues in the original training set (AUC 0.796-0.898, p <0.001). On external validation uniplex models incorporating EVX1, CAV1 or FGF1 discriminated tumor from nontumor associated biopsy negative specimens (AUC 0.702, 0.696 and 0.658, respectively, p <0.05). A multiplex model (EVX1 and FGF1) identified patients with prostate cancer (AUC 0.774, p = 0.001) and had a negative predictive value of 0.909. Comparison between 2 separate cores in patients in this validation set revealed similar methylation defects, indicating detection of a widespread field defect. Conclusions A widespread epigenetic field defect can be used to detect prostate cancer in patients with histologically negative biopsies. To our knowledge this assay is unique, in that it detects alterations in nontumor cells. With further validation this marker combination (EVX1 and FGF1) has the potential to decrease the need for repeat prostate biopsies, a procedure associated with cost and complications. PMID:23159584

  3. Complication rates after prostate biopsy according to the number of sampled cores

    PubMed Central

    Wilkosz, Jacek; Różański, Waldemar; Lipiński, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A prostate biopsy can result in such complications as: hematuria, rectal bleeding, pain in hypogastrium, perineum or urethra, fever, nausea, vomiting, retention of urine or other adverse events. The aim of this research was to estimate complication rates after a prostate biopsy based on the number of cores. Material and methods The complication rate was evaluated on the basis of questionnaires filled out by patients. Questions were related to the occurrence of mentioned complications on the first and second day after prostate biopsy. Patients were divided into two groups: 1st group (41 patients) 5-8 cores and 2nd group (73 patients) 12 or more cores. Results There was no significant statistical difference in the occurrence of complications mentioned in the questionnaires in both groups. The biggest difference was recorded for hematuria – 1st day: 39% in the 1st and 53% in the 2nd group (p = 0.1398); 2nd day: 15% in the 1st and 30% in the 2nd group (p = 0.0650). Rectal bleeding on the 1st day also seems to vary: 12% in the 1st and 26% in the 2nd group (p = 0.0835). Other complications occurred in 3-8% of patients. 32% of patients in the 1st and 29% in the 2nd group (p = 0.7419) had no complications at all. Conclusions The most common complications after a prostate biopsy are hematuria and rectal bleeding. Other complication rates are low. In general, complication rates after a prostate biopsy procedure are not related to the number of sampled cores. PMID:24578945

  4. The efficacy of duration of prophylactic antibiotics in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Volkan; Şahin, Ali Feyzullah; Balaban, Yavuz; Altok, Muammer; Divrik, Rauf Taner; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the duration of prophylactic antibiotic administration in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy. Material and Methods: A total of 367 patients undergoing a prostate biopsy between September 2007 and June 2009 was reviewed retrospectively and divided into 2 groups according to prophilaxy: oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 hours) for 3 or more days in Group-1 and single day in Group-2. Demographic characteristics of patients, symptoms, PSA values, IPSS scores, prostate sizes, pathologic results and complications were compared between the groups. Results: The mean age of all patients was 63.92 years and the mean PSA was 13.61ng/ dL. The pre-biopsy mean IPSS score was 12.47 and mean prostate volume 52.53 mL. For 78.2% of patients the current biopsy was their first biopsy. Cancer detection rate was 24.2%. Fever was observed in 3 (1.2%) patients in Group-1 and 5 (4.0%) patients in Group-2. Local infections occurred in 2 (0.8%) and 1 (0.8%) patients respectively in Groups 1 and 2. Acute prostatitis was observed in only 1 (0.8%) patient in Group-2. Accepted after revision: None of the patients developed septicemia or other serious infection. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of fever, local infections (epididimitis, orchitis, etc.) and acute prostatitis. Conclusions: In a selected patient population single dose prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin can be safely administered compared to other regimens of 3 or more days. Increasing the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis does not decrease infectious complications. PMID:26689515

  5. Do prostatic biopsies 12 months or more after external irradiation for adenocarcinoma, stage III, predict long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.D.; Kline, R.W.

    1983-03-01

    Serial biopsies of the prostate after high dose external irradiation for adenocarcinoma show a gradual disappearance of the neoplastic cells. With such treatment, results of the biopsies do not have any short term prognostic significance. However, positive biopsies 12 months or more after treatment are reputed to be an unfavorable sign for long-term survival. From August, 1970 through February, 1974, 45 consecutive patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent external irradiation with 2 MV X rays or cobalt-60 teletherapy. The center of the prostate received a total dose of 70 Gy in 30-37 fractions in 43 to 56 days. With a median follow-up of 8 years, the actuarial survival rates, uncorrected for death from intercurrent disease, are 69% at 5 years and 49% at 10 years. Biopsies of the prostate 12 months or more after treatment were available from 31 patients; 19 had one or more positive biopsies. Prostatic biopsies obtained 24 months or more after treatment were available from 21 patients: 10 had positive and 11 had negative biopsies; the survival curves are identical for those with and without residual cancer cells. Following adequate irradiation of patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the prostate, the results of biopsies obtained one or two years after treatment do not predict long-term survival.

  6. Determination of Optimum Formalin Fixation Duration for Prostate Needle Biopsies for Immunohistochemistry and Quantum Dot FISH Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana, Ubaradka G; Birch, Chandler; Nagle, Raymond B; Tomlins, Scott A; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Zhang, Wenjun; Hubbard, Antony; Brunhoeber, Patrick; Wang, Yixin; Tang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Prostate biopsy is the key clinical specimen for disease diagnosis. However, various conditions used during biopsy processing for histologic analysis may affect the performance of diagnostic tests, such as hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), or in situ hybridization (ISH). One such condition that may affect diagnostic test performance is fixation duration in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF). For example, prostate needle biopsies are often <1 mm in diameter and thus overfixed. It is important to understand the impact of tissue fixation duration on diagnostic test performance to enable optimized assay procedures. This study was designed to study the effect of 10% NBF fixation duration of prostate needle biopsy on multiplexed quantum dot (QD) ISH assay of ERG and PTEN, 2 genes commonly altered in prostate cancer. The samples were also evaluated for H&E staining and ERG and PTEN IHC. H&E staining and ERG and PTEN IHC were acceptable for all the durations of fixation tested. For QD ISH, we observed good signals with biopsy samples fixed from 4 to 120 hours. Biopsy specimens fixed between 8 and 72 hours gave the best signal as scored by the study pathologist. In a separate cohort of 18 routinely processed prostate biopsy cores, all cores were stained successfully with the QD ISH assay, and results were 100% concordant to ERG and PTEN IHC. We conclude that 8 to 72 hours duration of fixation for prostate needle biopsies in 10% NBF results in optimal QD ISH assay performance. PMID:25265431

  7. Risk calculators and updated tools to select and plan a repeat biopsy for prostate cancer detection

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Igor; Mian, Badar M

    2015-01-01

    Millions of men each year are faced with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa) but the prostate biopsy fails to detect the disease. For the urologists, how to select the appropriate candidate for repeat biopsy is a significant clinical dilemma. Traditional risk-stratification tools in this setting such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) related markers and histopathology findings have met with limited correlation with cancer diagnosis or with significant disease. Thus, an individualized approach using predictive models such as an online risk calculator (RC) or updated biomarkers is more suitable in counseling men about their risk of harboring clinically significant prostate cancer. This review will focus on the available risk-stratification tools in the population of men with prior negative biopsies and persistent suspicion of PCa. The underlying methodology and platforms of the available tools are reviewed to better understand the development and validation of these models. The index patient is then assessed with different RCs to determine the range of heterogeneity among various RCs. This should allow the urologists to better incorporate these various risk-stratification tools into their clinical practice and improve patient counseling. PMID:26112489

  8. Glandular object based tumor morphometry in H&E biopsy samples for prostate cancer prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarasi, Stephen I.; Khan, Faisal M.; Pang, Ho-Yuen H.; Mesa-Tejada, Ricardo; Donovan, Michael J.; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2011-03-01

    Morphological and architectural characteristics of primary prostate tissue compartments, such as epithelial nuclei (EN) and cytoplasm, provide critical information for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. The subjective and variable Gleason grade assessed by expert pathologists in Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained specimens has been the standard for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We propose a novel morphometric, glandular object-oriented image analysis approach for the robust quantification of H&E prostate biopsy images. We demonstrate the utility of features extracted through the proposed method in predicting disease progression post treatment in a multi-institution cohort of 1027 patients. The biopsy based features were univariately predictive for clinical response post therapy; with concordance indexes (CI) <= 0.4 or >= 0.6. In multivariate analysis, a glandular object feature quantifying tumor epithelial cells not directly associated with an intact tumor gland was selected in a model incorporating preoperative clinical data, protein biomarker and morphological imaging features. The model achieved a CI of 0.73 in validation, which was significantly higher than a CI of 0.69 for the standard multivariate model based solely on clinical features currently used in clinical practice. This work presents one of the first demonstrations of glandular object based morphological features in the H&E stained biopsy specimen to predict disease progression post primary treatment. Additionally, it is the largest scale study of the efficacy and robustness of the proposed features in prostate cancer prognosis.

  9. Serial transperineal sector prostate biopsies: impact on long-term erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chong, James JY; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cahill, Declan; Kinsella, Janette

    2016-01-01

    We wanted to determine whether serial transperineal sector prostate biopsies have a long-term effect on erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of 64 men with prostate cancer entered our active surveillance (AS) programme after a transrectal prostate biopsy as well as a confirmatory initial transperineal sector prostate biopsy (TPSBx). A repeat TPSBx was performed 24 months later as part of our active surveillance protocol. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire assessed ED at baseline prior to each TPSBx, and at one, three, and six months after first and second TPSBx. There was a significant short-term deterioration in erectile function on mean IIEF-5 score between baseline (19.5), when compared to one month (10.5) (P <0.001) and three months (18.7) (P = 0.001) following first TPSBx. This resolved at six month follow-up (19.6) (P = 0.681). Following second TPSBx, there was a deterioration in erectile function between baseline (16.6), compared to one month (7.3), three months (13.8), and six months (15.9) (P <0.05) following second TPSBx. Initial TPSBx caused significant short-term ED, which resolved by six months. Serial TPSBx appears to have an adverse impact on erectile function in men monitored on AS, increasing the risk of long-term ED. This risk should be highlighted and discussed during the consent process. PMID:27350788

  10. Toward 3D-guided prostate biopsy target optimization: an estimation of tumor sampling probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter R.; Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided "fusion" prostate biopsy aims to reduce the ~23% false negative rate of clinical 2D TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsy still yields false negatives. Therefore, we propose optimization of biopsy targeting to meet the clinician's desired tumor sampling probability, optimizing needle targets within each tumor and accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system errors, image registration errors, and irregular tumor shapes. We obtained multiparametric MRI and 3D TRUS images from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D surfaces that were registered to 3D TRUS. We estimated the probability, P, of obtaining a tumor sample with a single biopsy. Given an RMS needle delivery error of 3.5 mm for a contemporary fusion biopsy system, P >= 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors when the point of optimal sampling probability was targeted. Therefore, more than one biopsy core must be taken from 74% of the tumors to achieve P >= 95% for a biopsy system with an error of 3.5 mm. Our experiments indicated that the effect of error along the needle axis on the percentage of core involvement (and thus the measured tumor burden) was mitigated by the 18 mm core length.

  11. Significant impact of transperineal template biopsy of the prostate at a single tertiary institution

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sean; Reeves, Fairleigh; Preece, Jessica; Satasivam, Prassannah; Royce, Peter; Grummet, Jeremy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to review the impact of transperineal biopsy (TPB) at our institution by assessing rates of cancer detection/grading, treatment outcomes and complications. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of TPBs between 2009 and 2013 was performed. Variables included reason for TPB, age, prostate-specific antigen, previous histology, TPB histology, and management outcomes. Results: In total, 110 patients underwent 111 TPBs at our institution. On average, 22 cores were taken from each procedure. Disease-upgrade occurred in 37.5% of active surveillance patients, 35% of patients with previous negative transrectal ultrasound, and 58.8% in patients undergoing TPB for other reasons. Of these patients, anterior and/or transition zones were involved in 66%, 79%, and 80%, respectively. Involvement in anterior and/or transition zones only occurred in 40%, 37%, and 10%, respectively. About 77% of patients with disease-upgrading underwent treatment with curative intent. Complications included a 6.3% rate of acute urinary retention and 2.7% of clot retention, with no episodes of urosepsis. Conclusions: Transperineal biopsy at our institution showed a high rate of disease-upgrading, with a large proportion involving anterior and transition zones. A significant amount of patients went on to receive curative treatment. TPB is a valuable diagnostic procedure with minimal risk of developing urosepsis. We believe TBP should be offered as an option for all repeat prostate biopsies and considered as an option for initial prostate biopsy. PMID:26692659

  12. Color Doppler quantitative measures to predict outcome of biopsies in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Strigari, Lidia; Marsella, Annelisa; Canitano, Stefano; Gomellini, Sara; Arcangeli, Stefano; Genovese, Elisabetta; Saracino, Biancamaria; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Sentinelli, Steno; Crecco, Marcello; Benassi, Marcello; Arcangeli, Giorgio

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: The aim was to correlate the color Doppler flow activity pre- and postradiotherapy, using transrectal color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and the 2 year positive biopsy rate after radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and materials: Analysis was carried out in 69 out of 160 patients who had undergone treatment with 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to prostate and seminal vesicles. Patients were randomized to receive 80 Gy in 40 fractions in 8 weeks (arm A) and 62 Gy in 20 fractions in 5 weeks, 4 fractions per week (arm B). Color Doppler flow activity (CDFA) was evaluated calculating the vascularization index (VI), defined as the ratio between the colored and total pixels in the whole and peripheral prostate, delineated by a radiation oncologist on CDUS images, using EcoVasc a home-made software. The difference between the 2 year post- and pre-3D-CRT maximum VI (VI{sub max}), named {Delta}VI{sub max}, was calculated in the whole and peripheral prostate for each patient. Then, {Delta}VI{sub max} and the detected 2 year biopsy outcome were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) technique. Results: The VI{sub max} increased or decreased in patients with positive or negative biopsies, respectively, compared to the value before RT in both arms. The area under the ROC curve for {Delta}VI{sub max} in the whole and peripheral prostate is equal to 0.790 and 0.884, respectively. Conclusion: The {Delta}VI{sub max} index, comparing CDFA at 2 years compared to that before RT, allows the 2 year postradiotherapy positive biopsy rate to be predicted.

  13. The detection and upgrade rates of prostate adenocarcinoma following transperineal template-guided prostate biopsy – a tertiary referral centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Telford, Robert; Viney, Richard; Patel, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aim to present transperineal template-guided prostate biopsy (template biopsy) outcomes at a tertiary referral centre. Furthermore, to identify the detection rate of prostate cancer in those with a previous negative transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy and the upgrade rate of those on active surveillance for Gleason 3 + 3 = 6 prostate adenocarcinoma. Material and methods We conducted a prospective study of 200 consecutive men who underwent template biopsy over a 22-month period in a tertiary referral centre, using a standard 24 region template prostate biopsy technique. Indications and histology results, as well as complications, were recorded. Results Median age was 67 years and median PSA was 10 ng/mL. Overall detection rate was 47%. 39.5% of cases with previous negative transrectal biopsies were found to have prostate adenocarcinoma. 47.5% of cases on active surveillance for Gleason 3 + 3 = 6 prostate adenocarcinoma were upgraded. The most frequent complication was acute urinary retention at a rate of 12.5%, however, the use of a single prophylactic dose of tamsulosin was found to be beneficial, with 13 cases needed to treat to prevent one episode. Conclusions Template biopsies are safe and efficacious with an overall detection rate of 47% in the present series. Due to the high detection rate, one must consider template biopsy following one negative transrectal biopsy where there is persistent clinical suspicion. Furthermore, those considering active surveillance for Gleason 3 + 3 = 6 disease should be offered template biopsy to confirm the grade of their disease. PMID:27123325

  14. Multiple cores of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and any core of atypia on first biopsy are significant predictor for cancer detection at a repeat biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Sun; Ko, Kwang Jin; Shin, Seung Jea; Ryoo, Hyun Soo; Song, Wan; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Han, Deok Hyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Kyu Sung; Lee, Sung Won; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the differences in the cancer detection rate and pathological findings on a second prostate biopsy according to benign diagnosis, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) on first biopsy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,323 patients who underwent a second prostate biopsy between March 1995 and November 2012. We divided the patients into three groups according to the pathologic findings on the first biopsy (benign diagnosis, HGPIN, and ASAP). We compared the cancer detection rate and Gleason scores on second biopsy and the unfavorable disease rate after radical prostatectomy among the three groups. Results A total of 214 patients (16.2%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer on a second biopsy. The rate of cancer detection was 14.6% in the benign diagnosis group, 22.1% in the HGPIN group, and 32.1% in the ASAP group, respectively (p<0.001). When patients were divided into subgroups according to the number of positive cores, the rate of cancer detection was 16.7%, 30.5%, 31.0%, and 36.4% in patients with a single core of HGPIN, more than one core of HGPIN, a single core of ASAP, and more than one core of ASAP, respectively. There were no significant differences in Gleason scores on second biopsy (p=0.324) or in the unfavorable disease rate after radical prostatectomy among the three groups (benign diagnosis vs. HGPIN, p=0.857, and benign diagnosis vs. ASAP, p=0.957, respectively). Conclusions Patients with multiple cores of HGPIN or any core number of ASAP on a first biopsy had a significantly higher cancer detection rate on a second biopsy. Repeat biopsy should be considered and not be delayed in those patients. PMID:26682019

  15. Probability of Extraprostatic Disease According to the Percentage of Positive Biopsy Cores in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Thiago N.; Antunes, Alberto A.; Leite, Kátia Moreira; Srougi, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Prediction of extraprostatic disease in clinically localized prostate cancer is relevant for treatment planning of the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the percentage of positive biopsy cores to predict the chance of extraprostatic cancer. Materials and Methods We evaluated 1787 patients with localized prostate cancer submitted to radical prostatectomy. The percentage of positive cores in prostate biopsy was correlated with the pathologic outcome of the surgical specimen. In the final analysis, a correlation was made between categorical ranges of positive cores (10% intervals) and the risk of extraprostatic extension and/or bladder neck invasion, seminal vesicles involvement or metastasis to iliac lymph nodes. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. Results For each 10% of positive cores we observed a progressive higher prevalence of extraprostatic disease. The risk of cancer beyond the prostate capsule for <10% positive biopsy cores was 7.4% and it increased to 76.2% at the category 90-100% positive cores. In patients with Gleason grade 4 or 5, the risk of extraprostatic cancer prostate was higher than in those without any component 4 or 5. Conclusion The percentage of positive cores in prostate biopsy can predict the risk of cancer outside the prostate. Our study shows that the percentage of positive prostate biopsy fragments helps predict the chance of extraprostatic cancer and may have a relevant role in the patient's management. PMID:26200538

  16. In-bore setup and software for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Iordachita, Iulian; Song, Sang-Eun; Fedorov, Andriy; Oguro, Sota; Lasso, Andras; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-09-01

    MRI-guided prostate biopsy in conventional closed-bore scanners requires transferring the patient outside the bore during needle insertion due to the constrained in-bore space, causing a safety hazard and limiting image feedback. To address this issue, we present our custom-made in-bore setup and software to support MRI-guided transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3 T MRI scanner. The setup consists of a specially designed tabletop and a needle-guiding template with a Z-frame that gives a physician access to the perineum of the patient at the imaging position and allows the physician to perform MRI-guided transperineal biopsy without moving the patient out of the scanner. The software and Z-frame allow registration of the template, target planning and biopsy guidance. Initially, we performed phantom experiments to assess the accuracy of template registration and needle placement in a controlled environment. Subsequently, we embarked on our clinical trial (N = 10). The phantom experiments showed that the translational errors of the template registration along the right-left (RP) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.1 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 1.1 mm, respectively, while the rotational errors around the RL, AP and superior-inferior axes were (0.8 ± 1.0)°, (1.7 ± 1.6)° and (0.0 ± 0.0)°, respectively. The 2D root-mean-square (RMS) needle-placement error was 3 mm. The clinical biopsy procedures were safely carried out in all ten clinical cases with a needle-placement error of 5.4 mm (2D RMS). In conclusion, transperineal prostate biopsy in a wide-bore 3T scanner is feasible using our custom-made tabletop setup and software, which supports manual needle placement without moving the patient out of the magnet.

  17. Non-rigid MRI-TRUS registration in targeted prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marami, Bahram; Sirouspour, Shahin; Ghoul, Suha; Emami Abarghouei, Shadi; Sun, Yue; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    A non-rigid registration method is presented for the alignment of pre-procedural magnetic resonance (MR) images with delineated suspicious regions to intra-procedural 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. In the first step, 3D MR and TRUS images are aligned rigidly using six pairs of manually identified approximate matching points on the boundary of the prostate. Then, two image volumes are non-rigidly registered using a finite element method (FEM)-based linear elastic deformation model. A vector of observation prediction errors at some points of interest within the prostate volume is computed using an intensity-based similarity metric called the modality independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND). The error vector is employed in a classical state estimation framework to estimate prostate deformation between MR and TRUS images. The points of interests are identified using speeded-up robust features (SURF) that are scale and rotation-invariant descriptors in MR images. The proposed registration method on 10 sets of prostate MR and TRUS images yielded a target registration error of 1.99+/-0.83 mm, and 1.97+/-0.87 mm in the peripheral zone (PZ) and whole gland (WG), respectively, using 68 manually-identified fiducial points. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was 87.9+/-2.9, 82.3+/-4.8, 93.0+/-1.7, and 84.2+/-6.2 percent for the WG, apex, mid-gland and base of the prostate, respectively. Moreover, the mean absolute distances (MAD) between the WG surfaces in the TRUS and registered MR images was 1.6+/-0.3 mm. Registration results indicate effectiveness of the proposed method in improving the targeting accuracy in the TRUS-guided prostate biopsy.

  18. Reducing Infectious Complications Following Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Prostate Biopsy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jordon T; Singla, Nirmish; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2016-01-01

    A rise in antimicrobial resistant uropathogens has generated a global increase in infections following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx). We performed a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE® and PubMed to comprehensively review strategies to mitigate infections. Of 1664 articles retrieved, 62 were included. The data suggest that augmented prophylaxis and povidone-iodine bowel preparation warrant consideration in regions with high rates of antimicrobial resistance. Transperineal biopsy may be a safer, equally effective alternative to TRUS-Bx in select cases. Recent international travel appears to increase patients' risk for experiencing infections. These findings can aid clinicians in minimizing post-TRUS-Bx infectious complications. PMID:27601966

  19. Reducing Infectious Complications Following Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Prostate Biopsy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jordon T.; Singla, Nirmish; Roehrborn, Claus G.

    2016-01-01

    A rise in antimicrobial resistant uropathogens has generated a global increase in infections following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx). We performed a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE® and PubMed to comprehensively review strategies to mitigate infections. Of 1664 articles retrieved, 62 were included. The data suggest that augmented prophylaxis and povidone-iodine bowel preparation warrant consideration in regions with high rates of antimicrobial resistance. Transperineal biopsy may be a safer, equally effective alternative to TRUS-Bx in select cases. Recent international travel appears to increase patients’ risk for experiencing infections. These findings can aid clinicians in minimizing post-TRUS-Bx infectious complications. PMID:27601966

  20. Diagnosis of relevant prostate cancer using supplementary cores from magnetic resonance imaging-prompted areas following multiple failed biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel N.; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Yao, David F.; Sanda, Martin G.; Ngo, Long; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Pedrosa, Ivan; DeWolf, William C.; Rofsky, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To establish the value of MRI in targeting re-biopsy for undiagnosed prostate cancer despite multiple negative biopsies, and determine clinical relevance of detected tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS 38 patients who underwent MRI after 2 or more negative biopsies due to continued clinical suspicion, and later underwent TRUS-guided biopsy supplemented by biopsy of suspicious areas depicted by MRI were identified. Diagnostic performance of endorectal 3T MRI in diagnosing missed cancer foci was assessed using biopsy results as the standard of reference. Ratio of positive biopsies using systematic versus MRI-prompted approaches was compared. Gleason scores of detected cancers were used as surrogate for clinical relevance. RESULTS 34% of patients who underwent MRI before re-biopsy had prostate cancer on subsequent biopsy. The positive biopsy yield with systematic sampling was 23% versus 92% with MRI-prompted biopsies(p<0.0001). 77% of tumors were detected exclusively in the MRI-prompted zones. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of MRI to provide a positive biopsy were 92%, 60%, 55%, 94% and 71%, respectively. The anterior gland and apical regions contained most tumors; 75% of cancers detected by MRI-prompted biopsy had Gleason score≥7. CONCLUSIONS Clinically relevant tumors missed by multiple TRUS-guided biopsies can be detected by a MRI-prompted approach. PMID:23602725

  1. Electrical property-based biopsy for prostate cancer detection and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halter, Ryan J.; Mishra, Vaishali; Bouayad, Hamza; Manwaring, Preston; Heaney, John; Schned, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Prostate cancer diagnosis is based solely on biopsy-based findings. Unfortunately, routine biopsy protocols only sample ~0.95% of the entire gland limiting the technique's sensitivity to cancer detection. Previous studies have demonstrated significant electrical property differences between malignant and benign prostate tissues due to their dissimilar morphological architectures. We have taken the important step of translating these findings to the clinic by integrating an electrical property sensor into the tip of a standard biopsy needle. This novel device allows clinicians to simultaneously extract a tissue core and assess the electrical properties around the needle tip in real-time. The expected volume of tissue sensed with this device was estimated using finite-element method (FEM) based simulations to model the potential fields and current distributions. Prototype devices have been constructed and evaluated in a series of saline baths in order to validate the FEM-based findings. Simulations suggest that the electrical property sensor is able to interrogate a tissue volume of ~62.1 mm3 and experimental results demonstrated a volume of sensitivity of ~68.7 mm3. This coupled device is being used to assess the increased sensitivity and specificity to cancer detection when electrical properties are sensed in concert with tissue core extraction in a series of 50 ex vivo prostates. Typical 12-core prostate biopsy protocols extract a total tissue volume of 228 mm3 for histological assessment. Employing this electrical property sensor to gauge electrical properties at both the beginning and end of the needle trajectory will provide pathological assessment of an additional 1648 mm3 of tissue.

  2. Relationship Between Perineural Invasion in Prostate Needle Biopsy Specimens and Pathologic Staging After Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Niroomand, Hassan; Nowroozi, Mohammadreza; Ayati, Mohsen; Jamshidian, Hassan; Arbab, Amir; Momeni, Seyed Ali; Ghadian, Alireza; Ghorbani, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy among men worldwide and the sixth cause of cancer-related death. Some authors have reported a relationship between perineural invasion (PNI), Gleason score, and the invasion of peripheral organs during prostatectomy. However, it is not yet clear whether pathological evidence of PNI is necessary for risk stratification in selecting treatment type. Objectives The clinical and pathological stages of prostate cancer are compared in patients under radical prostatectomy and in patients without perineural invasion. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted using a sample of 109 patients who attended a tertiary health care center from 2008 to 2013. The selection criteria were PNI in prostate biopsy with Gleason scores less than six, seven, and eight to ten. The participants were enrolled in a census manner, and they underwent clinical staging. After radical prostatectomy, the rates of pathological staging were compared. The under-staging and over-staging rates among those with and without perineural invasion in biopsy samples were compared. Results The concordance between Gleason scores according to biopsy and pathology was 36.7% (40 subjects). The concordance rate was 46.4% and 33.3% among those with and without PNI, respectively. The concordance rates were significantly varied in different subclasses of Gleason scores in patients without PNI (P = 0.003); the highest concordance rate was a Gleason score of 7 (63.6%) and the lowest was a Gleason score of eight to ten (25%). However, there were no significant differences in patients with PNI (P > 0.05). Conclusions Although the presence of PNI in prostate biopsy is accompanied by higher surgical stages, PNI is not an appropriate independent factor in risk stratification.

  3. A fully actuated robotic assistant for MRI-guided prostate biopsy and brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Su, Hao; Shang, Weijian; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare M.; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2013-03-01

    Intra-operative medical imaging enables incorporation of human experience and intelligence in a controlled, closed-loop fashion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an ideal modality for surgical guidance of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, with its ability to perform high resolution, real-time, high soft tissue contrast imaging without ionizing radiation. However, for most current image-guided approaches only static pre-operative images are accessible for guidance, which are unable to provide updated information during a surgical procedure. The high magnetic field, electrical interference, and limited access of closed-bore MRI render great challenges to developing robotic systems that can perform inside a diagnostic high-field MRI while obtaining interactively updated MR images. To overcome these limitations, we are developing a piezoelectrically actuated robotic assistant for actuated percutaneous prostate interventions under real-time MRI guidance. Utilizing a modular design, the system enables coherent and straight forward workflow for various percutaneous interventions, including prostate biopsy sampling and brachytherapy seed placement, using various needle driver configurations. The unified workflow compromises: 1) system hardware and software initialization, 2) fiducial frame registration, 3) target selection and motion planning, 4) moving to the target and performing the intervention (e.g. taking a biopsy sample) under live imaging, and 5) visualization and verification. Phantom experiments of prostate biopsy and brachytherapy were executed under MRI-guidance to evaluate the feasibility of the workflow. The robot successfully performed fully actuated biopsy sampling and delivery of simulated brachytherapy seeds under live MR imaging, as well as precise delivery of a prostate brachytherapy seed distribution with an RMS accuracy of 0.98mm.

  4. Incidence of sepsis following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy at a tertiary-care medical center in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Shahait, Mohammed; Degheili, Jad; El-Merhi, Fadi; Tamim, Hani; Nasr, Rami

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Urosepsis is a rare but life-threatening complication following transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided needle prostate biopsy. Despite the technological and pharmacological improvements, the problem of bacterial urosepsis after prostate biopsy remains. A strategy for preventing urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy in areas with high prevalence of resistant strains or patients presenting risk factors is lacking. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of urosepsis, as well its predictors, following TRUS guided needle biopsy of the prostate in a tertiary care medical center in Lebanon. Materials and Methods We carried out a retrospective study on all patients who underwent TRUS prostate biopsy at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between January 1, 2011 and June 31, 2013. Patients’ hospital charts were reviewed. Data collected included demographic information, pre-procedure disease specific information, as well as post-procedure information. Predictors of urosepsis following TRUS were assessed. Results In total, 265 patients were included in this study, where the prevalence of urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy was found to be 9.4%. The significant independent predictors of urosepsis were found to be: age with an OR=0.93 (95% CI: 0.88–1.00, p-value=0.03), and hypertension comorbidity with an OR=3.25 (95% CI: 1.19–8.85, p-value=0.02). Conclusion We found a high prevalence of urosepsis among patients who have undergone TRUS prostate biopsy, and identified two significant risk factors. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing strategies for prevention of urosepsis following TRUS prostate biopsy. PMID:27136468

  5. Clinical significance of single microscopic focus of adenocarcinoma at prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Selahattin; Koca, Orhan; Akyüz, Mehmet; Öztürk, Metin; Karaman, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancer and an important reason of cancer specific death. The incidence of patients who diagnosed at low stage increased because of widespread using Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing. We evaluated the patients who were diagnosed single microscopic focus of adenocarcinoma and treated radical prostatectomy at final pathology. Methods The patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy between January 2004 and January 2012 were enrolled retrospectively. We extracted the patients who were diagnosed single microscopic focus of adenocarcinoma and treated with RP. Single microscopic adenocarcinoma was defined as one single focus measuring 3 mm or less, well differentiated (Gleason ≤6) adenocarcinoma. 37 patients were included at the study. Clinical data; including age, serum PSA levels, PSA density and prior biopsy and prostatectomy specimen results were recorded. In pathological examination; high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMW-CK), p63, and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) were used for differential diagnosis. Results The patients' ages were between 42 and 77 with a mean age of 64.9 ± 7.57 years. Mean PSA levels and prostate volumes were 8.03 ± 5.21 ng/ml and 54 ± 25.51 cc. T0, T2a, T2c and T3a were reported in 2 patients, 17 patients, 17 patients and 1 patient after pathological evaluation. According to the Gleason grading system; 6 patients were 7 (3 + 4), one patient was 7 (4 + 3), one patient was 5 (3 + 2) and 27 patients were 6 (3 + 3). Conclusion Small volume of cancer at prostate biopsy is not necessarily small cancer in radical prostatectomy. The treatment choice may be over or under treatment for some patients, so the patients must be informed when choosing the treatment. PMID:26779460

  6. Is Visual Registration Equivalent to Semiautomated Registration in Prostate Biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jin Tae; Hong, Cheng William; Pinto, Peter A.; Williams, Molly; Xu, Sheng; Kruecker, Jochen; Yan, Pingkun; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2015-01-01

    In magnetic resonance iimaging- (MRI-) ultrasound (US) guided biopsy, suspicious lesions are identified on MRI, registered on US, and targeted during biopsy. The registration can be performed either by a human operator (visual registration) or by fusion software. Previous studies showed that software registration is fairly accurate in locating suspicious lesions and helps to improve the cancer detection rate. Here, the performance of visual registration was examined for ability to locate suspicious lesions defined on MRI. This study consists of 45 patients. Two operators with differing levels of experience (<1 and 18 years) performed visual registration. The overall spatial difference by the two operators in 72 measurements was 10.6 ± 6.0 mm. Each operator showed a spatial difference of 9.4 ± 5.1 mm (experienced; 39 lesions) and 12.1 ± 6.6 mm (inexperienced; 33 lesions), respectively. In a head-to-head comparison of the same 16 lesions from 12 patients, the spatial differences were 9.7 mm ± 4.9 mm (experienced) and 13.4 mm ± 7.4 mm (inexperienced). There were significant differences between the two operators (unpaired, P value = 0.042; paired, P value = 0.044). The substantial differences by the two operators suggest that visual registration could improperly and inaccurately target many tumors, thereby potentially leading to missed diagnosis or false characterization on pathology. PMID:25821799

  7. Template guided transperineal saturation biopsy of the prostate: lessons for focal and urethra-sparing high-dose-rate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanaev, Sergey Vasilevich; Novikov, Roman Vladimirovich; IIlin, Nikolay Dmitrievich; Artemieva, Anna Sergeevna; Ivantcov, Alexnder Olegovich; Piskunov, Evgeniy Alexandrovich; Gotovchikova, Mariya Yurievna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this work is to evaluate results of prostate transperineal saturation biopsy as a guide for focal high-dose-rate brachytherapy in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Material and methods Template guided saturation biopsy was performed in 67 primary patients with suspicion for prostate cancer. Biopsy was performed under ultrasonography (US) control with the help of brachytherapy grid and 5 mm distance between samples. We put special attention for accurate sampling of prostate in periurethral region. The number of cores varied from 17 to 81 (average 36 cores). Finally, in 40 patients with confirmed prostate cancer results of biopsy were used for brachytherapy planning. Results Saturation biopsy revealed prostate cancer in 40 of 67 evaluated patients. The extent of biopsy core involvement varied from 5% to 100% (average: 57%). Focal nature of PCa (single unilateral tumor nodule) was diagnosed in 10 (25%), multifocal – in another 30 (75%) patients. Hemigland invasion was mentioned in 12 (30%) cases. Saturation biopsy detected PCa in periurethral cores in 27 (67.5%) of 40 evaluated patients. In 10 patients, the extent of involvement in periurethral cores varied between 10% and 50%; in another, 17 observations exceeded 50%. According to results obtained on saturation biopsy, we performed HDR brachytherapy with “urethra low dose tunnel” (D10ur ≤ 80-90%) in 13 patients with noninvolved periurethral cores. Theoretically, hemigland brachytherapy was possible in 12 of 40 evaluated patients with PCa. Conclusions In low risk patients with PCa results of template guided saturation biopsy indicates high frequency (75%) of multifocal disease and high probability (67.5%) of periurethral invasion. Suitable candidates for focal HDR brachytherapy or irradiation with additional sparing of urethra can be effectively determined with the help of saturation biopsy. PMID:27257414

  8. Pseudohyperplastic Adenocarcinoma With Foamy Changes in Needle Prostate Biopsy and Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Arista-Nasr, Julian; Barrañon-Martìnez, Isidoro; Aguilar-Ayala, Elizmara; Bornstein, Leticia; Trolle-Silva, Alicia; Aleman-Sanchez, Claudia Natalia; Martinez-Benitez, Braulio

    2016-09-01

    Pseudohyperplastic adenocarcinoma (PHA) with foamy changes is composed of neoplastic glands that show a cytoarchitectural combination of both neoplasms. However, none of the previously reported cases have shown typical areas of foamy or PHA. We report on the clinicopathological characteristics of 5 cases consisting predominantly of pseudohyperplastic and foamy adenocarcinomas. In several histological fields, this neoplasm mimicked hyperplastic nodules or prostatic adenosis because they showed the nodular pattern of the PHA and the inconspicuous cytological atypia of foamy gland carcinoma. Four cases had a Gleason score of 6. In the prostatectomies, the neoplasm was limited to the prostatic gland. The evolution has been favorable in all patients after 3 years of follow-up, on average. The cases reported herein demonstrate that PHA and foamy adenocarcinoma may be associated and occasionally show overlapping histological criteria. The PHA with foamy changes must be distinguished from conventional foamy adenocarcinoma and PHA because it can closely resemble hyperplastic glands mainly in needle prostatic biopsy. PMID:27020374

  9. Comparison between Ultrasound Guided Transperineal and Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: A Prospective, Randomized, and Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Le-Hang; Wu, Rong; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Xu, Jun-Mei; Wu, Jian; Wang, Shuai; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Liu, Bo-Ji

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study of comparing transperineal prostate biopsy (TPBx) with transrectal prostate biopsy (TRBx) was aimed to provide evidence for clinicians to select the appropriate biopsy approach under different conditions. TPBx (n = 173) and TRBx (n = 166) were performed randomly for 339 patients who were suspicious of prostate cancer (PCa). The cancer detection rate (CDR), complication rate, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, most painful procedure, number of repeated biopsy and additional anesthesia, and operating time (starting from lying down on the operating table to getting up) were recorded. The results showed that TPBx and TRBx were equivalent in CDR (35.3% vs. 31.9%) and minor complication rate (44.9% vs. 41.0%) (both P > 0.05). The major complication rate was lower in TPBx than in TRBx (0.6% vs. 4.3%, P < 0.05). TPBx was more time-consuming (17.51 ± 3.33 min vs. 14.73 ± 3.25 min) and painful (VAS score: 4.0 vs. 2.0); and it had higher rates of repeated biopsy (3.2% vs. 1.1%) and additional anesthesia (15.0% vs. 1.2%) (all P < 0.05). In summary, both TPBx and TRBx are effective to detect PCa. The major complication rate for TRBx is higher, whereas TPBx procedure is more complex and painful. PMID:26526558

  10. Biologically effective dose values for prostate brachytherapy: Effects on PSA failure and posttreatment biopsy results

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, Richard G. . E-mail: richard.stock@msnyuhealth.org; Stone, Nelson N.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of biologically effective dose (BED) values on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure and posttreatment biopsy. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2003, 1,377 patients had prostate brachytherapy alone (I-125 or Pd-103) (571), hormonal and brachytherapy (371), and trimodality therapy (hormonal, implant, and external beam) (435). Dose was defined as the D90 (dose delivered to 90% of the gland from the dose-volume histogram). Results: Freedom from PSA failure (FFPF) at 10 years was 87%. The 10-year FFPF for BED <100, >100-120, >120-140, >140-160, <160-180, >180-200, and >200 were 46%, 68%, 81%, 85.5%, 90%, 90%, and 92%, respectively (p < 0.0001). BED and Gleason score had the greatest effect, with p values of p < 0.0001 in multivariate analysis. Posttreatment positive biopsy rate was 7% (31/446). The positive biopsy rates for BED {<=}100, >100-120, >120-140, >140-160, >160-180, >180-200, and >200 were 24% (8/33), 15% (3/20), 6% (2/33), 6% (3/52), 7% (6/82), 1% (1/72), and 3% (4/131), respectively (p < 0.0001). BED was the most significant predictor of biopsy outcome in multivariate analysis (p = 0.006). Conclusions: Biologically effective dose equations provide a method of comparing different isotopes and combined therapies in the brachytherapy management of prostate cancer. The effects of BED on FFPF and posttreatment biopsy demonstrate a strong dose-response relationship.

  11. Design of a predictive targeting error simulator for MRI-guided prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avni, Shachar; Vikal, Siddharth; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-02-01

    Multi-parametric MRI is a new imaging modality superior in quality to Ultrasound (US) which is currently used in standard prostate biopsy procedures. Surface-based registration of the pre-operative and intra-operative prostate volumes is a simple alternative to side-step the challenges involved with deformable registration. However, segmentation errors inevitably introduced during prostate contouring spoil the registration and biopsy targeting accuracies. For the crucial purpose of validating this procedure, we introduce a fully interactive and customizable simulator which determines the resulting targeting errors of simulated registrations between prostate volumes given user-provided parameters for organ deformation, segmentation, and targeting. We present the workflow executed by the simulator in detail and discuss the parameters involved. We also present a segmentation error introduction algorithm, based on polar curves and natural cubic spline interpolation, which introduces statistically realistic contouring errors. One simulation, including all I/O and preparation for rendering, takes approximately 1 minute and 40 seconds to complete on a system with 3 GB of RAM and four Intel Core 2 Quad CPUs each with a speed of 2.40 GHz. Preliminary results of our simulation suggest the maximum tolerable segmentation error given the presence of a 5.0 mm wide small tumor is between 4-5 mm. We intend to validate these results via clinical trials as part of our ongoing work.

  12. Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Fronheiser, Matthew; Bell, Brent A.; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2010-03-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) tomography has demonstrated utility in identifying blood-rich malignancies in breast tissue. We describe the development and characterization of a laser OA imaging system for the prostate (LOIS-P). The system consists of a fiber-coupled Q-switched laser operating at 757 nm, a commercial 128-channel ultrasonic probe, a digital signal processor, and software that uses the filtered radial back-projection algorithm for image reconstruction. The system is used to reconstruct OA images of a blood-rich lesion induced in vivo in a canine prostate. OA images obtained in vivo are compared to images acquired using ultrasound, the current gold standard for guiding biopsy of the prostate. Although key structural features such as the urethra could be identified with both imaging techniques, a bloody lesion representing a highly vascularized tumor could only be clearly identified in OA images. The advantages and limitations of both forward and backward illumination modes are also evaluated by collecting OA images of phantoms simulating blood vessels within tissue. System resolution is estimated to be 0.2 mm in the radial direction of the acoustic array. The minimum detectable pressure signal is 1.83 Pa. Our results encourage further development toward a dual-modality OA/ultrasonic system for prostate imaging and image-guided biopsy.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging - ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy outperforms standard approaches in detecting prostate cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuping; Zhang, Jiayi; Tang, Jingyuan; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Guo, Hongqian; Zhou, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging - ultrasound (MRI-US) fusion prostate biopsy is superior to systematic biopsy for making a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. The two strategies were also compared regarding their ability to detect clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. A literature search was conducted through the PubMed, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using appropriate search terms. A total of 3,415 cases from 21 studies were included in the present meta-analysis. Data were expressed as relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval. The results revealed that MRI-US fusion biopsy achieved a higher rate of overall prostate cancer detection compared with systematic biopsy (RR=1.09; P=0.047). Moreover, MRI-US fusion biopsy detected more clinically significant cancers compared with systematic biopsy (RR=1.22; P<0.01). It is therefore recommended that multi-parametric MRI-US is performed in men suspected of having prostate cancer to optimize the detection of clinically significant disease, while reducing the burden of biopsies. PMID:27446568

  14. Ten-core versus 16-core transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for detection of prostatic carcinoma: a prospective comparative study in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, V. Surya; Mohan, G. Chandra; Krishnaiah, S. Venkata; Vijaykumar, V.; Babu, G. Ramesh; Reddy, G. Vijaya Bhaskar; Mahaboob, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the cancer detection rate in patients with raised serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) results between the 10-core and the 16-core biopsy techniques in an Indian population. Methods: Between November 2010 and November 2012, 95 men aged >50 years who presented to the Urology Department with lower urinary tract symptoms, elevated serum PSA, and/or abnormal DRE findings underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. A total of 53 patients underwent 10-core biopsy and 42 patients underwent 16-core biopsy. Results: Of the 53 men in the 10-core group, 8 had cancer, whereas in the 16-core biopsy group, 23 of 42 men had cancer. Detection of prostate cancer was significantly higher in patients who underwent 16-core biopsy than in those who underwent 10-core biopsy (P<0.001). Among the 95 men, 44 men had abnormal DRE findings (46.3%), of whom 23 showed cancer (52.27%). Of 51 men with normal DRE findings and elevated PSA, 8 men had malignancy with a cancer detection rate of 15.68%. Among 20 men with PSA between 4.1 and 10 ng/mL, 2 (10%) had cancer. In 31 men with PSA between 10.1 and 20 ng/mL, 3 cancers (9.67%) were detected, and in 44 men with PSA >20 ng/mL, 26 cancers were detected (59.09%). Conclusions: The cancer detection rate with 16-core TRUS-guided biopsy is significantly higher than that with 10-core biopsy (54.76% vs. 15.09%, P<0.001). In patients with both normal and abnormal DRE findings, 16-core biopsy has a better detection rate than the 10-core biopsy protocol. With increasing PSA, there is a high rate of detection of prostate cancer in both 10-core and 16-core biopsy patients. PMID:24392441

  15. In vivo testing of laser optoacoustic system for image-guided biopsy of prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oraevsky, Alexander; Ermilov, Sergey; Mehta, Ketan; Miller, Tom; Bell, Brent; Orihuela, Eduardo; Motamedi, Massoud

    2006-02-01

    We have developed and used a laser optoacoustic imaging system with transrectal probe (LOIS-P) for detection of mechanical lesions in canine prostates in vivo. LOIS images have been acquired with a 128-channel transrectal probe and a 32-channel data acquisition system. Optoacoustic images showed a strong contrast enhancement for a blood containing lesion, when compared with ultrasound images. Our studies demonstrated that sufficient optoacoustic contrast exists between blood containing lesion and prostate tissue, although the lesion has been undetectable with ultrasound. The imaging results have been compared with visual examination of surgically excised prostates. Although axial resolution of the wide-band transducers employed in the transrectal probe provides good axial resolution of 0.5 mm, the convex arc geometry of the this array of transducers provides lateral resolution degrading with depth in tissue. A two step algorithm has been developed to improve the lateral resolution of deeply located objects. This algorithm employs optoacoustic image reconstruction based on radial back-projection to determine location and shape of the target object, then a procedure, we call Maximum Angular Amplitude Probability (MAAP), to determine true brightness of the object and simultaneously remove arc-shaped artifacts associated with radial back-projection. A laser optoacoustic imaging system (LOIS-P) with transrectal probe operating in backward detection mode empowered with the new image reconstruction algorithm seems promising as a modality for detection of prostate cancer and guiding prostate biopsy.

  16. NOTE: Adaptation of a 3D prostate cancer atlas for transrectal ultrasound guided target-specific biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, R.; Werahera, P. N.; Barqawi, A.; Crawford, E. D.; Shinohara, K.; Simoneau, A. R.; Suri, J. S.

    2008-10-01

    Due to lack of imaging modalities to identify prostate cancer in vivo, current TRUS guided prostate biopsies are taken randomly. Consequently, many important cancers are missed during initial biopsies. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential clinical utility of a high-speed registration algorithm for a 3D prostate cancer atlas. This 3D prostate cancer atlas provides voxel-level likelihood of cancer and optimized biopsy locations on a template space (Zhan et al 2007). The atlas was constructed from 158 expert annotated, 3D reconstructed radical prostatectomy specimens outlined for cancers (Shen et al 2004). For successful clinical implementation, the prostate atlas needs to be registered to each patient's TRUS image with high registration accuracy in a time-efficient manner. This is implemented in a two-step procedure, the segmentation of the prostate gland from a patient's TRUS image followed by the registration of the prostate atlas. We have developed a fast registration algorithm suitable for clinical applications of this prostate cancer atlas. The registration algorithm was implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU) to meet the critical processing speed requirements for atlas guided biopsy. A color overlay of the atlas superposed on the TRUS image was presented to help pick statistically likely regions known to harbor cancer. We validated our fast registration algorithm using computer simulations of two optimized 7- and 12-core biopsy protocols to maximize the overall detection rate. Using a GPU, patient's TRUS image segmentation and atlas registration took less than 12 s. The prostate cancer atlas guided 7- and 12-core biopsy protocols had cancer detection rates of 84.81% and 89.87% respectively when validated on the same set of data. Whereas the sextant biopsy approach without the utility of 3D cancer atlas detected only 70.5% of the cancers using the same histology data. We estimate 10-20% increase in prostate cancer detection rates

  17. Disease-specific survival of patients with invasive cribriform and intraductal prostate cancer at diagnostic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kweldam, Charlotte F; Kümmerlin, Intan P; Nieboer, Daan; Verhoef, Esther I; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van der Kwast, Theodorus H; Roobol, Monique J; van Leenders, Geert J

    2016-06-01

    Invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens have been associated with an adverse clinical outcome. Our objective was to determine the prognostic value of invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma in pre-treatment biopsies on time to disease-specific death. We pathologically revised the diagnostic biopsies of 1031 patients from the first screening round of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (1993-2000). Ninety percent of all patients (n=923) had received active treatment, whereas 10% (n=108) had been followed by watchful waiting. The median follow-up was 13 years. Patients who either had invasive cribriform growth pattern or intraductal carcinoma were categorized as CR/IDC+. The outcome was disease-specific survival. Relationships with outcome were analyzed using multivariable Cox regression and log-rank analysis. In total, 486 patients had Gleason score 6 (47%) and 545 had ≥7 (53%). The 15-year disease-specific-survival probabilities were 99% in Gleason score 6 (n=486), 94% in CR/IDC- Gleason score ≥7 (n=356) and 67% in CR/IDC+ Gleason score ≥7 (n=189). CR/IDC- Gleason score 3+4=7 patients did not have statistically different survival probabilities from those with Gleason score 6 (P=0.30), while CR/IDC+ Gleason score 3+4=7 patients did (P<0.001). In multivariable analysis, CR/IDC+ status was independently associated with a poorer disease-specific survival (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.8, P=0.002). We conclude that CR/IDC+ status in prostate cancer biopsies is associated with a worse disease-specific survival. Our findings indicate that men with biopsy CR/IDC- Gleason score 3+4=7 prostate cancer could be candidates for active surveillance, as these patients have similar survival probabilities to those with Gleason score 6. PMID:26939875

  18. Performance of the Prostate Health Index in predicting prostate biopsy outcomes among men with a negative digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Peng; Na, Rong; Ye, Ding-Wei; Qi, Jun; Liu, Fang; Chen, Hai-Tao; Wu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Sun, Jie-Lin; Zhu, Yao; Huang, Li-Qun; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Jiang, De-Ke; Zheng, S Lilly; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Sun, Ying-Hao; Ding, Qiang; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    The [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and its derivatives, the p2PSA-to-free PSA ratio (%p2PSA), and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) have greatly improved discrimination between men with and without prostate cancer (PCa) in prostate biopsies. However, little is known about their performance in cases where a digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) are negative. A prospective cohort of 261 consecutive patients in China with negative DRE and TRUS were recruited and underwent prostate biopsies. A serum sample had collected before the biopsy was used to measure various PSA derivatives, including total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA, and p2PSA. For each patient, the free-to-total PSA ratio (%fPSA), PSA density (PSAD), p2PSA-to-free PSA ratio (%p2PSA), and PHI were calculated. Discriminative performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the biopsy rate at 91% sensitivity. The AUC scores within the entire cohort with respect to age, tPSA, %fPSA, PSAD, p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were 0.598, 0.751, 0.646, 0.789, 0.814, 0.808, and 0.853, respectively. PHI was the best predictor of prostate biopsy results, especially in patients with a tPSA of 10.1-20 ng ml-1 . Compared with other markers, at a sensitivity of 91%, PHI was the most useful for determining which men did not need to undergo biopsy, thereby avoiding unnecessary procedures. The use of PHI could improve the accuracy of PCa detection by predicting prostate biopsy outcomes among men with a negative DRE and TRUS in China. PMID:26975483

  19. Performance of the Prostate Health Index in predicting prostate biopsy outcomes among men with a negative digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guo-Peng; Na, Rong; Ye, Ding-Wei; Qi, Jun; Liu, Fang; Chen, Hai-Tao; Wu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Sun, Jie-Lin; Zhu, Yao; Huang, Li-Qun; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Jiang, De-Ke; Zheng, S L; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Sun, Ying-Hao; Ding, Qiang; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    The [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and its derivatives, the p2PSA-to-free PSA ratio (%p2PSA), and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) have greatly improved discrimination between men with and without prostate cancer (PCa) in prostate biopsies. However, little is known about their performance in cases where a digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) are negative. A prospective cohort of 261 consecutive patients in China with negative DRE and TRUS were recruited and underwent prostate biopsies. A serum sample had collected before the biopsy was used to measure various PSA derivatives, including total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA, and p2PSA. For each patient, the free-to-total PSA ratio (%fPSA), PSA density (PSAD), p2PSA-to-free PSA ratio (%p2PSA), and PHI were calculated. Discriminative performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the biopsy rate at 91% sensitivity. The AUC scores within the entire cohort with respect to age, tPSA, %fPSA, PSAD, p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were 0.598, 0.751, 0.646, 0.789, 0.814, 0.808, and 0.853, respectively. PHI was the best predictor of prostate biopsy results, especially in patients with a tPSA of 10.1–20 ng ml−1. Compared with other markers, at a sensitivity of 91%, PHI was the most useful for determining which men did not need to undergo biopsy, thereby avoiding unnecessary procedures. The use of PHI could improve the accuracy of PCa detection by predicting prostate biopsy outcomes among men with a negative DRE and TRUS in China. PMID:26975483

  20. Does an asymmetric lobe in digital rectal examination include any risk for prostate cancer? results of 1495 biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ömer; Kurul, Özgür; Ates, Ferhat; Soydan, Hasan; Aktas, Zeki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Despite the well-known findings related to malignity in DRE such as nodule and induration, asymmetry of prostatic lobes, seen relatively, were investigated in a few studies as a predictor of prostate cancer so that there is no universally expected conclusion about asymmetry. We aimed to compare cancer detection rate of normal, asymmetric or suspicious findings in DRE by using biopsy results. Materials and Methods: Data of 1495 patients underwent prostate biopsy between 2006-2014 were searched retrospectively. Biopsy indications were abnormal DRE and or elevated PSA level(>4ng/mL). DRE findings were recorded as Group 1: Benign DRE, Group 2: Asymmetry and Group 3: Nodule/induration. Age, prostatic volume, biopsy results and PSA levels were recorded. Results: Mean age, prostate volume and PSA level were 66.72, 55.98 cc and 18.61ng/ mL respectively. Overall cancer detection rate was 38.66 % (575 of 1495). PSA levels were similar in group 1 and 2 but significantly higher in group 3. Prostatic volume was similar in group 1 and 2 and significantly lower in Group 3. Malignity detection rate of group 1,2 and 3 were 28.93%, 34.89% and 55.99% respectively. Group 1 and 2 were similar (p=0.105) but 3 had more chance for cancer detection. Conclusion: Nodule is the most important finding in DRE for cancer detection. Only an asymmetric prostate itself does not mean malignity. PMID:27564280

  1. Incidence of bladder cancer discovered by urethrocystoscopy at prostate biopsy: extraordinary high incidence of tiny bladder cancer in elderly males.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Suzuki, Takanori; Kurokawa, Kohei; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Yamanaka, Hidetoshi

    2004-05-01

    In order to clarify the incidence of bladder cancer with and without prostate cancer, we investigated bladder cancer discovered incidentally by urethrocystoscopy at prostate biopsy. Between April 1997 and December 2003, 498 patients who were suspected prostate cancer were performed prostate biopsy and urethrocystoscopy simultaneously. We investigate possible invasion of prostate cancer into the urethra or bladder mucosa as well as bladder cancer, including other benign lesions of the bladder by urethrocystoscopy. Prostate cancer was confirmed in 175 (35.1%) of the 498 patients histologically, and bladder cancer was discovered incidentally in 12 patients (2.4 %). The incidence of bladder cancer in patients with prostate cancer of 2.3% (4/175) was not significantly different from that in patients without prostate cancer, which was 2.5% (8/323). Superficial and those with a size less than 1 cm were noted in 11 patients (92%) and 10 patients (83%) respectively. High incidence rate of bladder cancer with prostate cancer was reported previously, however, there was no study to compare the incidence rate of bladder cancer between cases with and without prostate cancer. The present study suggests that asymptomatic tiny bladder cancer may be present at an unexpectedly high incidence rate in elderly males. PMID:15185969

  2. Outbreak of Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Ochrobactrum anthropi Infections after Prostate Biopsies, France, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Cassier, Pierre; Dananché, Cédric; Hulin, Monique; Dauwalder, Olivier; Rouvière, Olivier; Bertrand, Xavier; Perraud, Michel; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of healthcare-associated prostatitis involving rare environmental pathogens in immunocompetent patients undergoing transrectal prostate biopsies at Hôpital Édouard Herriot (Lyon, France) during August 13–October 10, 2014. Despite a fluoroquinolone-based prophylaxis, 5 patients were infected with Achromobacter xylosoxidans and 3 with Ochrobactrum anthropi, which has not been reported as pathogenic in nonimmunocompromised persons. All patients recovered fully. Analysis of the outbreak included case investigation, case–control study, biopsy procedure review, microbiologic testing of environmental and clinical samples, and retrospective review of hospital records for 4 years before the outbreak. The cases resulted from asepsis errors during preparation of materials for the biopsies. A low-level outbreak involving environmental bacteria was likely present for years, masked by antimicrobial drug prophylaxis and a low number of cases. Healthcare personnel should promptly report unusual pathogens in immunocompetent patients to infection control units, and guidelines should explicitly mention asepsis during materials preparation. PMID:27434277

  3. Improving prostate cancer detection in veterans through the development of a clinical decision rule for prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We sought to improve prostate cancer (PC) detection through developing a prostate biopsy clinical decision rule (PBCDR), based on an elevated PSA and laboratory biomarkers. This decision rule could be used after initial PC screening, providing the patient and clinician information to consider prior to biopsy. Methods This case–control study evaluated men from the Tampa, Florida, James A. Haley (JH) Veteran’s Administration (VA) (N = 1,378), from January 1, 1998, through April 15, 2005. To assess the PBCDR we did all of the following: 1) Identified biomarkers that are related to PC and have the capability of improving the efficiency of PC screening; 2) Developed statistical models to determine which can best predict the probability of PC; 3) Compared each potential model to PSA alone using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves, to evaluate for improved overall effectiveness in PC detection and reduction in (negative) biopsies; and 4) Evaluated dose–response relationships between specified lab biomarkers (surrogates for extra-prostatic disease development) and PC progression. Results The following biomarkers were related to PC: hemoglobin (HGB) (OR = 1.42 95% CI 1.27, 1.59); red blood cell (RBC) count (OR = 2.52 95% CI 1.67, 3.78); PSA (OR = 1.04 95% CI 1.03, 1.05); and, creatinine (OR = 1.55 95% CI 1.12, 2.15). Comparing all PC stages versus non-cancerous conditions, the ROC curve area under the curve (AUC) enlarged (increasing the probability of correctly classifying PC): PSA (alone) 0.59 (95% CI 0.55, 0.61); PBCDR model 0.68 (95% CI 0.65, 0.71), and the positive predictive value (PPV) increased: PSA 44.7%; PBCDR model 61.8%. Comparing PC (stages II, III, IV) vs. other, the ROC AUC increased: PSA (alone) 0.63 (95% CI 0.58, 0.66); PBCDR model 0.72 (95% CI 0.68, 0.75), and the PPV increased: 20.6% (PSA); PBCDR model 55.3%. Conclusions These results suggest evaluating certain common biomarkers in conjunction with PSA may improve PC prediction

  4. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... SPR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Image-Guided Percutaneous Needle Biopsy (PNB). Amended 2014 (Resolution 39). ... Thomson KR, Venbrux AC, Morgan RA, eds. Image-Guided Interventions . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  5. DNA Ploidy Measured on Archived Pretreatment Biopsy Material May Correlate With Prostate-Specific Antigen Recurrence After Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, Mira; MacAulay, Calum; Hayes, Malcolm; Korbelik, Jagoda; Morris, W. James; Palcic, Branko

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To explore whether DNA ploidy of prostate cancer cells determined from archived transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens correlates with disease-free survival. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven failures and 47 controls were selected from 1006 consecutive low- and intermediate-risk patients treated with prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy (July 1998-October 2003). Median follow-up was 7.5 years. Ten-year actuarial disease-free survival was 94.1%. Controls were matched using age, initial prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, Gleason score, use of hormone therapy, and follow-up (all P nonsignificant). Seventy-eight specimens were successfully processed; 27 control and 20 failure specimens contained more than 100 tumor cells were used for the final analysis. The Feulgen-Thionin stained cytology samples from archived paraffin blocks were used to determine the DNA ploidy of each tumor by measuring integrated optical densities. Results: The samples were divided into diploid and aneuploid tumors. Aneuploid tumors were found in 16 of 20 of the failures (80%) and 8 of 27 controls (30%). Diploid DNA patients had a significantly lower rate of disease recurrence (P=.0086) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.256). On multivariable analysis, patients with aneuploid tumors had a higher prostate-specific antigen failure rate (HR 5.13). Additionally, those with “excellent” dosimetry (V100 >90%; D90 >144 Gy) had a significantly lower recurrence rate (HR 0.25). All patients with aneuploid tumors and dosimetry classified as “nonexcellent” (V100 <90%; D90 <144 Gy) (5 of 5) had disease recurrence, compared with 40% of patients with aneuploid tumors and “excellent” dosimetry (8 of 15). In contrast, dosimetry did not affect the outcome for diploid patients. Conclusions: Using core biopsy material from archived paraffin blocks, DNA ploidy correctly classified the majority of failures and nonfailures in this study. The results suggest that DNA ploidy can be used as a

  6. 3D non-rigid surface-based MR-TRUS registration for image-guided prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yue; Qiu, Wu; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    Two dimensional (2D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is the standard approach for definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, due to the lack of image contrast of prostate tumors needed to clearly visualize early-stage PCa, prostate biopsy often results in false negatives, requiring repeat biopsies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been considered to be a promising imaging modality for noninvasive identification of PCa, since it can provide a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of early stage PCa. Our main objective is to develop and validate a registration method of 3D MR-TRUS images, allowing generation of volumetric 3D maps of targets identified in 3D MR images to be biopsied using 3D TRUS images. Our registration method first makes use of an initial rigid registration of 3D MR images to 3D TRUS images using 6 manually placed approximately corresponding landmarks in each image. Following the manual initialization, two prostate surfaces are segmented from 3D MR and TRUS images and then non-rigidly registered using a thin-plate spline (TPS) algorithm. The registration accuracy was evaluated using 4 patient images by measuring target registration error (TRE) of manually identified corresponding intrinsic fiducials (calcifications and/or cysts) in the prostates. Experimental results show that the proposed method yielded an overall mean TRE of 2.05 mm, which is favorably comparable to a clinical requirement for an error of less than 2.5 mm.

  7. Clonal evaluation of prostate cancer foci in biopsies with discontinuous tumor involvement by dual ERG/SPINK1 immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Fontugne, Jacqueline; Davis, Kristina; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Udager, Aaron; Mehra, Rohit; McDaniel, Andrew S; Siddiqui, Javed; Rubin, Mark A; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Tomlins, Scott A

    2016-02-01

    The presence of two or more prostate cancer foci separated by intervening benign tissue in a single core is a well-recognized finding on prostate biopsy. Cancer involvement can be measured by including intervening benign tissue or only including the actual cancer involved area. Importantly, this parameter is a common enrollment criterion for active surveillance protocols. We hypothesized that spatially distinct prostate cancer foci in biopsies may arise from separate clones, impacting cancer involvement assessment. Hence, we used dual ERG/SPINK1 immunohistochemistry to determine the frequency of separate clones-when separate tumor foci showed discordant ERG and/or SPINK1 status-in discontinuously involved prostate biopsy cores from two academic institutions. In our cohort of 97 prostate biopsy cores with spatially discrete tumor foci (from 80 patients), discontinuous cancer involvement including intervening tissue ranged from 20 to 100% and Gleason scores ranged from 6 to 9. Twenty-four (25%) of 97 discontinuously involved cores harbored clonally distinct cancer foci by discordant ERG and/or SPINK1 expression status: 58% (14/24) had one ERG(+) focus, and one ERG(-)/SPINK1(-) focus; 29% (7/24) had one SPINK1(+) focus and one ERG(-)/SPINK1(-) focus; and 13% (3/24) had one ERG(+) focus and one SPINK1(+) focus. ERG and SPINK1 overexpression were mutually exclusive in all tumor foci. In summary, our results show that ~25% of discontinuously involved prostate biopsy cores showed tumor foci with discordant ERG/SPINK1 status, consistent with multiclonal disease. The relatively frequent presence of multiclonality in discontinuously involved prostate biopsy cores warrants studies on the potential clinical impact of clonality assessment, particularly in cases where tumor volume in a discontinuous core may impact active surveillance eligibility. PMID:26743468

  8. ERG Expression in Prostate Needle Biopsy: Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sandra L; Yu, Darryl; Wang, Cheng; Saba, Raya; Liu, Shuhong; Trpkov, Kiril; Donnelly, Bryan; Bismar, Tarek A

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the prognostic and diagnostic value of ERG immunohistochemistry (IHC) in prostate needle biopsy when combined with AMACR-CK5/6. ERG IHC was assessed in 119 consecutive prostate needle biopsies where the dual-stain AMACR-CK5/6 IHC was ordered and in 16 cases with a Gleason score (GS) ≥7. IHC results were evaluated in prostate carcinoma (PCA), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), HGPIN with adjacent atypical glands (PINATYP), atypical/suspicious (ASAP) foci, and benign PCA mimickers. GS, HGPIN, extraprostatic extension, perineural invasion, bilateralism of PCA, largest percent of core, and the overall percent of tissue involved by PCA were recorded. ERG was detected in 36% of PCA, 27% of HGPIN, 13% of ATYP/PINATYP, and none of benign mimickers. ERG-positive HGPIN was strongly associated with ERG-positive PCA in the same core compared with ERG-negative HGPIN (P<0.0001). Positive ERG expression in PCA was inversely related to GS and showed trends toward association with higher volume and bilateral disease. ERG was more specific for PCA than AMACR (0.87 vs. 0.23), but less sensitive (0.36 vs. 0.95). In conclusion, ERG IHC is of limited additional diagnostic value when added to AMACR and CK5/6. ERG expression is inversely related to GS and is associated with bilateral involvement and higher PCA tumor volume. ERG-positive HGPIN is strongly associated with the presence of PCA in the same core. Studies investigating the prognostic value of ERG in HGPIN should be implemented to address whether patients with ERG-positive HGPIN are at increased risk for subsequent PCA development. PMID:25517865

  9. High-Resolution Rapid Diagnostic Imaging of Whole Prostate Biopsies Using Video-Rate Fluorescence Structured Illumination Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Kimbrell, Hillary Z; Sholl, Andrew B; Tulman, David B; Elfer, Katherine N; Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C; Lee, Benjamin R; Lacey, Michelle; Brown, J Quincy

    2015-10-01

    Rapid assessment of prostate core biopsy pathology at the point-of-procedure could provide benefit in a variety of clinical situations. Even with advanced transrectal ultrasound guidance and saturation biopsy protocols, prostate cancer can be missed in up to half of all initial biopsy procedures. In addition, collection of tumor specimens for downstream histologic, molecular, and genetic analysis is hindered by low tumor yield due to inability to identify prostate cancer grossly. However, current point-of-procedure pathology protocols, such as frozen section analysis (FSA), are destructive and too time- and labor-intensive to be practical or economical. Ex vivo microscopy of the excised specimens, stained with fast-acting fluorescent histology dyes, could be an attractive nondestructive alternative to FSA. In this work, we report the first demonstration of video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) for rapid high-resolution diagnostic imaging of prostate biopsies in realistic point-of-procedure timeframes. Large mosaic images of prostate biopsies stained with acridine orange are rendered in seconds and contain excellent contrast and detail, exhibiting close correlation with corresponding hematoxylin and eosin histology. A clinically relevant review of VR-SIM images of 34 unfixed and uncut prostate core biopsies by two independent pathologists resulted in an area under the receiver operative curve (AUC) of 0.82-0.88, with a sensitivity ranging from 63% to 88% and a specificity ranging from 78% to 89%. When biopsies contained more than 5% tumor content, the sensitivity improved to 75% to 92%. The image quality, speed, minimal complexity, and ease of use of VR-SIM could prove to be features in favor of adoption as an alternative to destructive pathology at the point-of-procedure. PMID:26282168

  10. Percentage of Positive Biopsy Cores: A Better Risk Stratification Model for Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiayi; Vicini, Frank A.; Williams, Scott G.; Ye Hong; McGrath, Samuel; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) and perineural invasion in predicting the clinical outcomes after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer and to explore the possibilities to improve on existing risk-stratification models. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 1,056 patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer, who had four or more biopsy cores sampled and complete biopsy core data available, were treated with external beam RT, with or without a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost at William Beaumont Hospital. The median follow-up was 7.6 years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with PPC, Gleason score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, T stage, PNI, radiation dose, androgen deprivation, age, prostate-specific antigen frequency, and follow-up duration. A new risk stratification (PPC classification) was empirically devised to incorporate PPC and replace the T stage. Results: On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the PPC was an independent predictor of distant metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival (all p < .05). A PPC >50% was associated with significantly greater distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-8.61), and its independent predictive value remained significant with or without androgen deprivation therapy (all p < .05). In contrast, PNI and T stage were only predictive for locoregional recurrence. Combining the PPC ({<=}50% vs. >50%) with National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk stratification demonstrated added prognostic value of distant metastasis for the intermediate-risk (hazard ratio, 5.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-16.6) and high-risk (hazard ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-11.3) groups, regardless of the use of androgen deprivation and high-dose RT (all p < .05). The proposed PPC classification appears to provide improved stratification of the clinical outcomes relative to the National

  11. Evaluation of PCR-ELISA for determination of telomerase activity in prostate needle biopsy and prostatic fluid specimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhilian; Ramin, Soroush A; Tsai, Christopher; Lui, Paul; Ruckle, Herbert C; Beltz, Richard E; Sands, John F; Slattery, Charles W

    2002-01-01

    The conventional TRAP assay will determine telomerase activity in tissue or other specimens. However, methodological disadvantages limit its clinical use. We evaluated a modified TRAP assay, the telomerase PCR-ELISA, as a practical clinical system for measuring its activity in conjunction with prostate cancer (PCa). We examined telomerase activity by both TRAP and PCR-ELISA assays in 48 sextant needle biopsy (SNB) specimens from dye-marked areas of the prostate glands of 7 PCa patients. Each specimen was histologically confirmed as cancerous or cancer-free by examining a paired specimen taken from the same marked area. In addition, prostatic fluid (PF) specimens were analyzed from 18 patients, 9 of whom were diagnosed with PCa while 9 were diagnosed as cancer-free but mostly with BPH. The results on individual SNB specimens matched well for the two methods. The sensitivity (91%) and specificity (69%) for the PCR-ELISA measurements were consistent with those for the conventional TRAP assay, 88% and 81%, respectively. Quantitatively, with the PCR-ELISA assay, the mean telomerase activity (24.5+/-28.4 units) per needle core with PCa cells was significantly higher than that in needle cores without PCa cells (7.2+/-2.2 unit), as it was with the conventional TRAP assay, namely 25.6+/-27.8 units and 7.3+/-1.8 units, respectively. In PF specimens from PCa patients, which had a lower mean telomerase than was found in needle cores containing PCa cells (7.1+/-1.5 units in the PCR-ELISA, 7.2+/-1.8 units in the conventional TRAP assay), statistical analysis showed good matching between the results from the two assays, overall. In conclusion, the PCR-ELISA can be considered a reliable method to determine telomerase activity as an adjunct in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:12644217

  12. [PCA3 AND TMPRSS2:ERG GENES EXPRESSION IN BIOPSIES OF BENIGN PROSTATE HYPERPLASIA, INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA, AND PROSTATE CANCER].

    PubMed

    Mikhaylenko, D S; Perepechin, D V; Grigoryeva, M V; Zhinzhilo, T A; Safronova, N Yu; Efremov, G D; Sivkov, A V

    2015-01-01

    Morphological analysis of the biopsies for prostate cancer (PCa) often is a difficult task due to heterogeneity and multifocality of tumors. At the same time, a lot of data exist about the potential molecular genetic markers of PCa. The aim of our study is to determine of PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG genes expression in benign hyperplasia (BPH), low and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), PCa for revealing of diagnostic value of those genes expression in benign and precancerous changes in prostate. Total RNA was isolated from 53 biopsies, reverse transcription was performed, gene expression was determined by real time PCR (RT-PCR) then deltaCt index was determined as Ct(PCA3)--Ct(KLK3). Average deltaCt and its SD in BPH were 8.28 ± 3.13, low PIN--8.56 ± 2.64, high PIN--8.98 ±1.69, PCa--1.08 ± 2.36. We have demonstarted that deltaCt did not differ in patients with BPH, low and high grade PIN, whereas significantly increased in PCa relative to any of the three groups listed above (p < 0.0001). Expression of TMPRSS2:ERG was absent in BPH, PIN, but it was detected in 40% (4/10) of PCa cases. ROC-analysis showed that the AUC (area under ROC-curve with 95% CI, p < 0.0001) was 0.98 ± 0.02 in the analysis of a combination of overexpression of PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG. Thus, the expression analysis of the PCA3 and chimeric oncogene TMPRSS2:ERG in biopsy cannot be used for differential diagnosis of BPH, low and high grade PIN. However, overexpression of PCA3 and expression of TMPRSS2:ERG are characteristic in PCa. Expression analysis of these genes by the proposed RT-PCR modification at the threshold level deltaCt 3,22 has diagnostic accuracy 90% to detect PCa in biopsy specimens. PMID:26859937

  13. Postradiation biopsy and histological effects in early-stage prostatic cancer treated with 125iodine implants

    SciTech Connect

    Kandzari, S.J.; Riley, R.S.; Belis, J.A.; Jain, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred twenty patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated with /sup 125/I irradiation to the prostate and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Clinical stages were A-2 (13 pts), B-1 (34 pts), B-2 (49 pts), and C-1 (24 pts). The tumors were well differentiated in 44%, moderately differentiated in 39% and poorly differentiated in 17%. Nineteen of 22 patients with positive lymph nodes had either moderately or poorly differentiated tumors. A total radiation dosage between 15,000 and 24,000 rads per year were given to all patients. Seventy-six patients had been rebiopsied at 1 year, and 26 were positive for malignancy (34%). Thirty-eight patients had rebiopsy at 2 years, and 16 were positive (42%). Forty-four percent of the postradiation biopsies were of a different histologic grade from the primary lesion. Radiation injury was identified in 95% of the posttreatment biopsies and were moderate or severe in 71%. One hundred one patients are living from 1 to 9 years. Eight patients have died of metastatic carcinoma, and 11 have died of cardiovascular problems.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer: Comparative studies including radical prostatectomy specimens and template transperineal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Liam; Weerakoon, Mahesha; Bolton, Damien M.; Ryan, Andrew; Katelaris, Nikolas; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) is an emerging technique aiming to improve upon the diagnostic sensitivity of prostate biopsy. Because of variance in interpretation and application of techniques, results may vary. There is likely a learning curve to establish consistent reporting of mpMRI. This study aims to review current literature supporting the diagnostic utility of mpMRI when compared with radical prostatectomy (RP) and template transperineal biopsy (TTPB) specimens. Methods MEDLINE and PubMed database searches were conducted identifying relevant literature related to comparison of mpMRI with RP or TTPB histology. Results Data suggest that compared with RP and TTPB specimens, the sensitivity of mpMRI for prostate cancer (PCa) detection is 80–90% and the specificity for suspicious lesions is between 50% and 90%. Conclusions mpMRI has an increasing role for PCa diagnosis, staging, and directing management toward improving patient outcomes. Its sensitivity and specificity when compared with RP and TTPB specimens are less than what some expect, possibly reflecting a learning curve for the technique of mpMRI. PMID:26779455

  15. Lymphangiography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy: ineffective for staging early prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, R.; Crane, R.D.; Dail, D.H.

    1984-05-01

    Four hundred thirty-six patients with carcinoma of the prostate had lymphangiography (LAG) as part of their initial evaluation before treatment. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of abnormal opacified lymph nodes was performed routinely. The positivity rate of LAG and FNAB in each clinical stage was compared with the positivity rate predicted for that stage, based on published series of patients with carcinoma of the prostate who underwent pelvic lymph node dissection (LND). Within each clinical stage, the relation of the outcome of LAG/FNAB to histologic tumor grade (Gleason score) and serum acid phosphatase levels was evaluated. LAG/FNAB was of very limited value in patients with less than clinical stage C disease and of no value in patients with a Gleason score of less than 6. Since no two study populations are exactly alike, any evaluation or comparison of tests used to stage patients with carcinoma of the prostate should state the distribution of its patients by clinical stage.

  16. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Image-Guided Biopsy to Detect Seminal Vesicle Invasion by Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raskolnikov, Dima; George, Arvin K.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; Shakir, Nabeel A.; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Rothwax, Jason T.; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Su, Daniel; Stamatakis, Lambros; Merino, Maria J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between multiparametric prostate MRI (MP-MRI) suspicion for seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) by prostate cancer (PCa) and pathology on MRI/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided biopsy. Patients and Methods: From March 2007 to June 2013, 822 patients underwent MP-MRI at 3 Tesla and MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy. Of these, 25 patients underwent targeted biopsy of the seminal vesicles (SVs). In six patients, bilateral SVI was suspected, resulting in 31 samples. MP-MRI findings that triggered these SV biopsies were scored as low, moderate, or high suspicion for SVI based on the degree of involvement on MRI. Correlative prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy (RP) pathology were reviewed by a single genitourinary pathologist. Results: At the time of MP-MRI, the median age was 64 years with a median prostate-specific antigen of 10.74 ng/mL. Of the 31 SV lesions identified, MP-MRI suspicion scores of low, moderate, and high were assigned to 3, 19, and 9 lesions, respectively. MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy detected SVI in 20/31 (65%) of cases. For the four patients who underwent RP after a preoperative assessment of SVI, biopsy pathology and RP pathology were concordant in all cases. Conclusions: As this technology becomes more available, MP-MRI and MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy may play a role in the preoperative staging for PCa. Future work will determine if improved preoperative staging leads to better surgical outcomes. PMID:25010361

  17. Quinolone prophylaxis in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: an eight-year single center experience.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Bing-Juin; Pu, Yeong Shiau; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Chiang, I-Ni; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of prophylaxis with pipemidic acid and levofloxacin in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUSP-Bx). From January 2002 to December 2004, patients receiving oral pipemidic acid 500 mg twice daily for three days with or without a preoperative intravenous cefazolin 1 gm injection comprised group A. Between January 2005 and December 2009, patients receiving oral levofloxacin 500 mg one hour before biopsy comprised group B. We calculated the annual febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) rates. Patients' characteristics, including age, prophylactic antibiotics, biopsy core numbers, pathologic results, PSA, and the spectrums and susceptibility of pathogens, were also evaluated. A total of 1313 (35.5%) patients belonged to group A, while 2381 (64.5%) patients belonged to group B. Seventy-three patients experienced postoperative infectious complications. There was a significant difference in the fUTI rate between groups A and B (3.7% versus 1.0%, P < 0.001). The yearly fUTI rates varied from 0.6 to 3.9% between 2002 and 2009. Of the 73 patients with fUTI, those receiving levofloxacin prophylaxis were more likely to harbor fluoroquinolone-resistant pathogens (P < 0.001). E. coli was the most common pathogen in both groups. Levofloxacin remains effective and appears superior to pipemidic acid based prophylaxis. PMID:24453852

  18. An Eight-Year Experience of HDR Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer: Biopsy and PSA Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, Francois; Martin, Andre-Guy; Beaulieu, Luc; Harel, Francois M.Sc.; Vigneault, Eric

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), the 2-year biopsy outcome and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with an inversely planned high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 153 patients treated between 1999 and 2006 with external beam pelvic radiation followed by an HDR Ir-192 prostate boost. These patients were given a boost of 18 to 20 Gy using inverse-planning with simulated annealing (IPSA).We reviewed and analyzed all prostate-specific antigen levels and control biopsies. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months (18-95 months). When categorized by risk of progression, 74.5% of patients presented an intermediate risk and 14.4% a high one. Prostate biopsies at 2 years posttreatment were negative in 86 of 94 patients (91.5%), whereas two biopsies were inconclusive. Biochemical control at 60 months was at 96% according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the Phoenix consensus definitions. A PSA bounce (PSA values of 2 ng/mL or more above nadir) was observed in 15 patients of 123 (9.8%). The median time to bounce was 15.2 months (interquartile range, 11.0-17.7) and the median bounce duration 18.7 months (interquartile range, 12.1-29). The estimate of overall survival at 60 months was 97.1% (95% CI, 91.6-103%). Conclusions: Considering that inverse planned HDR brachytherapy prostate boosts led to an excellent biochemical response, with a 2-year negative biopsy rate, we recommend a conservative approach in face of a PSA bounce even though it was observed in 10% of patients.

  19. Predicting Prostate Biopsy Results Using a Panel of Plasma and Urine Biomarkers Combined in a Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars; Albitar, Ferras; Diep, Kevin; Fritsche, Herbert A.; Shore, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining the need for prostate biopsy is frequently difficult and more objective criteria are needed to predict the presence of high grade prostate cancer (PCa). To reduce the rate of unnecessary biopsies, we explored the potential of using biomarkers in urine and plasma to develop a scoring system to predict prostate biopsy results and the presence of high grade PCa. Methods: Urine and plasma specimens were collected from 319 patients recommended for prostate biopsies. We measured the gene expression levels of UAP1, PDLIM5, IMPDH2, HSPD1, PCA3, PSA, TMPRSS2, ERG, GAPDH, B2M, AR, and PTEN in plasma and urine. Patient age, serum prostate-specific antigen (sPSA) level, and biomarkers data were used to develop two independent algorithms, one for predicting the presence of PCa and the other for predicting high-grade PCa (Gleason score [GS] ≥7). Results: Using training and validation data sets, a model for predicting the outcome of PCa biopsy was developed with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.87. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 87% and 63%, respectively. We then developed a second algorithm to identify patients with high-grade PCa (GS ≥7). This algorithm's AUROC was 0.80, and had a PPV and NPV of 56% and 77%, respectively. Patients who demonstrated concordant results using both algorithms showed a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 93% for predicting high-grade aggressive PCa. Thus, the use of both algorithms resulted in a PPV of 90% and NPV of 89% for predicting high-grade PCa with toleration of some low-grade PCa (GS <7) being detected. Conclusions: This model of a biomarker panel with algorithmic interpretation can be used as a “liquid biopsy” to reduce the need for unnecessary tissue biopsies, and help to guide appropriate treatment decisions. PMID:26918043

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Targeted Prostate Biopsy Using MRI-US Fusion Software and Visual Targeting: a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel J.; Recabal, Pedro; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Thong, Alan; Lee, Justin K.; Eastham, James A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Coleman, Jonathan; Ehdaie, Behfar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare diagnostic outcomes between 2 different techniques for targeting regions-of-interest on prostate multiparametric Magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI); MRI-ultrasound fusion (MR-F) and visually targeted (VT) biopsy. Materials and Methods Patients presenting for prostate biopsy with regions-of-interest on mpMRI underwent MRI-targeted biopsy. For each region-of-interest two VT cores were obtained, followed by 2 cores using an MR-F device. Our primary endpoint was the difference in the detection of high-grade (Gleason ≥7) and any-grade cancer between VT and MR-F, investigated using McNemar’s method. Secondary endpoints were the difference in detection rate by biopsy location using a logistic regression model, and difference in median cancer length using Wilcoxon sign-rank test. Results We identified 396 regions-of-interest in 286 men. The difference in high-grade cancer detection between MR-F biopsy and VT biopsy was −1.4% (95% CI −6.4% to 3.6%; p=0.6); for any-grade cancer the difference was 3.5% (95% CI −1.9% to 8.9%; p=0.2). Median cancer length detected by MR-F and VT were 5.5mm vs. 5.8mm, respectively (p=0.8). MR-F biopsy detected 15% more cancers in the transition zone (p=0.046), and VT biopsy detected 11% more high-grade cancer at the prostate base (p=0.005). Only 52% of all high-grade cancers were detected by both techniques. Conclusions We found no evidence of a significant difference in the detection of high-grade or any-grade cancer between VT and MR-F biopsy. However, the performance of each technique varied in specific biopsy locations, and the outcomes of both techniques were complementary. Combining VT biopsy and MR-F biopsy may optimize prostate cancer detection. PMID:27038768

  1. Transrectal Prostate Biopsy and Fiducial Marker Placement in a Standard 1.5T Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Susil, Robert C.; Ménard, Cynthia; Krieger, Axel; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Camphausen, Kevin; Choyke, Peter; Fichtinger, Gabor; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Coleman, C. Norman; Atalar, Ergin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the accuracy and feasibility of a system that provides transrectal needle access to the prostate concurrent with 1.5 Tesla MRI which previously has not been possible. Materials and Methods In 5 patients with previously diagnosed prostate cancer, MRI guided intraprostatic placement of gold fiducial markers (4 procedures) and/or prostate biopsy (3 procedures) was performed using local anesthesia. Results Mean procedure duration was 76 minutes and all patients tolerated the intervention well. Procedure related adverse events included self-limited hematuria and hematochezia following 3 of 8 procedures (all resolved in less than 1 week). Mean needle placement accuracy was 1.9 mm for the fiducial marker placement studies and 1.8 mm for the biopsy procedures. Mean fiducial marker placement accuracy was 4.8 mm and the mean fiducial marker placement accuracy transverse to the needle direction was 2.6 mm. All patients who underwent the procedure were able to complete their course of radiotherapy without delay or complication. Conclusions While studies of clinical usefulness are warranted, transrectal 1.5 T MRI guided prostate biopsy and fiducial marker placement is feasible using this system, providing new opportunities for image guided diagnostic and therapeutic prostate interventions. PMID:16406885

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of a combination of diltiazem and periprostatic nerve block in pain control during transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, SN; Biswas, G; Karmakar, D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The choice of analgesia during prostate biopsy remains controversial. The pain has dual origin: from the insertion of the probe as well as the biopsy itself. Periprostatic nerve block (PPNB) is currently the gold standard modality for decreasing pain of prostate biopsy but it does not alleviate the pain of probe insertion. A randomised controlled trial was performed to test the efficacy and safety of the combination of topical application of diltiazem gel and PPNB for pain control during transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy. Methods A total of 73 patients who were to undergo their first prostate biopsy were randomised to receive either 2ml of 2% topical diltiazem gel or a placebo 15 minutes before the biopsy. All the patients then had a PPNB using 1% lignocaine. A ten-point visual analogue scale was used to record the pain immediately after the insertion of the probe and during the biopsy. Any adverse effects were also recorded. Results There was no significant difference in the mean age and prostate volumes between the groups. There was a significantly lower mean pain score due to probe insertion in those patients who received topical diltiazem than in the placebo group (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference between the pain scores during the biopsy itself between the two groups. Conclusions Topical diltiazem significantly reduces the pain of probe insertion during prostate biopsy and can be used effectively as an adjuvant to PPNB. PMID:23838501

  3. The proportion of prostate biopsy tissue with Gleason pattern 4 or 5 predicts for biochemical and clinical outcome after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, David J.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Feigenberg, Steven J.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Uzzo, Robert G.; Pollack, Alan; Buyyounouski, Mark K. . E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic utility of the proportion of prostate biopsy tissue containing Gleason pattern 4 or 5 (GP4/5) after definitive radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 568 patients with T1c-3 Nx/0 prostate cancer who received three-dimensional conformal RT alone between May 1989 and August 2001 were studied. There were 161 men with Gleason score 7-10 disease. The GP4/5 was defined as the percentage of biopsy tissue containing Gleason pattern 4 or 5. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analyses (MVA) for biochemical failure (BF) (American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition) and distant metastasis (DM). A recursive partitioning analysis was done using the results of the MVA to identify a cutpoint for GP4/5. Results: The median follow-up was 46 (range, 13-114) months and median RT dose was 76 (range, 65-82) Gy. On MVA, increasing initial prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.0248) decreasing RT dose (continuous, p = 0.0022), T stage (T1/2 vs. T3) (p = 0.0136) and GP4/5 (continuous, p < 0.0001) were significant predictors of BF in a model also containing GS. GP4/5 was the only significant predictor of DM in the same model (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The GP4/5 in prostate biopsy specimens is a predictor of BF and DM after RT independent of Gleason score. This parameter should be reported by the pathologist when reviewing prostatic biopsy specimens.

  4. 3T MR Guided in bore transperineal prostate biopsy: A Comparison of robotic and manual needle-guidance templates

    PubMed Central

    Tilak, Gaurie; Tuncali, Kemal; Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Fennessy, Fiona; Fedorov, Andriy; Penzkofer, Tobias; Tempany, Clare; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the utility of a robotic needle-guidance template device as compared to a manual template for in-bore 3T transperineal MR-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods This two-arm mixed retrospective-prospective study included 99 cases of targeted transperineal prostate biopsies. The biopsy needles were aimed at suspicious foci noted on multiparametric 3T MRI using manual template (historical control) as compared with a robotic template. The following data was obtained: the accuracy of average and closest needle placement to the focus, histologic yield, percentage of cancer volume in positive core samples, complication rate, and time to complete the procedure. Results 56 cases were performed using the manual template, and 43 cases were performed using the robotic template. The mean accuracy of the best needle placement attempt was higher in the robotic group (2.39 mm) than the manual group (3.71 mm, p<0.027). The mean core procedure time was shorter in the robotic (90.82min) than the manual group (100.63min, p<0.030). Percentage of cancer volume in positive core samples was higher in robotic group (p<0.001). Cancer yields and complication rates were not statistically different between the two sub-groups (p = 0.557 and p=0.172 respectively). Conclusion The robotic needle-guidance template helps accurate placement of biopsy needles in MRI-guided core biopsy of prostate cancer. PMID:25263213

  5. Investigating the ability of multiparametric MRI to exclude significant prostate cancer prior to transperineal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Eva M.; Barrett, Tristan; Wadhwa, Karan; Parashar, Deepak; Frey, Julia; Koo, Brendan C.; Warren, Anne Y.; Doble, Andrew; Kastner, Christof; Gallagher, Ferdia A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We characterized false negative prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reporting by using histology derived from MRI-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided transperineal (MTTP) fusion biopsies. Methods: In total, 148 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. Men underwent multiparametric MRI (mpMRI), reported by a consultant/attending radiologist in line with European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) standards. MTTP biopsy of the lesions was performed according to the Ginsburg recommendations. Cases with an MRI-histology mismatch were identified and underwent a second read by an experienced radiologist. A third review was performed with direct histology comparison to determine a true miss from an MRI-occult cancer. Statistical analysis was performed with McNemar’s test. Results: False negative lesions were identified in 29 MRI examinations (19.6%), with a total of 46 lesions. Most false negative lesions (21/46) were located in the anterior sectors of the prostate. The second read led to a significant decrease of false-negative lesions with 7/29 further studies identified as positive on a patient-by-patient basis (24.1% of studies, p = 0.016) and 11/46 lesions (23.9%; p = 0.001). Of these, 30 lesions following the first read and 23 lesions after the second read were considered significant cancer according to the University College London criteria. However, on direct comparison with histology, most lesions were MRI occult. Conclusion: We demonstrate that MRI can fail to detect clinically relevant lesions. Improved results were achieved with a second read but despite this, a number of lesions remain MRI-occult. Further advances in imaging are required to reduce false negative results. PMID:26788234

  6. Association between Seminal Vesicle Invasion and Prostate Cancer Detection Location after Transrectal Systemic Biopsy among Men Who Underwent Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ik; Lee, Hak Min; Jo, Jung Ki; Lee, Sangchul; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Oh, Jong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Our hypothesis is that the location of the seminal vesicles near the base of the prostate, the more positive cores are detected in the base, the greater the risk of seminal vesicle invasion. Therefore we investigate the clinical outcomes of base dominant prostate cancer (BDPC) in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) -guided biopsies compared with anteromiddle dominant prostate cancer (AMPC). Methods From November 2003 to June 2014, a total of 990 intermediate and high risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were enrolled and stratified into two groups according to proportion of positive cores–BDPC group had ≥ 33.3% ratio of positive cores from the prostate base among all positive cores and AMPC group < 33.3% in systemic biopsy. Between two groups, we compared the rate of pathologic outcomes and biochemical recurrence (BCR). We performed multivariate logistic regression model to confirm the significance of BDPC to seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and Cox proportional hazard analysis to BCR. Results Among these 990 PCa patients, the 487 patients in BDPC group had more advanced clinical stage (p<0.001), a higher biopsy GS (p = 0.002), and a higher rate of extracapsular extension (ECE), SVI and BCR (all p<0.001) than AMPC group. The patients in BDPC group had poor BCR free survival rate via Kaplan-meier analysis (p<0.001). The ratio of the base positive cores was a significant predictor to SVI in multivariate analysis (p < 0.001) and significant predictor of BCR in multivariate Cox proportional analysis (hazard ratio: 1.466, p = 0.004). Conclusions BDPC in TRUS-guided prostate biopsies was significantly associated with SVI and BCR after adjusting for other clinical factors. Therefore, BDPC should be considered to be a more aggressive tumor despite an otherwise similar cancer profile. PMID:26848747

  7. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were determined by fusion of mpMRI and CEUS. Subsequently, 12-core SB was performed by a different radiologist. We compared core-based cancer detection rates (CaDR) using the generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) for each biopsy method. Results Core-based CaDR was higher in TB (17.92%, 38 of 212 cores) than in SB (6.15%, 31 of 504 cores) (p < 0.0001; GLIMMIX). In the cancer-positive TB cores, CaDR with suspicious lesions by mpMRI was higher than that by CEUS (86.8% vs. 60.5%, p= 0.02; paired t-test) and concordant rate between mpMRI and CEUS was significantly different with discordant rate (48% vs. 52%, p=0.04; McNemar’s test). Conclusion The mpMRI-CEUS correlated TB technique for the repeat prostate biopsy of patients with prior negative biopsy can improve CaDR based on the number of cores taken. PMID:26083348

  8. Chronic Inflammation in Prostate Biopsy Cores is an Independent Factor that Lowers the Risk of Prostate Cancer Detection and is Inversely Associated with the Number of Positive Cores in Patients Elected to a First Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Porcaro, Antonio B.; Novella, Giovanni; Mattevi, Daniele; Bizzotto, Leonardo; Cacciamani, Giovanni; Luyk, Nicolò De; Tamanini, Irene; Cerruto, Maria A.; Brunelli, Matteo; Artibani, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate associations of chronic inflammatory infiltrate (CII) with prostate cancer (PCa) risk and the number of positive cores in patients elected to a first set of biopsies. Materials and Methods Excluding criteria were as follows: active surveillance, prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 30 ng/l, re-biopsies, incidental PCa, less than 14 cores, metastases, or 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. The cohort study was classified as negative (control group) and positive cores between 1 and 2 or > 2. Results The cohort included 421 cases who did not meet the exclusion criteria. PCa was detected in 192 cases (45.6%) of which the number of positive cores was between 1 and 2 in 77 (40.1%) cases. The median PSA was 6.05 ng/ml (range 0.3-29 ng/ml). Linear regression models showed that CII was an independent predictor inversely associated with the risk of PCa. Multinomial logistic regression models showed that CII was an independent factor that was inversely associated with PCa risk in cases with positive cores between 1 and 2 (OR = 0.338; p = 0.004) or more than 2 (OR = 0.076; p < 0.0001) when compared to the control group. Conclusion In a cohort of men undergoing the first biopsy set after prostate assessment, the presence of CII in the biopsy core was an independent factor inversely associated with PCa risk as well as with the number of positive biopsy cores (tumor extension). Clinically, the detection of CII in negative biopsy cores might reduce the risk of PCa in repeat biopsies as well as the probability of detecting multiple positive cores. PMID:27390581

  9. Fluid biopsy in patients with metastatic prostate, pancreatic and breast cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrinucci, Dena; Bethel, Kelly; Kolatkar, Anand; Luttgen, Madelyn S.; Malchiodi, Michael; Baehring, Franziska; Voigt, Katharina; Lazar, Daniel; Nieva, Jorge; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Ko, Andrew H.; Korn, W. Michael; Schram, Ethan; Coward, Michael; Yang, Xing; Metzner, Thomas; Lamy, Rachelle; Honnatti, Meghana; Yoshioka, Craig; Kunken, Joshua; Petrova, Yelena; Sok, Devin; Nelson, David; Kuhn, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Hematologic spread of carcinoma results in incurable metastasis; yet, the basic characteristics and travel mechanisms of cancer cells in the bloodstream are unknown. We have established a fluid phase biopsy approach that identifies circulating tumor cells (CTCs) without using surface protein-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. This 'HD-CTC' assay finds >5 HD-CTCs mL-1 of blood in 80% of patients with metastatic prostate cancer (n = 20), in 70% of patients with metastatic breast cancer (n = 30), in 50% of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (n = 18), and in 0% of normal controls (n = 15). Additionally, it finds HD-CTC clusters ranging from 2 HD-CTCs to greater than 30 HD-CTCs in the majority of these cancer patients. This initial validation of an enrichment-free assay demonstrates our ability to identify significant numbers of HD-CTCs in a majority of patients with prostate, breast and pancreatic cancers.

  10. The economic effect of using magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance ultrasound fusion biopsy for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ryan C; Costa, Daniel N; Lotan, Yair

    2016-07-01

    Prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a maturing imaging modality that has been used to improve detection and staging of prostate cancer. The goal of this review is to evaluate the economic effect of the use of MRI and MRI fusion in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. A literature review was used to identify articles regarding efficacy and cost of MRI and MRI-guided biopsies. There are currently a limited number of studies evaluating cost of incorporating MRI into clinical practice. These studies are primarily models projecting cost estimates based on meta-analyses of the literature. There is considerable variance in the effectiveness of MRI-guided biopsies, both cognitive and fusion, based on user experience, type of MRI (3T vs. 1.5T), use of endorectal coil and type of scoring system for abnormalities such that there is still potential for improvement in accuracy. There is also variability in assumed costs of incorporating MRI into clinical practice. The addition of MRI to the diagnostic algorithm for prostate cancer has caused a shift in how we understand the disease and in what tumors are found on initial and repeat biopsies. Further risk stratification may allow more men to pursue noncurative therapy, which in and of itself is cost-effective in properly selected men. As prostate cancer care comes under increasing scrutiny on a national level, there is pressure on providers to be more accurate in their diagnoses. This in turn can lead to additional testing including Multiparametric MRI, which adds upfront cost. Whether the additional cost of prostate MRI is warranted in detection of prostate cancer is an area of intense research. PMID:26725249

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of Single versus Combination Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Infections after Transrectal Prostate Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Marino, Kaylee; Parlee, Anne; Orlando, Ralph; Lerner, Lori; Strymish, Judith; Gupta, Kalpana

    2015-12-01

    An increase in fluoroquinolone resistance and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate (TRUS) biopsy infections has prompted the need for alternative effective antibiotic prophylaxis. We aimed to compare ciprofloxacin and other single-agent therapies to combination therapy for efficacy and adverse effects. Men who underwent a TRUS biopsy within the VA Boston health care system with documented receipt of prophylactic antibiotics periprocedure were eligible for inclusion. Postprocedure infections within 30 days were ascertained by chart review from electronic records, including any inpatient, outpatient, or urgent-care visits. Among 455 evaluable men over a 3-year period, there were 25 infections (5.49%), with sepsis occurring in 2.4%, urinary tract infections (UTI) in 1.54%, and bacteremia in 0.44% of patients. Escherichia coli was the most common urine (89%) and blood (92%) pathogen, with fluoroquinolone resistance rates of 88% and 91%, respectively. Ciprofloxacin alone was associated with significantly more infections than ciprofloxacin plus an additional agent (P = 0.014). Intramuscular gentamicin alone was also significantly associated with a higher infection rate obtained with all other regimens (P = 0.004). Any single-agent regimen, including ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin, was associated with significantly higher infection rates than any combination regimen (odds ratio [OR], 4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47, 10.85; P = 0.004). Diabetes, immunosuppressive condition or medication, hospitalization within the previous year, and UTI within the previous 6 months were not associated with infection risk. Clostridium difficile infections were similar. These findings suggest that ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin alone are inferior to a combination regimen. Institutions with high failure rates of prophylaxis for TRUS biopsies should consider combination regimens derived from their local data. PMID:26369958

  12. Robotic system for MRI-guided prostate biopsy: feasibility of teleoperated needle insertion and ex vivo phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Seifabadi, Reza; Song, Sang-Eun; Krieger, Axel; Cho, Nathan Bongjoon; Tokuda, Junichi; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) combined with robotic assistance has the potential to improve on clinical outcomes of biopsy and local treatment of prostate cancer. Methods We report the workspace optimization and phantom evaluation of a five Degree of Freedom (DOF) parallel pneumatically actuated modular robot for MRI-guided prostate biopsy. To shorten procedure time and consequently increase patient comfort and system accuracy, a prototype of a MRI-compatible master–slave needle driver module using piezo motors was also added to the base robot. Results Variable size workspace was achieved using appropriate link length, compared with the previous design. The 5-DOF targeting accuracy demonstrated an average error of 2.5mm (STD=1.37mm) in a realistic phantom inside a 3T magnet with a bevel-tip 18G needle. The average position tracking error of the master–slave needle driver was always below 0.1mm. Conclusion Phantom experiments showed sufficient accuracy for manual prostate biopsy. Also, the implementation of teleoperated needle insertion was feasible and accurate. These two together suggest the feasibility of accurate fully actuated needle placement into prostate while keeping the clinician supervision over the task. PMID:21698389

  13. Visually Estimated MRI Targeted Prostate Biopsy Could Improve the Detection of Significant Prostate Cancer in Patients with a PSA Level <10 ng/mL

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Nam, Jong Kil; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Seung Soo; Han, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Sang Don; Lee, Joon Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare prostate cancer detection rates between 12 cores transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) and visually estimated multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI)-targeted prostate biopsy (MRI-visual-Bx) for patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) level less than 10 ng/mL. Materials and Methods In total, 76 patients with PSA levels below 10 ng/mL underwent 3.0 Tesla mp-MRI and TRUS-Bx prospectively in 2014. In patients with abnormal lesions on mp-MRI, we performed additional MRI-visual-Bx. We compared pathologic results, including the rate of clinically significant prostate cancer cores (cancer length greater than 5 mm and/or any Gleason grade greater than 3 in the biopsy core). Results The mean PSA was 6.43 ng/mL. In total, 48 of 76 (63.2%) patients had abnormal lesions on mp-MRI, and 116 targeted biopsy cores, an average of 2.42 per patient, were taken. The overall detection rates of prostate cancer using TRUS-Bx and MRI-visual-Bx were 26/76 (34.2%) and 23/48 (47.9%), respectively. In comparing the pathologic results of TRUS-Bx and MRI-visual-Bx cores, the positive rates were 8.4% (77 of 912 cores) and 46.6% (54 of 116 cores), respectively (p<0.001). Mean cancer core lengths and mean cancer core percentages were 3.2 mm and 24.5%, respectively, in TRUS-Bx and 6.3 mm and 45.4% in MRI-visual-Bx (p<0.001). In addition, Gleason score ≥7 was noted more frequently using MRI-visual-Bx (p=0.028). The detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer was 27/77 (35.1%) and 40/54 (74.1%) for TRUS-Bx and MRI-visual-Bx, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion MRI-visual-Bx showed better performance in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer, compared to TRUS-Bx among patients with a PSA level less than 10 ng/mL. PMID:26996553

  14. 2D-3D rigid registration to compensate for prostate motion during 3D TRUS-guided biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, Tharindu; Fenster, Aaron; Bax, Jeffrey; Gardi, Lori; Romagnoli, Cesare; Samarabandu, Jagath; Ward, Aaron D.

    2012-02-01

    Prostate biopsy is the clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of targeting suspicious locations, systems have been developed that can plan and record biopsy locations in a 3D TRUS image acquired at the beginning of the procedure. Some systems are designed for maximum compatibility with existing ultrasound equipment and are thus designed around the use of a conventional 2D TRUS probe, using controlled axial rotation of this probe to acquire a 3D TRUS reference image at the start of the biopsy procedure. Prostate motion during the biopsy procedure causes misalignments between the prostate in the live 2D TRUS images and the pre-acquired 3D TRUS image. We present an image-based rigid registration technique that aligns live 2D TRUS images, acquired immediately prior to biopsy needle insertion, with the pre-acquired 3D TRUS image to compensate for this motion. Our method was validated using 33 manually identified intrinsic fiducials in eight subjects and the target registration error was found to be 1.89 mm. We analysed the suitability of two image similarity metrics (normalized cross correlation and mutual information) for this task by plotting these metrics as a function of varying parameters in the six degree-of-freedom transformation space, with the ground truth plane obtained from registration as the starting point for the parameter exploration. We observed a generally convex behaviour of the similarity metrics. This encourages their use for this registration problem, and could assist in the design of a tool for the detection of misalignment, which could trigger the execution of a non-real-time registration, when needed during the procedure.

  15. The Practicality of Targeted Prostate Biopsy Procedures on the Dominant Side of the Tumor Determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Elderly Patients with High Serum Levels of Prostate-Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jung Sik; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Sung Dae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the possibility of reducing the number of cores per prostate biopsy in elderly patients with high levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) without significantly lowering the detection rate of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Two hundreds sixteen men with PSA levels >20 ng/mL who underwent prostate biopsies from May 2009 to April 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. With the help of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the laterality of the dominant tumor burden in patients was determined. The results of targeted biopsies were compared with those of conventional biopsy procedures. Results The mean age and PSA level were 79.5 years and 81.3 ng/mL, respectively, and the overall diagnostic rate of sextant biopsies was 81.9% (177/216). MRI was able to show the tumor burden in 189 of the 216 patients. The detection rate of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided targeted biopsies was 87.3% (165/189). Detection rates were comparable with conventional biopsies (81.9% [177/216]) (p=0.23). Of the 177 men in whom the results of the sextant biopsy were positive, 12 men (6.8%) with PSA levels <29 ng/mL did not have any cancer cells according to targeted biopsies. However, all other patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer using the abovementioned techniques. Conclusions We believe that TRUS-guided targeted biopsies of the prostate in elderly men with high PSA levels could reduce the number of unnecessary cores per biopsy. However, a risk of detection loss remains. Therefore, we recommend that at least a sextant biopsy should be performed, even in elderly patients, in order to detect prostate cancer. PMID:26770939

  16. Quantification of prostate deformation due to needle insertion during TRUS-guided biopsy: comparison of hand-held and mechanically stabilized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, Tharindu; Bax, Jeffrey; Fenster, Aaron; Samarabandu, Jagath; Ward, Aaron D.

    2011-03-01

    Prostate biopsy is the clinical standard for the definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer. To overcome the limitations of 2D TRUS-guided biopsy systems when targeting pre-planned locations, systems have been developed with 3D guidance to improve the accuracy of cancer detection. Prostate deformation due to needle insertion and biopsy gun firing is a potential source of error that can cause target misalignments during biopsies. We use non-rigid registration of 2D TRUS images to quantify the deformation during the needle insertion and the biopsy gun firing procedure, and compare this effect in biopsies performed using a handheld TRUS probe with those performed using a mechanically assisted 3D TRUS guided biopsy system. Although the mechanically assisted biopsy system had a mean deformation approximately 0.2 mm greater than that of the handheld approach, it yielded a lower relative increase of deformation near the needle axis during the needle insertion stage and greater deformational stability of the prostate during the biopsy gun firing stage. We also analyzed the axial and lateral components of the tissue motion; our results indicated that the motion is weakly biased in the direction orthogonal to the needle, which is less than ideal from a targeting standpoint given the long, narrow cylindrical shape of the biopsy core.

  17. Optimizing MRI-targeted fusion prostate biopsy: the effect of systematic error and anisotropy on tumor sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peter R.; Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided "fusion" prostate biopsy aims to reduce the 21-47% false negative rate of clinical 2D TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsy still has a substantial false negative rate. Therefore, we propose optimization of biopsy targeting to meet the clinician's desired tumor sampling probability, optimizing needle targets within each tumor and accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system errors, image registration errors, and irregular tumor shapes. As a step toward this optimization, we obtained multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and 3D TRUS images from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D surfaces that were registered to 3D TRUS. We estimated the probability, P, of obtaining a tumor sample with a single biopsy, and investigated the effects of systematic errors and anisotropy on P. Our experiments indicated that a biopsy system's lateral and elevational errors have a much greater effect on sampling probabilities, relative to its axial error. We have also determined that for a system with RMS error of 3.5 mm, tumors of volume 1.9 cm3 and smaller may require more than one biopsy core to ensure 95% probability of a sample with 50% core involvement, and tumors 1.0 cm3 and smaller may require more than two cores.

  18. Comparison of two different doses of lidocaine on the pain sensation during transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Ferhat; Dursun, Furkan; Malkoç, Ercan; Yılmaz, Ömer; Soydan, Hasan; Şen, Hüseyin; Başal, Şeref; Zekey, Fatih; Karademir, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare two different doses of lidocaine used for periprostatic nerve block on pain perception during transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy. Material and methods A total of 288 patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examination who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were included in the study. The patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (n=103) prostate biopsy were performed after administering perianal intrarectal application of 10 mL 2% lidocaine gel, Group 2 (n=98) 2 mL of 2% lidocaine injection on each side following rectal installation of lidocaine gel and Group 3 (n=87) 4 mL of 2% lidocaine injection on each side after rectal instillation of lidocaine gel. Patients’ pain scores during biopsy procedure were reported using visual analogue score (VAS). Independent sample t test, ANOVA test and Tukey test were used for statistical evaluation. Results The mean age, prostate volume and PSA level were 65.6±8.4 years, 58.2±34.8 mL, and 11.8±3.4 ng/mL respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between the groups. The mean VAS scores were 2.4±1.8 in Group 1, 2.5±1.9 in Group 2 and 1.6±1.6 in Group 3. Patients in Group 3, reported significant pain reduction compared with patients in Groups 1 and 2 (p=0.002, and 0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in VAS scores between Groups 1 and 2 (p=0.815). Conclusion According to our results we recommend the use of perianal intrarectal lidocain gel application, and periprostatic nerve block with injection of 4 ml 2% lidocaine per side combination in TRUS-guided prostate biopsies. Further large-scale randomized control studies are needed to validate these finding.

  19. A shape-based statistical method to retrieve 2D TRUS-MR slice correspondence for prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Jhimli; Srikantha, Abhilash; Sidibé, Désiré; Martí, Robert; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier; Ghose, Soumya; Vilanova, Joan C.; Comet, Josep; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a method based on shape-context and statistical measures to match interventional 2D Trans Rectal Ultrasound (TRUS) slice during prostate biopsy to a 2D Magnetic Resonance (MR) slice of a pre-acquired prostate volume. Accurate biopsy tissue sampling requires translation of the MR slice information on the TRUS guided biopsy slice. However, this translation or fusion requires the knowledge of the spatial position of the TRUS slice and this is only possible with the use of an electro-magnetic (EM) tracker attached to the TRUS probe. Since, the use of EM tracker is not common in clinical practice and 3D TRUS is not used during biopsy, we propose to perform an analysis based on shape and information theory to reach close enough to the actual MR slice as validated by experts. The Bhattacharyya distance is used to find point correspondences between shape-context representations of the prostate contours. Thereafter, Chi-square distance is used to find out those MR slices where the prostates closely match with that of the TRUS slice. Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) values of the TRUS slice with each of the axial MR slices are computed after rigid alignment and consecutively a strategic elimination based on a set of rules between the Chi-square distances and the NMI leads to the required MR slice. We validated our method for TRUS axial slices of 15 patients, of which 11 results matched at least one experts validation and the remaining 4 are at most one slice away from the expert validations.

  20. A prostate cancer computer-aided diagnosis system using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging and targeted biopsy labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peter; Wang, Shijun; Turkbey, Baris; Grant, Kinzya; Pinto, Peter; Choyke, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a new method for prostate cancer classification based on supervised statistical learning methods by integrating T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI images with targeted prostate biopsy results. In the first step of the method, all three imaging modalities are registered based on the image coordinates encoded in the DICOM images. In the second step, local statistical features are extracted in each imaging modality to capture intensity, shape, and texture information at every biopsy target. Finally, using support vector machines, supervised learning is conducted with the biopsy results to train a classification system that predicts the pathology of suspicious cancer lesions. The algorithm was tested with a dataset of 54 patients that underwent 164 targeted biopsies (58 positive, 106 negative). The proposed tri-modal MRI algorithm shows significant improvement over a similar approach that utilizes only T2-weighted MRI images (p= 0.048). The areas under the ROC curve for these methods were 0.82 (95% CI: [0.71, 0.93]) and 0.73 (95% CI: [0.55, 0.84]), respectively.

  1. AB190. Could magnetic resonance imaging help identify the presence of prostate cancer before initial biopsy? The development of nomogram predicting the outcomes of prostate biopsy in the Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Dong; Ren, Da; Yu, Wei; Li, Xuesong; Yin, Wenshi; Yu, Xiaoteng; Yang, Kunlin; Liu, Pei; Shan, Gangzhi; Li, Shuqing; He, Qun; Xin, Zhongcheng; Zhou, Liqun; Zhao, Chenglin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Wang, Huihui

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa) before transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy. Methods The clinical data of 894 patients who received TRUS-guided biopsy and prior MRI test from a large Chinese center was reviewed. All MRIs were re-reviewed and assigned as Grade 0-2 (negative; suspicious; positive) based on Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scoring. We constructed two models both in predicting PCa and HGPCa: Model 1 with MRI and Model 2 without MRI. Other clinical factors include age, digital rectal examination, PSA, free-PSA, volume and TRUS. Results PCa and HGPCa were present in 434 (48.5%) and 218 (24.4%) patients each. An MRI Grade 0, 1 and 2 were assigned in 324 (36.2%), 193 (21.6%) and 377 (42.2%) patients, respectively, which was associated with the presence of PCa (P<0.001) and HGPCa (P<0.001). Particularly in patients with age ≤0.001). Particularly in patients with age and 218 (24.4%) patients each. An MRI Grade 0, 1 and 2 were assc-statistic of Model 1 and Model 2 for predicting PCa was 0.875 and 0.841 each (Z=4.2302, P<0.001), while for predicting HGPCa was 0.872 and 0.850 (Z=3.265, P=0.001). Model 1 exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity at same cut-offs and decision curve analysis also suggested the favorable clinical utility of Model 1. Conclusions Prostate MRI before biopsy could well predict the presence of PCa and HGPCa, especially in younger patients. The incorporation of MRI in nomograms could increase predictive accuracy.

  2. Workflow assessment of 3T MRI-guided transperineal targeted prostate biopsy using a robotic needle guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tuncali, Kemal; Tokuda, Junichi; Fedorov, Andriy; Penzkofer, Tobias; Fennessy, Fiona; Tempany, Clare; Yoshimitsu, Kitaro; Magill, John; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided transperineal targeted prostate biopsy has become a valuable instrument for detection of prostate cancer in patients with continuing suspicion for aggressive cancer after transrectal ultrasound guided (TRUS) guided biopsy. The MRI-guided procedures are performed using mechanical targeting devices or templates, which suffer from limitations of spatial sampling resolution and/or manual in-bore adjustments. To overcome these limitations, we developed and clinically deployed an MRI-compatible piezoceramic-motor actuated needle guidance device, Smart Template, which allows automated needle guidance with high targeting resolution for use in a wide closed-bore 3-Tesla MRI scanner. One of the main limitations of the MRI-guided procedure is the lengthy procedure time compared to conventional TRUS-guided procedures. In order to optimize the procedure, we assessed workflow of 30 MRI-guided biopsy procedures using the Smart Template with focus on procedure time. An average of 3.4 (range: 2~6) targets were preprocedurally selected per procedure and 2.2 ± 0.8 biopsies were performed for each target with an average insertion attempt of 1.9 ± 0.7 per biopsy. The average technical preparation time was 14 ± 7 min and the in-MRI patient preparation time was 42 ± 7 min. After 21 ± 7 min of initial imaging, 64 ± 12 min of biopsy was performed yielding an average of 10 ± 2 min per tissue sample. The total procedure time occupying the MRI suite was 138 ± 16 min. No noticeable tendency in the length of any time segment was observed over the 30 clinical cases.

  3. Higher Body Mass Index Increases the Risk for Biopsy-Mediated Detection of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Li-Min; Xu, Hua; Na, Rong; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Ding, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk at biopsy in Chinese men. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,807 consecutive men who underwent initial multicore (≥10) prostate biopsy under transrectal ultrasound guidance between Dec 2004 and Feb 2014. BMI was categorised based on the Asian classification of obesity as follows: <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–22.9 (normal weight), 23–24.9 (overweight), 25–29.9 (moderately obese), and ≥30 kg/m2 (severely obese). The odds ratios (OR) of each BMI category for risk of PCa and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa, Gleason score ≥4+3) detection were estimated in crude, age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted models. Prevalence ratios and accuracies of PSA predicted PCa were also estimated across BMI groups. Results In total, PCa was detected by biopsy in 750 (45.4%) men, and HGPCa was detected in 419 (25.4%) men. Compared with men of normal weight, underweight men and obese men were older and had higher prostate specific antigen levels. The risk of overall PCa detection via biopsy presented an obvious U-shaped relationship with BMI in crude analysis. Overall, 50.0%, 37.4%, 45.6% 54.4% and 74.1% of the men in the underweight, normal weight, overweight, moderately obese and severely obese groups, respectively, were diagnosed with PCa via biopsy. In multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly correlated with a higher risk of PCa detection (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.10–1.25, P<0.001). However, higher BMI was not correlated with HGPCa detection (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.97–1.09, P = 0.29). There were no significant differences in the accuracy of using PSA to predict PCa or HGPCa detection across different BMI categories. Conclusion Obesity was associated with higher risk of PCa detection in the present Chinese biopsy population. No significant association was detected between obesity and HGPCa. PMID:25861033

  4. Identification of isolated and early prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens with correlation to biopsy cores: clinical and pathogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Mai, Kien T; Landry, Denise C; Yazdi, Hossein M; Stinson, William A; Perkins, D Garth; Morash, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is a multifocal disease. In this study, we identified isolated and small foci of PAC (ISPAC) in radical prostatectomy specimens, described the histopathologic features, investigated their zonal distribution in the prostate and their relationship with large tumor nodules, and correlated the findings with those of preceding biopsy cores. One hundred and thirty radical prostatectomy specimens performed for PAC or for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with incidental PAC were reviewed for identification of ISPAC. Prostates were serially sectioned in the horizontal plane and submitted in toto for microscopic examination. ISPAC were defined as foci of PAC measuring less than 3 mm in maximum diameter. There were 461 ISPAC identified in 114 cases. They were distributed in the transitional zone (TZ) (18 foci), the apex (73 foci), the anterior horn of the non-TZ (NTZ) (118 foci), the base (8 foci), and the remaining NTZ (244 foci). ISPAC usually consisted of groups of small acini with a GS ranging from 2 to 7 (3 + 4). GSs of ISPAC consisted of single grade or two consecutive grades equal to or lower than those of the main PAC. ISPAC were more often located in close proximity to large tumor nodules. The number of ISPAC increased with the tumor volume up to 3 cm3, then decreased as the PAC became more extensive (p value = 0.02, statistically significant). Prostates with NTZ PAC <1.5 cm3 and TZ PAC or prostates containing 4 or more than 4 ISPAC tended to be frequently associated with small foci of PAC in biopsy cores In this study, we identified ISPAC that likely represent foci of PAC in early development and account for the multicentricity and heterogeneity of PAC. ISPAC in the NTZ were common and may account for small foci of PAC or atypia in biopsy cores. Although these small foci of PAC or atypia in biopsy cores without accompanying higher GS PAC were often associated with significant PAC, they may also occasionally represent

  5. The value of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography (MRI/US)-fusion biopsy platforms in prostate cancer detection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gayet, Maudy; van der Aa, Anouk; Beerlage, Harrie P; Schrier, Bart Ph; Mulders, Peter F A; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2016-03-01

    Despite limitations considering the presence, staging and aggressiveness of prostate cancer, ultrasonography (US)-guided systematic biopsies (SBs) are still the 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Recently, promising results have been published for targeted prostate biopsies (TBs) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (MRI/US)-fusion platforms. Different platforms are USA Food and Drug Administration registered and have, mostly subjective, strengths and weaknesses. To our knowledge, no systematic review exists that objectively compares prostate cancer detection rates between the different platforms available. To assess the value of the different MRI/US-fusion platforms in prostate cancer detection, we compared platform-guided TB with SB, and other ways of MRI TB (cognitive fusion or in-bore MR fusion). We performed a systematic review of well-designed prospective randomised and non-randomised trials in the English language published between 1 January 2004 and 17 February 2015, using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Search terms included: 'prostate cancer', 'MR/ultrasound(US) fusion' and 'targeted biopsies'. Extraction of articles was performed by two authors (M.G. and A.A.) and were evaluated by the other authors. Randomised and non-randomised prospective clinical trials comparing TB using MRI/US-fusion platforms and SB, or other ways of TB (cognitive fusion or MR in-bore fusion) were included. In all, 11 of 1865 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving seven different fusion platforms and 2626 patients: 1119 biopsy naïve, 1433 with prior negative biopsy, 50 not mentioned (either biopsy naïve or with prior negative biopsy) and 24 on active surveillance (who were disregarded). The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool was used to assess the quality of included articles. No clear advantage of MRI/US fusion-guided TBs was seen for cancer detection rates (CDRs) of all prostate

  6. Comparison of Transperineal Mapping Biopsy Results with Whole-Mount Radical Prostatectomy Pathology in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Darren J.; Richards, Kyle A.; Godoy, Guilherme; Udo, Kazuma; Nogueira, Lucas; Cronin, Angel M.; Fine, Samson W.; Scardino, Peter T.; Coleman, Jonathon A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of transperineal mapping biopsy (TMB) by comparing it to the pathology specimen of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer. Methods. From March 2007 to September 2009, 78 men at a single center underwent TMB; 17 of 78 subsequently underwent RP. TMB cores were grouped into four quadrants and matched to data from RP whole-mount slides. Gleason score, tumor location and volume, cross-sectional area, and maximal diameter were measured; sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Results. For the 17 patients who underwent RP, TMB revealed 12 (71%) had biopsy Gleason grades ≥ 3 + 4 and 13 (76%) had bilateral disease. RP specimens showed 14 (82%) had Gleason scores ≥ 3 + 4 and 13 (76%) had bilateral disease. Sensitivity and specificity of TMB for prostate cancer detection were 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%–94%) and 83% (95% CI 62%–95%), respectively. Four quadrants negative for cancer on TMB were positive on prostatectomy, and six positive on TMB were negative on prostatectomy. Conclusion. TMB is a highly invasive procedure that can accurately detect and localize prostate cancer. These findings help establish baseline performance characteristics for TMB and its utility for organ-sparing strategies. PMID:24900923

  7. Prostate extracellular vesicles in patient plasma as a liquid biopsy platform for prostate cancer using nanoscale flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Ali A.; Pardhan, Siddika; Brett, Sabine I.; Guo, Qiu Q.; Yang, Jun; Wolf, Philipp; Power, Nicholas E.; Durfee, Paul N.; MacMillan, Connor D.; Townson, Jason L.; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Fleshner, Neil E.; Izawa, Jonathan I.; Chambers, Ann F.; Chin, Joseph L.; Leong, Hon S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles released by prostate cancer present in seminal fluid, urine, and blood may represent a non-invasive means to identify and prioritize patients with intermediate risk and high risk of prostate cancer. We hypothesize that enumeration of circulating prostate microparticles (PMPs), a type of extracellular vesicle (EV), can identify patients with Gleason Score≥4+4 prostate cancer (PCa) in a manner independent of PSA. Patients and Methods Plasmas from healthy volunteers, benign prostatic hyperplasia patients, and PCa patients with various Gleason score patterns were analyzed for PMPs. We used nanoscale flow cytometry to enumerate PMPs which were defined as submicron events (100-1000nm) immunoreactive to anti-PSMA mAb when compared to isotype control labeled samples. Levels of PMPs (counts/μL of plasma) were also compared to CellSearch CTC Subclasses in various PCa metastatic disease subtypes (treatment naïve, castration resistant prostate cancer) and in serially collected plasma sets from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Results PMP levels in plasma as enumerated by nanoscale flow cytometry are effective in distinguishing PCa patients with Gleason Score≥8 disease, a high-risk prognostic factor, from patients with Gleason Score≤7 PCa, which carries an intermediate risk of PCa recurrence. PMP levels were independent of PSA and significantly decreased after surgical resection of the prostate, demonstrating its prognostic potential for clinical follow-up. CTC subclasses did not decrease after prostatectomy and were not effective in distinguishing localized PCa patients from metastatic PCa patients. Conclusions PMP enumeration was able to identify patients with Gleason Score ≥8 PCa but not patients with Gleason Score 4+3 PCa, but offers greater confidence than CTC counts in identifying patients with metastatic prostate cancer. CTC Subclass analysis was also not effective for post-prostatectomy follow up and for

  8. Discontinuation of Anticoagulant or Antiplatelet Therapy for Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsies: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Rowan G; Galvin, David J; Manecksha, Rustom P; Varadaraj, Haradikar; McDermott, TED; Grainger, Ronald; Lynch, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Historically, it was thought that hemorrhagic complications were increased with transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies (TRUS biopsy) of patients receiving anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy. However, the current literature supports the continuation of anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy without additional morbidity. We assessed our experience regarding the continuation of anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy during TRUS biopsy. Materials and Methods A total of 91 and 98 patients were included in the anticoagulation/antiplatelet (group I) and control (group II) groups, respectively. Group I subgroups consisted of patients on monotherapy or dual therapy of aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, or low molecular weight heparin. The TRUS biopsy technique was standardized to 12 cores from the peripheral zones. Patients completed a questionnaire over the 7 days following TRUS biopsy. The questionnaire was designed to assess the presence of hematuria, rectal bleeding, and hematospermia. Development of rectal pain, fever, and emergency hospital admissions following TRUS biopsy were also recorded. Results The patients' mean age was 65 years (range, 52 to 74 years) and 63.5 years (range, 54 to 74 years) in groups I and II, respectively. The overall incidence of hematuria was 46% in group I compared with 63% in group II (p=0.018). The incidence of hematospermia was 6% and 10% in groups I and II, respectively. The incidence of rectal bleeding was similar in group I (40%) and group II (39%). Statistical analysis was conducted by using Fisher exact test. Conclusions There were fewer hematuria episodes in anticoagulation/antiplatelet patients. This study suggests that it is not necessary to discontinue anticoagulation/antiplatelet treatment before TRUS biopsy. PMID:22536465

  9. Percent free prostate-specific antigen is effective to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen between 10.1 and 20.0 ng ml−1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Zhou, Li-Qun; Cai, Xiao-Bing; Xie, Li-Ping; Huang, Yi-Ran; He, Da-Lin; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Ding, Qiang; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Chang-Jun; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Bo; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhong-Quan; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Lu-Lin; Zheng, Jun-Hua; Ye, Zhang-Qun; Ye, Ding-Wei; Xu, Dan-Feng; Hou, Jian-Quan; Xu, Ke-Xin; Yuan, Jian-Lin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Pan, Tie-Jun; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Percent free prostatic-specific antigen (%fPSA) has been introduced as a tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with a serum PSA level of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1, however, it remains controversial whether %fPSA is effective in PSA range of 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1 in both Chinese and Western population. In this study, the diagnostic performance of %fPSA and serum PSA in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade PCa (HGPCa) was analyzed in a multi-center biopsy cohort of 5915 consecutive Chinese patients who underwent prostate biopsy in 22 hospitals across China from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. The indication for biopsy was PSA>4.0 ng ml−1 or/and suspicious digital rectal examination. Total and free serum PSA determinations were performed by three types of electrochemiluminescence immunoassays with recalibration to the World Health Organization standards. The diagnostics accuracy of PSA, %fPSA and %fPSA in combination with PSA (%fPSA + PSA) was determined by the area under the receivers operating characteristic curve (AUC). %fPSA was more effective than PSA in men aged ≥60 years old. The AUC was 0.584 and 0.635 in men aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1 and 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1, respectively. The AUC of %fPSA was superior to that of PSA in predicting HGPCa in patients ≥60 years old in these two PSA range. Our results indicated that %fPSA is both statistically effective and clinical applicable to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese patients aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1 and 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1. PMID:25926603

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis method for MRI-guided prostate biopsy within the peripheral zone using grey level histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampun, Andrik; Malcolm, Paul; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided diagnosis method for targeted prostate biopsies within the peripheral zone in T2-Weighted MRI. We subdivided the peripheral zone into four regions and compare each sub region's grey level histogram with malignant and normal histogram models, and use specific metrics to estimate the presence of abnormality. The initial evaluation based on 200 MRI slices taken from 40 different patients and we achieved 87% correct classification rate with 89% and 86% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The main contribution of this paper is a novel approach of Computer Aided Diagnosis which is using grey level histograms analysis between sub regions. In clinical point of view, the developed method could assist clinicians to perform targeted biopsies which are better than the random ones which are currently used.

  11. Comparison of elastic scattering spectroscopy with histology in ex vivo prostate glands: potential application for optically guided biopsy and directed treatment.

    PubMed

    A'Amar, O M; Liou, L; Rodriguez-Diaz, E; De las Morenas, A; Bigio, I J

    2013-09-01

    The false-negative rate of ultrasound-guided sextant prostate biopsy has been estimated to be as high as 35 %. A significant percentage (10-35 %) of these prostate cancers diagnosed at a second or later attempt are high grade and, therefore, potentially lethal. We discuss the feasibility for performing optically guided biopsy using elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) to reduce sampling errors and improve sensitivity. ESS measurements were performed on 42 prostate glands ex vivo and correlated with standard histopathological assessment. Sliced glands were examined with wavelength ranges of 330-760 nm. The ESS portable system used a new fiber-optic probe with integrated cutting tool, designed specifically for ex vivo pathology applications. ESS spectra were grouped by diagnosis from standard histopathological procedure and then classified using linear support vector machine. Preliminary data are encouraging. ESS data showed strong spectral trends correlating with the histopathological assignments. The classification results showed a sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.87 for distinguishing dysplastic prostatic tissue from benign prostatic tissue. Similar results were obtained for distinguishing dysplastic prostatic tissue from prostatitis with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.80 and 0.88, respectively. The negative predictive values obtained with ESS are better than those obtained with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided core-needle biopsy. PMID:23247663

  12. Targeted proteomics identifies liquid-biopsy signatures for extracapsular prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunee; Jeon, Jouhyun; Mejia, Salvador; Yao, Cindy Q; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Gramolini, Anthony O; Lance, Raymond S; Troyer, Dean A; Drake, Richard R; Boutros, Paul C; Semmes, O John; Kislinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are rapidly gaining importance in personalized medicine. Although numerous molecular signatures have been developed over the past decade, there is a lack of overlap and many biomarkers fail to validate in independent patient cohorts and hence are not useful for clinical application. For these reasons, identification of novel and robust biomarkers remains a formidable challenge. We combine targeted proteomics with computational biology to discover robust proteomic signatures for prostate cancer. Quantitative proteomics conducted in expressed prostatic secretions from men with extraprostatic and organ-confined prostate cancers identified 133 differentially expressed proteins. Using synthetic peptides, we evaluate them by targeted proteomics in a 74-patient cohort of expressed prostatic secretions in urine. We quantify a panel of 34 candidates in an independent 207-patient cohort. We apply machine-learning approaches to develop clinical predictive models for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Our results demonstrate that computationally guided proteomics can discover highly accurate non-invasive biomarkers. PMID:27350604

  13. Targeted proteomics identifies liquid-biopsy signatures for extracapsular prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunee; Jeon, Jouhyun; Mejia, Salvador; Yao, Cindy Q; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Gramolini, Anthony O; Lance, Raymond S; Troyer, Dean A; Drake, Richard R; Boutros, Paul C; Semmes, O. John; Kislinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are rapidly gaining importance in personalized medicine. Although numerous molecular signatures have been developed over the past decade, there is a lack of overlap and many biomarkers fail to validate in independent patient cohorts and hence are not useful for clinical application. For these reasons, identification of novel and robust biomarkers remains a formidable challenge. We combine targeted proteomics with computational biology to discover robust proteomic signatures for prostate cancer. Quantitative proteomics conducted in expressed prostatic secretions from men with extraprostatic and organ-confined prostate cancers identified 133 differentially expressed proteins. Using synthetic peptides, we evaluate them by targeted proteomics in a 74-patient cohort of expressed prostatic secretions in urine. We quantify a panel of 34 candidates in an independent 207-patient cohort. We apply machine-learning approaches to develop clinical predictive models for prostate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Our results demonstrate that computationally guided proteomics can discover highly accurate non-invasive biomarkers. PMID:27350604

  14. Comparison of Biochemical Relapse-Free Survival Between Primary Gleason Score 3 and Primary Gleason Score 4 for Biopsy Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Michael J. Reddy, Chandana A.; Ulchaker, James; Angermeier, Kenneth; Altman, Andrew; Chehade, Nabil; Mahadevan, Arul; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Klein, Eric A.; Ciezki, Jay P.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the primary grade (PG) of biopsy Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancer (CaP) was predictive for biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS). Most of the present data regarding the PG of GS7 CaP refer to surgical specimens. Our goal was to determine whether the biopsy GS used at the time of medical decision making predicted for the biochemical outcome. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the data from 705 patients with biopsy GS7 CaP, from a prospectively maintained database, who had been treated at our institution between September 1996 and March 2005 with radical prostatectomy (n = 310), external beam radiotherapy (n = 268), or prostate radioactive seed implantation (n = 127). The bRFS rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used for univariate and multivariate analyses examining these factors in relation to bRFS: PG of biopsy GS, initial prostate-specific antigen level, clinical T stage, use of androgen deprivation, risk group (high or intermediate), and treatment modality. Results: The 5-year bRFS rate was 78% and 71% (p = 0.0108) for biopsy GS7 PG3 CaP and biopsy GS7 PG4 CaP, respectively. Comparing PG3 and PG4 within treatment modalities, only prostate implantation patients had a significant difference in the 5-year bRFS rate, 88% vs. 76%, respectively (p = 0.0231). On multivariate analysis, the PG of biopsy GS remained an independent predictor of bRFS, with PG3 having better bRFS than PG4 (relative risk, 0.655; 95% confidence interval, 0.472-0.909; p = 0.0113). Conclusion: Biopsy GS7 PG4 CaP carries a worse bRFS than biopsy GS7 PG3 CaP.

  15. A Case of In-Bore Transperineal MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy of a Patient with Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Kongnyuy, Michael; Frye, Thomas; George, Arvin K.; Kilchevsky, Amichai; Iyer, Amogh; Kadakia, Meet; Muthigi, Akhil; Turkbey, Baris; Wood, Brad J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease that specifically affects the colon. Ulcerative colitis is primarily treated medically and refractory disease is treated with proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Gastroenterologists advise against digital rectal exams, pelvic radiation therapy, and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies of the prostates of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis patients. Any form of pouch manipulation can lead to severe bleeding, inflammation, and pain. Urologists are therefore faced with the challenge of doing a prostate biopsy without a transrectal ultrasound. We report the rare case of a patient with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis who underwent in-bore transperineal MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate. PMID:26844005

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men with PSA 4–10 ng/mL Who Underwent TRUS-Guided Prostate Biopsy: The Utilization of PAMD Score

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Dong; Ren, Da; Zhao, Chenglin; Li, Xuesong; Yu, Wei; Wang, Rui; Wang, Huihui; Xi, Chenguang; He, Qun; Wang, Xiaoying; Xin, Zhongcheng; Zhou, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To elucidate the characteristics and risk factors for positive biopsy outcomes in Chinese patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) 4–10 ng/mL and develop a risk-stratification score model. Methods. The data of 345 patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy between 2011 and 2013 was retrospectively analyzed. Digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate volume (PV), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and smoking status were also collected. Positive biopsy outcomes were defined as prostate cancer (PCa) and high grade PCa (HGPCa, Gleason Score ≥ 7). Results. The median PSA was 7.15 (IQR 5.91–8.45) ng/mL. Overall 138 patients (40.0%) were shown to have PCa, including 100 patients (29.0%) with HGPCa. Smaller PV, elder age, MRI results, and positive DRE were proved to be predictive factors for positive biopsy outcomes in both univariate and multivariate analysis. We developed a “PAMD” score which combined the four factors to categorize patients into three risk groups, and the model performed good predictive sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion. The prevalence of prostate cancer in Chinese patients with PSA 4–10 ng/mL was 40%, including 29% patients with high grade disease. DRE, age, MRI, and PV were predictive factors for positive biopsy outcomes, and the PAMD score model could be utilized for risk-stratification and decision-making. PMID:26557679

  17. Operator Dependent Choice of Prostate Cancer Biopsy Has Limited Impact on a Gene Signature Analysis for the Highly Expressed Genes IGFBP3 and F3 in Prostate Cancer Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhuochun; Andersson, Karl; Lindholm, Johan; Bodin, Inger; Pramana, Setia; Pawitan, Yudi; Nistér, Monica; Nilsson, Sten; Li, Chunde

    2014-01-01

    Background Predicting the prognosis of prostate cancer disease through gene expression analysis is receiving increasing interest. In many cases, such analyses are based on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) core needle biopsy material on which Gleason grading for diagnosis has been conducted. Since each patient typically has multiple biopsy samples, and since Gleason grading is an operator dependent procedure known to be difficult, the impact of the operator's choice of biopsy was evaluated. Methods Multiple biopsy samples from 43 patients were evaluated using a previously reported gene signature of IGFBP3, F3 and VGLL3 with potential prognostic value in estimating overall survival at diagnosis of prostate cancer. A four multiplex one-step qRT-PCR test kit, designed and optimized for measuring the signature in FFPE core needle biopsy samples was used. Concordance of gene expression levels between primary and secondary Gleason tumor patterns, as well as benign tissue specimens, was analyzed. Results The gene expression levels of IGFBP3 and F3 in prostate cancer epithelial cell-containing tissue representing the primary and secondary Gleason patterns were high and consistent, while the low expressed VGLL3 showed more variation in its expression levels. Conclusion The assessment of IGFBP3 and F3 gene expression levels in prostate cancer tissue is independent of Gleason patterns, meaning that the impact of operator's choice of biopsy is low. PMID:25296164

  18. Nomograms for predicting Gleason upgrading in a contemporary Chinese cohort receiving radical prostatectomy after extended prostate biopsy: development and internal validation.

    PubMed

    He, Biming; Chen, Rui; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Yang, Bo; Hou, Jianguo; Wang, Linhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Tie; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-03-29

    The current strategy for the histological assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) is mainly based on the Gleason score (GS). However, 30-40% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) are misclassified at biopsy pathologically. Thus, we developed and validated nomograms for the prediction of Gleason score upgrading (GSU) in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy after extended prostate biopsy in a Chinese population. This retrospective study included a total of 411 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institute after having prostate biopsies between 2011 and 2015. The final pathologic GS was upgraded in 151 (36.74%) of the cases in all patients and 92 (60.13%) cases in men with GS=6. In multivariate analyses, the primary biopsy GS, secondary biopsy GS and obesity were predictive of GSU in the patient cohort assessed. In patients with GS=6, the significant predictors of GSU included the body mass index (BMI), prostate-specific antigen density(PSAD) and percentage of positive cores. The area under the curve (AUC) of the prediction models was 0.753 for the entire patient population and 0.727 for the patients with GS=6. Both nomograms were well calibrated, and decision curve analysis demonstrated a high net benefit across a wide range of threshold probabilities. This study may be relevant for improved risk assessment and clinical decision-making in PCa patients. PMID:26943768

  19. Nomograms for predicting Gleason upgrading in a contemporary Chinese cohort receiving radical prostatectomy after extended prostate biopsy: development and internal validation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shancheng; Yang, Bo; Hou, Jianguo; Wang, Linhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Tie; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-01-01

    The current strategy for the histological assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) is mainly based on the Gleason score (GS). However, 30-40% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) are misclassified at biopsy pathologically. Thus, we developed and validated nomograms for the prediction of Gleason score upgrading (GSU) in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy after extended prostate biopsy in a Chinese population. This retrospective study included a total of 411 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our institute after having prostate biopsies between 2011 and 2015. The final pathologic GS was upgraded in 151 (36.74%) of the cases in all patients and 92 (60.13%) cases in men with GS=6. In multivariate analyses, the primary biopsy GS, secondary biopsy GS and obesity were predictive of GSU in the patient cohort assessed. In patients with GS=6, the significant predictors of GSU included the body mass index (BMI), prostate-specific antigen density(PSAD) and percentage of positive cores. The area under the curve (AUC) of the prediction models was 0.753 for the entire patient population and 0.727 for the patients with GS=6. Both nomograms were well calibrated, and decision curve analysis demonstrated a high net benefit across a wide range of threshold probabilities. This study may be relevant for improved risk assessment and clinical decision-making in PCa patients. PMID:26943768

  20. Droplet Digital PCR Based Androgen Receptor Variant 7 (AR-V7) Detection from Prostate Cancer Patient Blood Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yafeng; Luk, Alison; Young, Francis P.; Lynch, David; Chua, Wei; Balakrishnar, Bavanthi; de Souza, Paul; Becker, Therese M.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor splice variant V7 (AR-V7) was recently identified as a valuable predictive biomarker in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Here, we report a new, sensitive and accurate screen for AR-V7 mRNA expression directly from circulating tumor cells (CTCs): We combined EpCAM-based immunomagnetic CTC isolation using the IsoFlux microfluidic platform with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) to analyze total AR and AR-V7 expression from prostate cancer patients CTCs. We demonstrate that AR-V7 is reliably detectable in enriched CTC samples with as little as five CTCs, even considering tumor heterogeneity, and confirm detection of AR-V7 in CTC samples from advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with AR-V7 detection limited to castrate resistant disease status in our sample set. Sensitive molecular analyses of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or circulating tumor nucleic acids present exciting strategies to detect biomarkers, such as AR-V7 from non-invasive blood samples, so-called blood biopsies. PMID:27527157

  1. 3D non-rigid registration using surface and local salient features for transrectal ultrasound image-guided prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Akbari, Hamed; Halig, Luma; Fei, Baowei

    2011-03-01

    We present a 3D non-rigid registration algorithm for the potential use in combining PET/CT and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for targeted prostate biopsy. Our registration is a hybrid approach that simultaneously optimizes the similarities from point-based registration and volume matching methods. The 3D registration is obtained by minimizing the distances of corresponding points at the surface and within the prostate and by maximizing the overlap ratio of the bladder neck on both images. The hybrid approach not only capture deformation at the prostate surface and internal landmarks but also the deformation at the bladder neck regions. The registration uses a soft assignment and deterministic annealing process. The correspondences are iteratively established in a fuzzy-to-deterministic approach. B-splines are used to generate a smooth non-rigid spatial transformation. In this study, we tested our registration with pre- and postbiopsy TRUS images of the same patients. Registration accuracy is evaluated using manual defined anatomic landmarks, i.e. calcification. The root-mean-squared (RMS) of the difference image between the reference and floating images was decreased by 62.6+/-9.1% after registration. The mean target registration error (TRE) was 0.88+/-0.16 mm, i.e. less than 3 voxels with a voxel size of 0.38×0.38×0.38 mm3 for all five patients. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the 3D non-rigid registration algorithm.

  2. An analysis of the impact of tumor amount on the predictive power of a prostate biopsy prognostic assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Faisal M.; Fogarasi, Stephen I.; Powell, Douglas; Fernandez, Gerardo; Mesa-Tejada, Ricardo; Donovan, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    The Prostate Px prognostic assay offered by Aureon Biosciences is designed to predict progression post primary treatment for prostate cancer patients based on their diagnostic biopsy specimen. The assay is driven by the automated image analysis of a diagnostic prostate needle biopsy (PNB) and incorporates pathologist acquired and digitally masked images which reflect the morphometric (Hematoxylin and Eosin, H&E) and protein expression (immunofluorescence, IF) properties of the PNB. Up to 9 images (3 H&E and 6 IF) from each of 1027 patients, with varying amounts of tumor content were included in the study. We wanted to understand what was the minimal tumor volume required to maintain assay predictive robustness as a result of overall PNB tumor content and assess the impact of pathologist tumor masking variability. 232 patients were selected who had a minimum of 80% tumor volume in a 20x magnification image. In each of the three imaging domains (2 different multiplex (Mplex) IF images and one H&E), the tumor volume was artificially reduced in increments from 80% to 2.5% of the original image area. This simulated decreasing amounts of tumor as well as variations in digital tumor masking. The univariate predictive power of individual imaging domains remained robust down to the 10% tumor level, whereas the total assay was robust through the 20% to 10% tumor level. This work presents one of the first assessments of the variety in tumor amounts on the predictive power of a commercially available prognostic assay that is reliant on multiple bioimaging domains.

  3. The influence of family ties on men's prostate cancer screening, biopsy, and treatment decisions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Eric K; Scott, John G; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2013-11-01

    Extensive research has focused on understanding family dynamics of men with prostate cancer. However, little qualitative work has examined the role of family ties on men's prostate cancer decisions across the spectrum of screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Using data from a larger study, we qualitatively explored the influence of family ties on men's prostate cancer decisions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with men ages ≥50 (N = 64), and data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and a series of immersion/crystallization cycles. Three major themes of spousal/family member influence were identified: (a) spousal/family member alliance marked by open communication and shared decision making, (b) men who actively opposed spouse/family member pressure and made final decisions themselves, and (c) men who yielded to spouse/family member pressure. Our findings provide insights into men's relational dynamics that are important to consider for the shared decision-making process across the prostate cancer spectrum. PMID:23459024

  4. The optimal timing of post-prostate biopsy magnetic resonance imaging to guide nerve-sparing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young Hwii; Song, Phil Hyun; Moon, Ki Hak; Jung, Hee Chang; Cheon, Jun; Sung, Deuk Jae

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of the interval between prostate biopsy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the accuracy of simple tumor localization, which is essential information that enables nerve-sparing surgery. We also sought to determine the optimal timing of a post-biopsy MRI. A total of 184 patients who had undergone MRI before radical prostatectomy at an institution without a predetermined schedule for MRI after a prostate biopsy were enrolled. The mean interval from the biopsy to the MRI was 30.8 ± 18.6 days. The accuracy of the MRI for simplified tumor location (right, left, bilateral and none) was 44.6%. In the group with discordant pathologic and MRI findings, the most common reason recorded was ‘MRI predicted a unilateral lesion, but pathology revealed bilateral lesions’ (58.3%), followed by ‘MRI predicted no lesion, but pathology revealed the presence of a lesion’ (32.0%). Multivariable analysis showed that the discordant group had a shorter interval (25.0 ± 14.3 vs 38.1 ± 20.6 days, P < 0.01) preceding the MRI and a higher rate of hemorrhage as observed by MRI (80.4% vs 54.8%, P < 0.01) in comparison with the accordant group. In receiver operating characteristics analysis, the area under the curve of the MRI interval in accurate prediction of the tumor location was 0.707 (P < 0.001). At the MRI interval's cutoff of 28.5 days, the sensitivity was 73.2% and the specificity was 63.7%. When the MRI was performed within 28 days, the accumulated accuracy was only 26.1% (23/88); however, when it was performed after 28 days, the reversely accumulated accuracy was 61.5% (59/96). These data support a waiting period of at least 4 weeks after a biopsy before performing an MRI for the purposes of surgical refinement. PMID:24407179

  5. Local Control Following Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy: Effect of High Biologically Effective Dose on Biopsy Results and Oncologic Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Nelson N.; Stock, Richard G.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Unger, Pam

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To determine factors that influence local control and systemic relapse in patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB). Methods and Materials: A total of 584 patients receiving PPB alone or PPB with external beam radiation therapy (19.5%) agreed to undergo prostate biopsy (PB) at 2 years postimplantion and yearly if results were positive or if the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level increased. Short-term hormone therapy was used with 280 (47.9%) patients. Radiation doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED) (using alpha/beta = 2). Comparisons were made by chi-square analysis and linear regression. Survival was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median PSA concentration was 7.1 ng/ml, and the median follow-up period was 7.1 years. PB results were positive for 48/584 (8.2%) patients. Positive biopsy results by BED group were as follows: 22/121 (18.2%) patients received a BED of <=150 Gy; 15/244 (6.1%) patients received >150 to 200 Gy; and 6/193 (3.1%; p < 0.001) patients received >200 Gy. Significant associations of positive PB results by risk group were low-risk group BED (p = 0.019), intermediate-risk group hormone therapy (p = 0.011) and BED (p = 0.040), and high-risk group BED (p = 0.004). Biochemical freedom from failure rate at 7 years was 82.7%. Biochemical freedom from failure rate by PB result was 84.7% for negative results vs. 59.2% for positive results (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed significant associations with BED (p = 0.038) and PB results (p = 0.002) in low-risk patients, with BED (p = 0.003) in intermediate-risk patients, and with Gleason score (p = 0.006), PSA level (p < 0.001), and PB result (p = 0.038) in high-risk patients. Fifty-three (9.1%) patients died, of which eight deaths were due to prostate cancer. Cause-specific survival was 99.2% for negative PB results vs. 87.6% for positive PB results (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Higher radiation doses are required to achieve local

  6. Assessment of the Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound Fusion Guided Prostate Biopsy against a Combined Targeted Plus Systematic Biopsy Approach Using 24-Core Transperineal Template Saturation Mapping Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Francis; Van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Thompson, James; Shnier, Ron; Moses, Daniel; Delprado, Warick; Stricker, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the performance of multiparametric resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion targeted biopsy (MRI/US-TBx) to a combined biopsy strategy (MRI/US-TBx plus 24-core transperineal template saturation mapping biopsy (TTMB)). Methods. Between May 2012 and October 2015, all patients undergoing MRI/US-TBx at our institution were included for analysis. Patients underwent MRI/US-TBx of suspicious lesions detected on multiparametric MRI +/− simultaneous TTMB. Subgroup analysis was performed on patients undergoing simultaneous MRI/US-TBx + TTMB. Primary outcome was PCa detection. Significant PCa was defined as ≥Gleason score (GS) 3 + 4 = 7 PCa. McNemar's test was used to compare detection rates between MRI/US-TBx and the combined biopsy strategy. Results. 148 patients underwent MRI/US-TBx and 80 patients underwent MRI/US-TBx + TTMB. In the MRI/US-TBx versus combined biopsy strategy subgroup analysis (n = 80), there were 55 PCa and 38 significant PCa. The detection rate for the combined biopsy strategy versus MRI/US-TBx for significant PCa was 49% versus 40% (p = 0.02) and for insignificant PCa was 20% versus 10% (p = 0.04), respectively. Eleven cases (14%) of significant PCa were detected exclusively on MRI/US-TBx and 7 cases (8.7%) of significant PCa were detected exclusively on TTMB. Conclusions. A combined biopsy approach (MRI/US-TBx + TTMB) detects more significant PCa than MRI/US-TBx alone; however, it will double the detection rate of insignificant PCa. PMID:27293898

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound-guided fusion biopsy for prostate cancer: Quantifying the impact of needle delivery error on diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter R.; Cool, Derek W.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted, 3D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided “fusion” prostate biopsy intends to reduce the ∼23% false negative rate of clinical two-dimensional TRUS-guided sextant biopsy. Although it has been reported to double the positive yield, MRI-targeted biopsies continue to yield false negatives. Therefore, the authors propose to investigate how biopsy system needle delivery error affects the probability of sampling each tumor, by accounting for uncertainties due to guidance system error, image registration error, and irregular tumor shapes. Methods: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted prostate MRI and 3D TRUS images were obtained from 49 patients. A radiologist and radiology resident contoured 81 suspicious regions, yielding 3D tumor surfaces that were registered to the 3D TRUS images using an iterative closest point prostate surface-based method to yield 3D binary images of the suspicious regions in the TRUS context. The probabilityP of obtaining a sample of tumor tissue in one biopsy core was calculated by integrating a 3D Gaussian distribution over each suspicious region domain. Next, the authors performed an exhaustive search to determine the maximum root mean squared error (RMSE, in mm) of a biopsy system that gives P ≥ 95% for each tumor sample, and then repeated this procedure for equal-volume spheres corresponding to each tumor sample. Finally, the authors investigated the effect of probe-axis-direction error on measured tumor burden by studying the relationship between the error and estimated percentage of core involvement. Results: Given a 3.5 mm RMSE for contemporary fusion biopsy systems,P ≥ 95% for 21 out of 81 tumors. The authors determined that for a biopsy system with 3.5 mm RMSE, one cannot expect to sample tumors of approximately 1 cm{sup 3} or smaller with 95% probability with only one biopsy core. The predicted maximum RMSE giving P ≥ 95% for each

  8. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Motorized Needle Guide Template for MRI-guided Targeted Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Tempany, Clare; Zhang, Elizabeth; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the problems of limited needle insertion accuracy and human error in the use of a conventional needle guide template in MRI-guided prostate intervention, we developed a motorized MRI-compatible needle guide template that resembles a TRUS-guided prostate template. The motorized template allows automated, gapless needle guidance in a 3T MRI scanner with minimal changes in the current clinical procedure. To evaluate the impact of the motorized template on MRI, signal-to-noise ratio and distortion were measured under various system configurations. A maximum of 44% signal-to-noise ratio decrease was found when the ultrasonic motors were running, and a maximum of 0.4% image distortion was observed due to the presence of the motorized template. To measure needle insertion accuracy, we performed four sets of five random target needle insertions mimicking four biopsy procedures, which resulted in an average in-plane targeting error of 0.94 mm with a standard deviation of 0.34 mm. The evaluation studies indicated that the presence and operation of the motorized template in the MRI bore creates insignificant image degradation, and provides submillimeter targeting accuracy. The automated needle guide that is directly controlled by navigation software eliminates human error so that the safety of the procedure can be improved. PMID:23335658

  9. Importance of Local Control in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Patients With Positive Post-Radiation Therapy Biopsy Results Treated in RTOG 9408

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel J.; Hu, Chen; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Souhami, Luis; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Chafe, Susan Maria Jacinta; Leibenhaut, Mark H.; Narayan, Samir; Torres-Roca, Javier; Michalski, Jeff; Zeitzer, Kenneth L.; Donavanik, Viroon; Sandler, Howard; McGowan, David G.; Jones, Christopher U.; Shipley, William U.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between positive post-radiation therapy (RT) biopsy results and subsequent clinical outcomes in males with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 94-08 analyzed 1979 males with prostate cancer, stage T1b-T2b and prostate-specific antigen concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL, to investigate whether 4 months of total androgen suppression (TAS) added to RT improved survival compared to RT alone. Patients randomized to receive TAS received flutamide with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. According to protocol, patients without evidence of clinical recurrence or initiation of additional endocrine therapy underwent repeat prostate biopsy 2 years after RT completion. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of positive post-RT biopsy results on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 831 patients underwent post-RT biopsy, 398 were treated with RT alone and 433 with RT plus TAS. Patients with positive post-RT biopsy results had higher rates of biochemical failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.1) and distant metastasis (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) and inferior disease-specific survival (HR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.9-7.5). Positive biopsy results remained predictive of such outcomes after correction for potential confounders such as Gleason score, tumor stage, and TAS administration. Prior TAS therapy did not prevent elevated risk of adverse outcome in the setting of post-RT positive biopsy results. Patients with Gleason score ≥7 with a positive biopsy result additionally had inferior overall survival compared to those with a negative biopsy result (HR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.35). Conclusions: Positive post-RT biopsy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases and inferior disease-specific survival in patients treated with definitive RT and was associated with inferior overall

  10. Biopsy Quantitative Patohistology and Seral Values of Prostate Specific Antigen-Alpha (1) Antichymotrypsine Complex in Prediction of Adverse Pathology Findings after Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Tomasković, Igor; Milicić, Valerija; Tomić, Miroslav; Ruzić, Boris; Ulamec, Monika

    2015-09-01

    In this prospective study we examined the utility of parameters obtained on prostate needle biopsy and prostate specific antigen-alpha(1)-antichymotripsine complex (PSA-ACT) to predict adverse pathologic findings after radical prostatectomy. 45 consecutive patients assigned for radical prostatectomy due to clinically localized prostate cancer were included in the study. Prostate biopsy parameters such as number of positive cores, the greatest percentage of tumor in the positive cores, Gleason score, perineural invasion, unilaterality or bilaterality of the tumor were recorded. PSA-ACT was determined using sandwich immunoassay chemiluminiscent method (Bayer, Tarrytown, New York). We analyzed relationship of preoperative PSA, PSA-ACTand quantitative biopsy parameters with final pathology after prostatectomy. Adverse findings were considered when extracapsular extension of cancer (pT3) was noted. Postoperatively, 29 (64.4%) patients were diagnosed with pT2 disease and 16 (35.6%) with pT3 disease. There was a significant difference in localized vs. locally advanced disease in number of positive biopsy cores (p<0.001), greatest percentage of tumor in the core (p=0.008), localization of the tumor (p=0.003) and perineural invasion (p=0.004). Logistic regression was used to develop a model on the multivariate level. It included number of positive cores and PSA-ACT and was significant on our cohort with the reliability of 82.22%. The combination of PSA-ACT and a large scale of biopsy parameters could be used in prediction of adverse pathologic findings after radical prostatectomy. Clinical decisions and patients counselling could be influenced by these predictors but further confirmation on a larger population is necessary. PMID:26898067

  11. Carcinoma of the prostate irradiated by combined I/sup 125/ and external irradiation, analysis of failure and significance of positive biopsy one year or more after therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abadir, R.; Ross, G. Jr.; Weinstein, S.H.

    1983-03-01

    Sixty-three patients with cancer of the prostate T/sub 2/ or T/sub 3/ were evaluated. The protocol of treatment called for pelvic lymphadenectomy, 10,000 rad from I/sup 125/ implant and 4000 rad in 20 fractions using a Cobalt/sup 60/ machine. They were followed for 1 to 5 years with a plan to rebiopsy the prostate 1 to 2 years after therapy. Six of 59 evaluable patients (10%) showed progressive disease. Distinctive prognostic features in the failure group were younger age, larger prostate, more advanced stage, poorer differentiation, more possibility of positive pelvic lymph nodes, and if the nodes were positive, the involvement of more than two pelvic lymph nodes. On the other hand, the patients with controlled disease with or without positive prostatic biopsy on follow-up showed identical features regarding age, size of prostate, stage, differentiation, involvement of pelvic lymph nodes, and if the nodes were positive, only one or two nodes involved. Positive biopsy 1 to 2 years after radical irradiation in otherwise controlled disease is considered of no prognostic value.

  12. Gleason grading of prostate cancer in needle biopsies or radical prostatectomy specimens: contemporary approach, current clinical significance and sources of pathology discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Montironi, Rodolfo; Mazzuccheli, Roberta; Scarpelli, Marina; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Fellegara, Giovanni; Algaba, Ferran

    2005-06-01

    The Gleason grading system is a powerful tool to prognosticate and aid in the treatment of men with prostate cancer. The needle biopsy Gleason score correlates with virtually all other pathological variables, including tumour volume and margin status in radical prostatectomy specimens, serum prostate-specific antigen levels and many molecular markers. The Gleason score assigned to the tumour at radical prostatectomy is the most powerful predictor of progression after radical prostatectomy. However, there are significant deficiencies in the practice of this grading system. Not only are there problems among practising pathologists but also a relative lack of interobserver reproducibility among experts. PMID:15877724

  13. Percentage of Cancer Volume in Biopsy Cores Is Prognostic for Prostate Cancer Death and Overall Survival in Patients Treated With Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Sean M.; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schulyer; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Feng, Felix Y.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic utility of the percentage of cancer volume (PCV) in needle biopsy specimens for prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The outcomes were analyzed for 599 men treated for localized prostate cancer with external beam radiotherapy to a minimal planning target volume dose of 75 Gy (range, 75-79.2). We assessed the effect of PCV and the pretreatment and treatment-related factors on the freedom from biochemical failure, freedom from metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival. Results: The median number of biopsy cores was 7 (interquartile range, 6-12), median PCV was 10% (interquartile range, 2.5-25%), and median follow-up was 62 months. The PCV correlated with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group and individual risk features, including T stage, prostate-specific antigen level, Gleason score, and percentage of positive biopsy cores. On log-rank analysis, the PCV stratified by quartile was prognostic for all endpoints, including overall survival. In addition, the PCV was a stronger prognostic factor than the percentage of positive biopsy cores when the two metrics were analyzed together. On multivariate analysis, the PCV predicted a worse outcome for all endpoints, including freedom from biochemical failure, (hazard ratio, 1.9; p = .0035), freedom from metastasis (hazard ratio, 1.7, p = .09), cause-specific survival (hazard ratio, 3.9, p = .014), and overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.8, p = .02). Conclusions: For patients treated with dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy, the volume of cancer in the biopsy specimen adds prognostic value for clinically relevant endpoints, particularly in intermediate- and high-risk patients. Although the PCV determination is more arduous than the percentage of positive biopsy cores, it provides superior risk stratification.

  14. Application of a Clinical Whole-Transcriptome Assay for Staging and Prognosis of Prostate Cancer Diagnosed in Needle Core Biopsy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Beatrice S; Kim, Hyung L; Erho, Nicholas; Shin, Heesun; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Lam, Lucia L C; Tenggara, Imelda; Chadwich, Karen; Van Der Kwast, Theo; Fleshner, Neil; Davicioni, Elai; Carroll, Peter R; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Chan, June M; Simko, Jeffry P

    2016-05-01

    Molecular and genomic analysis of microscopic quantities of tumor from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens has many unique challenges. Herein, we evaluated the feasibility of obtaining transcriptome-wide RNA expression to measure prognostic classifiers in diagnostic prostate needle core biopsy specimens. One-hundred fifty-eight samples from diagnostic needle core biopsy specimens (BX) and radical prostatectomies (RPs) were collected from 33 patients at three hospitals; each patient provided up to six tumor and benign samples. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were generated using Affymetrix Human Exon arrays for comparison of gene expression alterations and prognostic signatures between the BX and RP samples. A sufficient amount of RNA (>100 ng) was obtained from all RP specimens (n = 77) and from 72 of 81 of BX specimens. Of transcriptomic features detected in RP, 95% were detectable in BX tissues and demonstrated a high correlation (r = 0.96). Likewise, an expression signature pattern validated on RPs (Decipher prognostic test) showed correlation between BX and RP (r = 0.70). Of matched BX and RP pairs, 25% showed discordant molecular subtypes. Genome-wide exon arrays yielded data of comparable quality from biopsy and RP tissues. The high concordance of tumor-associated gene expression changes between BX and RP samples provides evidence for the adequate performance of the assay platform with samples from prostate needle biopsy specimens with limited tumor volume. PMID:26945428

  15. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  16. Automated high-throughput assessment of prostate biopsy tissue using infrared spectroscopic chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassan, Paul; Sachdeva, Ashwin; Shanks, Jonathan H.; Brown, Mick D.; Clarke, Noel W.; Gardner, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) chemical imaging has been demonstrated as a promising technique to complement histopathological assessment of biomedical tissue samples. Current histopathology practice involves preparing thin tissue sections and staining them using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) after which a histopathologist manually assess the tissue architecture under a visible microscope. Studies have shown that there is disagreement between operators viewing the same tissue suggesting that a complementary technique for verification could improve the robustness of the evaluation, and improve patient care. FT-IR chemical imaging allows the spatial distribution of chemistry to be rapidly imaged at a high (diffraction-limited) spatial resolution where each pixel represents an area of 5.5 × 5.5 μm2 and contains a full infrared spectrum providing a chemical fingerprint which studies have shown contains the diagnostic potential to discriminate between different cell-types, and even the benign or malignant state of prostatic epithelial cells. We report a label-free (i.e. no chemical de-waxing, or staining) method of imaging large pieces of prostate tissue (typically 1 cm × 2 cm) in tens of minutes (at a rate of 0.704 × 0.704 mm2 every 14.5 s) yielding images containing millions of spectra. Due to refractive index matching between sample and surrounding paraffin, minimal signal processing is required to recover spectra with their natural profile as opposed to harsh baseline correction methods, paving the way for future quantitative analysis of biochemical signatures. The quality of the spectral information is demonstrated by building and testing an automated cell-type classifier based upon spectral features.

  17. A comparison of isolated circulating tumor cells and tissue biopsies using whole-genome sequencing in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie-Fu; Lin, Millicent; Li, Fuqiang; Wu, Kui; Wu, Hanjie; Lichterman, Jake; Wan, Haolei; Lu, Chia-Lun; OuYang, William; Ni, Ming; Wang, Linlin; Li, Guibo; Lee, Tom; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Jonathan; Rettig, Matthew; Chung, Leland W.K.; Yang, Huanming; Li, Ker-Chau; Hou, Yong; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Hou, Shuang; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Posadas, Edwin M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated focal but limited molecular similarities between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and biopsies using isolated genetic assays. We hypothesized that molecular similarity between CTCs and tissue exists at the single cell level when characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS). By combining the NanoVelcro CTC Chip with laser capture microdissection (LCM), we developed a platform for single-CTC WGS. We performed this procedure on CTCs and tissue samples from a patient with advanced prostate cancer who had serial biopsies over the course of his clinical history. We achieved 30X depth and ≥ 95% coverage. Twenty-nine percent of the somatic single nucleotide variations (SSNVs) identified were founder mutations that were also identified in CTCs. In addition, 86% of the clonal mutations identified in CTCs could be traced back to either the primary or metastatic tumors. In this patient, we identified structural variations (SVs) including an intrachromosomal rearrangement in chr3 and an interchromosomal rearrangement between chr13 and chr15. These rearrangements were shared between tumor tissues and CTCs. At the same time, highly heterogeneous short structural variants were discovered in PTEN, RB1, and BRCA2 in all tumor and CTC samples. Using high-quality WGS on single-CTCs, we identified the shared genomic alterations between CTCs and tumor tissues. This approach yielded insight into the heterogeneity of the mutational landscape of SSNVs and SVs. It may be possible to use this approach to study heterogeneity and characterize the biological evolution of a cancer during the course of its natural history. PMID:26575023

  18. A comparison of isolated circulating tumor cells and tissue biopsies using whole-genome sequencing in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Runze; Lu, Yi-Tsung; Ho, Hao; Li, Bo; Chen, Jie-Fu; Lin, Millicent; Li, Fuqiang; Wu, Kui; Wu, Hanjie; Lichterman, Jake; Wan, Haolei; Lu, Chia-Lun; OuYang, William; Ni, Ming; Wang, Linlin; Li, Guibo; Lee, Tom; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Jonathan; Rettig, Matthew; Chung, Leland W K; Yang, Huanming; Li, Ker-Chau; Hou, Yong; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Hou, Shuang; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Posadas, Edwin M

    2015-12-29

    Previous studies have demonstrated focal but limited molecular similarities between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and biopsies using isolated genetic assays. We hypothesized that molecular similarity between CTCs and tissue exists at the single cell level when characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS). By combining the NanoVelcro CTC Chip with laser capture microdissection (LCM), we developed a platform for single-CTC WGS. We performed this procedure on CTCs and tissue samples from a patient with advanced prostate cancer who had serial biopsies over the course of his clinical history. We achieved 30X depth and ≥ 95% coverage. Twenty-nine percent of the somatic single nucleotide variations (SSNVs) identified were founder mutations that were also identified in CTCs. In addition, 86% of the clonal mutations identified in CTCs could be traced back to either the primary or metastatic tumors. In this patient, we identified structural variations (SVs) including an intrachromosomal rearrangement in chr3 and an interchromosomal rearrangement between chr13 and chr15. These rearrangements were shared between tumor tissues and CTCs. At the same time, highly heterogeneous short structural variants were discovered in PTEN, RB1, and BRCA2 in all tumor and CTC samples. Using high-quality WGS on single-CTCs, we identified the shared genomic alterations between CTCs and tumor tissues. This approach yielded insight into the heterogeneity of the mutational landscape of SSNVs and SVs. It may be possible to use this approach to study heterogeneity and characterize the biological evolution of a cancer during the course of its natural history. PMID:26575023

  19. Predicting High-Grade Cancer at Ten-Core Prostate Biopsy Using Four Kallikrein Markers Measured in Blood in the ProtecT Study

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard J.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Vickers, Andrew J.; Robinson, Mary C.; Kumar, Rajeev; Marsden, Luke; Davis, Michael; Scardino, Peter T.; Donovan, Jenny; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many men with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum do not have aggressive prostate cancer and undergo unnecessary biopsy. Retrospective studies using cryopreserved serum suggest that four kallikrein markers can predict biopsy outcome. Methods: Free, intact and total PSA, and kallikrein-related peptidase 2 were measured in cryopreserved blood from 6129 men with elevated PSA (≥3.0ng/mL) participating in the prospective, randomized trial Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment. Marker levels from 4765 men providing anticoagulated plasma were incorporated into statistical models to predict any-grade and high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) prostate cancer at 10-core biopsy. The models were corrected for optimism by 10-fold cross validation and independently validated using markers measured in serum from 1364 men. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The four kallikreins enhanced prostate cancer detection compared with PSA and age alone. Area under the curve (AUC) for the four kallikreins was 0.719 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.704 to 0.734) vs 0.634 (95% CI = 0.617 to 0.651, P < .001) for PSA and age alone for any-grade cancer, and 0.820 (95% CI = 0.802 to 0.838) vs 0.738 (95% CI = 0.716 to 0.761) for high-grade cancer. Using a 6% risk of high-grade cancer as an illustrative cutoff, for 1000 biopsied men with PSA levels of 3.0ng/mL or higher, the model would reduce the need for biopsy in 428 men, detect 119 high-grade cancers, and delay diagnosis of 14 of 133 high-grade cancers. Models exhibited excellent discrimination on independent validation among men with only serum samples available for analysis. Conclusions: A statistical model based on kallikrein markers was validated in a large prospective study and reduces unnecessary biopsies while delaying diagnosis of high-grade cancers in few men. PMID:25863334

  20. Erectile dysfunction in 1050 men following extended (18 cores) vs saturation (28 cores) vs saturation plus MRI-targeted prostate biopsy (32 cores).

    PubMed

    Pepe, P; Pennisi, M

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) following transperineal prostate biopsy (TPB) was prospectively evaluated. From January 2011 to January 2014, 1050 patients were submitted to TPB: 18 core (extended TPB) in 610 cases, 28 core (saturation TPB) in 360 cases and 32 core (saturation plus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeted TPB) in 210 cases. The indications for biopsy were increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or PSA>10 ng ml(-1). All patients were prospectively evaluated with the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) at time zero and at 1, 3 and 6 months from TPB. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 385/1050 (36.6%) patients; 560 men (350 vs 110 vs 100) having benign histology and normal sexual activity also completed the study. Overall, IEEF-5 score at time zero and at 1, 3 and 6 months did not significantly worsen (P>0.05); in detail, at 1 month from biopsy 15 extended TPB (4.2%) vs 7 saturation TPB (6.4%) vs 7 saturation plus MRI targeted TPB (7%) men referred mild ED that disappeared after 3 months. Irrespective of method (18 vs 28 vs 32 core) TPB did not significantly worsen erectile function at 3-6 months from the procedure. PMID:26289906

  1. The role of targeted prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy in reducing infection rates: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cussans, Amelia; Somani, Bhaskar K; Basarab, Adriana; Dudderidge, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    To compare the incidence of infective complications after transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy with either empirical fluoroquinolone or culture-based targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis, and the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (FQ-R) in men undergoing prostate biopsy. A systematic review of the literature was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We included studies of patients undergoing TRUS-guided biopsy that compared infective outcomes of those who received targeted antimicrobial therapy based on the results of pre-procedural rectal swab cultures, with those receiving empiric fluoroquinolone antimicrobial prophylaxis. The prevalence of FQ-R was recorded as a secondary outcome measure. Studies with no control group were excluded. From 125 studies screened, nine studies (4 571 patients) met the inclusion criteria. All studies were of cohort design, and included a combination of retrospective and prospective data. Six studies included were undertaken in North America. The remaining studies were undertaken in Spain, Turkey and Columbia. Within these studies, 2 484 (54.3%) patients received empirical fluoroquinolone prophylaxis, whilst 2 087 (45.7%) patients had pre-biopsy rectal swabs and targeted antibiotics. The mean FQ-R was 22.8%. Post-biopsy infection and sepsis rates were significantly higher in groups given empirical prophylaxis (4.55% and 2.21%) compared with groups receiving targeted antibiotics (0.72% and 0.48%). Based on these results 27 men would need to receive targeted antibiotics to prevent one infective complication. Our systematic review suggests that targeted prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is associated with lower rates of sepsis. We therefore recommend changing current pathways to adopt this measure. PMID:26709240

  2. Percentage of Biopsy Cores Positive for Malignancy and Biochemical Failure Following Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy in 3,264 Men: Statistical Significance Without Predictive Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Scott G. Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Pickles, Tom; Kestin, Larry; Martinez, Alvaro; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To define and incorporate the impact of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) into a predictive model of prostate cancer radiotherapy biochemical outcome. Methods and Materials: The data of 3264 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy at four institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Standard prognostic and treatment factors plus the number of biopsy cores collected and the number positive for malignancy by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were available. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure (bF, Phoenix definition). Multivariate proportional hazards analyses were performed and expressed as a nomogram and the model's predictive ability assessed using the concordance index (c-index). Results: The cohort consisted of 21% low-, 51% intermediate-, and 28% high-risk cancer patients, and 30% had androgen deprivation with radiotherapy. The median PPC was 50% (interquartile range [IQR] 29-67%), and median follow-up was 51 months (IQR 29-71 months). Percentage of positive biopsy cores displayed an independent association with the risk of bF (p = 0.01), as did age, prostate-specific antigen value, Gleason score, clinical stage, androgen deprivation duration, and radiotherapy dose (p < 0.001 for all). Including PPC increased the c-index from 0.72 to 0.73 in the overall model. The influence of PPC varied significantly with radiotherapy dose and clinical stage (p = 0.02 for both interactions), with doses <66 Gy and palpable tumors showing the strongest relationship between PPC and bF. Intermediate-risk patients were poorly discriminated regardless of PPC inclusion (c-index 0.65 for both models). Conclusions: Outcome models incorporating PPC show only minor additional ability to predict biochemical failure beyond those containing standard prognostic factors.

  3. Efficacy of two-time prophylactic intravenous administration of tazobactam/piperacillin for transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Hiroaki; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Miyagi, Tohru; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Namiki, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli has been recently increasing worldwide. We analyzed the incidence and characteristics of acute bacterial prostatitis after transrectal ultrasound-guided needle prostate biopsy (TRUSP-Bx) with prophylactic tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) treatment as an alternative regimen. Methods A total of 391 patients who underwent TRUSP-Bx were included in the study. All patients received intravenous TAZ/PIPC (4.5 g) 30 minutes before and 6 hours after TRUSP-Bx. Results Acute bacterial prostatitis developed in six patients (1.5%); the frequency of its occurrence was significantly higher in patients in whom rectal disinfection was not performed (P < 0.05). These six patients developed clinical symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis a median of 24 hours after the biopsy. Escherichia coli was isolated in urine or blood bacterial cultures in four cases, and Klebsiella pneumoniae in two cases. All of the isolated organisms showed excellent sensitivity to TAZ/PIPC. Conclusions The incidence rate of acute prostatitis with prophylactic TAZ/PIPC was consistent with those reported previously with FQ-based regimens, despite the favorable sensitivity of isolated organisms. Two-time regimen of TAZ/PIPC may not always prevent the post-TRUSP-Bx infection, possibly due to the pharmacokinetic characteristics of TAZ/PIPC. However, if each case was considered individually to select the best setting and frequency of dosage of TAZ/PIPC, this can be an optimal prophylaxis in the era of widespread FQ-resistant microorganisms. PMID:26473153

  4. Automated detection of prostate cancer in digitized whole-slide images of H and E-stained biopsy specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litjens, G.; Ehteshami Bejnordi, B.; Timofeeva, N.; Swadi, G.; Kovacs, I.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.; van der Laak, J.

    2015-03-01

    Automated detection of prostate cancer in digitized H and E whole-slide images is an important first step for computer-driven grading. Most automated grading algorithms work on preselected image patches as they are too computationally expensive to calculate on the multi-gigapixel whole-slide images. An automated multi-resolution cancer detection system could reduce the computational workload for subsequent grading and quantification in two ways: by excluding areas of definitely normal tissue within a single specimen or by excluding entire specimens which do not contain any cancer. In this work we present a multi-resolution cancer detection algorithm geared towards the latter. The algorithm methodology is as follows: at a coarse resolution the system uses superpixels, color histograms and local binary patterns in combination with a random forest classifier to assess the likelihood of cancer. The five most suspicious superpixels are identified and at a higher resolution more computationally expensive graph and gland features are added to refine classification for these superpixels. Our methods were evaluated in a data set of 204 digitized whole-slide H and E stained images of MR-guided biopsy specimens from 163 patients. A pathologist exhaustively annotated the specimens for areas containing cancer. The performance of our system was evaluated using ten-fold cross-validation, stratified according to patient. Image-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was subsequently performed where a specimen containing cancer was considered positive and specimens without cancer negative. We obtained an area under the ROC curve of 0.96 and a 0.4 specificity at a 1.0 sensitivity.

  5. [Analgesic effect of oral tramadol on transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate in a randomized double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Nomi, Hayahito; Azuma, Haruhito; Segawa, Naoki; Inamoto, Teruo; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Komura, Kazumasa; Koyama, Kohei; Ubai, Takanobu; Katsuoka, Yoji

    2011-08-01

    A total of 121 Japanese patients scheduled for prostate biopsy were randomly and double-blindly assigned to be given a single oral dose of 100 mg Tramadol mixed with 20 ml of sugar syrup or placebo, 30 minutes before the procedure. Pain severity was measured by verbal rating scale (VRS) and visual analog scales (VAS). We also analyzed cardio-respiratory parameters and complications. Of 121 patients, 117 replied validly to VRS and VAS ; and 91 of 117 patients replied to the cohort questionnaire for analysis of the late disorder, patient's impression, prolonged pain and past history of hemorrhoid treatment. Tramadol showed no significant effect on pain severity indicated by VRS and VAS, and no change in cardiorespiratory parameters. Furthermore, 70 patients without a history of hemorrhoid treatment, showed no significant analgesic benefits of Tramadol during the biopsy. In total, 3 patients had side effects of vomiting (CTCAE : grade 1)6), which subsided spontaneously. The oral administration of a single dose of 100 mg Tramadol 30 minutes before a transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was safe, but was not effective to calm down the pain severity. PMID:21894078

  6. Prognostic Importance of Gleason 7 Disease Among Patients Treated With External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Results of a Detailed Biopsy Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Zumsteg, Zach; Ghadjar, Pirus; Pangasa, Misha; Pei, Xin; Fine, Samson W.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kollmeier, Marisa; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of primary Gleason (pG) grade among a large cohort of Gleason 7 prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: From May 1989 to January 2011, 1190 Gleason 7 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with EBRT at a single institution. Of these patients, 613 had a Gleason 7 with a minimum of a sextant biopsy with nonfragmented cores and full biopsy core details available, including number of cores of cancer involved, percentage individual core involvement, location of disease, bilaterality, and presence of perineural invasion. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 1-16 years). The prognostic implication for the following outcomes was analyzed: biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Results: The 8-year bRFS rate for pG3 versus pG4 was 77.6% versus 61.3% (P<.0001), DMFS was 96.8% versus 84.3% (P<.0001), and PCSM was 3.7% versus 8.1% (P=.002). On multivariate analysis, pG4 predicted for significantly worse outcome in all parameters. Location of disease (apex, base, mid-gland), perineural involvement, maximum individual core involvement, and the number of Gleason 3+3, 3+4, or 4+3 cores did not predict for distant metastases. Conclusions: Primary Gleason grade 4 independently predicts for worse bRFS, DMFS, and PCSM among Gleason 7 patients. Using complete core information can allow clinicians to utilize pG grade as a prognostic factor, despite not having the full pathologic details from a prostatectomy specimen. Future staging and risk grouping should investigate the incorporation of primary Gleason grade when complete biopsy core information is used.

  7. Dose Escalation to the Dominant Intraprostatic Lesion Defined by Sextant Biopsy in a Permanent Prostate I-125 Implant: A Prospective Comparative Toxicity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudet, Marc; Vigneault, Eric; Aubin, Sylviane; Varfalvy, Nicolas; Harel, Francois; Beaulieu, L.; Martin, Andre-Guy

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Using real-time intraoperative inverse-planned permanent seed prostate implant (RTIOP/PSI), multiple core biopsy maps, and three-dimensional ultrasound guidance, we planned a boost volume (BV) within the prostate to which hyperdosage was delivered selectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential negative effects of such a procedure. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with RTIOP/PSI for localized prostate cancer with topographic biopsy results received an intraprostatic boost (boost group [BG]). They were compared with patients treated with a standard plan (reference group [RG]). Plans were generated using a simulated annealing inverse planning algorithm. Prospectively recorded urinary, rectal, and sexual toxicities and dosimetric parameters were compared between groups. Results: The study included 120 patients treated with boost technique who were compared with 70 patients treated with a standard plan. Boost technique did not significantly change the number of seeds (55.1/RG vs. 53.6/BG). The intraoperative prostate V150 was slightly higher in BG (75.2/RG vs. 77.2/BG, p = 0.039). Urethra V100, urethra D90, and rectal D50 were significantly lower in the BG. No significant differences were seen in acute or late urinary, rectal, or sexual toxicities. Conclusions: Because there were no differences between the groups in acute and late toxicities, we believe that BV can be planned and delivered to the dominant intraprostatic lesion without increasing toxicity. It is too soon to say whether a boost technique will ultimately increase local control.

  8. Povidone Iodine Rectal Preparation at Time of Prostate Needle Biopsy is a Simple and Reproducible Means to Reduce Risk of Procedural Infection.

    PubMed

    Raman, Jay D; Lehman, Kathleen K; Dewan, Kalyan; Kirimanjeswara, Girish

    2015-01-01

    Single institution and population-based studies highlight that infectious complications following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy (TRUS PNB) are increasing. Such infections are largely attributable to quinolone resistant microorganisms which colonize the rectal vault and are translocated into the bloodstream during the biopsy procedure. A povidone iodine rectal preparation (PIRP) at time of biopsy is a simple, reproducible method to reduce rectal microorganism colony counts and therefore resultant infections following TRUS PNB. All patients are administered three days of oral antibiotic therapy prior to biopsy. The PIRP technique involves initially positioning the patient in the standard manner for a TRUS PNB. Following digital rectal examination, 15 ml of a 10% solution of commercially available povidone iodine is mixed with 5 ml of 1% lidocaine jelly to create slurry. A 4 cmx4 cm sterile gauze is soaked in this slurry and then inserted into the rectal vault for 2 min after which it is removed. Thereafter, a disposable cotton gynecologic swab is used to paint both the perianal area and the rectal vault to a distance of 3 cm from the anus. The povidone iodine solution is then allowed to dry for 2-3 min prior to proceeding with standard transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent biopsy. This PIRP technique has been in practice at our institution since March of 2012 with an associated reduction of post-biopsy infections from 4.3% to 0.6% (p=0.02). The principal advantage of this prophylaxis regimen is its simplicity and reproducibility with use of an easily available, inexpensive agent to reduce infections. Furthermore, the technique avoids exposing patients to additional systemic antibiotics with potential further propagation of multi-drug resistant organisms. Usage of PIRP at TRUS PNB, however, is not applicable for patients with iodine or shellfish allergies. PMID:26436913

  9. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test result cannot diagnose prostate cancer. Only a prostate biopsy can diagnose this cancer. Your provider will look ... infection Recent tests on your bladder (cystoscopy) or prostate (biopsy) Catheter tube recently placed into your bladder to ...

  10. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo Alonso; Gabilondo-Navarro, Fernando Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent tumor found in men worldwide and in Mexico in particular. Age and family history are the main risk factors. The diagnosis is made by prostate biopsy in patients with abnormalities detected in their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels or digital rectal exam (DRE). This article reviews screening and diagnostic methods as well as treatment options for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. PMID:27557386

  11. Incorporating Known Genetic Variants Does Not Improve the Accuracy of PSA Testing to Identify High Risk Prostate Cancer on Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Rebecca; Martin, Richard M.; Evans, David M.; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George; Kemp, John P.; Lane, J. Athene; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Metcalfe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is a widely accepted screening method for prostate cancer, but with low specificity at thresholds giving good sensitivity. Previous research identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) principally associated with circulating PSA levels rather than with prostate cancer risk (TERT rs2736098, FGFR2 rs10788160, TBX3 rs11067228, KLK3 rs17632542). Removing the genetic contribution to PSA levels may improve the ability of the remaining biologically-determined variation in PSA to discriminate between high and low risk of progression within men with identified prostate cancer. We investigate whether incorporating information on the PSA-SNPs improves the discrimination achieved by a single PSA threshold in men with raised PSA levels. Materials and Methods Men with PSA between 3-10ng/mL and histologically-confirmed prostate cancer were categorised as high or low risk of progression (Low risk: Gleason score≤6 and stage T1-T2a; High risk: Gleason score 7–10 or stage T2C). We used the combined genetic effect of the four PSA-SNPs to calculate a genetically corrected PSA risk score. We calculated the Area under the Curve (AUC) to determine how well genetically corrected PSA risk scores distinguished men at high risk of progression from low risk men. Results The analysis includes 868 men with prostate cancer (Low risk: 684 (78.8%); High risk: 184 (21.2%)). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicate that including the 4 PSA-SNPs does not improve the performance of measured PSA as a screening tool for high/low risk prostate cancer (measured PSA level AU C = 59.5% (95% CI: 54.7,64.2) vs additionally including information from the 4 PSA-SNPs AUC = 59.8% (95% CI: 55.2,64.5) (p-value = 0.40)). Conclusion We demonstrate that genetically correcting PSA for the combined genetic effect of four PSA-SNPs, did not improve discrimination between high and low risk prostate cancer in men with raised PSA levels (3-10ng

  12. Radical Prostatectomy Findings in White Hispanic/Latino Men With NCCN Very Low-risk Prostate Cancer Detected by Template Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Lyapichev, Kirill; Chinea, Felix M.; Prakash, Nachiketh Soodana; Pollack, Alan; Gonzalgo, Mark L.; Punnen, Sanoj; Jorda, Merce

    2016-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) outcomes have been studied in White and Black non-Hispanic men qualifying for Epstein active surveillance criteria (EASC). Herein, we first analyzed such outcomes in White Hispanic men. We studied 70 men with nonpalpable Gleason score 3+3 = 6 (Grade Group [GG] 1) prostate cancer (PCa) with ≤2 positive cores on biopsy who underwent RP. In 18 men, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) was >0.15 ng/mL/g. Three of these had insignificant and 15 had significant PCa. The remaining 52 men qualified for EASC. One patient had no PCa identified at RP. Nineteen (37%) had significant PCa defined by volume (n = 7), grade (n = 7), and volume and grade (n = 5). Nine cases were 3+4 = 7 (GG 2) (5/9 [56%] with pattern 4 <5%), 2 were 3+5 = 8 (GG 4), and 1 was 4+5 = 9 (GG 5). Patients with significant PCa more commonly had anterior dominant disease (11/19, 58%) versus patients with insignificant cancer (7/33, 21%) (P = 0.01). In 12 cases with higher grade at RP, the dominant tumor nodule was anterior in 6 (50%) and posterior in 6 (median volumes: 1.1 vs. 0.17 cm3, respectively; P = 0.01). PSA correlated poorly with tumor volume (r = 0.28, P = 0.049). Gland weight significantly correlated with PSA (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). While PSAD and PSA mass density correlated with tumor volume, only PSA mass density distinguished cases with significant disease (median, 0.008 vs. 0.012 μg/g; P = 0.03). In summary, a PSAD threshold of 0.15 works well in predicting significant tumor volume in Hispanic men. EASC appear to perform better in White Hispanic men than previously reported outcomes for Black non-Hispanic and worse than in White non-Hispanic men. Significant disease is often Gleason score 3+3 = 6 (GG 1) PCa >0.5 cm3. Significant PCa is either a larger-volume anterior disease that may be detected by multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy or anterior sampling of the prostate or higher-grade smaller-volume posterior disease that in most

  13. Radical Prostatectomy Findings in White Hispanic/Latino Men With NCCN Very Low-risk Prostate Cancer Detected by Template Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Lyapichev, Kirill; Chinea, Felix M; Prakash, Nachiketh Soodana; Pollack, Alan; Gonzalgo, Mark L; Punnen, Sanoj; Jorda, Merce

    2016-08-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) outcomes have been studied in White and Black non-Hispanic men qualifying for Epstein active surveillance criteria (EASC). Herein, we first analyzed such outcomes in White Hispanic men. We studied 70 men with nonpalpable Gleason score 3+3=6 (Grade Group [GG] 1) prostate cancer (PCa) with ≤2 positive cores on biopsy who underwent RP. In 18 men, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) was >0.15 ng/mL/g. Three of these had insignificant and 15 had significant PCa. The remaining 52 men qualified for EASC. One patient had no PCa identified at RP. Nineteen (37%) had significant PCa defined by volume (n=7), grade (n=7), and volume and grade (n=5). Nine cases were 3+4=7 (GG 2) (5/9 [56%] with pattern 4 <5%), 2 were 3+5=8 (GG 4), and 1 was 4+5=9 (GG 5). Patients with significant PCa more commonly had anterior dominant disease (11/19, 58%) versus patients with insignificant cancer (7/33, 21%) (P=0.01). In 12 cases with higher grade at RP, the dominant tumor nodule was anterior in 6 (50%) and posterior in 6 (median volumes: 1.1 vs. 0.17 cm, respectively; P=0.01). PSA correlated poorly with tumor volume (r=0.28, P=0.049). Gland weight significantly correlated with PSA (r=0.54, P<0.001). While PSAD and PSA mass density correlated with tumor volume, only PSA mass density distinguished cases with significant disease (median, 0.008 vs. 0.012 μg/g; P=0.03). In summary, a PSAD threshold of 0.15 works well in predicting significant tumor volume in Hispanic men. EASC appear to perform better in White Hispanic men than previously reported outcomes for Black non-Hispanic and worse than in White non-Hispanic men. Significant disease is often Gleason score 3+3=6 (GG 1) PCa >0.5 cm. Significant PCa is either a larger-volume anterior disease that may be detected by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy or anterior sampling of the prostate or higher-grade smaller-volume posterior disease that in most cases should not pose immediate

  14. Predicting Prostate Biopsy Outcomes: A Preliminary Investigation on Screening with Ultrahigh B-Value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging as an Innovative Diagnostic Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Shen, Yanguang; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Lu; Wang, Haiyi; An, Ningyu; Guo, Aitao; Ye, Huiyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine screening of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is no longer recommended because of a high rate of over-diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Objective To evaluate the efficacy of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for PCa detection, and to explore the clinical utility of ultrahigh b-value DW-MRI in predicting prostate biopsy outcomes. Methodology 73 male patients were selected for the study. They underwent 3T MRI using T2WI conventional DW-MRI with b-value 1000 s/mm2, and ultrahigh b-value DW-MRI with b-values of 2000 s/mm2 and 3000 s/mm2. Two radiologists evaluated individual prostate gland images on a 5-point rating scale using PI-RADS, for the purpose of region-specific comparisons among modalities. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and likelihood ratios (LR) were investigated for each MRI modality. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was also calculated. Results Results showed the improved diagnostic value of ultrahigh b-value DWI-MRI for detection of PCa when compared to other b values and conventional MRI protocols. Sensitivity values for 3000 s/mm2 in both peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) were significantly higher than those observed with conventional DW-MRI—Specificity values for 3000 s/mm2 in the TZ were significantly higher than other b-value images, whereas specificity values using 3000 s/mm2 in the PZ were not significantly higher than 2000 s/mm2 images. PPV and NPV between 3000 s/mm2 and the other three modalities were significantly higher for both PZ and TZ images. The PLRs and NLRs of b-value 3000 s/mm2 DW-MRI in the PZ and TZ were also recorded. ROC analysis showed greater AUCs for the b value 3000 s/mm2 DWI than for the other three modalities. Conclusions DW-MRI with a b-value of 3000 s/mm2 was found to be the most accurate and reliable MRI modality for PCa tumor detection and localization

  15. Salvage HIFU for biopsy confirmed local prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rittberg, Rebekah; Kroczak, Tadeusz; Fleshner, Neil; Drachenberg, Darrel

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a treatment option for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer and more recently has been used as salvage therapy after failed radiation therapy. We present a case of local recurrence with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy and salvage external beam radiation therapy with salvage HIFU without biochemical recurrence at 20 months. PMID:26425239

  16. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  17. The Percent of Positive Biopsy Cores Improves Prediction of Prostate Cancer-Specific Death in Patients Treated With Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Yushen; Feng, Felix Y.; Halverson, Schuyler; Blas, Kevin; Sandler, Howard M.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the prognostic utility of the percentage of positive cores (PPC) at the time of prostate biopsy for patients treated with dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated at University of Michigan Medical Center to at least 75 Gy. Patients were stratified according to PPC by quartile, and freedom from biochemical failure (nadir + 2 ng/mL), freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed by log-rank test. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut point for PPC stratification. Finally, Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression was used to assess the impact of PPC on clinical outcome when adjusting for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group and androgen deprivation therapy. Results: PPC information was available for 651 patients. Increasing-risk features including T stage, prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and NCCN risk group were all directly correlated with increasing PPC. On log-rank evaluation, all clinical endpoints, except for OS, were associated with PPC by quartile, with worse clinical outcomes as PPC increased, with the greatest impact seen in the highest quartile (>66.7% of cores positive). ROC curve analysis confirmed that a cut point using two-thirds positive cores was most closely associated with CSS (p = 0.002; area under ROC curve, 0.71). On univariate analysis, stratifying patients according to PPC less than or equal to 66.7% vs. PPC greater than 66.7% was prognostic for freedom from biochemical failure (p = 0.0001), FFM (p = 0.0002), and CSS (p = 0.0003) and marginally prognostic for OS (p = 0.055). On multivariate analysis, after adjustment for NCCN risk group and androgen deprivation therapy use, PPC greater than 66.7% increased the risk for biochemical failure (p = 0.0001; hazard ratio [HR], 2.1 [95% confidence

  18. Gum biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - gingiva (gums) ... used to close the opening created for the biopsy. ... to eat for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Risks for this procedure include: Bleeding from the biopsy site Infection of the gums Soreness

  19. The incidence and risk factors of resistant E. coli infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis: a single-centre experience with 2215 patients.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Özlem; Bozlu, Murat; Efesoy, Ozan; Güntekin, Onur; Tek, Mesut; Akbay, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of resistant Escherichia coli infections after the prostate biopsy under flouroquinolone prophylaxis. From January 2003 to December 2012, we retrospectively evaluated the records of 2215 patients. The risk factors were described for infective complications and resistant E. coli in positive cultures was calculated. Of 2215 patients, 153 had positive urine cultures, such as 129 (84·3%) E. coli, 8 (5·2%) Enterococcus spp., 6 (3·9%) Enterobacter spp., 5 (3·2%) Pseudomonas spp., 3 (1·9%) MRCNS, and 2 (1·3%) Klebsiella spp. Of the positive urine cultures which yielded E. coli, 99 (76·7%) were evaluated for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of those, 83 (83·8%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant and composed of 51 (61·4%) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli ratios were 73·4 and 95·9% before 2008 and after 2008, respectively (P = 0·002). The most sensitive antibiotics for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains were imipenem (100%), amikacin (84%) and cefoperazone (83%). The use of quinolones in the last 6 months and a history of hospitalization in the last 30 days were found to be significant risk factors. We found that resistant E. coli strains might be a common microorganism in patients with this kind of complication. The risk factors for development of infection with these resistant strains were history of the use of fluoroquinolones and hospitalization. PMID:25630553

  20. Evaluation of PCA3 and multiparametric MRI’s: collective benefits before deciding initial prostate biopsy for patients with PSA level between 3-10ng/mL

    PubMed Central

    Okcelik, Sezgin; Soydan, Hasan; Ates, Ferhat; Berber, Ufuk; Saygin, Hasan; Sönmez, Güner; Karademir, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the contribution of multiparametric MRI and PCA3 assay, pre- decision of initial biopsy in PSA level between 3-10 ng/mL patients with normal digital rectal examination(DRE). Materials and Methods PSA level 3-10 ng/mL ,patients, with normal DRE results and no previous prostate biopsy history, were included in this study. Each patient underwent multiparametric MRI one week before biopsy. Urine sample taking for PCA3 examination preceded the biopsy. Systematic and targeted biopsies were conducted. Patients with high PSA levels were seperated into two groups as: high PCA3 scored and low PCA3 scored. Then each group was divided into two sub-groups as: MRI lesion positive and negative. Tumor incidence, positive predictive values(PPV) and negative predictive values(NPV) were calculated. Results 53 patients were included between February 2013 and March 2014.Mean age 61.22 ± 1.06. Mean PSA value 5.13 ± 0.19 ng / mL. Mean PCA3 score 98.01 ± 23.13 and mean prostate size was 48.96 ± 2.67 grams. Fourty nine patients had both PCA3 score and multiparametric MRI. The PCA3’s PPV value was 58.33%. If multiparametric MRI lesions are added to high PCA3 scores , the PPV appears to elevate to 91.66%. NPV of PCA3 was 96%. NPV was 95% when there was no lesion in the multiparametric MRI with low PCA3 scores. Sensitivity was 91.66% , specificity was 95% respectively. Conclusion Adding multimetric MRI can also support biopsy decision for patients with high PCA3 value. When PCA3 value is low, patients can be survailled without any need to take a MRI. PMID:27286106

  1. Biopsy - polyps

    MedlinePlus

    Polyp biopsy ... are treated is the colon. How a polyp biopsy is done depends on the location: Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy explores the large bowel Colposcopy-directed biopsy examines the vagina and cervix Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or ...

  2. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  3. Diagnosis of "Poorly Formed Glands" Gleason Pattern 4 Prostatic Adenocarcinoma on Needle Biopsy: An Interobserver Reproducibility Study Among Urologic Pathologists With Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Li, Jianbo; Cheng, Liang; Egevad, Lars; Deng, Fang-Ming; Kunju, Lakshmi Priya; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Melamed, Jonathan; Mehra, Rohit; Mendrinos, Savvas; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Paner, Gladell; Shen, Steve S; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Trpkov, Kiril; Tian, Wei; Yang, Ximing; Shah, Rajal B

    2015-10-01

    Accurate recognition of Gleason pattern (GP) 4 prostate carcinoma (PCa) on needle biopsy is critical for patient management and prognostication. "Poorly formed glands" are the most common GP4 subpattern. We studied the diagnostic reproducibility and the quantitative threshold of grading GP4 "poorly formed glands" and the criteria to distinguish them from tangentially sectioned GP3 glands. Seventeen urologic pathologists were first queried for the definition of "poorly formed glands" using cases representing a spectrum of PCa glandular differentiation. Cancer glands with no or rare lumens, elongated compressed glands, and elongated nests were considered "poorly formed glands" by consensus. Participants then graded a second set of 23 PCa cases that potentially contained "poorly formed glands" with a fair interobserver agreement (κ = 0.34). The consensus diagnoses, defined as agreement by > 70% participants, were then correlated with the quantitative (≤ 5, 6 to 10, >10) and topographic features of poorly formed glands (clustered, immediately adjacent to, and intermixed with other well-formed PCa glands) in each case. Poorly formed glands immediately adjacent to other well-formed glands regardless of their number and small foci of ≤ 5 poorly formed glands regardless of their location were not graded as GP4. In contrast, large foci of >10 poorly formed glands that were not immediately adjacent to well-formed glands were graded as GP4. Grading "poorly formed glands" is challenging. Some morphologic features are, however, reproducible for and against a GP4 diagnosis. This study represents an important step in standardization of grading of "poorly formed glands" based on quantitative and topographic morphologic features. PMID:26099009

  4. The use of prophylactic single-dose fosfomycin in patients who undergo transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: A prospective, randomized, and controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Volkan; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Yonguc, Tarik; Sen, Pinar; Polat, Salih; Degirmenci, Tansu; Bolat, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to demonstrate the efficacy, safety, and convenient use of fosfomycin trometamol in the preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSBP) in this prospective, randomized study. Methods: Between May 2014 and May 2015, a total of 300 patients who underwent TRUSBP were examined prospectively. Patients were randomized into two groups: group 1 consisted of 150 patients who were administered a single dose of 3 g oral fosfomycin as a PAP the night before the procedure; group 2 consisted of 150 patients who were administered 500 mg oral ciprofloxacin 60 min before the procedure as a PAP. Post-procedural febrile and afebrile infectious complications and pathological characteristics of the two groups were compared prospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63.5±0.6 years in group 1 and 62.9±0.6 years in group 2. A total of two patients (1.3%) in group 1 and nine patients (6.0%) in group 2 experienced afebrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Afebrile UTI rate was significantly higher in group 2 (1.3% s. 6.0%, p=0,032). Febrile UTI was detected in two patients in group 2 and one patient in group 1. Urine cultures revealed 35.7% fluoroquinolone resistance. As a limitation, although the sample size was appropriate due to the power calculation, we believe that comprehensive studies including larger patient cohorts are needed to support our findings. Conclusions: Due to its ease-of-use with only a single dose and lower rates of infectious complications (resistant and febrile UTIs), fosfomycin trometamol is a strong alternative for antibiotic prophylaxis in TRUSBP. PMID:26788236

  5. Pediatric case report on magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound-fusion biopsy of rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder/prostate: a new tool to reduce therapy-associated morbidity?

    PubMed

    Kuru, Timur H; Roethke, Matthias C; Nyarangi-Dix, Joanne; Okouoyo, Stella; Stockklausner, Clemens; Schenk, Jens-Peter; Debus, Jürgen; Roth, Wilfried; Teber, Dogu; Pahernik, Sascha; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Hohenfellner, Markus; Hadaschik, Boris A

    2013-02-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcomas in children. Here we present management of an 18-month-old boy with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder/prostate. After radiochemotherapy, high-spatial-resolution 3-Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed regressive systemic disease but a residual mass at the right seminal vesicle. For histologic re-evaluation, 3-dimensional-controlled stereotactic MRI/transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-fusion biopsy specimens were taken. Because histologic analysis showed nonvital tissue, a decision could be made against adjuvant radical cystoprostatectomy. Advanced 3-Tesla imaging and MRI/TRUS-fusion biopsies in children are feasible and represent an effective tool to examine suspicious pelvic lesions. Depending on histology, this can lead to a significant reduction of therapy-associated morbidity. PMID:23374821

  6. Preoperative prediction of neurovascular bundle involvement of localized prostate cancer by combined T2 and diffusion-weighted imaging of magnetic resonance imaging, number of positive biopsy cores, and Gleason score.

    PubMed

    Naiki, Taku; Okamura, Takehiko; Nagata, Daisuke; Mori, Yuji; Kawai, Noriyasu; Ogawa, Kumiko; Akita, Hidetoshi; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Tozawa, Keiichi; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2011-01-01

    Because recovery of erectile function and avoidance of positive surgical margins are important but competing outcomes with prostate cancer therapy, the decision to preserve or resect a neurovascular bundle (NVB) during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) should be firmly based on information concerning the presence and location of extracapsular extension. In the current retrospective study, the propriety of actual decisions was assessed using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), combining T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), numbers of positive biopsy cores, tumor volume and the Gleason score. MRI before prostate biopsy was performed in 35 patients who underwent LRP for clinically localized prostate cancer. A single radiologist retrospectively assessed whether the tumor localization, capsular penetration, seminal vesicle invasion, NVB involvement, and MRI findings correlated with the postoperative histological results. With the postoperative specimens, 83 lesions demonstrated a Gleason score of 6 or more. Using T2WI with and without DWI and ADC, 39 and 27 of 54 lesions were correctly identified, respectively, the difference being significant. For cancers in the transitional zone, using a threshold Gleason score of 3 or greater, sensitivity was also significantly higher for T2+DWI+ADC than for T2WI alone. Of 35 patients, using all available clinical information (biopsy results including Gleason score, tumor location, percentage of positive biopsy cores, and the percentage of tumor-involved core tissue), we found that the preoperative and postoperative staging were concordant in 25 cases. There is no universal consensus for nerve-sparing LRP; therefore, we performed an additional analysis using simplified clinically defined selection criteria (PSA level >15ng/mL, cT2, less than two positive biopsy scores in the unilateral lobe and less than 30% tumor volume, and a Gleason score of 6

  7. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... right diagnosis. [ Top ] What should a person do days before a kidney biopsy? Days before the procedure, ... Top ] What can a person expect on the day of the kidney biopsy? A person should arrive ...

  8. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​. Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that ...

  9. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 341 KB)​​​​. Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is a ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that involves ...

  10. Impact of Comorbidity, Race, and Marital Status in Men Referred for Prostate Biopsy with PSA >20 ng/mL: A Pilot Study in High-Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Zachary; Muller, Roberto; Li, Qiang; Tatem, Alexander J; King, Sherita A; Freedland, Stephen J; Madi, Rabii; Terris, Martha K; Moses, Kelvin A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of comorbidity, race, and marital status on overall survival (OS) among men presenting for prostate biopsy with PSA >20 ng/mL. Methods. Data were reviewed from 2000 to 2012 and 78 patients were included in the cohort. We analyzed predictors of OS using a Cox proportional hazards model and the association between Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score and PCa diagnosis or high-grade cancer using logistic regression and multinomial regression models, respectively. Results. The median age of patients was 62.5 (IQR 57-73) years. Median CCI was 3 (IQR 2-4), 69% of patients were African American men, 56% of patients were married, and 85% of patients had a positive biopsy. CCI (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.19, 1.94), PSA (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.09, 2.42), and Gleason sum (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.17, 3.56) were associated with OS. CCI was associated with Gleason sum 7 (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.04, 15.89) and Gleason sum 8-10 (OR 4.52, 95% CI 1.16, 17.54) PCa. Conclusions. CCI is an independent predictor of high-grade disease and worse OS among men with PCa. Race and marital status were not significantly associated with survival in this cohort. Patient comorbidity is an important component of determining the optimal approach to management of prostate cancer. PMID:27355056

  11. Impact of Comorbidity, Race, and Marital Status in Men Referred for Prostate Biopsy with PSA >20 ng/mL: A Pilot Study in High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Roberto; Li, Qiang; Tatem, Alexander J.; King, Sherita A.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Madi, Rabii; Terris, Martha K.; Moses, Kelvin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of comorbidity, race, and marital status on overall survival (OS) among men presenting for prostate biopsy with PSA >20 ng/mL. Methods. Data were reviewed from 2000 to 2012 and 78 patients were included in the cohort. We analyzed predictors of OS using a Cox proportional hazards model and the association between Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score and PCa diagnosis or high-grade cancer using logistic regression and multinomial regression models, respectively. Results. The median age of patients was 62.5 (IQR 57–73) years. Median CCI was 3 (IQR 2–4), 69% of patients were African American men, 56% of patients were married, and 85% of patients had a positive biopsy. CCI (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.19, 1.94), PSA (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.09, 2.42), and Gleason sum (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.17, 3.56) were associated with OS. CCI was associated with Gleason sum 7 (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.04, 15.89) and Gleason sum 8–10 (OR 4.52, 95% CI 1.16, 17.54) PCa. Conclusions. CCI is an independent predictor of high-grade disease and worse OS among men with PCa. Race and marital status were not significantly associated with survival in this cohort. Patient comorbidity is an important component of determining the optimal approach to management of prostate cancer. PMID:27355056

  12. MR-TRUS Fusion Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Daniel J A

    2016-06-01

    The leading application of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate is for lesion detection with the intention of tissue sampling (biopsy). Although direct in-bore magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy allows for confirmation of the biopsy site, this can be expensive, time-consuming, and most importantly limited in availability. MR-transrectal ultrasound (MR-TRUS) image fusion targeted biopsy (TBx) allows for lesions identified on MRI to be targeted with the ease, efficiency, and availability of ultrasound.The learning objectives are optimized mpMRI protocol and reporting for image fusion targeted biopsy; methods of TRUS TBx; performance and limitations of MR-TRUS TBx; future improvements and applications. PMID:27187163

  13. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor. A prostate biopsy is done in your ... suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that ...

  14. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Attard, Gerhardt; Parker, Chris; Eeles, Ros A; Schröder, Fritz; Tomlins, Scott A; Tannock, Ian; Drake, Charles G; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management. PMID

  15. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Test is Performed Synovial biopsy helps diagnose gout and bacterial infections, or rule out other infections. ... Chronic synovitis Coccidioidomycosis (a fungal infection) Fungal arthritis Gout Hemochromatosis (abnormal buildup of iron deposits) Tuberculosis Synovial ...

  16. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Harris ED Jr., et al, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 48.

  17. Nerve biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy may be done to help diagnose: Axon degeneration (destruction of the axon portion of the nerve cell) Damage to the ... Demyelination Inflammation of the nerve Leprosy Loss of axon tissue Metabolic neuropathies Necrotizing vasculitis Sarcoidosis

  18. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... F For More Information National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is ...

  19. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test is Performed The biopsy helps diagnose many liver diseases . The procedure also helps assess the stage (early, advanced) of liver disease. This is especially important in hepatitis C infection. ...

  20. Validation of International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading for prostatic adenocarcinoma in thin core biopsies using TROG 03.04 'RADAR' trial clinical data.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, B; Egevad, L; Srigley, J R; Steigler, A; Murray, J D; Atkinson, C; Matthews, J; Duchesne, G; Spry, N A; Christie, D; Joseph, D; Attia, J; Denham, J W

    2015-10-01

    In 2014 a consensus conference convened by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) adopted amendments to the criteria for Gleason grading and scoring (GS) for prostatic adenocarcinoma. The meeting defined a modified grading system based on 5 grading categories (grade 1, GS 3+3; grade 2, GS 3+4; grade 3, GS 4+3; grade 4, GS 8; grade 5, GS 9-10). In this study we have evaluated the prognostic significance of ISUP grading in 496 patients enrolled in the TROG 03.04 RADAR Trial. There were 19 grade 1, 118 grade 2, 193 grade 3, 88 grade 4 and 79 grade 5 tumours in the series, with follow-up for a minimum of 6.5 years. On follow-up 76 patients experienced distant progression of disease, 171 prostate specific antigen (PSA) progression and 39 prostate cancer deaths. In contrast to the 2005 modified Gleason system (MGS), the hazards of the distant and PSA progression endpoints, relative to grade 2, were significantly greater for grades 3, 4 and 5 of the 2014 ISUP grading scheme. Comparison of predictive ability utilising Harrell's concordance index, showed 2014 ISUP grading to significantly out-perform 2005 MGS grading for each of the three clinical endpoints. PMID:26325671

  1. Ureteral retrograde brush biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - brush - urinary tract; Retrograde ureteral brush biopsy cytology; Cytology - ureteral retrograde brush biopsy ... to be biopsied is rubbed with the brush. Biopsy forceps may be used instead to collect a ...

  2. Clinical Perspective of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilesh; Gaitonde, Krishnanath

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer affecting men today. It largely affects men in the fifth and sixth decade of life. Screening for prostate cancer, though controversial, is still the only way to detect early prostate cancer. Multiple newer options such as blood tests and genetic markers are being used in the clinical domain today to improve cancer detection and avoid unnecessary biopsies. To date, biopsy of the prostate remains the only modality to stratify the grade of cancer. Significant improvements in the imaging technology have improved localizing and detecting the disease. Treatment of prostate cancer is stratified on the basis of the grade and volume of the disease. There are multiple treatment options involved in the management of prostate cancer. Treatment of localized prostate cancer still continues to have very high cure rates and long-term cancer-specific survival rates. PMID:27187167

  3. [Intravesical active prostate bleeding diagnosed in B-mode ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Kirchgesner, T; Danse, E; Tombal, B

    2013-09-01

    Hematuria is one of the most frequent minor complications after prostatic biopsy. We would like to report the case of a 68-year-old patient with massive hematuria after prostatic biopsy and intravesical active prostate bleeding diagnosed in B-mode ultrasonography. PMID:24034804

  4. Rapid diagnostic imaging and pathologic evaluation of whole core biopsies at the point-of-care using structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei; Sholl, Andrew B.; Kimbrell, Hillary; Tulman, David B.; Elfer, Katherine N.; Brown, J. Quincy

    2015-07-01

    Video-rate structured illumination microscopy (VR-SIM) of fluorescently stained prostate biopsies is demonstrated as a potential tool for rapid diagnosis of prostate biopsies at the point of care. Images of entire biopsies at 1.3 micron lateral resolution are rendered in seconds, and pathologist review of the resulting images achieves 90% accuracy as compared to gold standard histopathology.

  5. [Prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Morote, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Morales-Bárrera, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    The Vall d'Hebron multidisciplinary prostate cancer (PC) team reviews recent advances in the management of this neoplasm. Screening studies with long follow-up show a reduction in mortality, whereas active surveillance is emerging as a therapeutic approach of non-aggressive cancers. New markers increase the specificity of PSA and also allow targeting suspected aggressive cancers. Multiparametric magnetic resonance (mMRI) has emerged as the most effective method in the selection of patients for biopsy and also for local tumor staging. The paradigm of random prostatic biopsy is changing through the fusion techniques that allow guiding ultrasonography-driven biopsy of suspicious areas detected in mMRI. Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) are curative treatments of localized PC and both have experienced significant technological improvements. RP is highly effective and the incorporation of robotic surgery is reducing morbidity. Modern RT allows the possibility of high tumor dose with minimal adjacent dose reducing its toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy with LHRH analogues remains the treatment of choice for advanced PC, but should be limited to this indication. The loss of bone mass and adverse metabolic effects increases the frequency of fractures and cardiovascular morbimortality. After castration resistance in metastatic disease, new hormone-based drugs have demonstrated efficacy even after chemotherapy resistance. PMID:25727526

  6. The Prostate Health Index Selectively Identifies Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Sanda, Martin G.; Broyles, Dennis L.; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Bangma, Chris H.; Wei, John T.; Partin, Alan W.; Klee, George G.; Slawin, Kevin M.; Marks, Leonard S.; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Chan, Daniel W.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Cruz, Amabelle B.; Mizrahi, Isaac A.; Catalona, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer and can help reduce prostate cancer over diagnosis. Materials and Methods From a multicenter prospective trial we identified 658 men age 50 years or older with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination who underwent prostate biopsy. In this population we compared the performance of prostate specific antigen, % free prostate specific antigen, [-2]proPSA and phi to predict biopsy results and, specifically, the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer using multiple criteria. Results The Prostate Health Index was significantly higher in men with Gleason 7 or greater and “Epstein significant” cancer. On receiver operating characteristic analysis phi had the highest AUC for overall cancer (AUCs phi 0.708, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.648, [-2]proPSA 0.550 and prostate specific antigen 0.516), Gleason 7 or greater (AUCs phi 0.707, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.661, [-2]proPSA 0.558, prostate specific antigen 0.551) and significant cancer (AUCs phi 0.698, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.654, [-2]proPSA 0.550, prostate specific antigen 0.549). At the 90% sensitivity cut point for phi (a score less than 28.6) 30.1% of patients could have been spared an unnecessary biopsy for benign disease or insignificant prostate cancer compared to 21.7% using percent free prostate specific antigen. Conclusions The new phi test outperforms its individual components of total, free and [-2]proPSA for the identification of clinically significant prostate cancer. Phi may be useful as part of a multivariable approach to reduce prostate biopsies and over diagnosis. PMID:25463993

  7. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is usually done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be done ...

  8. Biopsy - biliary tract

    MedlinePlus

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  9. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  10. Thin needle aspiration biopsy of endocrine organs.

    PubMed

    Koss, L G

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the fine needle aspiration technique in reference to the endocrine organs. The principles of technique and interpretation are presented. The application of aspiration biopsies to the breast, the prostate, the pancreas and the thyroid are briefly discussed. PMID:485094

  11. In-Bore MR-Guided Biopsy Systems and Utility of PI-RADS.

    PubMed

    Fütterer, Jurgen J; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald; Yakar, Derya

    2016-06-01

    A diagnostic dilemma exists in cases wherein a patient with clinical suspicion for prostate cancer has a negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy session. Although transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy is the standard of care, a paradigm shift is being observed. In biopsy-naive patients and patients with at least 1 negative biopsy session, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being utilized for tumor detection and subsequent targeting. Several commercial devices are now available for targeted prostate biopsy ranging from transrectal ultrasound-MR fusion biopsy to in bore MR-guided biopsy. In this review, we will give an update on the current status of in-bore MRI-guided biopsy systems and discuss value of prostate imaging-reporting and data system (PIRADS). PMID:27187168

  12. [Recent advances in diagnosis of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Hara, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Most valuable tool for diagnosis of prostate cancer is PSA. Although PSA is highly specific for organ, it is not so specific for disease. Therefore, about 70% of patients whose PSA value is 4-10 ng/mL are forced to undergo unnecessary prostate biopsy. In order to discriminate the unnecessary biopsies, several markers such as free/total PSA ratio, PSA density, and PSA velocity have been developed. However, none of these markers were widely approved in daily clinical settings. Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is thought to be a useful marker for necessity of repeat biopsy. Functional MR imaging such as dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE), diffusion weighted imaging(DWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS) have been developed. Recently MRI-TRUS fusion biopsy is gathering attention. In terms of pathology, atypical glands but not high grade PIN require repeat biopsy after 3 to 6 months from initial biopsy. PMID:26793874

  13. Bone biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  14. Muscle biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  15. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  16. Leiomyosarcoma of the prostate-an unexpected histopathological outcome.

    PubMed

    Raj, Dinesh Harvey; Dash, Prafulla Kumar; Mohanty, Jayashree; Sarangi, Pradosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Prostate leiomyosarcoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive neoplasm that accounts for >0.1% of all primary prostate malignancies. We report a case of a patient, presenting with recurrent episodes of dysuria, who had been diagnosed and operated for benign prostatic hyperplasia 1 month earlier, and now presented with similar symptoms postoperatively. Trans-rectal biopsy of the prostate was carried out and histopathology revealed leiomyosarcoma of the prostate. PMID:27284101

  17. 3D segmentation of prostate ultrasound images using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Hamed; Yang, Xiaofeng; Halig, Luma V.; Fei, Baowei

    2011-03-01

    The current definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer is transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy. However, the current procedure is limited by using 2D biopsy tools to target 3D biopsy locations. This paper presents a new method for automatic segmentation of the prostate in three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound images, by extracting texture features and by statistically matching geometrical shape of the prostate. A set of Wavelet-based support vector machines (WSVMs) are located and trained at different regions of the prostate surface. The WSVMs capture texture priors of ultrasound images for classification of the prostate and non-prostate tissues in different zones around the prostate boundary. In the segmentation procedure, these W-SVMs are trained in three sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes. The pre-trained W-SVMs are employed to tentatively label each voxel around the surface of the model as a prostate or non-prostate voxel by the texture matching. The labeled voxels in three planes after post-processing is overlaid on a prostate probability model. The probability prostate model is created using 10 segmented prostate data. Consequently, each voxel has four labels: sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes and one probability label. By defining a weight function for each labeling in each region, each voxel is labeled as a prostate or non-prostate voxel. Experimental results by using real patient data show the good performance of the proposed model in segmenting the prostate from ultrasound images.

  18. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... are examined, sometimes also with the help of computer-aided detection (CAD) software to pinpoint specific areas ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  19. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  20. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...

  1. Metabolomic Imaging for Human Prostate Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chin-Lee; Jordan, Kate W.; Ratai, Eva M.; Sheng, Jinhua; Adkins, Christen B.; DeFeo, Elita M; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Ying, Leslie; McDougal, W. Scott; Cheng, Leo L.

    2010-01-01

    As current radiological approaches cannot accurately localize prostate cancer in vivo, biopsies are conducted at random within prostates for at-risk patients, leading to high false-negative rates. Metabolomic imaging can map cancer-specific biomolecular profile values onto anatomical structures to direct biopsy. In this preliminary study, we evaluated five prostatectomy-removed whole prostates from biopsy-proven cancer patients on a 7 Tesla human, whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Localized, multi-cross-sectional, multi-voxel magnetic resonance spectra were used to construct a malignancy index based on prostate cancer metabolomic profiles obtained from previous, intact tissue analyses by a 14 Tesla spectrometer. This calculated Malignancy Index shows linear correlation with lesion size (p<0.013) and demonstrates a 93–97% overall accuracy for detecting the presence of prostate cancer lesions. PMID:20371475

  2. Accuracy evaluation of a 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Walter J.; Nye, Jonathan A.; Schuster, David M.; Nieh, Peter T.; Master, Viraj A.; Votaw, John R.; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Early detection of prostate cancer is critical in maximizing the probability of successful treatment. Current systematic biopsy approach takes 12 or more randomly distributed core tissue samples within the prostate and can have a high potential, especially with early disease, for a false negative diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of a 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system. Testing was conducted on prostate phantoms created from an agar mixture which had embedded markers. The phantoms were scanned and the 3D ultrasound system was used to direct the biopsy. Each phantom was analyzed with a CT scan to obtain needle deflection measurements. The deflection experienced throughout the biopsy process was dependent on the depth of the biopsy target. The results for markers at a depth of less than 20 mm, 20-30 mm, and greater than 30 mm were 3.3 mm, 4.7 mm, and 6.2 mm, respectively. This measurement encapsulates the entire biopsy process, from the scanning of the phantom to the firing of the biopsy needle. Increased depth of the biopsy target caused a greater deflection from the intended path in most cases which was due to an angular incidence of the biopsy needle. Although some deflection was present, this system exhibits a clear advantage in the targeted biopsy of prostate cancer and has the potential to reduce the number of false negative biopsies for large lesions.

  3. Accuracy Evaluation of a 3D Ultrasound-guided Biopsy System

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Walter J.; Nye, Jonathan A.; Schuster, David M.; Nieh, Peter T.; Master, Viraj A.; Votaw, John R.; Fei, Baowei

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of prostate cancer is critical in maximizing the probability of successful treatment. Current systematic biopsy approach takes 12 or more randomly distributed core tissue samples within the prostate and can have a high potential, especially with early disease, for a false negative diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of a 3D ultrasound-guided biopsy system. Testing was conducted on prostate phantoms created from an agar mixture which had embedded markers. The phantoms were scanned and the 3D ultrasound system was used to direct the biopsy. Each phantom was analyzed with a CT scan to obtain needle deflection measurements. The deflection experienced throughout the biopsy process was dependent on the depth of the biopsy target. The results for markers at a depth of less than 20 mm, 20-30 mm, and greater than 30 mm were 3.3 mm, 4.7 mm, and 6.2 mm, respectively. This measurement encapsulates the entire biopsy process, from the scanning of the phantom to the firing of the biopsy needle. Increased depth of the biopsy target caused a greater deflection from the intended path in most cases which was due to an angular incidence of the biopsy needle. Although some deflection was present, this system exhibits a clear advantage in the targeted biopsy of prostate cancer and has the potential to reduce the number of false negative biopsies for large lesions. PMID:24392206

  4. Malakoplakia associated with prostatic adenocarcinoma: Report of 4 cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Medlicott, Shaun; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Jimenez, Rafael E; Trpkov, Kiril

    2016-06-01

    Malakoplakia is an inflammatory process that has been rarely reported in the prostate. Malakoplakia in association with prostatic carcinoma is exceedingly rare with only 4 previously reported cases. We describe the clinical features and the associated pathology in 4 patients who demonstrated malakoplakia of the prostate in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Prostatic malakoplakia presenting in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma was identified in 4 patients through a search from the records of 3 institutional databases with large in-house and consult uropathology practices. In 2 of the patients the diagnostic needle biopsy contained only prostatic carcinoma; malakoplakia in association with prostatic carcinoma was documented on prostatectomy, performed 15 and 8weeks after the biopsy, respectively. Both patients experienced urinary infections during the interval between the biopsy and the prostatectomy. The third and fourth patient had a long-standing history of "prostatitis", and acute urinary tract infection with urinary retention, respectively. The needle biopsy in both patients showed concomitant malakoplakia and prostatic carcinoma. One of them also had malakoplakia on the initial biopsy containing only atypical glands and on the subsequent one demonstrating carcinoma. One patient was treated conservatively and one with prostatectomy. Although coexistent prostatic carcinoma and malakoplakia are exceedingly rare, malakoplakia can likely occur as an exceptionally rare complication of a prostate needle biopsy, particularly in individuals with long-term or acute urinary tract infections at the time of the biopsy. PMID:27180057

  5. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove a sample of abnormal tissue from the cervix. The ... Cold knife cone biopsy is done to detect cervical cancer or early changes that lead to cancer. ...

  6. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003910.htm Cold knife cone biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove ...

  7. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. When a ... is closest to the cancer site. Sentinel node biopsy is used to stage many kinds of cancer, ...

  8. Nerve biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of nerve for examination. Through a small incision, a sample ... is removed and examined under a microscope. Nerve biopsy may be performed to identify nerve degeneration, identify ...

  9. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  10. Photoacoustic biopsy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Tomlins, Scott A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Davis, Mandy A.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Wei, John T.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. The chemical components and their distribution are the two major features observed in the biopsy procedures which have been regarded as the gold standard of the diagnosis of many diseases. Taking non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and prostate cancer for example, this study investigates the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing the histopathological changes in the diseased conditions in biological tissue. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also proposed and tested.

  11. Complications of Transjugular Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Navuluri, Rakesh; Ahmed, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Transvenous biopsy was first performed in 1964 by Charles Dotter. Now routinely performed in the liver and kidney by interventional radiologists, the transjugular approach to biopsy has assumed a central role in coagulopathic patients. Major arterial complications from transjugular liver and renal biopsy are rare. In this article, the authors describe such complications in both organs that necessitated selective endovascular coil embolization. PMID:25762847

  12. New data for the lunar 20 core and a survey of published chemical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Vinogradov, A. P.; Ramendik, G. I.; Chupakhin, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    Lunar core samples were analyzed using a spark source mass spectrometer. The analytical results for the four zones of the Lunar 20 core suggest that the core is nonuniform with depth. The higher concentrations of Ce, Sc, Sc, Ba, La, Co, Sr, and Zr in zone 2001 may be connected with the presence in this zone of a basaltic rock type seldom seen in the other zones. That is, about half of the basaltic fragments in the large size fractions in zone 2001 are of a specific porphyritic breccia-like type. Anorthositic fragments containing a notable amount of metallic iron are basically limited to zone 2004 and probably explain the lower concentrations of Ce, Rb, Ba, La, and perhaps Co in this zone. The high concentrations of Ag and Ce found previously are confirmed. Although Ag is at nearly the same concentration in all four zones of the core, Cd in the core is the result of local enrichment. In particular, in zone 2004 the concentration of Cd may be as high as 10 ppm in a sample size of 0.01 mg.

  13. Skin biopsy: Biopsy issues in specific diseases.

    PubMed

    Elston, Dirk M; Stratman, Erik J; Miller, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Misdiagnosis may result from biopsy site selection, technique, or choice of transport media. Important potential sources of error include false-negative direct immunofluorescence results based on poor site selection, uninformative biopsy specimens based on both site selection and technique, and spurious interpretations of pigmented lesions and nonmelanoma skin cancer based on biopsy technique. Part I of this 2-part continuing medical education article addresses common pitfalls involving site selection and biopsy technique in the diagnosis of bullous diseases, vasculitis, panniculitis, connective tissue diseases, drug eruptions, graft-versus-host disease, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, hair disorders, and neoplastic disorders. Understanding these potential pitfalls can result in improved diagnostic yield and patient outcomes. PMID:26702794

  14. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000380.htm Prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. ...

  15. Prostate brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... CT scan to plan and then place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds ...

  16. Prostatitis - bacterial

    MedlinePlus

    ... or tender scrotum The provider may perform a digital rectal exam to examine your prostate. During this ... samples may be collected for urinalysis and urine culture . Prostatitis may affect the results of the prostate- ...

  17. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you should still take it. SURGERY Prostate surgery may be recommended if you have: Incontinence Recurrent ... of your prostate gland. Most men who have prostate surgery have improvement in urine flow rates and symptoms. ...

  18. The Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about ...

  19. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    BPH; Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy); Prostate - enlarged ... The actual cause of prostate enlargement is unknown. Factors linked to aging and changes in the cells of the testicles may have a role in the growth ...

  20. Applications of transrectal ultrasound in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, C J; Pilcher, J; Richenberg, J; Patel, U; Frauscher, F

    2012-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) was first developed in the 1970s. TRUS-guided biopsy, under local anaesthetic and prophylactic antibiotics, is now the most widely accepted method to diagnose prostate cancer. However, the sensitivity and specificity of greyscale TRUS in the detection of prostate cancer is low. Prostate cancer most commonly appears as a hypoechoic focal lesion in the peripheral zone on TRUS but the appearances are variable with considerable overlap with benign lesions. Because of the low accuracy of greyscale TRUS, TRUS-guided biopsies have become established in the acquisition of systematic biopsies from standard locations. The number of systematic biopsies has increased over the years, with 10–12 cores currently accepted as the minimum standard. This article describes the technique of TRUS and biopsy and its complications. Novel modalities including contrast-enhanced modes and elastography as well as fusion techniques for increasing the sensitivity of TRUS-guided prostate-targeted biopsies are discussed along with their role in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. PMID:22844031

  1. Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Coker, Timothy J; Dierfeldt, Daniel M

    2016-01-15

    Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may lead to systemic symptoms, such as fevers, chills, nausea, emesis, and malaise. Although the true incidence is unknown, acute bacterial prostatitis is estimated to comprise approximately 10% of all cases of prostatitis. Most acute bacterial prostatitis infections are community acquired, but some occur after transurethral manipulation procedures, such as urethral catheterization and cystoscopy, or after transrectal prostate biopsy. The physical examination should include abdominal, genital, and digital rectal examination to assess for a tender, enlarged, or boggy prostate. Diagnosis is predominantly made based on history and physical examination, but may be aided by urinalysis. Urine cultures should be obtained in all patients who are suspected of having acute bacterial prostatitis to determine the responsible bacteria and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Additional laboratory studies can be obtained based on risk factors and severity of illness. Radiography is typically unnecessary. Most patients can be treated as outpatients with oral antibiotics and supportive measures. Hospitalization and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics should be considered in patients who are systemically ill, unable to voluntarily urinate, unable to tolerate oral intake, or have risk factors for antibiotic resistance. Typical antibiotic regimens include ceftriaxone and doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. The risk of nosocomial bacterial prostatitis can be reduced by using antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, before transrectal prostate biopsy. PMID:26926407

  2. Prostate calculi in cancer and BPH in a cohort of Korean men: presence of calculi did not correlate with cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eu-Chang; Choi, Hyang-Sik; Im, Chang-Min; Jung, Seung-Il; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Kang, Taek-Won; Kwon, Dong-Deuk; Park, Kwang-Sung; Ryu, Soo-Bang

    2010-01-01

    Prostatic calculi are common and are associated with inflammation of the prostate. Recently, it has been suggested that this inflammation may be associated with prostate carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between prostatic calculi and prostate cancer (PCa) in prostate biopsy specimens. We retrospectively analyzed 417 consecutive patients who underwent transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and prostate biopsies between January 2005 and January 2008. Based on the biopsy findings, patients were divided into benign prostatic hyperplasia and PCa groups. TRUS was used to detect prostatic calculi and to measure prostate volume. The correlations between PCa risk and age, serum total PSA levels, prostate volume, and prostatic calculi were analyzed. Patient age and PSA, as well as the frequency of prostatic calculi in the biopsy specimens, differed significantly between both the groups (P < 0.05). In the PCa group, the Gleason scores (GSs) were higher in patients with prostatic calculi than in patients without prostatic calculi (P = 0.023). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that patient age, serum total PSA and prostate volume were risk factors for PCa (P = 0.001), but that the presence of prostatic calculi was not associated with an increased risk of PCa (P = 0.13). In conclusion, although the presence of prostatic calculi was not shown to be a risk factor for PCa, prostatic calculi were more common in patients with PCa and were associated with a higher GS among these men. PMID:20037598

  3. Utility of synovial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Synovial biopsies, gained either by blind needle biopsy or minimally invasive arthroscopy, offer additional information in certain clinical situations where routine assessment has not permitted a certain diagnosis. In research settings, synovial histology and modern applications of molecular biology increase our insight into pathogenesis and enable responses to treatment with new therapeutic agents to be assessed directly at the pathophysiological level. This review focuses on the diagnostic usefulness of synovial biopsies in the light of actual developments. PMID:19951395

  4. Differential Diagnosis of Intraductal Lesions of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Wobker, Sara E; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-06-01

    The category of intraductal lesions of the prostate includes a range of primary prostatic and nonprostatic processes with wide variation in prognosis and recommended follow-up. Studies have shown that pathologists are uncomfortable with the diagnosis of these lesions and that the diagnostic reproducibility is low in this category. Despite the diagnostic difficulty, their accurate and reproducible diagnosis is critical for patient management. This review aims to highlight the diagnostic criteria, prognosis, and treatment implications of common intraductal lesions of the prostate. It focuses on the recognition of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) in prostate needle biopsies and how to distinguish it from its common mimickers, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, invasive cribriform prostatic adenocarcinoma, urothelial carcinoma extending into prostatic ducts, and prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma. IDC-P is independently associated with higher risk disease, and its identification in a needle biopsy, even in the absence of invasive carcinoma, should compel definitive treatment. Conversely, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia has a much better prognosis and in limited quantities does not even warrant a repeat biopsy. IDC-P must be distinguished from urothelial carcinoma involving prostatic ducts, as recommended treatment varies markedly. Ductal adenocarcinoma may confuse the pathologist and clinician by overlapping terminology, and morphology may also mimic IDC-P on occasion. The use of ancillary testing with immunohistochemistry and molecular markers has also been reviewed. PMID:26848801

  5. Application of statistical cancer atlas for 3D biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ramkrishnan; Shen, Dinggang; Davatzikos, Christos; Crawford, E. David; Barqawi, Albaha; Werahera, Priya; Kumar, Dinesh; Suri, Jasjit S.

    2008-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death. While the exact cause is still under investigation, researchers agree on certain risk factors like age, family history, dietary habits, lifestyle and race. It is also widely accepted that cancer distribution within the prostate is inhomogeneous, i.e. certain regions have a higher likelihood of developing cancer. In this regard extensive work has been done to study the distribution of cancer in order to perform biopsy more effectively. Recently a statistical cancer atlas of the prostate was demonstrated along with an optimal biopsy scheme achieving a high detection rate. In this paper we discuss the complete construction and application of such an atlas that can be used in a clinical setting to effectively target high cancer zones during biopsy. The method consists of integrating intensity statistics in the form of cancer probabilities at every voxel in the image with shape statistics of the prostate in order to quickly warp the atlas onto a subject ultrasound image. While the atlas surface can be registered to a pre-segmented subject prostate surface or instead used to perform segmentation of the capsule via optimization of shape parameters to segment the subject image, the strength of our approach lies in the fast mapping of cancer statistics onto the subject using shape statistics. The shape model was trained from over 38 expert segmented prostate surfaces and the atlas registration accuracy was found to be high suggesting the use of this method to perform biopsy in near real time situations with some optimization.

  6. Prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  7. When prostate cancer remains undetectable: The dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Mahmoud Othman; Pisters, Louis

    2015-03-01

    Since the first report on the efficacy of sextant biopsy under transrectal ultrasound guidance, there have been many modifications related to the total number of cores and the localization of biopsies to improve the prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate. The 2010 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Early PCa Detection Guidelines noted the 12-core biopsy scheme as the standard. However, this extended biopsy scheme still fails to detect 20% of high-grade PCa that can be detected by detailed pathological evaluation of radical prostatectomy; therefore, there is need for saturation biopsies. The existence of suspicions of PCa after previous negative biopsy or biopsies represents a valid indication for saturation biopsy. There has been no significant increment in morbidity or in insignificant PCa detection rates when a saturation biopsy scheme was used with an extended biopsy scheme. Along with the improvement in the PCa detection rate, accurate oncological mapping of PCa is another important consideration of saturation biopsies. The ideal number of cores and the diagnostic value of saturation biopsy after the failure of initial therapy are some of the issues that need to be addressed. Preliminary reports have shown that magnetic resonance imaging can improve the PCa detection rate, save patients from unnecessary biopsies, and decrease the need for a high number of cores; however, multiple limitations continue to exist. PMID:26328196

  8. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Haider, M A; Yao, X; Loblaw, A; Finelli, A

    2016-09-01

    A systematic review was conducted to investigate the use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MPMRI) followed by targeted biopsy in the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPC) and to compare it with transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS-guided) systematic biopsy in patients with an elevated risk of prostate cancer who are either biopsy-naive or who have a previous negative TRUS-guided biopsy. MEDLINE, PubMed and EMBASE (1997 to April 2014), the Cochrane Library and six relevant conferences were searched to find eligible studies. Search terms indicative of 'prostate cancer' and 'magnetic resonance imaging' with their alternatives were used. Twelve systematic reviews, 52 full texts and 28 abstracts met the preplanned study selection criteria; data from 15 articles were extracted. In patients with an elevated risk of prostate cancer who were biopsy-naive, MPMRI followed by targeted biopsy could detect 2-13% of CSPC patients whom TRUS-guided systematic biopsy missed; TRUS-guided systematic biopsy could detect 0-7% of CSPC patients whom MPMRI followed by targeted biopsy missed. In patients with an elevated risk of prostate cancer who had a previous negative TRUS-guided biopsy, MPMRI followed by targeted biopsy detected more CSPC patients than repeated TRUS-guided systematic biopsy in all four studies, with a total of 516 patients, but only one study reached a statistically significant difference. In patients with an elevated risk of prostate cancer who are biopsy-naive, there is insufficient evidence for MPMRI followed by targeted biopsy to be considered the standard of care. In patients who had a prior negative TRUS-guided systematic biopsy and show a growing risk of having CSPC, MPMRI followed by targeted biopsy may be helpful to detect more CSPC cases as opposed to a repeat TRUS-guided systematic biopsy. PMID:27256655

  9. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may ... This captures a tiny sample, or core, of bone marrow within the needle. The sample and needle are ...

  10. Complications of skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Abhishek, Kumar; Khunger, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Skin biopsy is the most commonly performed procedure by the dermatologist. Though it is a safe and easy procedure yet complications may arise. Post operative complications like wound infection and bleeding may occur. It is essential to keep the potential complications of skin biopsy in mind and be meticulous in the technique, for better patient outcomes. PMID:26865792

  11. Radiologic presentation of chronic granulomatous prostatitis mimicking locally advanced prostate adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Min; Joshi, Jay; Wolfe, Konrad; Acher, Peter; Liyanage, Sidath H

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis (GP), a clinical mimic of prostate adenocarcinoma. A 54-year-old man presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and raised prostate-specific antigen. Magnetic resonance imaging showed features consistent with prostate cancer, including low T2-signal intensity in the peripheral and transition zones with signs of extracapsular extension. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed high-signal intensity, with low apparent diffusion coefficient values, whereas dynamic contrast enhancement demonstrated a type 3 washout curve, similar to that found in prostate cancer. Transperineal sector-guided prostate biopsy confirmed nonspecific GP, and the patient was treated conservatively. We discuss and compare nonspecific, chronic GP as a radiologic mimic of prostate adenocarcinoma patient. PMID:27257455

  12. Prostatic carcinosarcoma with lung metastases.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Stefanie R; Kang, David J; Armas, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the prostate is an uncommon malignancy with poor long-term prognosis. The cancer is typically discovered at an advanced stage, and with less than 100 reported cases, there is limited literature concerning treatment options. Our patient presented with a history of benign prostatic hypertrophy, erectile dysfunction, and nocturia. Biopsy of his prostate indicated that the patient had prostatic adenocarcinoma, but histopathology after prostatectomy revealed carcinosarcoma. It has been over six years since this patient's diagnosis of carcinosarcoma. Over this span of time, he has received a radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and androgen ablative therapy. The patient also developed multiple lung metastases that have been treated with video-assisted thoracic surgery and stereotactic body radiosurgery. Overall, he has remained unimpaired and in good condition despite his aggressive form of cancer. PMID:24294528

  13. Technicalities of endoscopic biopsy.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, G N; Ignacio, J G

    1995-11-01

    Despite the wealth of biopsy forceps currently available, it is obvious that there are sufficient drawbacks and shortcomings to reconsider the overall design of the endoscopic biopsy depth, the short lifespan of reusable forceps, damage to the working channel, excessive time consumption, cleaning and disinfection difficulties, etc. Improvements should be possible that approach the same degree of sophistication as is currently available in endoscopic equipment. Fully-automated, repetitive, quickly targeted biopsy sampling should be possible, but it will require the utmost technical ingenuity and expertise to achieve. PMID:8903983

  14. Benign or Malignant? Two Case Reports of Gigantic Prostatic Cyst.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiang; Wang, Xizhi; Luo, Feiye; Wang, Bo; Wang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    A 60-year-old male with a huge prostate cyst presented with obstruction symptom of urethra and intestinal tract. Complete excision of the cystic prostate failed as a result of the strong adherence and twice operations history, but we confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma and relieved his obstruction symptom. Case 2 was a 77-year-old male with an 8 cm cyst of which biopsy showed prostate cancer in local hospital. He was admitted 18 months later because of intestinal obstruction. Radical resection had a satisfied result of obstruction symptom and PSA. Here we summarized malignant characteristics of cystic lesions in prostate or surrounding structures and management. PMID:27500085

  15. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Morales, I; Bassa, C; Pavlovic, A; Morales, C

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion. PMID:26793587

  16. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Morales, I.; Bassa, C.; Pavlovic, A.; Morales, C.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion. PMID:26793587

  17. 4-Kallikrein Test and Kallikrein Markers in Prostate Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michelle L; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2016-02-01

    A preponderance of clinical evidence supports a significant public health benefit for prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening and early detection of prostate cancer in appropriately counseled and selected men. Population-based screening with PSA decreases prostate cancer mortality; however, because of relatively poor specificity, PSA-based screening may also increase the detection of clinically insignificant cancers that would otherwise never require treatment. Use of newer biomarkers that increase the specificity for prostate cancer detection may aid in risk stratification and the appropriate identification of men for prostate biopsy. The authors review the 4-kallikrein panel and 4K probability score. PMID:26614027

  18. Prospective investigation of change in the prostate-specific antigens after various urologic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Chol; Shin, Yu Seob; Zhang, Li Tao; Kim, Dal Sik; Kim, Sung Zoo; Park, Nam Cheol; Ahn, Tai Young; Kim, Je Jong; Lee, Sung Won; So, Insuk; Park, Jong Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various urologic procedures in prostatic area on serum free and total PSA levels. Subjects and methods A series of 62 patients (8 after digital rectal examination [DRE], 12 after transrectal ultrasonography [TRUS], 11 after rigid cystoscopy, 13 after prostatic massage, 8 after TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, and 10 after transurethral resection of prostate [TURP]) were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were taken from each patient before procedure and at 10, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after procedures. Results Prostate massage, rigid cystoscopy, TURP, and TRUS-guided prostate biopsy caused statistically significant rise in total and free PSA levels in the serum. There was no significant increase in total and free PSA levels in the serum after DRE and TRUS. The mean differences were greater for free PSA level in the serum for TURP, TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, prostate massage, and rigid cystoscopy. Conclusion Total and free PSA levels in the serum are altered by prostate massage, rigid cystoscopy, TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, and TURP. The PSA rises were related to the stimulation strength of the procedures. The total and free PSA levels were increased significantly from 10 minutes after procedures, except DRE and TRUS, and were increased to maximal level at 60 minutes after procedures. PMID:26251583

  19. Anterior tumors of the prostate: diagnosis and significance

    PubMed Central

    Werahera, Priya N.; Crawford, E. David; La Rosa, Francisco G.; Torkko, Kathleen C.; Schulte, Beth; Sullivan, Holly T.; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Lucia, M. Scott; Kim, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prostate biopsies are usually taken from the peripheral rather than anterior region of the prostate. Consequently, tumors originating from the anterior apical region and transition zones may be under-sampled. We examined whether addition of transrectal anterior biopsy (TAB) would improve efficacy of prostate biopsies. Materials and methods Simulations of TAB and sextant biopsy (SB) were performed using computer models of 86 autopsy prostates (AP) and 40 radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens. TAB was obtained bilaterally from apex, mid, and base regions by advancing the biopsy needle 5 mm–35 mm beyond the prostatic capsule. A phase I clinical trial with 114 patients was conducted to determine the performance of an extended biopsy protocol consisting of TAB, SB, and laterally-directed biopsy (LDB). Results The overall cancer detection rates of SB and TAB were 33% and 55% for AP series (p = 0.00003); 60% and 88% for RP series (p = 0.006). Alternatively, SB + bilateral apical TAB and SB + bilateral mid TAB had cancer detection rates of 45% and 42% for AP series; 80% and 78% for RP series. The extended biopsy protocol detected cancer in 33% (38/114) of patients with 29, 25, and 15 diagnosed by SB, LDB, and bilateral apical TAB, respectively. Patients diagnosed by bilateral apical TAB versus SB (p = 0.01) and LDB (p = 0.02) were statistically significant. Without bilateral apical TAB, the overall cancer detection rate decreased to 30% (34/114). Conclusions Inclusion of bilateral TAB from apical region for first time and repeat prostate biopsies may increase diagnosis of prostate cancer. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigations and clinical follow up. PMID:24128826

  20. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the pleural membrane. Pleural biopsy can diagnose tuberculosis , cancer, and other diseases. If this type of ... lung cancer , malignant mesothelioma , and metastatic pleural tumor ), tuberculosis, other infections, or collagen vascular disease. Risks There ...

  1. Open pleural biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to a virus, fungus, or parasite Mesothelioma Tuberculosis Risks There is a slight chance of: Air ... More Metastatic pleural tumor Pleural needle biopsy Pulmonary tuberculosis Tumor Update Date 11/4/2014 Updated by: ...

  2. Mediastinoscopy with biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedure is also done for certain infections (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis) and autoimmune disorders . Normal Results Biopsies of lymph ... findings may indicate: Hodgkin disease Lung cancer Lymphoma Sarcoidosis The spread of disease from one body part ...

  3. Breast biopsy - stereotactic

    MedlinePlus

    ... several types of breast biopsies, including open, ultrasound-guided , and lumpectomy . This article focuses on stereotactic breast ... a special machine, a needle or sheath is guided to the exact location of the abnormal area. ...

  4. Breast biopsy - stereotactic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biopsy results may show conditions such as: Atypical ductal hyperplasia Atypical lobular hyperplasia Intraductal papilloma Flat epithelial atypia Radial scar Lobular carcinoma-in-situ Abnormal results may mean that you have breast ...

  5. Breast biopsy - ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biopsy results may show conditions such as: Atypical ductal hyperplasia Atypical lobular hyperplasia Flat epithelial atypia Radial scar Intraductal papilloma Lobular carcinoma-in-situ Abnormal results may mean that you have breast ...

  6. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 19. Ly A. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy technique and specimen ... Respiratory system. In: Watson N. Chapman and Nakielny's Guide ...

  7. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ... procedure, a skinny needle is inserted into the thyroid gland, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  8. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  9. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Xue-Song; Zhou, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique. Data Sources: The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015. Study Selection: We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English, with no limitation of study design. Results: Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages. Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy. A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted. The use of coaxial guide is recommended. For biopsy location, sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended. Conclusion: In spite of some limitations, RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors. PMID:27174334

  10. State-of-the-art imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Marko, Jamie; Gould, C Frank; Bonavia, Grant H; Wolfman, Darcy J

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Modern medical imaging is intimately involved in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Ultrasound is primarily used to guide prostate biopsy to establish the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging uses a multiparametric approach, including anatomic and functional imaging sequences. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can be used for detection and localization of prostate cancer and to evaluate for disease recurrence. Computed tomography and scintigraphic imaging are primarily used to detect regional lymph node spread and distant metastases. Recent advancements in ultrasound, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic imaging have the potential to change the way prostate cancer is diagnosed and managed. This article addresses the major imaging modalities involved in the evaluation of prostate cancer and updates the reader on the state of the art for each modality. PMID:26087969

  11. Prostate brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... radiation safety precautions. If you have a permanent implant, your provider may tell you to limit the ...

  12. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  13. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  14. Metastatic prostatic pulmonary nodules with normal bone image

    SciTech Connect

    Petras, A.F.; Wollett, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    Asymptomatic prostatic caricnoma presented as multiple bilateral pulmonary modules in a patient without any evidence of skeletal involvement by normal bone image. Percutaneous biopsy provided the initial clue to diagnosis. The authors recommend that asymptomatic prostatic carcinoma be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules, even when there is no evidence of skeletal metastasis.

  15. Primary cryptococcal prostatitis--rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vinaya B; Patil, Pallavi A; Agrawa, Vipul; Kaswan, Harish K

    2012-05-01

    Cryptococcosis is a well recognized infection in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal infection primarily involves the lung and is hematogeneously spread to other organs. Sometimes it might affect the genitourinary tract. The prostate gland is a rare site of primary infection due to cryptococcus neoformans. We report a case of granulomatous inflammation in the prostate as a result of crypyococcus neoformans infection in a 70 year old immunocompetent patient, a non diabetic, which was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy. PMID:23029729

  16. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

  17. [Occult cancer in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Duarte, C; Aguillón, J; Rodríguez, H

    1991-05-01

    The results of a prospective study undertaken in 29 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are presented. Transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound-guided biopsy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were utilized in the search for hidden cancer of the prostate. However, no cancer was detected in any patient. Very high values of PSA were found, particularly in patients with an indwelling catheter. Transrectal ultrasound yielded no false negatives and no complications were observed. PMID:1712190

  18. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedgire, Sandeep S; Oei, Tamara N; McDermott, Shaunagh; Cao, Kai; Patel M, Zena; Harisinghani, Mukesh G

    2012-07-01

    In India, prostate cancer has an incidence rate of 3.9 per 100,000 men and is responsible for 9% of cancer-related mortality. It is the only malignancy that is diagnosed with an apparently blind technique, i.e., transrectal sextant biopsy. With increasing numbers of high-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment being installed in India, the radiologist needs to be cognizant about endorectal MRI and multiparametric imaging for prostate cancer. In this review article, we aim to highlight the utility of multiparamteric MRI in prostate cancer. It plays a crucial role, mainly in initial staging, restaging, and post-treatment follow-up. PMID:23599562

  19. Toward Global Biobank Integration by Implementation of the Minimum Information About BIobank Data Sharing (MIABIS 2.0 Core).

    PubMed

    Merino-Martinez, Roxana; Norlin, Loreana; van Enckevort, David; Anton, Gabriele; Schuffenhauer, Simone; Silander, Kaisa; Mook, Linda; Holub, Petr; Bild, Raffael; Swertz, Morris; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2016-08-01

    Biobanks are the biological back end of data-driven medicine, but lack standards and generic solutions for interoperability and information harmonization. The move toward a global information infrastructure for biobanking demands semantic interoperability through harmonized services and common ontologies. To tackle this issue, the Minimum Information About BIobank data Sharing (MIABIS) was developed in 2012 by the Biobanking and BioMolecular Resources Research Infrastructure of Sweden (BBMRI.se). The wide acceptance of the first version of MIABIS encouraged evolving it to a more structured and descriptive standard. In 2013 a working group was formed under the largest infrastructure for health in Europe, Biobanking and BioMolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-ERIC), with the remit to continue the development of MIABIS (version 2.0) through a multicountry governance process. MIABIS 2.0 Core has been developed with 22 attributes describing Biobanks, Sample Collections, and Studies according to a modular structure that makes it easier to adhere to and to extend the standard. This integration standard will make a great contribution to the discovery and exploitation of biobank resources and lead to a wider and more efficient use of valuable bioresources, thereby speeding up the research on human diseases. Many within the European Union have accepted MIABIS 2.0 Core as the "de facto" biobank information standard. PMID:26977825

  20. What is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics for prostate cancer What is prostate cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  1. Breast Biopsy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.

  2. Can Urinary PCA3 Supplement PSA in the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, John T.; Feng, Ziding; Partin, Alan W.; Brown, Elissa; Thompson, Ian; Sokoll, Lori; Chan, Daniel W.; Lotan, Yair; Kibel, Adam S.; Busby, J. Erik; Bidair, Mohamed; Lin, Daniel W.; Taneja, Samir S.; Viterbo, Rosalia; Joon, Aron Y.; Dahlgren, Jackie; Kagan, Jacob; Srivastava, Sudhir; Sanda, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Given the limited sensitivity and specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), its widespread use as a screening tool has raised concerns for the overdiagnosis of low-risk and the underdiagnosis of high-grade prostate cancer. To improve early-detection biopsy decisions, the National Cancer Institute conducted a prospective validation trial to assess the diagnostic performance of the prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) urinary assay for the detection of prostate cancer among men screened with PSA. Patients and Methods In all, 859 men (mean age, 62 years) from 11 centers scheduled for a diagnostic prostate biopsy between December 2009 and June 2011 were enrolled. The primary outcomes were to assess whether PCA3 could improve the positive predictive value (PPV) for an initial biopsy (at a score > 60) and the negative predictive value (NPV) for a repeat biopsy (at a score < 20). Results For the detection of any cancer, PPV was 80% (95% CI, 72% to 86%) in the initial biopsy group, and NPV was 88% (95% CI, 81% to 93%) in the repeat biopsy group. The addition of PCA3 to individual risk estimation models (which included age, race/ethnicity, prior biopsy, PSA, and digital rectal examination) improved the stratification of cancer and of high-grade cancer. Conclusion These data independently support the role of PCA3 in reducing the burden of prostate biopsies among men undergoing a repeat prostate biopsy. For biopsy-naive patients, a high PCA3 score (> 60) significantly increases the probability that an initial prostate biopsy will identify cancer. PMID:25385735

  3. Inflammation and preneoplastic lesions in benign prostate as risk factors for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Jankowski, Michelle; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Tang, Deliang; Rundle, Andrew; Trudeau, Sheri; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2013-01-01

    Benign changes ranging from atrophy and inflammation to high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) are common findings on prostate core needle biopsies. Although atrophy and inflammation may be precursors of prostate cancer, only HGPIN is currently recommended to be included in surgical pathology reports. To determine whether these benign findings increase prostate cancer risk, we conducted a case–control study nested within a historical cohort of 6692 men with a benign prostate specimen collected between 1990 and 2002. The analytic sample included 574 case–control pairs comprised of cases diagnosed with prostate cancer a minimum of 1 year after cohort entry and controls matched to cases on date and age at cohort entry, race, and type of specimen. The initial benign specimen was reviewed for presence of HGPIN, atrophy (simple, lobular, and partial) and inflammation (glandular and/or stromal). HGPIN significantly increased risk for prostate cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25–3.20). Inflammation within the stromal compartment was associated with decreased risk (OR = 0.66; CI = 0.52–0.84), and diffuse stromal inflammation of severe grade had the strongest inverse association with risk (OR = 0.21; CI = 0.07–0.62). In a model adjusted for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at cohort entry and inflammation, simple atrophy was associated with a 33% increased prostate cancer risk that was marginally significant (P = 0.03). Clinicians should consider patterns and extent of inflammation when managing high-risk patients with negative biopsy results. Identifying benign inflammatory processes that underlie high PSA levels would help to reduce the number of unnecessary repeated prostate biopsies. PMID:22460812

  4. Bone marrow trephine biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Bain, B

    2001-01-01

    Trephine biopsies of the bone marrow should be carried out, when clinically indicated, by trained individuals following a standard operating procedure. A bone marrow aspiration should be performed as part of the same procedure. For patient safety and convenience, biopsies are usually performed on the posterior iliac crest. The biopsy specimen should measure at least 1.6 cm and, if it does not, consideration should be given to repeating the procedure, possibly on the contralateral iliac crest. If bone marrow aspiration is found to be impossible, imprints from the biopsy specimen should be obtained. Otherwise, the specimen is placed immediately into fixative and after fixation is embedded in a resin or, more usually, decalcified and embedded in paraffin wax. Thin sections are cut and are stained, as a minimum, with haematoxylin and eosin and with a reticulin stain. A Giemsa stain is also desirable. A Perls' stain does not often give useful information and is not essential in every patient. The need for other histochemical or immunohistochemical stains is determined by the clinical circumstances and the preliminary findings. Trephine biopsy sections should be examined and reported in a systematic manner, assessment being made of the bones, the vessels and stroma, and the haemopoietic and any lymphoid or other tissue. Assessment should begin with a very low power objective, the entire section being examined. Further examination is then done with an intermediate and high power objective. Ideally, reporting of trephine biopsy sections should be done by an individual who is competent in both histopathology and haematology, and who is able to make an appropriate assessment of both the bone marrow aspirate and the trephine biopsy sections. When this is not possible, there should be close consultation between a haematologist and a histopathologist. The report should both describe the histological findings and give an interpretation of their importance. A signed or computer

  5. Prospective Evaluation of Operating Characteristics of Prostate Cancer Detection Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuanyuan; Ankerst, Donna P.; Ketchum, Norma S.; Ercole, Barbara; Shah, Girish; Shaughnessy, John D.; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the independent predictive values of the serum markers free prostate specific antigen, proenzyme prostate specific antigen, neuroendocrine marker and Dickkopf-1 compared to serum prostate specific antigen and other standard risk factors for early prostate cancer detection. Materials and Methods From the prospectively collected SABOR cohort 250 prostate cancer cases, and 250 mean age matched and proportion of African-American race/ethnicity matched controls were selected who had a prior available prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination. Serum samples were obtained, and free prostate specific antigen, [−2]proenzyme prostate specific antigen, Dickkopf-1 and neuroendocrine marker were measured. AUC, sensitivities and specificities were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the independent predictive value compared to prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, family history, prior biopsy history, race/ethnicity and age. Results The AUCs (95% CI) were 0.76 (0.71, 0.8) for free prostate specific antigen, 0.72 (0.67, 0.76) for [−2]proenzyme prostate specific antigen, 0.76 (0.72, 0.8) for %free prostate specific antigen, 0.61 (0.56, 0.66) for %[−2]proenzyme prostate specific antigen, 0.73 (0.68, 0.77) for prostate health index, 0.53 (0.48, 0.58) for Dickkopf-1 and 0.53 (0.48, 0.59) for neuroendocrine marker. In the 2 to 10 ng/ml prostate specific antigen range the AUCs (95% CI) were 0.58 (0.49, 0.67) for free prostate specific antigen, 0.53 (0.44, 0.62) for [−2]proenzyme prostate specific antigen, 0.67 (0.59, 0.75) for %free prostate specific antigen, 0.57 (0.49, 0.65) for %[−2]proenzyme prostate specific antigen and 0.59 (0.51, 0.67) for phi. Only %free prostate specific antigen retained independent predictive value compared to the traditional risk factors. Conclusions Free prostate specific antigen retained independent diagnostic usefulness for prostate cancers detected through

  6. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This may include deep layers of skin and fat. The area is closed with stitches to place the skin back together. If a large area is biopsied, the surgeon may use a skin graft or flap to replace the skin that was ...

  7. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... when there is an abnormal condition near the surface of the lung, in the lung itself, or on the chest wall. Most often, it is done to rule out cancer. The biopsy is usually done after abnormalities appear on a chest x-ray or CT ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance-Guided Thermal Therapy for Localized and Recurrent Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Woodrum, David A; Kawashima, Akira; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Mynderse, Lance A

    2015-11-01

    The advent of focal therapies theoretically offers new treatment options for patients with localized prostate cancer. The goal of prostate cancer treatment is effective long-term cure with minimal impact on health-related quality of life. Multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate is being increasingly used for diagnosis, image-guided targeted biopsy, guidance for targeted focal and regional therapy, and monitoring the effectiveness of treatments for prostate cancer of all stages. In this article, the use of prostate MRI in the burgeoning domain of thermal ablative therapy for localized and recurrent prostate cancer is reviewed. PMID:26499278

  9. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Joshua I; Owens, Scott R; Tomlins, Scott A

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we review prostatic lymphomas and discuss the differential diagnosis of high-grade malignant neoplasms of the prostate. We illustrate this with a case of a 46-year-old man seen with lower urinary tract obstruction who had diffuse involvement by a high-grade malignancy on prostate biopsy. Morphologic evaluation and immunohistochemistry were consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the prostate. Workup with positron emission tomography-computed tomography demonstrated intensely hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the mediastinum, as well as widespread osseous involvement and involvement of the pancreatic tail, prostate, and urinary bladder, suggesting secondary prostatic involvement by a nodal lymphoma. Lymphomas of the prostate are uncommon in surgical pathology practice and usually represent secondary involvement from leukemia/lymphoma at a more typical site. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is the most common subtype. PMID:25268190

  10. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Ceylan, Cavit; Kilinc, Fatih; Gazel, Eymen; Resorlu, Berkan; Odabas, Oner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure), history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. Results In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2%) patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7%) patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5–20.0) ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6–20.0) ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67). The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9%) patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6%) patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32). Conclusions Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa. PMID:27256190

  11. MR-Guided Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tempany, Clare; Straus, Sarah; Hata, Nobuhiko; Haker, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In this article the current issues of diagnosis and detection of prostate cancer are reviewed. The limitations for current techniques are highlighted and some possible solutions with MR imaging and MR-guided biopsy approaches are reviewed. There are several different biopsy approaches under investigation. These include transperineal open magnet approaches to closed-bore 1.5T transrectal biopsies. The imaging, image processing, and tracking methods are also discussed. In the arena of therapy, MR guidance has been used in conjunction with radiation methods, either brachytherapy or external delivery. The principles of the radiation treatment, the toxicities, and use of images are outlined. The future role of imaging and image-guided interventions lie with providing a noninvasive surrogate for cancer surveillance or monitoring treatment response. The shift to minimally invasive focal therapies has already begun and will be very exciting when MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery reaches its full potential. PMID:18219689

  12. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type of breast imaging that uses ... the breast are often detected by physical examination, mammography, or other imaging studies. However, it is not ...

  13. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003453.htm Gram stain of tissue biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal ...

  14. Celiac Disease Diagnosis: Endoscopic Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This is done in a procedure called a biopsy: the physician eases a long, thin tube called ... the tissue using instruments passed through the endoscope. Biopsy of the small intestine is the only way ...

  15. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mullane, Stephanie A.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Recent findings Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Summary Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients. PMID:26909474

  16. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Teens > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Risks If You Have Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone ...

  17. The Prostate Health Index: a new test for the detection of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    A major focus in urologic research is the identification of new biomarkers with improved specificity for clinically-significant prostate cancer. A promising new test based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is called the Prostate Health Index (PHI), which has recently been approved in the United States, Europe and Australia. PHI is a mathematical formula that combines total PSA, free PSA and [-2] proPSA. Numerous international studies have consistently shown that PHI outperforms its individual components for the prediction of overall and high-grade prostate cancer on biopsy. PHI also predicts the likelihood of progression during active surveillance, providing another noninvasive modality to potentially select and monitor this patient population. This article reviews the evidence on this new blood test with significant promise for both prostate cancer screening and treatment decision-making. PMID:24688603

  18. Radiologically Guided Bone Biopsy: Results of 502 Biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Chaan S.; Salisbury, Jonathan R.; Darby, Alan J.; Gishen, Philip

    1998-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the results of 502 biopsies over a 19-year period for the purpose of highlighting the results that can be expected from such a large study, with emphasis on needle choice and anesthetic methods. Methods: The histological, cytological, and microbiological results of 477 patients who had 502 bone biopsies carried out between July 1977 and March 1996 were studied. Less than 5% of patients required second biopsies. There were almost equal numbers of males and females in the group. The lesions were visible radiologically and most of the biopsies were carried out by a single operator. The lesions were classified on their histopathological, cytopathological, and microbiological findings. Results: Tumors accounted for 40% of the biopsies, and infection for 16%. Biopsies which did not yield a 'positive' diagnosis accounted for 31%; these included specimens reported as normal, or as showing reactive changes, repair, remodelling, non-specific features, inflammation (but not clearly infective), or no evidence of malignancy or inflammation. Less than 4% of biopsies were incorrect, and some of these were re-biopsied. Conclusion: Bone biopsy is a valuable technique for positive diagnosis of malignancy or infection, as it enables a definitive plan for treatment and management of patients to be established. Exclusion of serious pathology is almost equally important. In principle, any osseous site can be biopsied using fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance. Care in the biopsy technique and selection of the bone needle is required.

  19. Skin metastasis, an uncommon course of prostate carcinoma: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Telis, L; Wolf, V; Yaskiv, O; Pearson, B J; Katsigeorgis, M; Jazayeri, S B; Samadi, D B; Unger, P D

    2016-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men worldwide and in the USA. Most prostate cancer progression either locally invades to seminal vesicles or metastasizes distally to bone. Skin is not a common site of metastasis for the majority of malignancies including prostate cancer. This paper reports two extremely rare cases of prostate carcinoma metastatic to the skin: a 74-year-old man previously treated with radiation for prostate cancer with cutaneous metastases to the shoulder and a 68-year-old man with prostate adenocarcinoma and cutaneous metastases to the groin. Both patients were diagnosed with skin punch biopsy and later confirmed with immunohistochemical staining for PSA and prostate specific acid phosphatase, specific for prostatic carcinoma. Although unusual, development of multiple skin lesions in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma should raise the flags of cutaneous metastases. PMID:27568675

  20. Prostate cancer in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Konstantinos, Hatzimouratidis

    2005-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men. Despite earlier diagnosis due to prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening, it is still a disease of the elderly. Diagnosis is based on digital rectal examination (DRE) and PSA assessment. Refinements in PSA testing (age-specific reference ranges, free PSA, PSA density and velocity) increased specificity and limited unnecessary prostate biopsies. Diagnosis in earlier stages (T1 and T2) commonly leads to cure with current treatment modalities. These include radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Other treatment options under development include cryotherapy and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Metastatic prostate cancer is incurable and treatment is based on hormonal therapy. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has only limited role in hormone-independent prostate cancer. Radioisotopes and biphosphonates may alleviate bone pain and prevent osteoporosis and pathological fractures. Follow-up is based on PSA. Prognostic factors for recurrence include stage, Gleason score, pre- and posttreatment PSA. Quality of life issues play an important role in selecting treatment, especially in the elderly due to comorbidities that may negatively affect the overall quality of life. A holistic approach is recommended addressing all quality of life issues without focus only in cancer control. PMID:16362603

  1. Urine TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript stratifies prostate cancer risk in men with elevated serum PSA

    PubMed Central

    Tomlins, Scott A.; Aubin, Sheila M. J.; Siddiqui, Javed; Lonigro, Robert J.; Sefton-Miller, Laurie; Miick, Siobhan; Williamsen, Sarah; Hodge, Petrea; Meinke, Jessica; Blase, Amy; Penabella, Yvonne; Day, John R.; Varambally, Radhika; Han, Bo; Wood, David; Wang, Lei; Sanda, Martin G.; Rubin, Mark A.; Rhodes, Daniel R.; Hollenbeck, Brent; Sakamoto, Kyoko; Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Fradet, Yves; Amberson, James B.; Meyers, Stephanie; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Rittenhouse, Harry; Wei, John T.; Groskopf, Jack; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 1,000,000 men undergo prostate biopsy each year in the United States, most for “elevated” serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Given the lack of specificity and unclear mortality benefit of PSA testing, methods to individualize management of elevated PSA are needed. Greater than 50% of PSA-screened prostate cancers harbor fusions between the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) genes. Here, we report a clinical-grade, transcription-mediated amplification assay to risk stratify and detect prostate cancer noninvasively in urine. The TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript was quantitatively measured in prospectively collected whole urine from 1312 men at multiple centers. Urine TMPRSS2:ERG was associated with indicators of clinically significant cancer at biopsy and prostatectomy, including tumor size, high Gleason score at prostatectomy, and upgrading of Gleason grade at prostatectomy. TMPRSS2:ERG, in combination with urine prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), improved the performance of the multivariate Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator in predicting cancer on biopsy. In the biopsy cohorts, men in the highest and lowest of three TMPRSS2:ERG+PCA3 score groups had markedly different rates of cancer, clinically significant cancer by Epstein criteria, and high-grade cancer on biopsy. Our results demonstrate that urine TMPRSS2:ERG, in combination with urine PCA3, enhances the utility of serum PSA for predicting prostate cancer risk and clinically relevant cancer on biopsy. PMID:21813756

  2. 5alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Rittmaster, Roger S

    2008-04-01

    Androgens play an essential role in prostatic development and function, but are also involved in prostate disease pathogenesis. The primary prostatic androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), is synthesized from testosterone by 5alpha-reductase types 1 and 2. Inhibition of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzymes therefore has potential therapeutic benefit in prostate disease. The two currently approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), finasteride and dutasteride, have demonstrated long-term efficacy and safety in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Finasteride, a type-2 5ARI, has also been studied for its ability to reduce the incidence of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Treatment with dutasteride, a dual 5ARI, has been shown to result in a greater degree and consistency of DHT suppression compared with finasteride. Two large-scale studies of dutasteride are currently investigating the role of near-maximal DHT suppression in the settings of prostate cancer risk reduction and expectant management of localized prostate cancer. PMID:18471794

  3. Smoking Is Associated with Acute and Chronic Prostatic Inflammation: Results from the REDUCE Study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Nickel, J Curtis; Gerber, Leah; Muller, Roberto L; Andriole, Gerald L; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Both anti- and proinflammatory effects of cigarette smoking have been described. As prostate inflammation is common, we hypothesized smoking could contribute to prostate inflammation. Thus, we evaluated the association of smoking status with acute and chronic inflammation within the prostate of men undergoing prostate biopsy. We retrospectively analyzed 8,190 men ages 50 to 75 years with PSA levels between 2.5 and 10 ng/mL enrolled in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events study. Smoking status was self-defined as never, former, or current. Prostate inflammation was assessed by systematic central review blinded to smoking status. The association of smoking with inflammation in the baseline, 2-year, and 4-year biopsies was evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. At study enrollment, 1,233 (15%), 3,203 (39%), and 3,754 (46%) men were current, former, and never smokers, respectively. Current smokers were significantly younger and had smaller prostates than former and never smokers (all P < 0.05). Former smokers were significantly heavier than current and never smokers (P < 0.001). Acute and chronic prostate inflammations were identified in 1,261 (15%) and 6,352 (78%) baseline biopsies, respectively. In univariable analysis, current smokers were more likely to have acute inflammation than former (OR, 1.35; P, 0.001) and never smokers (OR, 1.36; P, 0.001). The results were unchanged at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In contrast, current smoking was linked with chronic inflammation in the baseline biopsy, but not at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In conclusion, among men undergoing prostate biopsy, current smoking was independently associated with acute and possibly chronic prostate inflammations. PMID:25644151

  4. Prostate Cancer Detection and Diagnosis: The Role of MR and its Comparison to other Diagnostic Modalities – A Radiologist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Penzkofer, Tobias; Tempany-Afdhal, Clare M.

    2013-01-01

    It is now universally recognized that many prostate cancers are over-diagnosed and over-treated. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) from 2009 evidenced that, to save one man from death of prostate cancer, over 1,400 men had to be screened, and 48 had to undergo treatment. Detection of prostate cancer is traditionally based upon digital rectal examination (DRE) and measuring serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), followed by ultrasound guided biopsy. The primary role of imaging for the detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer has been transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance during biopsy. MRI has traditionally been used primarily for staging disease in men with biopsy proven cancer. It is has a well-established role in detecting T3 disease, planning radiation therapy, especially 3D conformal or intensity modulated external beam radiation therapy (IMRT), and planning and guiding interstitial seed implant or brachytherapy. New advances have now established prostate MRI can accurately characterize focal lesions within the gland, an ability that has led to new opportunities for improved cancer detection and guidance for biopsy. There are two new approaches to prostate biopsy are under investigation both use pre-biopsy MRI to define potential targets for sampling and then the biopsy is performed either with direct real-time MR guidance (in-bore) or MR fusion/registration with TRUS images (out-of-bore). In-bore or out-of-bore MRI-guided prostate biopsies have the advantage of using the MR target definition for accurate localization and sampling of targets or suspicious lesions. The out-of-bore method uses combined MRI/TRUS with fusion software that provided target localization and increases the sampling accuracy for TRUS-guided biopsies by integrating prostate MRI information with TRUS. Newer parameters for each imaging modality such as sonoelastography or shear wave elastography (SWE), contrast enhanced US (CEUS) and MRI

  5. Is there a link between BPH and prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Chang, R T M; Kirby, Roger; Challacombe, B J

    2012-04-01

    BPH is one of the most common diseases of older men, with more than 70% of men over 70 years affected, and prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Prostate cancer generally presents in one of three ways: asymptomatic patients who are screened (usually by a PSA test); men with LUTS who are investigated and undergo prostate biopsy; or patients with symptoms of metastasis such as bone pain. Men can be reassured that the main cause of LUTS is BPH. Only a small proportion of men have LUTS that are directly attributable to prostate cancer. Digital rectal examination (DRE) gives an evaluation of prostate size, which is relevant in particular to BPH management, and along with PSA testing it is one of the only ways of differentiating clinically between BPH and prostate cancer. If a nodular abnormality is present there is around a 50% chance of a diagnosis of prostate cancer being made on biopsy. Raised levels of serum PSA may be suggestive of prostate cancer, but diagnosis requires histological confirmation in almost every case. A normal PSA, PSA density and DRE can give reasonable confidence with regards to excluding clinically significant prostate cancer. BPH is not a known risk factor for prostate cancer, although the two frequently coexist. Age is the strongest predictor of prostate cancer risk, along with family history. BPH is not considered to be a precursor of prostate cancer. It is likely that although BPH may not make prostate cancer more likely to occur, it may increase the chance of diagnosing an incidental cancer. PMID:22792684

  6. A Clinicopathological Profile of Prostate Cancer in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Sukhraj, Rajendra; Goetz, Lester

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To conduct a clinicopathological review of all prostate biopsies performed in a tertiary referral centre in Trinidad and Tobago over a period of 30 months. Methods. The records of all patients who had prostate biopsies from January 2012 to July 2014 were reviewed. Clinical and pathologic data were compiled and subsequently analysed using SPSS version 20. Results. From January 2012 to July 2014, 617 transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies were performed. Pathological data were found for 546 patients of whom 283 (51.8%) were confirmed carcinoma of the prostate. Moderately differentiated tumors (Gleason 7) were the most common group. Using the D'Amico risk classification, most cases were found to be high risk (63.1%). Afro-Trinidadians comprised 72.1% of the patients with prostate cancer. Afro-Trinidadians were also more likely to have high risk and high grade disease as well as high PSA values. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that over half of our biopsies are eventually positive for cancer and most cases were high risk. Afro-Trinidadians comprised a disproportionate number of those diagnosed with prostate cancer and had a greater risk of high risk disease. PMID:27493662

  7. Clinical results of early stage prostatic cancer treated by pelvic lymphadenectomy and /sup 125/I implants

    SciTech Connect

    Kandzari, S.J.; Belis, J.A.; Kim, J.C.; Gnepp, D.R.; Riley, R.S.

    1982-05-01

    Eighty patients with clinically early stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated with pelvic lymphadenectomy and interstitial implantation of /sup 125/I seeds. A new applicator that permits greater accuracy in spacing the seeds has been developed. Postoperative complications were minimal, with urinary irritability being the most common. Multiple transrectal needle biopsies were performed 12 and 18 months after treatment in 46 patients. The prostatic biopsies were negative for carcinoma in 61 per cent and positive in 39 per cent of the patients. Long-term followup is needed to correlate post-treatment biopsies with survival and to determine if patients with positive biopsies should receive further treatment.

  8. Antioxidant effects of lycopene in African American men with prostate cancer or benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Breemen, Richard B; Sharifi, Roohollah; Viana, Marlos; Pajkovic, Natasa; Zhu, Dongwei; Yuan, Long; Yang, Yanan; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria

    2011-05-01

    Consumption of tomato products is associated with a decreased risk of developing prostate cancer, and lycopene, the red carotenoid in the tomato, is a potent antioxidant that might contribute to this chemoprevention activity. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 105 African American men veterans, recommended for prostate biopsy to detect cancer, was carried out to investigate whether oral administration of lycopene increases lycopene levels in blood and prostate tissue and lowers markers of oxidative stress. Urology patients were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg/d of lycopene as a tomato oleoresin or placebo for 21 days prior to prostate biopsy for possible diagnosis of prostate cancer. A total of 47 men had a diagnosis of prostate cancer, and 58 men had a diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia. Diet, smoking, and drinking habits were assessed. For the men receiving lycopene, the mean lycopene concentration increased from 0.74 ± 0.39 to 1.43 ± 0.61 μmol/L in plasma (P < 0.0001) and from 0.45 ± 0.53 to 0.59 ± 0.47 pmol/mg in prostate tissue (P = 0.005). No significant changes in the DNA oxidation product 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde were observed in prostate tissue and plasma, respectively, as a result of lycopene administration. PMID:21430075

  9. Prostate Radiotherapy in the Era of Advanced Imaging and Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dulaney, Caleb R.; Osula, Daniel O.; Yang, Eddy S.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous technological advancements in prostate radiotherapy have decreased treatment toxicity and improved clinical outcomes for men with prostate cancer. While these advances have allowed for significant treatment volume reduction and whole-organ dose escalation, further improvement in prostate radiotherapy has been limited by classic techniques for diagnosis and risk stratification. Developments in prostate imaging, image-guided targeted biopsy, next-generation gene expression profiling, and targeted molecular therapies now provide information to stratify patients and select treatments based on tumor biology. Image-guided targeted biopsy improves detection of clinically significant cases of prostate cancer and provides important information about the biological behavior of intraprostatic lesions which can further guide treatment decisions. We review the evolution of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI-ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy. Recent advancements in radiation therapy including dose escalation, moderate and extreme hypofractionation, partial prostate radiation therapy, and finally dose escalation by simultaneous integrated boost are discussed. We also review next-generation sequencing and discuss developments in targeted molecular therapies. Last, we review ongoing clinical trials and future treatment paradigms that integrate targeted biopsy, molecular profiling and therapy, and prostate radiotherapy. PMID:27022486

  10. Prostate Radiotherapy in the Era of Advanced Imaging and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Dulaney, Caleb R; Osula, Daniel O; Yang, Eddy S; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous technological advancements in prostate radiotherapy have decreased treatment toxicity and improved clinical outcomes for men with prostate cancer. While these advances have allowed for significant treatment volume reduction and whole-organ dose escalation, further improvement in prostate radiotherapy has been limited by classic techniques for diagnosis and risk stratification. Developments in prostate imaging, image-guided targeted biopsy, next-generation gene expression profiling, and targeted molecular therapies now provide information to stratify patients and select treatments based on tumor biology. Image-guided targeted biopsy improves detection of clinically significant cases of prostate cancer and provides important information about the biological behavior of intraprostatic lesions which can further guide treatment decisions. We review the evolution of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI-ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy. Recent advancements in radiation therapy including dose escalation, moderate and extreme hypofractionation, partial prostate radiation therapy, and finally dose escalation by simultaneous integrated boost are discussed. We also review next-generation sequencing and discuss developments in targeted molecular therapies. Last, we review ongoing clinical trials and future treatment paradigms that integrate targeted biopsy, molecular profiling and therapy, and prostate radiotherapy. PMID:27022486

  11. Correlation of digital rectal examination, prostate specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound in prostate carcinoma in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, R. I.; Sibley, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Since there is general agreement that screening for prostate cancer should be carried out, at least for high-risk individuals, there should be little debate that African-American men should be screened. Current screening guidelines include the two most cost-effective methods of early detection, digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen. The use of transrectal ultrasound and guided biopsy improves the yield. This article reports on the findings of 50 African-American patients with prostatic carcinoma diagnosed by sonographically guided biopsy in a single, community urology practice. Overall, prostate specific antigen was elevated in 94%, digital rectal examination was positive in 60%, and transrectal ultrasound was positive in 78%. A focal hypoechoic lesion was demonstrated in 58%. When the site of tumor, as specified in the pathology report, was correlated with the findings on digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound, both digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound were positive in 45%. Transrectal ultrasound was positive when digital rectal examination was negative in 30%. Digital rectal examination was positive when ultrasound was not in 14%. Random biopsy revealed areas of carcinoma that were not detected by digital rectal examination nor ultrasound in 40%. We conclude that even though random biopsy significantly improves the detection of prostate carcinoma, sonographic guidance is beneficial to systematically biopsy the gland and to avoid omission of characteristic lesions during random samplings. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9170832

  12. Telepathology and Optical Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Roca, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential. PMID:20339507

  13. Prostate MRI – an update for the referring urologist

    PubMed Central

    Jakuciński, Maciej; Królicki, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prostate MRI is a new and important tool which has a role in prostate cancer guidelines worldwide. The amount of articles published and studies currently taking place on the subject requires urologists to understand how the examination is performed and its possible applications. This article explains prostate MRI and standardized reporting schemes, as well as its applications according to patients’ staging and history. Material and methods The use of prostate MRI prior to biopsy, MRI-guided biopsy and its use in active surveillance, surgery staging and planning, as well as in cases with biochemical recurrence are discussed. Results The application of prostate MRI are not limited to initial diagnosis, but also has a developing role in biopsy and planning further treatment. Recently, its diagnostic applications have been included in EAU prostate cancer guidelines and new applications are in development. Conclusions Practicing urologists are seeing an emerging role of MRI in prostate cancer. Its current and future applications may have an impact on patient care, which mandates healthcare professionals to be vigilant about the method's new developments. PMID:27551553

  14. Beyond Prostate Adenocarcinoma: Expanding the Differential Diagnosis in Prostate Pathologic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Mongan, John; Behr, Spencer C; Sud, Seema; Coakley, Fergus V; Simko, Jeffry; Westphalen, Antonio C

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the prostate gland have dramatically improved the ability to detect and stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate, one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men and one of the most frequently diagnosed pathologic conditions of the prostate gland. A wide variety of nonadenocarcinoma diseases can also be seen with MR imaging, ranging from benign to malignant diseases, as well as infectious and inflammatory manifestations. Many of these diseases have distinctive imaging features that allow differentiation from prostate acinar adenocarcinoma. Early recognition of these entities produces a more accurate differential diagnosis and may enable more expeditious clinical workup. Benign neoplasms of the prostate include plexiform neurofibroma and cystadenoma, both of which demonstrate distinctive imaging features. Stromal neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential are rare tumors of uncertain malignant potential that are often difficult to distinguish at imaging from more-malignant prostate sarcomas. Other malignant neoplasms of the prostate include urothelial carcinoma, primary prostatic carcinoid, carcinosarcoma, endometrioid or ductal adenocarcinoma, and mucinous adenocarcinoma. Prostatic infections can lead to abscesses of pyogenic, tuberculous, or fungal origins. Finally, miscellaneous idiopathic disorders of the prostate include amyloidosis, exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia, and various congenital cysts. Considerable overlap can exist in the clinical history and imaging findings associated with these prostate pathologic conditions, and biopsy is often required for ultimate confirmation of the diagnosis. However, many diagnoses, including cystadenoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and abscesses, have distinct imaging features, which can enable the informed radiologist to identify the diagnosis and recommend appropriate clinical workup and management. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27315446

  15. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  16. Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... F Race . Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men. F Family History . If your father or ... Healthcare Research and Quality Publications Clearinghouse P.O. Box 8547 Silver Spring, MD 20907-8547 1-800- ...

  17. Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk. Race . Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men. Family history . If your father or brother ... Healthcare Research and Quality Publications Clearinghouse P.O. Box 8547 Silver Spring, MD 20907-8547 1-800- ...

  18. Prostatitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder, such as alcohol, caffeinated foods and drinks, citrus juices, and hot or spicy foods. Drink more ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prostate Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  19. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower urinary tract Parasites Pelvic floor muscle problem Sexual abuse Viruses Life stresses and emotional factors may play a part in the problem. Most men with chronic prostatitis have the nonbacterial form.

  20. The Japanese guideline for prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Nakayama, Tomio; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2009-06-01

    In 2005, there were 9264 deaths from prostate cancer, accounting for 4.7% of the total number of cancer deaths in Japan. As the population continues to age, interest in prostate cancer screening has increased, and opportunistic screening for prostate cancer has been conducted worldwide. The guideline for prostate cancer screening was developed based on the established method. The efficacies of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screening were formulated. Two methods of prostate cancer screening were evaluated. Based on the analytic framework involving key questions, 1186 articles published from January 1985 to October 2006 were selected using MEDLINE and other methods. After the systematic literature review, 28 articles were identified as providing evidence of mortality reduction from prostate cancer, including 5 observational studies for DRE screening, 1 meta-analysis, 3 randomized controlled trials and 19 observational studies for PSA screening. Although several studies showed that PSA screening had a beneficial effect, the results of the selected studies were inconsistent. Overall, the evidence that screening reduced mortality from prostate cancer was insufficient. Furthermore, prostate cancer screening is associated with serious harms, including overdiagnosis, adverse effects of needle biopsy and adverse effects of local prostatectomy. At present, the evidence for the effect of prostate cancer screening is insufficient. Both PSA and DRE were not recommended for population-based screening programs, but they could be conducted as individual-based screening if basic requirements were met. PMID:19346535

  1. Prostate changes related to therapy: with special reference to hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Galosi, Andrea B; Zizzi, Antonio; Scarpelli, Marina; Bracarda, Sergio; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2014-08-01

    Hormone and radiation therapy have traditionally been used in prostate cancer (PCa). Morphological effects are often identified in needle biopsies and surgical specimens. A range of histological changes are seen in the non-neoplastic prostate and in the pre-neoplastic and neoplastic areas. Other ablative therapies, including cryotherapy, and emerging focal therapies, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy and interstitial laser thermotherapy, may induce changes on the prostate. As new compounds are developed for prostate cancer treatment, it is important to document their effects on benign and neoplastic prostate tissue. PMID:25325826

  2. Early prostatic cancer treated by Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaboardi, Franco; Bozzola, Andrea; Zago, Tiziano; Galli, Luigi

    1993-05-01

    During the last three years more than 350 patients have been referred to our department for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. In spite of a palpably normal prostate, with no evidence or suspect of neoplasm, all the patients were evaluated with the blood determination of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate (TUSP). Multiple staging biopsies of the prostate and imaging techniques evidenced neither capsule infiltration nor metastatic disease. Because of the site of the tumor (nonperipherical zone) and its stage (T1 stage) in the latter 11 patients a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) followed by a laser irradiation was planned. In order to establish the tumor staging, a lymph node dissection (in the last year by laparoscopic lymphadenectomy) was carried out before the procedure. Six weeks after an enlarged TURP, a laser irradiation of the residual prostatic tissue was performed with a laser fiber inserted into a 21 Ch panendoscope. Using a power varying from 40 to 50 watts/4 sec, the whole surface of the remaining prostatic capsule was irradiated. After the treatment an indwelling catheter was left in place for 2-3 days and then the patient discharged from the hospital. There were no side effects. Potency and continence were preserved. Now with an average follow-up of 24 months, all patients have negative biopsies and no tumor progression.

  3. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Meghan E; Giannico, Giovanna A; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient's previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors. PMID:27429817

  4. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kapp, Meghan E.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient's previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors. PMID:27429817

  5. Minimally invasive prostate cancer detection test using FISH probes

    PubMed Central

    Tinawi-Aljundi, Rima; Knuth, Shannon T; Gildea, Michael; Khal, Joshua; Hafron, Jason; Kernen, Kenneth; Di Loreto, Robert; Aurich-Costa, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The ability to test for and detect prostate cancer with minimal invasiveness has the potential to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies. This study was conducted as part of a clinical investigation for the development of an OligoFISH® probe panel for more accurate detection of prostate cancer. Materials and methods One hundred eligible male patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound biopsies were enrolled in the study. After undergoing digital rectal examination with pressure, voided urine was collected in sufficient volume to prepare at least two slides using ThinPrep. Probe panels were tested on the slides, and 500 cells were scored when possible. From the 100 patients recruited, 85 had more than 300 cells scored and were included in the clinical performance calculations. Results Chromosomes Y, 7, 10, 20, 6, 8, 16, and 18 were polysomic in most prostate carcinoma cases. Of these eight chromosomes, chromosomes 7, 16, 18, and 20 were identified as having the highest clinical performance as a fluorescence in situ hybridization test and used to manufacture the fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panels. The OligoFISH® probes performed with 100% analytical specificity. When the OligoFISH® probes were compared with the biopsy results for each individual, the test results highly correlated with positive and negative prostate biopsy pathology findings, supporting their high specificity and accuracy. Probes for chromosomes 7, 16, 18, and 20 showed in the receiver operator characteristics analysis an area under the curve of 0.83, with an accuracy of 81% in predicting the biopsy result. Conclusion This investigation demonstrates the ease of use with high specificity, high predictive value, and accuracy in identifying prostate cancer in voided urine after digital rectal examination with pressure. The test is likely to have positive impact on clinical practice and advance approaches to the detection of prostate cancer. Further evaluation is warranted. PMID

  6. Negative Biopsy after Referral for Biopsy-Proven Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Jun Haeng; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. Methods A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and second endoscopic examinations were reviewed. We reviewed the clinical history from referral to the final treatment. Results Eighty-eight patients (76%) arrived with information about the lesion from the referring physician. Among 96 patients with available outside slides, the rate of interobserver variation was 24%. Endoscopy was repeated at our institution; 85 patients (73%) were found to have definite lesions, whereas 31 patients (27%) had indeterminate lesions. In the group with definite lesions, 71% of the lesions were depressed in shape. The most common cause of a negative biopsy was mistargeting. In the group with indeterminate lesions, 94% had insufficient information. All patients with adequate follow-up were successfully treated based on the findings in the follow-up endoscopy. Conclusions A negative biopsy after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer is mainly caused by mistargeting and insufficient information during the referral. PMID:25963084

  7. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Chen, Xiaohong; Leach, Robin J.; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Hoque, Ashraful; Tangen, Catherine M.; Chu, Lisa; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M.; Figg, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations. Methods Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression. Results and Conclusions Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910), and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746) were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106 PMID:25955319

  8. A MR-TRUS registration method for ultrasound-guided prostate interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Rossi, Peter; Mao, Hui; Jani, Ashesh B.; Ogunleye, Tomi; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we reported a MR-TRUS prostate registration method that uses a subject-specific prostate strain model to improve MR-targeted, US-guided prostate interventions (e.g., biopsy and radiotherapy). The proposed algorithm combines a subject-specific prostate strain model with a Bspline transformation to register the prostate gland of the MRI to the TRUS images. The prostate strain model was obtained through US elastography and a 3D strain map of the prostate was generated. The B-spline transformation was calculated by minimizing Euclidean distance between MR and TRUS prostate surfaces. This prostate stain map was used to constrain the B-spline-based transformation to predict and compensate for the internal prostate-gland deformation. This method was validated with a prostate-phantom experiment and a pilot study of 5 prostate-cancer patients. For the phantom study, the mean target registration error (TRE) was 1.3 mm. MR-TRUS registration was also successfully performed for 5 patients with a mean TRE less than 2 mm. The proposed registration method may provide an accurate and robust means of estimating internal prostate-gland deformation, and could be valuable for prostate-cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Image-guided diagnosis of prostate cancer can increase detection of tumors

    Cancer.gov

    In the largest prospective study to date of image-guided technology for identifying suspicious regions of the prostate to biopsy, researchers compared the ability of this technology to detect high-risk prostate cancer with that of the current standard of

  10. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. |

  11. Prostate specific antigen in the diagnosis and treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. III. Radiation treated patients

    SciTech Connect

    Stamey, T.A.; Kabalin, J.N.; Ferrari, M.

    1989-05-01

    Serum prostate specific antigen was determined (Yang polyclonal radioimmunoassay) in 183 men after radiation therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. A total of 163 men had received 7,000 rad external beam radiotherapy and 20 had been implanted with iodine-125 seeds. Only 11 per cent of these 183 patients had undetectable prostate specific antigen levels at a mean interval of 5 years since completion of radiotherapy. Prostate specific antigen levels after radiotherapy were directly related to initial clinical stage and Gleason score before treatment. Multiple prostate specific antigen determinations were performed with time in 124 of 183 patients. During year 1 after radiotherapy prostate specific antigen levels were decreasing in 82 per cent of the patients but only 8 per cent continued to decrease beyond year 1. Of 80 patients observed greater than 1 year after completion of radiotherapy 51 per cent had increasing values and 41 per cent had stable values. Increasing prostate specific antigen values after radiotherapy were correlated with progression to metastastic disease and residual cancer on prostate biopsy. Total serum acid phosphatase levels were poorly related to prostate specific antigen levels, were less effective in discriminating patients with metastatic disease and provided no additional information beyond that provided by prostate specific antigen.

  12. [MRI-guided musculoskeletal biopsy].

    PubMed

    Daecke, W; Libicher, M; Mädler, U; Rumpf, C; Bernd, L

    2003-02-01

    MRI-guided musculoskeletal biopsy has been mentioned to be a minimally invasive method to obtain specimens for diagnostic purposes in bone tumors. To evaluate the viability, to assess the accuracy, and to record possible complications of this method, clinical data of 19 MRI-guided biopsies were analyzed. Interventions were performed on 18 patients (1-78 years) as an outpatient procedure: 15 skeletal and 4 soft tissue biopsies were taken from the pelvis, upper limb,or lower limb. We used T1-weighted gradient echoes (GE) for locating the puncture site and T2-weighted turbo spin echoes (TSE) for visualization of needle position. In 14 of 18 MRI-guided biopsies, a definite histological diagnosis was obtained. According to the pathologist, the inadequate size of the specimen was the main reason for missing the diagnoses in four cases.Long intervention time and inappropriate biopsy tools proved to be the main disadvantages of MRI-guided biopsy, but technical improvement might solve these technical problems in future.A postbiopsy hematoma was the only complication observed. Once technically improved, MRI-guided biopsy could be a precise alternative routine method for musculoskeletal biopsies in future. PMID:12607083

  13. Renal biopsy: methods and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Shelly L

    2004-07-01

    Renal biopsy most often is indicated in the management of dogs and cats with glomerular disease or acute renal failure. Renal biopsy can readily be performed in dogs and cats via either percutaneous or surgical methods. Care should be taken to ensure that proper technique is used. When proper technique is employed and patient factors are properly addressed, renal biopsy is a relatively safe procedure that minimally affects renal function. Patients should be monitored during the post biopsy period for severe hemorrhage, the most common complication. Accurate diagnosis of glomerular disease, and therefore, accurate treatment planning,requires that the biopsy specimens not only be evaluated by light microscopy using special stains but by electron and immunofluorescent microscopy. PMID:15223207

  14. Robotic Image-Guided Needle Interventions of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors’ group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image. PMID:19390670

  15. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Prostate Cancer Early Detection, Version 2.2016.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Peter R; Parsons, J Kellogg; Andriole, Gerald; Bahnson, Robert R; Castle, Erik P; Catalona, William J; Dahl, Douglas M; Davis, John W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Etzioni, Ruth B; Farrington, Thomas; Hemstreet, George P; Kawachi, Mark H; Kim, Simon; Lange, Paul H; Loughlin, Kevin R; Lowrance, William; Maroni, Paul; Mohler, James; Morgan, Todd M; Moses, Kelvin A; Nadler, Robert B; Poch, Michael; Scales, Chuck; Shaneyfelt, Terrence M; Smaldone, Marc C; Sonn, Geoffrey; Sprenkle, Preston; Vickers, Andrew J; Wake, Robert; Shead, Dorothy A; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2016-05-01

    The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Prostate Cancer Early Detection provide recommendations for prostate cancer screening in healthy men who have elected to participate in an early detection program. The NCCN Guidelines focus on minimizing unnecessary procedures and limiting the detection of indolent disease. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the NCCN Prostate Cancer Early Detection Panel's most significant discussions for the 2016 guideline update, which included issues surrounding screening in high-risk populations (ie, African Americans, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers), approaches to refine patient selection for initial and repeat biopsies, and approaches to improve biopsy specificity. PMID:27160230

  16. Automatic Regions of Interest Segmentation for Computer Aided Classification of Prostate Trus Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scebran, M.; Palladini, A.; Maggio, S.; De Marchi, L.; Speciale, N.

    Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) plays two central roles in prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate examination and measurement and biopsy guidance, but its sensitivity and specificity need improvement. This paper presents one possible method to improve TRUS detection and biopsy guidance using computer-aided diagnosis techniques for ultrasound images. The method uses automated segmentation of regions of interest followed by a supervised classifier. It was tested on a database of 37 prostate TRUS RF scans (22 with cancer). Average sensitivity was 78%, average specificity was 92% and average accuracy was 90% in discriminating normal from cancerous tissue.

  17. Surface-based prostate registration with biomechanical regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Ven, Wendy J. M.; Hu, Yipeng; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Barratt, Dean; Huisman, Henkjan J.

    2013-03-01

    Adding MR-derived information to standard transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for guiding prostate biopsy is of substantial clinical interest. A tumor visible on MR images can be projected on ultrasound by using MRUS registration. A common approach is to use surface-based registration. We hypothesize that biomechanical modeling will better control deformation inside the prostate than a regular surface-based registration method. We developed a novel method by extending a surface-based registration with finite element (FE) simulation to better predict internal deformation of the prostate. For each of six patients, a tetrahedral mesh was constructed from the manual prostate segmentation. Next, the internal prostate deformation was simulated using the derived radial surface displacement as boundary condition. The deformation field within the gland was calculated using the predicted FE node displacements and thin-plate spline interpolation. We tested our method on MR guided MR biopsy imaging data, as landmarks can easily be identified on MR images. For evaluation of the registration accuracy we used 45 anatomical landmarks located in all regions of the prostate. Our results show that the median target registration error of a surface-based registration with biomechanical regularization is 1.88 mm, which is significantly different from 2.61 mm without biomechanical regularization. We can conclude that biomechanical FE modeling has the potential to improve the accuracy of multimodal prostate registration when comparing it to regular surface-based registration.

  18. Pathology of prostate cancer and focal therapy ('male lumpectomy').

    PubMed

    Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Scarpelli, Marina; Cheng, Liang; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Galosi, Andrea B; Kirkali, Ziya; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2009-12-01

    Focal therapy of the prostate is defined as prostate gland ablation aiming at eradication of unifocal low-risk prostate cancer, and preserving uninvolved (peri-) prostatic tissue and therefore quality of life. The major arguments against focal therapy can be classified under the headings of understaging and multifocality. The argument of understaging highlights the importance of the occasional, but troublesome, finding of a large, extraprostatic or high-grade tumor (Gleason score > or = 7) in about a quarter of radical prostatectomy specimens removed from men initially classified as having a low-risk tumor. Indeed, 85% of all prostate cancer cases are multifocal. These concerns can be offset by additional testing: another biopsy, especially a transperineal mapping biopsy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate. The technology needed to ablate small regions or sectors of the prostate harboring a known cancer is rapidly becoming available. Cryotherapy is already being used and the preliminary data are encouraging, Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), photodynamic therapy using newly developed light-sensitizing agents, and MRI-guided HIFU are all promising new tools. PMID:20044631

  19. Evaluation of prostatic cancer prevalence in patients with prostatic-specific antigen between 4 and 10 and normal digital rectal examination

    PubMed Central

    Tadayon, Farhad; Arezegar, Hamid Reza; Khorrami, Mohammad Hatef; Hashemi Juzdani, Rasoul; Shahdoost, Amir Abbas; Mellat, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers. The prevalence of prostate cancer is different due to genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis of prostate cancer is by biopsy due to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Digital Rectal Examination (DRE). Controversy about decision making for prostate biopsy in PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE, is one of the problems in this time. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of prostate cancer in males with PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE. We also evaluated the PSA density and percent of free PSA in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 males with PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE, were evaluated. Then, transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) andprostate biopsy from 12 points of peripheral zone, was done. These data were analyzed by Chi-square, t-test and ANOVA and Roc curve. Results: In this study, the prevalence of prostate cancer in PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE, was evaluated, 29.8%. With use of Roc curve, PSA density cutoff point was calculated 0.12 and percent of free PSA cutoff point, was calculated, 18%. Conclusion: In males with PSA between 4 and 10 and normal DRE, PSA density smaller than 0.12-0.15, and percent of free PSA greater than 18%, the prevalence of prostate cancer is very few and we can safely ignore the TRUS and prostate biopsy in these males and eliminate its costs and side effects. PMID:27403407

  20. Shear Wave Elastography for Detection of Prostate Cancer: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sungmin; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the diagnostic value of shear wave elastography (SWE) for prostate cancer detection. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, 87 patients with the suspicion of prostate cancer (prostate-specific antigen > 4 ng/mL and abnormal digital rectal examination) underwent a protocol-based systematic 12-core biopsy followed by targeted biopsy at hypoechoic areas on grey-scale ultrasound. Prior to biopsy, SWE was performed by placing two circular 5 mm-sized regions of interest (ROIs) along the estimated biopsy tract in each sector and one ROI for hypoechoic lesions. SWE parameters, S (mean stiffness) and R (mean stiffness ratio), were calculated and compared regarding different histopathologic tissues and their accuracy for diagnosing prostate cancer was analyzed. SWE parameters were correlated with Gleason score and were compared between indolent (< 8) and aggressive (≥ 8) tissues in prostate cancer patients. Results Prostate cancer was detected in 7.5% of 1058 cores in 29.9% of 87 patients. Seven (43.8%) of 16 hypoechoic lesions were confirmed as prostate cancer. SWE parameters were significantly different among the histopathologic entities (p < 0.001). Prostate cancer was stiffer than benign tissues (p ≤ 0.003). Sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic curve area for diagnosing cancer were 43%, 80.8%, and 0.599, respectively, for a cutoff of S > 43.9 kPa and 60.8%, 66.4%, and 0.653, respectively, for R > 3. Both, S and R showed a significant correlation with Gleason score (r ≥ 0.296, p ≤ 0.008) and were significantly different between indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (p ≤ 0.006). Conclusion Shear wave elastographic parameters are significantly different between prostate cancer and benign prostate tissue and correlate with Gleason score. PMID:24843239

  1. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  2. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... finasteride who did have prostate cancer had more aggressive tumors . The number of deaths from prostate cancer ... men that did not. The number of less aggressive prostate cancers was lower, but the number of ...

  3. Prostate specific antigen levels after definitive irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Schellhammer, P.F.; Schlossberg, S.M.; el-Mahdi, A.M.; Wright, G.L.; Brassil, D.N. )

    1991-05-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were determined in 78 patients judged clinically to be free of disease at intervals of 36 or more months (range 38 to 186 months, median 87 months) after completion of irradiation therapy by 125-iodine implantation or external beam radiation. Of this select group of patients 38% had undetectable serum PSA levels (0.5 ng./ml. or less) and 38% had PSA levels that were within normal limits (4.0 ng./ml. or less). All stages and grades were represented. Undetectable PSA levels were only rarely found (3%) in patients with carcinoma of the prostate before treatment. In 24 of these 78 patients a negative biopsy of the irradiated prostate had been obtained 18 to 42 months after treatment. When the PSA level was drawn, which ranged from 7 to 16 years after treatment, an equal percentage of these biopsied patients had either an undetectable, normal or elevated level. Irradiation is able to decrease PSA to undetectable levels in some patients with prostatic carcinoma. Whether this reflects suppression of marker production alone or, more importantly, ablation of prostate cancer producing that marker remains to be determined.

  4. [Detection of tumors in the central zone of the prostate with 11C-Choline PET/CT].

    PubMed

    Garcia, J R; Soler, M; Moragas, M; Ponce, A; Moreno, C; Riera, E

    2014-01-01

    Prostate tumors originate 68% in the peripheral region and 24% in the transitional region where tumors originating in the central zone are rare (8%). However, diagnosis of the tumors in the central zone is important since they exhibit greater aggressiveness conditioned by their location and different biological behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging shows problems in identifying lesions in the central prostate zone, since this region has a heterogeneous signal, mainly after the primary treatment. Ultrasound guided sextant biopsy shows a negative result in 28% of prostate tumors. Therefore, it is advisable to repeat or even to perform saturation biopsies. We present two patients, one of them with suspected biochemical prostate cancer and one with biochemical recurrence after radical treatment. In both, (11)C-Choline PET/CT allowed detection of the tumor focus in the central zone of the prostate, with negative complementary diagnostic test and biopsies. PMID:24119550

  5. Keratin immunoreactivity as an aid to the diagnosis of persistent adenocarcinoma in irradiated human prostates

    SciTech Connect

    Brawer, M.K.; Nagle, R.B.; Pitts, W.; Freiha, F.; Gamble, S.L.

    1989-02-01

    Postirradiation prostatic biopsy is believed by many to be the best measure of radiation effectiveness in prostatic cancer. Therapeutic irradiation may induce prostatic glandular atypia, which in its severe form can be confused with persistent adenocarcinoma on prostatic biopsies. In the current study, 37 postirradiation prostate biopsy specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a specific monoclonal anticytokeratin antibody (KA1) that reacts with the basal cells of normal or hyperplastic glands, but is nonreactive with the lumenal cells or with prostatic carcinoma cells. Persistent carcinoma was observed in 19 cases in which antibody staining was absent. The noncarcinomatous glands retained reactivity, but this reactivity appeared in a new and previously undescribed pattern. The irradiated lesion was characterized by cellular pleomorphisism, with enlargement of nuclei and loss of polarity. The immunoreactivity was seen in the enlarged basal cells and was seen to focally extend to involve the lumenal cell layer. In five of 37 cases, glands were seen that were so atypical on the routinely stained sections that a distinction from cancer could not be made. These same glands in the adjacent section reacted with KA1 in each case allowing us to conclude that the changes were benign. We conclude that the interpretation of postirradiation prostatic biopsy specimens may be aided by immunohistochemistry with this anticytokeratin antibody.

  6. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  7. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - gastric tissue; Biopsy - gastric tissue ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be considered normal if it does not show certain bacteria. Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  8. The high prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer at autopsy: implications for epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer in the Prostate-specific Antigen-era.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J

    2015-12-15

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening detects many cancers that would have otherwise gone undiagnosed. To estimate the prevalence of unsuspected prostate cancer, we reviewed 19 studies of prostate cancer discovered at autopsy among 6,024 men. Among men aged 70-79, tumor was found in 36% of Caucasians and 51% of African-Americans. This enormous prevalence, coupled with the high sensitivity of PSA screening, has led to the marked increase in the apparent incidence of prostate cancer. The impact of PSA screening on clinical practice is well-recognized, but its effect on epidemiologic research is less appreciated. Before screening, a larger proportion of incident prostate cancers had lethal potential and were diagnosed at advanced stage. However, in the PSA era, overall incident prostate cancer mainly is indolent disease, and often reflects the propensity to be screened and biopsied. Studies must therefore focus on cancers with lethal potential, and include long follow-up to accommodate the lead time induced by screening. Moreover, risk factor patterns differ markedly for potentially lethal and indolent disease, suggesting separate etiologies and distinct disease entities. Studies of total incident or indolent prostate cancer are of limited clinical utility, and the main focus of research should be on prostate cancers of lethal potential. PMID:25557753

  9. Evolving Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Brawley, Otis W; Thompson, Ian M; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Results of a number of studies demonstrate that the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in and of itself is an inadequate screening test. Today, one of the most pressing questions in prostate cancer medicine is how can screening be honed to identify those who have life-threatening disease and need aggressive treatment. A number of efforts are underway. One such effort is the assessment of men in the landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that has led to a prostate cancer risk calculator (PCPTRC), which is available online. PCPTRC version 2.0 predicts the probability of the diagnosis of no cancer, low-grade cancer, or high-grade cancer when variables such as PSA, age, race, family history, and physical findings are input. Modern biomarker development promises to provide tests with fewer false positives and improved ability to find high-grade cancers. Stockholm III (STHLM3) is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, prostate cancer diagnostic study assessing a combination of plasma protein biomarkers along with age, family history, previous biopsy, and prostate examination for prediction of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI incorporates anatomic and functional imaging to better characterize and predict future behavior of tumors within the prostate. After diagnosis of cancer, several genomic tests promise to better distinguish the cancers that need treatment versus those that need observation. Although the new technologies are promising, there is an urgent need for evaluation of these new tests in high-quality, large population-based studies. Until these technologies are proven, most professional organizations have evolved to a recommendation of informed or shared decision making in which there is a discussion between the doctor and patient. PMID:27249774

  10. Multiattribute probabilistic prostate elastic registration (MAPPER): Application to fusion of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Rachel; Nicolas Bloch, B.; Feleppa, Ernest; Barratt, Dean; Moses, Daniel; Ponsky, Lee; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided needle biopsy is the current gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, up to 40% of prostate cancer lesions appears isoechoic on TRUS. Hence, TRUS-guided biopsy has a high false negative rate for prostate cancer diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is better able to distinguish prostate cancer from benign tissue. However, MRI-guided biopsy requires special equipment and training and a longer procedure time. MRI-TRUS fusion, where MRI is acquired preoperatively and then aligned to TRUS, allows for advantages of both modalities to be leveraged during biopsy. MRI-TRUS-guided biopsy increases the yield of cancer positive biopsies. In this work, the authors present multiattribute probabilistic postate elastic registration (MAPPER) to align prostate MRI and TRUS imagery. Methods: MAPPER involves (1) segmenting the prostate on MRI, (2) calculating a multiattribute probabilistic map of prostate location on TRUS, and (3) maximizing overlap between the prostate segmentation on MRI and the multiattribute probabilistic map on TRUS, thereby driving registration of MRI onto TRUS. MAPPER represents a significant advancement over the current state-of-the-art as it requires no user interaction during the biopsy procedure by leveraging texture and spatial information to determine the prostate location on TRUS. Although MAPPER requires manual interaction to segment the prostate on MRI, this step is performed prior to biopsy and will not substantially increase biopsy procedure time. Results: MAPPER was evaluated on 13 patient studies from two independent datasets—Dataset 1 has 6 studies acquired with a side-firing TRUS probe and a 1.5 T pelvic phased-array coil MRI; Dataset 2 has 7 studies acquired with a volumetric end-firing TRUS probe and a 3.0 T endorectal coil MRI. MAPPER has a root-mean-square error (RMSE) for expert selected fiducials of 3.36 ± 1.10 mm for Dataset 1 and 3.14 ± 0.75 mm for Dataset 2. State

  11. Multiattribute probabilistic prostate elastic registration (MAPPER): Application to fusion of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Rachel Barratt, Dean; Nicolas Bloch, B.; Feleppa, Ernest; Moses, Daniel; Ponsky, Lee; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided needle biopsy is the current gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, up to 40% of prostate cancer lesions appears isoechoic on TRUS. Hence, TRUS-guided biopsy has a high false negative rate for prostate cancer diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is better able to distinguish prostate cancer from benign tissue. However, MRI-guided biopsy requires special equipment and training and a longer procedure time. MRI-TRUS fusion, where MRI is acquired preoperatively and then aligned to TRUS, allows for advantages of both modalities to be leveraged during biopsy. MRI-TRUS-guided biopsy increases the yield of cancer positive biopsies. In this work, the authors present multiattribute probabilistic postate elastic registration (MAPPER) to align prostate MRI and TRUS imagery. Methods: MAPPER involves (1) segmenting the prostate on MRI, (2) calculating a multiattribute probabilistic map of prostate location on TRUS, and (3) maximizing overlap between the prostate segmentation on MRI and the multiattribute probabilistic map on TRUS, thereby driving registration of MRI onto TRUS. MAPPER represents a significant advancement over the current state-of-the-art as it requires no user interaction during the biopsy procedure by leveraging texture and spatial information to determine the prostate location on TRUS. Although MAPPER requires manual interaction to segment the prostate on MRI, this step is performed prior to biopsy and will not substantially increase biopsy procedure time. Results: MAPPER was evaluated on 13 patient studies from two independent datasets—Dataset 1 has 6 studies acquired with a side-firing TRUS probe and a 1.5 T pelvic phased-array coil MRI; Dataset 2 has 7 studies acquired with a volumetric end-firing TRUS probe and a 3.0 T endorectal coil MRI. MAPPER has a root-mean-square error (RMSE) for expert selected fiducials of 3.36 ± 1.10 mm for Dataset 1 and 3.14 ± 0.75 mm for Dataset 2. State

  12. Mixed adenocarcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHONGFU; WANG, YADONG; ZHAO, QING; LI, GANHONG; ZHAO, XINGQI; LI, JUN; LI, XIANXIN

    2014-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) and sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) of the prostate are rare, but highly aggressive tumors. The occurrence of mixed carcinomas in the prostate is even more rarely reported. The present study reports the case of a 62-year-old male who was diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma accompanied by multiple bone metastases, as shown by a needle biopsy and skeletal computed tomography scan. The patient was treated with hormonal therapy, but thereafter, specimens from a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) were found to be composed of three histologically distinct elements: ASC, SC and adenocarcinoma. The level of p53 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in detail, and it was found that this was significantly increased in the TURP samples compared with the needle biopsy samples. The abnormal level of p53 was likely associated with the prognosis of the patient; the patient succumbed to prostate carcinoma two months after the confirmation of the diagnosis. PMID:25295118

  13. Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Using Differentially Expressed Genes in Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhenyu; Wang, Yipeng; Sawyers, Anne; Yao, Huazhen; Rahmatpanah, Farahnaz; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Xu, Qiang; Pio, Rebecca; Turan, Tolga; Koziol, James A.; Goodison, Steve; Carpenter, Philip; Wang-Rodriquez, Jessica; Simoneau, Anne; Meyskens, Frank; Sutton, Manuel; Lernhardt, Waldemar; Beach, Thomas; Monforte, Joseph; McClelland, Michael; Mercola, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Over one million prostate biopsies are performed in the U.S. every year. A failure to find cancer is not definitive in a significant percentage of patients due to the presence of equivocal structures or continuing clinical suspicion. We have identified gene expression changes in stroma that can detect tumor nearby. We compared gene expression profiles of 13 biopsies containing stroma near tumor and 15 biopsies from volunteers without prostate cancer. About 3800 significant expression changes were found and thereafter filtered using independent expression profiles to eliminate possible age-related genes and genes expressed at detectable levels in tumor cells. A stroma-specific classifier for nearby tumor was constructed based on 114 candidate genes and tested on 364 independent samples, including 243 tumor-bearing samples and 121 non-tumor samples (normal biopsies, normal autopsies, remote stroma, as well as stroma within a few millimeters of tumor). The classifier predicted the tumor status of patients using tumor-free samples with an average accuracy of 97% (sensitivity = 98% and specificity = 88%) whereas classifiers trained with sets of 100 randomly generated genes had no diagnostic value. These results indicate that the prostate cancer microenvironment exhibits reproducible changes useful for categorizing the presence of tumor in patients when a prostate sample is derived from near the tumor but does not contain any recognizable tumor. PMID:21459804

  14. Methylation in benign prostate and risk of disease progression in men subsequently diagnosed with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, Benjamin A; Rundle, Andrew; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Mitrache, Nicoleta; Do, Kieu C; Jankowski, Michelle; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Trudeau, Sheri; Belinsky, Steven A; Tang, Deliang

    2016-06-15

    In DNA from prostate tumors, methylation patterns in gene promoter regions can be a biomarker for disease progression. It remains unclear whether methylation patterns in benign prostate tissue--prior to malignant transformation--may provide similar prognostic information. To determine whether early methylation events predict prostate cancer outcomes, we evaluated histologically benign prostate specimens from 353 men who eventually developed prostate cancer and received "definitive" treatment [radical prostatectomy (58%) or radiation therapy (42%)]. Cases were drawn from a large hospital-based cohort of men with benign prostate biopsy specimens collected between 1990 and 2002. Risk of disease progression associated with methylation was estimated using time-to-event analyses. Average follow-up was over 5 years; biochemical recurrence (BCR) occurred in 91 cases (26%). In White men, methylation of the APC gene was associated with increased risk of BCR, even after adjusting for standard clinical risk factors for prostate cancer progression (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.26; 95%CI 1.23-4.16). APC methylation was most strongly associated with a significant increased risk of BCR in White men with low prostate specific antigen at cohort entry (HR = 3.66; 95%CI 1.51-8.85). In additional stratified analyses, we found that methylation of the RARB gene significantly increased risk of BCR in African American cases who demonstrated methylation of at least one of the other four genes under study (HR = 3.80; 95%CI 1.07-13.53). These findings may have implications in the early identification of aggressive prostate cancer as well as reducing unnecessary medical procedures and emotional distress for men who present with markers of indolent disease. PMID:26860439

  15. Screening Prostate-specific Antigen Concentration and Prostate Cancer Mortality: The Korean Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Yejin; Kimm, Heejin; Shin, Sang Yop; Jee, Sun Ha; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration from a screening test and prostate cancer mortality in an Asian population. METHODS We included 118,665 men in the Korean Heart Study, a large prospective cohort study of participants who voluntarily underwent private health examinations that included PSA-based prostate cancer screening. The baseline visit occurred between January 1994 and December 2004, and follow-up was through December 2011. Deaths from prostate cancer were ascertained from the underlying cause of death from a computerized search of death certificate data from the National Statistical Office in Korea. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the association between serum PSA and risk of prostate cancer death adjusting the baseline age, cigarette smoking status, and body mass index. RESULTS During 1,381,901 person-years of follow-up, 6036 men died of any cause, and of these, 56 men died of prostate cancer. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for prostate cancer death statistically significantly increased across PSA concentrations (P trend <.0001). The hazard ratio increased 7% per 1-ng/mL increase in PSA. The association between PSA concentration and death from prostate cancer was stronger in younger than in older men and in heavier than leaner men. CONCLUSION In conclusion, an increased screening PSA level is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death in Korean men. Our findings may have implications for the development of targeted PSA cutpoints for biopsy recommendation. PMID:25917733

  16. [Liquid Biopsy and Laboratory Medicine].

    PubMed

    Furuta, Koh

    2015-09-01

    Recent progress in cancer biology has revealed the fact that molecular profiles of primary and metastatic cancer are not necessarily the same. Furthermore, evidence of intra-tumor heterogeneity has been disclosed repeatedly. In addition to these, acquiring resistances to chemoradiation therapy is far more rapid than typical predictions. Under these circumstances, physicians are realizing that one biopsy is not enough to predict the direction of cancer progression or extension. Repeated biopsy was proposed in this context. For "re-biopsy", acquiring blood is much easier compared to regular biopsies of acquiring body tissues. Therefore, CTC or Cell-free DNA is one of the hot topics in clinical and molecular diagnostic fields. The term "liquid biopsy" is used to include these two materials. We utilized a CTC isolation device based on microfluidic principles. Procedures for the extraction of DNA from plasma (Cell-free DNA) is also available. Based on this background, we performed a feasibility study of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) by analyzing materials from advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients. We have successfully acquired NGS results using these liquid biopsies. We have also investigated the possibility of storing CTCs by evaluating procedures after cytospin using H1975 cells with various fixation conditions under a DIC microscope examination. Because of the paucity of the number of isolated CTCs, H1975 cells were used for this purpose. After cytospin, 95% ETOH and then -80 degrees C storage provided the best results. Attempts at not only NGS but also storage in this sequence of studies have opened new fields of liquid biopsy in clinical laboratories. PMID:26731900

  17. Needle biopsy of the breast.

    PubMed

    Millis, R R

    1984-01-01

    Recently, there has been a considerable increase in the use of both fine-needle aspiration biopsy (aspiration cytology) and tissue-core needle biopsy of the breast. In patients with suspected breast cancer, needle biopsy is frequently used to confirm the diagnosis before treatment is planned. This allows a more thoughtful approach to the patient and full screening for possible metastatic disease prior to definitive surgery. Needle biopsy techniques are simple, rapid, can be performed in the doctor's office, and save time, equipment, and hospital beds. Complications are few. Aspiration cytology has the advantage that it is quick to perform, the preparation can be examined almost immediately and, in the event of an unsatisfactory smear, the procedure can be repeated. However, the diagnosis is based on purely cytological evaluation, and the information obtained is somewhat limited. Reported accuracy rates range from 42 to 96%. False positive reports are rare but have occurred in most centers, and a high degree of accuracy will only be obtained by experienced practitioners. Tissue-core needle biopsy has the advantage that the diagnosis is based on histopathological assessment, but the procedure is slightly more time consuming, is more traumatic for the patient, and the equipment is more expensive. Accuracy rates range from 67 to 98.5%. During the past 4 years, 329 tissue-core (Tru-Cut) biopsies have been performed in the Guy's Hospital Breast Unit, with an accuracy rate of 83% in the diagnosis of carcinoma. The procedure has been acceptable to most patients, and complications have been minimal. Studies comparing the use of aspiration cytology and tissue-core needle biopsy in the diagnosis of mammary carcinoma have produced variable results. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of technique must depend on the clinical situation and the preferences and skills of the practitioners involved in the management of the patient. PMID:6377049

  18. The relationship between histological prostatitis and lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Kumsar, Sukru; Kose, Osman; Aydemir, Huseyin; Halis, Fikret; Gokce, Ahmet; Adsan, Oztug; Akkaya, Zeynep Kahyaoglu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This prospective analysis assessed the effect of histological prostatitis on lower urinary tract functions and sexual function. The patients were separated into two groups as histologically observed prostatitis (Group A) and no prostatitis (Group B) according to the biopsy outcomes. International prostate symptom score, international index of erectile function-5 scores, maximal and average flow rate, and residual urine volumes were compared statistically between groups. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in baseline age (t=0.64), body mass index value (t=0.51), prostate volume (t=0.87), prostate-specific antigen levels (t=0.43), maximal (t=0.84) and average flow rate (t=0.59), and post-void residual urine volume (t=0.71). Mean international prostate symptom score in patients with prostatitis was numerically but not significantly higher than that in those without prostatitis (t=0.794, P=0.066). Mean international index of erectile function-5 score in the prostatitis group was significantly lower than that in those without prostatitis (t=1.854, P=0.013). Histological prostatitis notably affected sexual function of patients and may serve as a major risk factor for sexual dysfunction while having little effect on lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:27286118

  19. Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Pneumaticos, Spiros G; Chatziioannou, Sofia N; Savvidou, Christiana; Pilichou, Anastasia; Rontogianni, Dimitra; Korres, Dimitrios S

    2010-11-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are currently widely performed to treat vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of underlying previously unrecognized etiology in a consecutive series of patients undergoing kyphoplasty to treat vertebral compression fractures. A prospective histological evaluation of vertebral body biopsy specimens from presumed osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures were performed in order to identify aforementioned causes. Over a 2-year period, vertebral body biopsies from 154 vertebral levels were performed in 75 patients undergoing kyphoplasty for vertebral compression fractures. All patients received a preoperative workup that included plain radiographs, MRI, whole body bone scan, and laboratory examinations. Bone specimens were obtained from affected vertebral bodies and submitted for histologic evaluation to identify the prevalence of an underlying cause. All specimens demonstrated fragmented bone with variable amounts of unmineralised bone, signs of bone-remodeling and/or fracture-healing. In 11 patients underlying pathology other than osteoporosis was identified (prostate cancer, 1; pancreatic cancer, 1; colon cancer, 1; breast cancer, 2; multiple myeloma, 3; leukemia, 1; and lung cancer, 2). In all but one patient the results of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis suspected from the preoperative workup. For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer. In augmentation procedures for vertebral compression fractures, bone biopsy should be reserved for the patients where the preoperative evaluation raises the suspicion of a non-osteoporotic etiology. PMID:20372942

  20. Malakoplakia of the prostate masquerading as locally advanced prostate cancer on mpMRI

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Robert Thomas; Metcalfe, Michael; Chang, Silvia; Jones, Edward; Black, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old man was referred for urological evaluation for an abnormal digital rectal exam (cT2a, subtle nodule at left base, 121 cc prostate) and an elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) of 8.0 ng/ml. Subsequent 12-core transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy revealed Gleason 3+4 adenocarcinoma in seven of 12 cores, including all six cores on the right side and one core at the left apex. No extraprostatic extension was identified. Post-biopsy, the patient developed urinary retention requiring a catheter, as well as an Escherichia coli (E. coli) urinary tract infection (UTI) requiring hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. PMID:26834906

  1. Correlation between Gleason Scores in Needle Biopsy and Corresponding Radical Prostatectomy Specimens: A Twelve-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Khademi, Yassaman; Kazemi Aghdam, Maryam; Soltanghoraee, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Presence of discordance between the Gleason score on needle biopsy and the score of radical prostatectomy specimen is common and universal. In this study, we determined the accuracy of Gleason grading of biopsies in predicting histological grading of radical prostatectomy specimens and the degree of overgrading and undergrading of prostatic adenocarcinoma in our center, which is one of the referral centers in Tehran. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the results of prostate needle biopsies and subsequent prostatectomies diagnosed at the Pathobiology Laboratory Center, Tehran, Iran in 45 patients between 2002 and 2013. Preoperative clinical data and the information from biopsy and prostatectomy specimens were collected. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of different grades and groups were assessed. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to determine the relation of different variables. Results: The biopsy Gleason score was identical to the scores in prostatectomy specimens in 68.2% cases, while 31.8% were discrepant by 1 or 2 Gleason score. We had 9.1% downgrading and 22.7% cases upgraded after prostatectomy. The sensitivity and positive predictive value was 86% and 79% for low grade, 67% and 75% for moderate grade, and 80% and 80% for high-grade tumors, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, the reliability of Gleason grading of needle biopsies in predicting final pathology was satisfavory. Moderate grade group was the most difficult to diagnose in needle biopsy. PMID:27499772

  2. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    The metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC.

  3. Prostate segmentation with local binary patterns guided active appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    Real-time fusion of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images aid in the localization of malignant tissues in TRUS guided prostate biopsy. Registration performed on segmented contours of the prostate reduces computational complexity and improves the multimodal registration accuracy. However, accurate and computationally efficient segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images could be challenging in the presence of heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate gland, and other imaging artifacts like speckle noise, shadow regions and low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this work, we propose to enhance the texture features of the prostate region using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) for the propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the prior shape and texture information of the prostate from the training data. The estimated parameters are then modified with the prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve an optimal segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) value of 0.94+/-0.01 and a mean segmentation time of 0.68+/-0.02 seconds when validated with 70 TRUS images of 7 datasets in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework. Our method performs computationally efficient and accurate prostate segmentation in the presence of intensity heterogeneities and imaging artifacts.

  4. Defining the threshold for significant versus insignificant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Van der Kwast, Theo H; Roobol, Monique J

    2013-08-01

    Autopsy studies have shown the presence of a large reservoir of latent prostate cancers in adult men. Serum PSA testing of asymptomatic men leads to the detection of a proportion of these latent prostate cancers. The unequivocal demonstration of a substantial (30-50%) risk of overdiagnosis by the two largest randomized population-based screening trials has led to a growing awareness of this unwanted effect. Unsurprisingly, active surveillance is now becoming the favoured strategy for deferring active treatment in men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer and reducing their risk of overtreatment. Almost all eligibility criteria for active surveillance refer to a strict pathological definition of insignificant prostate cancer, based on two landmark studies published about 20 years ago. However, current epidemiological data suggest that this original pathological definition of insignificant prostate cancer is too restrictive. In addition, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2005 modification to the Gleason grading system might have resulted in a marked upgrading of biopsy-diagnosed prostate cancers, reducing the number of men eligible for active surveillance. An updated definition of insignificant prostate cancer should reflect the optimal trade-off between reducing the risk of underestimating a significant prostate cancer and including as many men as possible in active surveillance programmes. PMID:23712205

  5. Radiation injury of the normal and neoplastic prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Bostwick, D.G.; Egbert, B.M.; Fajardo, L.F.

    1982-09-01

    Tissue samples from 40 patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma treated by radiation therapy were evaluated simultaneously by three observers to establish criteria for distinguishing residual tumor from radiation-induced atypia. Sections from 10 patients irradiated for nonprostatic pelvic neoplasms served as controls in addition to pretreatment biopsies from the determinate group. Patients had been treated by external x-irradiation, the majority receiving 6200-7400 rad to the prostate and pelvis over 7 to 8 weeks. Positive (tumor) biopsy incidence in the determinate group was 80% at 18 months, 40% at 36 months, and 43% in later samples. The following features were characteristic of radiation injury in the prostate: decreased ratio of the number of tumor glands to stroma, atrophy and squamous-like metaplasia of non-neoplastic glands with or without atypia, stromal fibrosis, arterial lumenal narrowing due to myointimal proliferation, foam cells within vessel walls, and fibrosis and atrophy of seminal vesicles. Criteria not useful for diagnosing radiation injury included architectural pattern or differentiation of tumor, cytologic features of tumor cells, inflammatory infiltrate, and ratio of normal glands to stroma. Ionizing radiation produced characteristic lesions in neoplastic and non-neoplastic prostatic glands, stroma, and blood vessels, and the sum of these changes was a reliable indicator of prior radiotherapy. An understanding of the morphologic effects of radiation injury of the prostate allowed distinction between residual prostatic adenocarcinoma and radiation-induced atypia of non-neoplastic glands.

  6. Penile Rehabilitation Strategies Among Prostate Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in technical and surgical approaches, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains the most common complication among prostate cancer survivors, adversely impacting quality of life. This article analyzes the concept and rationale of ED rehabilitation programs in prostate cancer patients. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of ED after diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to understand the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in clinical practice. Available evidence shows that ED is a transient complication following prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis, with no evidence to support rehabilitation programs in these patients. A small increase in ED and in the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was reported in patients under active surveillance. Patients should be advised that active surveillance is unlikely to severely affect erectile function, but clinically significant changes in sexual function are possible. Focal therapy could be an intermediate option for patients demanding treatment/refusing active surveillance and invested in maintaining sexual activity. Unlike radical prostatectomy, there is no support for PDE5 inhibitor use to prevent ED after highly conformal external radiotherapy or low-dose rate brachytherapy. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for ED in prostate cancer patients, the success rates of rehabilitation programs remain low in clinical practice. Alternative strategies to prevent ED appear warranted, with attention toward neuromodulation, nerve grafting, nerve preservation, stem cell therapy, investigation of neuroprotective interventions, and further refinements of radiotherapy dosing and delivery methods. PMID:27222641

  7. Penile Rehabilitation Strategies Among Prostate Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in technical and surgical approaches, erectile dysfunction (ED) remains the most common complication among prostate cancer survivors, adversely impacting quality of life. This article analyzes the concept and rationale of ED rehabilitation programs in prostate cancer patients. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of ED after diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer to understand the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in clinical practice. Available evidence shows that ED is a transient complication following prostate biopsy and cancer diagnosis, with no evidence to support rehabilitation programs in these patients. A small increase in ED and in the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was reported in patients under active surveillance. Patients should be advised that active surveillance is unlikely to severely affect erectile function, but clinically significant changes in sexual function are possible. Focal therapy could be an intermediate option for patients demanding treatment/refusing active surveillance and invested in maintaining sexual activity. Unlike radical prostatectomy, there is no support for PDE5 inhibitor use to prevent ED after highly conformal external radiotherapy or low-dose rate brachytherapy. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for ED in prostate cancer patients, the success rates of rehabilitation programs remain low in clinical practice. Alternative strategies to prevent ED appear warranted, with attention toward neuromodulation, nerve grafting, nerve preservation, stem cell therapy, investigation of neuroprotective interventions, and further refinements of radiotherapy dosing and delivery methods. PMID:27222641

  8. Pancreatic cancer: Are "liquid biopsies" ready for prime-time?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alexandra R; Valle, Juan W; McNamara, Mairead G

    2016-08-28

    Pancreatic cancer is a disease that carries a poor prognosis. Accurate tissue diagnosis is required. Tumours contain a high content of stromal tissue and therefore biopsies may be inconclusive. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have been investigated as a potential "liquid biopsy" in several malignancies and have proven to be of prognostic value in breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. They have been detected in patients with localised and metastatic pancreatic cancer with sensitivities ranging from 38%-100% using a variety of platforms. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has also been detected in pancreas cancer with a sensitivity ranging from 26%-100% in studies across different platforms and using different genetic markers. However, there is no clear consensus on which platform is the most effective for detection, nor which genetic markers are the most useful to use. Potential roles of liquid biopsies include diagnosis, screening, guiding therapies and prognosis. The presence of CTCs or ctDNA has been shown to be of prognostic value both at diagnosis and after treatment in patients with pancreatic cancer. However, more prospective studies are required before this promising technology is ready for adoption into routine clinical practice. PMID:27621566

  9. Extended use of Prostate Health Index and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen in Chinese men with prostate specific antigen 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Peter Ka-Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen-Chun; Lee, Wai-Man; Yee, Chi-Hang; Chan, Eddie Shu-Yin; Hou, See-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the extended use of Prostate Health Index (PHI) and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen (%p2PSA) in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination (DRE). Materials and Methods All consecutive Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE who agreed for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided 10-core prostate biopsy were recruited. Blood samples were taken immediately before TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. The performances of total PSA (tPSA), %free-to-total PSA (%fPSA), %p2PSA, and PHI were compared using logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic, and decision curve analyses (DCA). Results From 2008 to 2015, 312 consecutive Chinese men were included. Among them, 53 out of 312 (17.0%) men were diagnosed to have prostate cancer on biopsy. The proportions of men with positive biopsies were 6.7% in PHI<35, 22.8% in PHI 35–55, and 54.5% in PHI>55 (chi-square test, p<0.001). The area under curves (AUC) of the base model including age, tPSA and status of initial/repeated biopsy was 0.64. Adding %p2PSA and PHI to the base model improved the AUC to 0.79 (p<0.001) and 0.78 (p<0.001), respectively, and provided net clinical benefit in DCA. The positive biopsy rates of Gleason 7 or above prostate cancers were 2.2% for PHI<35, 7.9% for PHI 35–55, and 36.4% for PHI>55 (chi-square test, p<0.001). By utilizing the PHI cutoff of 35 to men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE, 57.1% (178 of 312) biopsies could be avoided. Conclusions Both PHI and %p2PSA performed well in predicting prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer. The use of PHI and %p2PSA should be extended to Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE.

  10. Impact of pre-treatment prostate tissue androgen content on the prediction of castration-resistant prostate cancer development in patients treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Y; Suzuki, K; Arai, S; Miyoshi, Y; Umemoto, S; Masumori, N; Kamiya, N; Ichikawa, T; Kitagawa, Y; Mizokami, A; Sugimura, Y; Nonomura, N; Sakai, H; Honma, S; Kubota, Y

    2013-05-01

    Great advances in tissue androgen analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have made it possible to evaluate the tissue androgen content from a single needle prostate biopsy specimen. In this study, we investigated if pre-treatment androgen content in prostate biopsy specimens could predict their response to primary androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and future castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). One-hundred and sixty-five prostate cancer patients who received primary ADT were enrolled. They had received multiple core prostate needle biopsy at diagnosis, and an additional one needle biopsy specimen was obtained for tissue androgen determination using LC-MS/MS. The patients' prostate specific antigen (PSA) values were periodically followed during the treatment and patients were determined to have CRPC when their PSA value increased continuously to 25% above the nadir and a 2.0 ng/mL increase. A significant correlation was found between PSA value decline velocity (PSA half-time) after ADT and pre-ADT tissue androgen content. Twenty-three patients were determined to have CRPC. These CRPC patients had a significantly high concentration of tissue T (p < 0.01) and low concentration of tissue 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (p < 0.01), resulting in a higher tissue T/DHT ratio (p < 0.001). A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model revealed the pre-ADT tissue T/DHT ratio and Gleason score as independent predictors for CRPC development. By using the two statistically significant variables, the relative risk of CRPC development could be calculated. The results of this study suggest that the evaluation of prostate androgen content in a single needle biopsy specimen may be useful to predict future CRPC development after primary ADT. Further studies are required for the clinical application of T/DHT ratio evaluation. PMID:23444052

  11. [Percutaneous biopsy of the liver].

    PubMed

    Skladaný, L; Jarcuska, P; Oltman, M; Hrusovský, S

    2003-08-01

    Percutaneous liver biopsy represents the most specific examination of the nature and severity of liver diseases. P. Ehrlich was the first physician in history having done the intervention in 1880. The new history begins with the Menghini's publication on s.c. one-second biopsy in 1957. The present paper deals exclusively with diffuse diseases of the liver including the most frequent ones--virus hepatitis, alcohol and non-alcohol steatohepatitis. The contraindications include mainly coagulation disorders and non-cooperative patients. The percutaneous biopsy is mostly executed after ultrasonographic examination or under the control of various image-forming techniques and by means of various types of needles; the authors analyze advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques. If the contraindications are respected, the percutaneous biopsy is a safe method of examination, which may be done on out-patient basis. A large series of complications exists, but their frequency is generally low. Morbidity is referred in 0.2% of patients, the most frequent complications being pain and hypotension from vaso-vagal reactions, extensive intraperitoneal bleeding and hemobilia. Mortality is extremely low, the mean in large studies being 0.001%. PMID:14518095

  12. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-06-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  13. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  14. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-01-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88–95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  15. Body mass index in relation to serum prostate-specific antigen levels and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-07-01

    High Body mass index (BMI) has been directly associated with risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer. One possible explanation may be an effect of BMI on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). To study the association between BMI and serum PSA as well as prostate cancer risk, a large cohort of men without prostate cancer at baseline was followed prospectively for prostate cancer diagnoses until 2015. Serum PSA and BMI were assessed among 15,827 men at baseline in 2010-2012. During follow-up, 735 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer with 282 (38.4%) classified as high-grade cancers. Multivariable linear regression models and natural cubic linear regression splines were fitted for analyses of BMI and log-PSA. For risk analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and natural cubic Cox regression splines producing standardized cancer-free probabilities were fitted. Results showed that baseline Serum PSA decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: -2.1 to -1.1) with every one unit increase in BMI. Statistically significant decreases of 3.7, 11.7 and 32.3% were seen for increasing BMI-categories of 25 < 30, 30 < 35 and ≥35 kg/m(2) , respectively, compared to the reference (18.5 < 25 kg/m(2) ). No statistically significant associations were seen between BMI and prostate cancer risk although results were indicative of a positive association to incidence rates of high-grade disease and an inverse association to incidence of low-grade disease. However, findings regarding risk are limited by the short follow-up time. In conclusion, BMI was inversely associated to PSA-levels. BMI should be taken into consideration when referring men to a prostate biopsy based on serum PSA-levels. PMID:26914149

  16. Salvage Cryosurgery of the Prostate after Radiation Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lam, John S; Belldegrun, Arie S

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy is one option for patients with localized prostate cancer. Despite advances in delivering radiation to the prostate gland with therapies such as brachytherapy and/or external beam radiation therapy, urologists will be faced with managing patients with rising prostate-specific antigen values and with positive biopsy results secondary to radiation-recurrent prostate cancer. If the cancer is detected early, salvage therapy can be initiated. Since salvage prostatectomy is associated with significant morbidity, patients are often left with the option of either watchful waiting or temporary palliation with hormone deprivation therapy, with its attendant toxicity. The introduction of third-generation cryotechnology using 17-gauge CryoNeedles™ (Oncura, Inc., Plymouth Meeting, PA) and the recent modifications in the technique of salvage cryosurgery have enabled cryosurgeons to eradicate these tumors safely and with significantly decreased morbidity. Selection and management of patients, as well as the contemporary results of salvage cryosurgery, are discussed in this article. PMID:16985867

  17. A novel SPECT camera for molecular imaging of the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebula, Alan; Gilland, David; Su, Li-Ming; Wagenaar, Douglas; Bahadori, Amir

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an improved SPECT camera for dedicated prostate imaging. Complementing the recent advancements in agents for molecular prostate imaging, this device has the potential to assist in distinguishing benign from aggressive cancers, to improve site-specific localization of cancer, to improve accuracy of needle-guided prostate biopsy of cancer sites, and to aid in focal therapy procedures such as cryotherapy and radiation. Theoretical calculations show that the spatial resolution/detection sensitivity of the proposed SPECT camera can rival or exceed 3D PET and further signal-to-noise advantage is attained with the better energy resolution of the CZT modules. Based on photon transport simulation studies, the system has a reconstructed spatial resolution of 4.8 mm with a sensitivity of 0.0001. Reconstruction of a simulated prostate distribution demonstrates the focal imaging capability of the system.

  18. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging: Current role in prostate cancer management.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshiko; Tamada, Tsutomu; Bist, Vipul; Reinhold, Caroline; Miyake, Hideaki; Tanaka, Utaru; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Sugimura, Kazuro; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    Digital rectal examination, serum prostate-specific antigen screening and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy are conventionally used as screening, diagnostic and surveillance tools for prostate cancer. However, they have limited sensitivity and specificity. In recent years, the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has steadily grown, and is now part of the standard clinical management in many institutions. In multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, the morphological assessment of T2-weighted imaging is correlated with diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging perfusion and/or magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is currently regarded as the most sensitive and specific imaging technique for the evaluation of prostate cancer, including detection, staging, localization and aggressiveness evaluation. This article presents an overview of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, and discusses the current role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the different fields of prostate cancer management. PMID:27184019

  19. The characteristics and spatial distributions of initially missed and rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of initially missed and rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers following 12-core transrectal biopsy. Methods: A total of 45 patients with prostate cancers detected on rebiopsy and 45 patients with prostate cancers initially detected on transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were included in the study. For result analysis, the prostate was divided into six compartments, and the cancer positive rates, estimated tumor burden, and agreement rates between biopsy and surgical specimens, along with clinical data, were evaluated. Results: The largest mean tumor burden was located in the medial apex in both groups. There were significantly more tumors in this location in the rebiopsy group (44.9%) than in the control group (30.1%, P=0.015). The overall sensitivity of biopsy was significantly lower in the rebiopsy group (22.5% vs. 43.4%, P<0.001). The agreement rate of cancer positive cores between biopsy and surgical specimens was significantly lower in the medial apex in the rebiopsy group compared with that of the control group (50.0% vs. 65.6%, P=0.035). The cancer positive rates of target biopsy cores and premalignant lesions in the rebiopsy group were 63.1% and 42.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers showed different spatial distribution and lower cancer detection rate of biopsy cores compared with initially diagnosed cancers. To overcome lower cancer detection rate, target biopsy of abnormal sonographic findings, premalignant lesions and medial apex which revealed larger tumor burden would be recommended when performing rebiopsy. PMID:27048261

  20. Transrectal ultrasound guided manipulation of the canine prostate with minimum intervention.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Anthony, S; Koder, P C; Brown, S G

    1997-07-01

    The canine prostate is a widely used and well established animal model for the assessment of therapeutic effects of laser technology in the search for better options for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Conventionally for such experiments, the canine prostate is approached by laparotomy or transperineal urethrotomy. We have demonstrated a technique involving the use of ultrasound guided biopsy of the liver and prostate, and percutaneous laser treatment of the prostate, which has proved to be effective in reducing adverse effects on the experimental animals but without compromising scientific requirements for the experiments. We conclude that state-of-the-art percutaneous procedures not only refine animal intervention significantly but are also technically feasible for most laser studies using the canine prostate as an experimental model in the live animal. PMID:9230502

  1. Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Ex-vivo Results

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Vikram S.; Chinni, Bhargava K.; Valluru, Keerthi S.; Joseph, Jean V.; Ghazi, Ahmed; Yao, Jorge L.; Evans, Katie; Messing, Edward M.; Rao, Navalgund A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to validate if ex-vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and normal human prostate tissue. Materials and Methods: Institutional Review Board's approval was obtained for this study. A total of 30 patients undergoing prostatectomy for biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer were included in this study with informed consent. Multispectral PA imaging was performed on surgically excised prostate tissue and chromophore images that represent optical absorption of deoxyhemoglobin (dHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), lipid, and water were reconstructed. After the imaging procedure is completed, malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate regions were marked by the genitourinary pathologist on histopathology slides and digital images of marked histopathology slides were obtained. The histopathology images were co-registered with chromophore images. Region of interest (ROI) corresponding to malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate were defined on the chromophore images. Pixel values within each ROI were then averaged to determine mean intensities of dHb, HbO2, lipid, and water. Results: Our preliminary results show that there is statistically significant difference in mean intensity of dHb (P < 0.0001) and lipid (P = 0.0251) between malignant prostate and normal prostate tissue. There was difference in mean intensity of dHb (P < 0.0001) between malignant prostate and BPH. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of our imaging system were found to be 81.3%, 96.2%, 92.9% and 89.3% respectively. Conclusion: Our preliminary results of ex-vivo human prostate study suggest that multispectral PA imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate tissue. PMID:24228210

  2. Focal therapy for prostate cancer: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Miano, R; Asimakopoulos, A; Da Silva, R; Bove, P; Jones, S; De La Rosette, J; Kim, F

    2015-09-01

    Focal therapy is a relatively new and extremely attractive option of treatment for prostate cancer. It has been described as the "middle approach" between active surveillance and radical treatment, aiming to destroy the tumor itself or the region containing the tumor in order to preserve surrounding non-cancerous tissue. The goal is to maintain disease control at acceptable levels, while preserving erectile, urinary, and rectal function. While a lot of technologies have been described for delivering targeted therapy to the prostate, such as cryoablation, high intensity focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, irreversible electroporation and laser, the key point is the patient selection. Recent advances in mpMRI and the introduction of new biopsy techniques that use MR images as a guidance, have significantly improved localization of the tumor lesions and the detection rate, evolving prostate biopsy toward targeted rather than systematic biopsies. The future challenge to clinicians is to precisely risk-stratify patients to differentiate between those who would profit from focal treatment and who would not. Forthcoming research efforts should pursue to identify molecular, genetic, and imaging characteristics that distinguish aggressive prostate tumors from indolent lesions. PMID:26013953

  3. [Strategies for early diagnosis and prevention of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Valeri, A; Malavaud, B; Desrichard, O; Cornu, J-N; Blanchet, P; Dervaux, B; Puech, P; Villers, A; Cancel-Tassin, G; Cussenot, O

    2010-12-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) has become the most frequent cancer in France and represents the 4th cause of mortality by cancer. Main risk factors include age, family history, black ethnic origin and carcinogenesis results from interaction between environmental and endogen factors. This work aimed to review main data and strategic trends about evolution of prevention and early diagnosis of CaP. Research topics considered as priorities results from the main objective including definition of most efficient medico-economic strategies according to epidemiology, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and ethno-sociologic particularities, including in the schema presently used (PSA/biopsies): 1) new markers (genetic, serum and urinary), measurable environmental risk factors and potential prevention actions; 2) functional imaging (new techniques including contrast echography, dynamic MRI, spectro-MRI) in order to avoid unnecessary biopsies (60-70% biopsies are negative); 3) optimization of biopsies technique in identifying tumor zones in order to decrease false negative biopsies (about 15% of CaP < 0,5 cm3 but of high grade are missed in the first set of biopsies) and in improving the representativity of the tumor sample biopsied (discordance of about 40% between biopsy data and complete pathological analysis of prostatectomy specimen); 4) development of predictive models in order to perform individual prediction taking into account several risk factors (clinical and molecular) and genes/environment interactions in order to offer rational help in diagnostic and primary prevention procedures. PMID:21220227

  4. Rediscovering Secondary Tumors of the Prostate in the Molecular Era.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Nicola; Sciarra, Amedeo; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Marchiò, Caterina; Vignani, Francesca; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Ferrero, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Metastatic involvement of the prostate from noncontiguous solid tumors is a rare event occurring by means of vascular dissemination. The reported cases of biopsy and surgical samples with metastatic involvement have increased; however, a comprehensive understanding of secondary tumors of the prostate is currently missing. Metastases to the prostate carry a dismal prognosis and may pose serious diagnostic challenges to both clinicians and pathologists, with crucial therapeutic implications. Secondary tumors of the prostate spread more frequently from the digestive tract, the lung, and the kidney. The integration of clinicoradiologic data with appropriate pathologic and immunohistochemical analyses is essential for the identification and the characterization of secondary tumors of the prostate, whereas molecular analyses could provide additional and complementary information, enabling precise diagnosis and appropriate clinical management. Patients with solitary metastases could benefit from prostatic resection and adjuvant therapy, whereas in cases of disseminated diseases, symptom control may be obtained with palliative procedures. The purpose of this review was to assess the current state of knowledge of secondary tumors involving the prostate gland and to discuss short-term future perspectives, while providing a practical approach to these uncommon conditions for pathologists and oncologists. PMID:27058245

  5. Marked heterogeneity of ERG expression in large primary prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Minner, Sarah; Gärtner, Michael; Freudenthaler, Fabian; Bauer, Melanie; Kluth, Martina; Salomon, Georg; Heinzer, Hans; Graefen, Markus; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Wilczak, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of prostate cancers are characterized by TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine 2)-ERG (avian v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog) gene fusions resulting in an androgen-regulated overexpression of the transcription factor ERG. Some studies have suggested prognostic or predictive relevance of ERG status in prostate cancer. Such concepts could be impaired by extensive ERG heterogeneity in analyzed tumors. The aim of this study was to analyze the extent of heterogeneity for TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in prostate cancer. To enable large-scale studies on the extent of heterogeneity of biomarkers in prostate cancer, a heterogeneity tissue microarray containing samples from 10 different tumor blocks of 190 large prostate cancers selected from a consecutive series of 480 radical prostatectomies was developed. ERG expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Positive ERG immunostaining was found in arrayed cancer-containing samples from 103 of the 178 analyzable patients (58%). ERG immunostaining was homogeneously positive in 29 prostate cancers (16%), whereas heterogeneous ERG positivity was seen in 74 cancers (42%). ERG heterogeneity was within one tumor focus (intrafocal heterogeneity) in 69 cases (93% of heterogeneous cases) and between different tumor foci (interfocal heterogeneity) in 5 cases (7%). Marked intrafocal heterogeneity challenges the concept of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion always representing an early step in prostate cancer development. Marked heterogeneity also compromises the concept of analyzing ERG status for treatment decisions in diagnostic needle core biopsies. PMID:22899295

  6. Copy number alteration burden predicts prostate cancer relapse

    PubMed Central

    Hieronymus, Haley; Schultz, Nikolaus; Gopalan, Anuradha; Carver, Brett S.; Chang, Matthew T.; Xiao, Yonghong; Heguy, Adriana; Huberman, Kety; Bernstein, Melanie; Assel, Melissa; Murali, Rajmohan; Vickers, Andrew; Scardino, Peter T.; Sander, Chris; Reuter, Victor; Taylor, Barry S.; Sawyers, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Primary prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men but has highly variable outcomes, highlighting the need for biomarkers to determine which patients can be managed conservatively. Few large prostate oncogenome resources currently exist that combine the molecular and clinical outcome data necessary to discover prognostic biomarkers. Previously, we found an association between relapse and the pattern of DNA copy number alteration (CNA) in 168 primary tumors, raising the possibility of CNA as a prognostic biomarker. Here we examine this question by profiling an additional 104 primary prostate cancers and updating the initial 168 patient cohort with long-term clinical outcome. We find that CNA burden across the genome, defined as the percentage of the tumor genome affected by CNA, was associated with biochemical recurrence and metastasis after surgery in these two cohorts, independent of the prostate-specific antigen biomarker or Gleason grade, a major existing histopathological prognostic variable in prostate cancer. Moreover, CNA burden was associated with biochemical recurrence in intermediate-risk Gleason 7 prostate cancers, independent of prostate-specific antigen or nomogram score. We further demonstrate that CNA burden can be measured in diagnostic needle biopsies using low-input whole-genome sequencing, setting the stage for studies of prognostic impact in conservatively treated cohorts. PMID:25024180

  7. Biopsies

    MedlinePlus

    ... computed tomography (CT) , fluoroscopy , ultrasound , or MRI . A mammography unit is a rectangular box that houses the ... seen. Some lesions, such as clustered calcifications on mammography are not as clearly shown with ultrasound as ...

  8. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes ... 2/2017 2017 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting more Latest News ... Surveys About AOCD The AOCD was recognized in ...

  9. Implementation of Multi-parametric Prostate MRI in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Kierans, Andrea S; Taneja, Samir S; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2015-08-01

    While initial implementations of prostate MRI suffered from suboptimal performance in tumor detection, technological advances over the past decade have allowed modern multi-parametric prostate MRI (mpMRI) to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for detection, localization, and staging and thereby impact patient management. A particular emerging application of mpMRI is in the pre-biopsy setting to allow for MRI-targeted biopsy, for instance, through real-time MRI/ultrasound fusion, which may help reduce the over-detection of low-risk disease and selectively detect clinically significant cancers, in comparison with use of standard systematic biopsy alone. mpMRI and MRI-targeted biopsy are spreading beyond the large academic centers to increasingly be adopted within small and community practices. Aims of this review article are to summarize the hardware and sequences used for performing mpMRI, explore patient specific technical considerations, delineate approaches for study interpretation and reporting [including the recent American College of Radiology Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2], and describe challenges and implications relating to the widespread clinical implementation of mpMRI. PMID:26077358

  10. Liquid biopsy in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Labgaa, Ismail; Villanueva, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Liver cancer has become the second cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are still diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stage, where potentially curative treatment options are not recommended. Unlike other solid tumors, there are no validated oncogenic addiction loops and the only systemic agent to improve survival in advanced disease is sorafenib. All phase 3 clinical trials testing molecular therapies after sorafenib have been negative, none of which selected patients based on predictive biomarkers of response. Theoretically, analysis of circulating cancer byproducts (e.g., circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acids), namely "liquid biopsy," could provide easy access to molecular tumor information, improve patients' stratification and allow to assess tumor dynamics over time. Recent technical developments and preliminary data from other malignancies indicate that liquid biopsy might have a role in the future management of cancer patients. PMID:25977189

  11. Biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Joanne; Willard, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Gastrointestinal biopsy is a potentially powerful tool, but it is easy to do it incorrectly. If clinicians are careless in performing or submitting biopsies, or if they blindly believe whatever the histopathology report says, they are abdicating their responsibility to the client and patient. Two comments seem most appropriate. First, the goal of endoscopy is not to be able to place the tip of an endoscope in a particular location; rather, the goal of endoscopy is to be able to access a particular location and then take a diagnostic specimen well enough that surgery can be avoided. Second, attention to detail is worth at least as much if not more than technology. PMID:14552163

  12. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  13. Prostate size correlates with fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with normal testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Isaac Yi; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the correlations between BMI, fasting glucose, insulin, testosterone level, insulin resistance, and prostate size in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with normal testosterone levels. Data from 212 non-diabetic BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to medical treatment failure, were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥ 3 ng/mL underwent multicore transrectal prostate biopsy before TURP to rule out prostate cancer. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or serum testosterone levels of < 3.50 ng/mL were excluded from analysis. Correlations between clinical and laboratory parameters were determined. Prostate size correlated positively with age (r = 0.227, P < 0.001), PSA (r = 0.510, P < 0.001), and fasting glucose level (r = 0.186, P = 0.007), but not with BMI, testosterone, insulin level, or insulin resistance (each P > 0.05). Testosterone level inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.327, P < 0.001), insulin level (r = -0.207, P = 0.003), and insulin resistance (r = -0.221, P = 0.001), but not with age, prostate size, PSA, or fasting glucose level (each P > 0.05). Upon multiple adjusted linear regression analysis, prostate size correlated with elevated PSA (P < 0.001) and increased fasting glucose levels (P = 0.023). In non-DM BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, fasting glucose level is an independent risk factor for prostate hyperplasia. PMID:21949470

  14. Biopsy of soft-tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Shives, T C

    1993-04-01

    Biopsy is an integral part of the overall management of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. The types of biopsy are fine needle, trocar, open incision or en bloc excision. There are advantages and disadvantages of each. Open biopsy requires strict adherence to a number of surgical principles. Proper execution requires determination of appropriate biopsy site, meticulous technique, and close collaboration with an experienced pathologist. Failure to adhere to these principles may result in untoward consequences for patients. PMID:8472430

  15. Treatment of prostatic carcinoma by pelvic lymphadenectomy, temporary Iridium-192 implant, and external irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tansey, L.A.; Shanberg, A.M.; Nisar Syed, A.M.; Puthawala, A.

    1983-06-01

    Forty patients with clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate have been treated by a combination of pelvic lymphadenectomy, temporary Iridium-192 implantation, and external irradiation with follow-up of one to five years. 192Ir implant delivers a minimum tumor dose of 3,000 rad to A2 and B1 lesions and 3,500 to B2 and C lesions. Two weeks later patients receive 4,000 rad of external irradiation to the prostate over four to five weeks. Patients with pelvic nodal metastases receive 5,000 rad to the pelvis with a midline block at 4,000 rad. All patients have had a complete local response as judged by clinical criteria. Prostate needle biopsies have been performed on 16 patients one year or less after treatment, with 15 biopsies benign. The technique appears to offer excellent local control of prostatic adenocarcinoma with acceptably low morbidity.

  16. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  17. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Autopsy; biopsy. 718.106 Section 718.106... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection with a claim shall include a detailed gross macroscopic...

  18. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  19. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... present it is not clear if screening for prostate cancer is helpful for most men. For this reason, ...

  20. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the needles to the prostate gland. Then, very cold gas passes through the needles, creating ice balls that destroy the prostate gland. Warm salt water will flow through the catheter to keep your urethra (the tube from the bladder to ...

  1. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ... Foundation News Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ...

  2. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Laser prostatectomy; Transurethral needle ablation; TUNA; Transurethral incision; TUIP; Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate; HoLep; Interstitial laser coagulation; ILC; Photoselective vaporization of the prostate; PVP; Transurethral ...

  3. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  4. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  5. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  6. Enlarged prostate - after care

    MedlinePlus

    BPH - self-care; Benign prostatic hypertrophy - self-care; Benign prostatic hyperplasia - self-care ... Your health care provider may have you take a medicine called alpha-1- blocker. Most people find that these drugs help ...

  7. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cryotherapy uses very cold temperatures to freeze and kill prostate cancer cells. The goal of cryosurgery is ... Possible short-term side effects of cryotherapy for prostate ... of the penis or scrotum Problems controlling your bladder (more ...

  8. Optical biopsy - a new armamentarium to detect disease using light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been considered a promising method for cancer detection for past thirty years because of its advantages over the conventional diagnostic methods of no tissue removal, minimal invasiveness, rapid diagnoses, less time consumption and reproducibility since the first use in 1984. It offers a new armamentarium. Human tissue is mainly composed of extracellular matrix of collagen fiber, proteins, fat, water, and epithelial cells with key molecules in different structures. Tissues contain a number of key fingerprint native endogenous fluorophore molecules, such as tryptophan, collagen, elastin, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and porphyrins. It is well known that abnormalities in metabolic activity precede the onset of a lot of main diseases: carcinoma, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease, etc. Optical spectroscopy may help in detecting various disorders. Conceivably the biochemical or morphologic changes that cause the spectra variations would appear earlier than the histological aberration. Therefore, "optical biopsy" holds a great promise as clinical tool for diagnosing early stage of carcinomas and other deceases by combining with available photonic technology (e.g. optical fibers, photon detectors, spectrographs spectroscopic ratiometer, fiber-optic endomicroscope and nasopharyngoscope) for in vivo use. This paper focuses on various methods available to detect spectroscopic changes in tissues, for example to distinguish cancerous prostate tissues and/or cells from normal prostate tissues and/or cells. The methods to be described are fluorescence, stokes shift, scattering, Raman, and time-resolved spectroscopy will be reviewed. The underlying physical and biological basis for these optical approaches will be discussed with examples. The idea is to present some of the salient works to show the usefulness and methods of Optical Biopsy for cancer detection and

  9. The distribution of PAX-2 immunoreactivity in the prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory duct: comparison with prostatic adenocarcinoma and discussion of prostatic zonal embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Quick, Charles M; Gokden, Neriman; Sangoi, Ankur R; Brooks, James D; McKenney, Jesse K

    2010-08-01

    PAX-2 is a homeogene strongly expressed during development of the genitourinary tract, including the kidney and both wolffian- and müllerian-derived tissues. Expression of PAX-2 by immunohistochemistry has been studied mainly in renal epithelial neoplasms with little attention to the lower male genitourinary tract. We studied PAX-2 expression in epithelium of normal seminal vesicle, normal ejaculatory duct, normal prostatic secretory epithelium, and prostatic adenocarcinoma to define its immunoreactivity pattern throughout the prostate gland and to evaluate its potential diagnostic role in the discrimination of seminal vesicle/ejaculatory duct epithelium from prostatic adenocarcinoma. In addition, given that PAX-2 is highly expressed in tissues of wolffian duct embryologic origin, we also sought to confirm the divergent embryogenesis of the central zone, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory duct from other regions of the prostate. Prostatectomy specimens from 12 patients were reviewed to identify blocks containing seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, periurethral glands, benign prostatic glands, and prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. A total of 35 blocks from the 12 patients were evaluated. In addition, 2 tissue microarrays representing 15 additional seminal vesicles and 45 prostatic adenocarcinomas, 7 whole sections from prostatic adenocarcinomas of the central zone, and 5 core needle biopsies of seminal vesicle were also evaluated with anti-PAX-2 antibody. In the 12 radical prostatectomy whole sections, nuclear reactivity for PAX-2 was identified in 12 (100%) of 12 of the seminal vesicle epithelium, 9 (90%) of 10 of the ejaculatory duct epithelium, 0 of 12 of the prostatic adenocarcinoma, and 0 of 6 of the high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. All 20 total additional seminal vesicles were positive for PAX-2 in the tissue microarray and biopsies; and all 52 additional prostatic adenocarcinomas were negative, including 7 of central zone origin. The staining

  10. [A case of dermatomyositis associated with prostatic carcinoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Yutaka; Kurihara, Jun

    2004-02-01

    We report a case of dermatomyositis associated with prostatic carcinoma. A 69-year-old male was admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine with the chief complaint of general fatigue, appetite loss and facial anthema. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated swollen periaortic lymph nodes and the margin of prostate was unclear. Prostatic carcinoma was suspected based on digital rectal examination, so he was admitted to our department. Serum prostate specific antigen level was 190 ng/ml. He was examined by a dermatologist because of deterioration of anthema. Dermatomyocitis was demonstrated by dermatoses (edema erythema at face, neck and limbs, nail fold thrombosis and poikiloderma), high serum level of creatine phosphokinase and a decrease in muscular strength (especially at the proximal musculus). There was no interstitial pneumonitis or malignancy of the digestive system. On needle biopsy of the prostate and quadriceps femoris muscle, prostatic carcinoma (poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 5 + 5) and myositis were suspected. The stage of prostatic carcinoma was T4N1M1. The patient was treated by administration of diethylstilbestrol phosphate and prednisolone for prostatic carcinoma and dermatomyositis, respectively, but he died of multiple metastasis of the tumor 1 year and 5 months later. Dermatomyocitis is associated with malignancy more frequently than any other collagen disease. In Japan, it is frequently complicated by gastric, lung and mammory cancers, but rarely by prostatic carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case of prostatic carcinoma associated with dermatomyocitis in Japan. PMID:15101164

  11. Diet, Supplement Use, and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Goodman, Phyllis; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thompson, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994–2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a structured supplement-use questionnaire. Cancer was detected in 1,703 men; 127 cancers were high-grade (Gleason score 8–10). There were no associations of any nutrient or supplement with prostate cancer risk overall. Risk of high-grade cancer was associated with high intake of polyunsaturated fats (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 4.38). Dietary calcium was positively associated with low-grade cancer but inversely associated with high-grade cancer (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, odds ratios were 1.27 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.57) and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.89), respectively). Neither dietary nor supplemental intakes of nutrients often suggested for prostate cancer prevention, including lycopene, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, and selenium, were significantly associated with cancer risk. High intake of n-6 fatty acids, through their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress, may increase prostate cancer risk. PMID:20693267

  12. Myths and fallacies in permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S

    2003-09-30

    Because there are competing modalities to treat early-stage prostate cancer, the constraints or deficiencies of one modality may be erroneously applied to others. Some valid concerns arising from surgery and external beam therapy, which have been falsely transferred to brachytherapy, are constraints based on patient age, clinical and pathological parameters, patient weight, and size of prostate. Although the constraints have a valid basis in one modality, knowledge of the origin and mechanism of the constraint has provided a means to circumvent or overcome it in brachytherapy. Failures as measured by biochemical no-evidence of disease (bNED) survival may be attributed to extracapsular disease extension. Such extension often expresses itself in surrogate parameters such as a high percentage of positive biopsies, perineural invasion, or the dominant pattern in Gleason score histology. Failures due to such factors may be prevented by implanting with consistent extracapsular dosimetric margins. Some presumed limitations on prostate brachytherapy originated from data on patients implanted in the first few years the procedure was being developed. Most of the urinary morbidity and a significant part of the decrease in sexual function observed may be avoided by controlling the dosimetry along the prostatic and membranous urethra and at the penile bulb.

  13. Prostatic carcinoma: rectal bleeding after radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, A.R.; Steckel, R.J.

    1981-06-01

    A 64-year-old man had a prostatic nodule on routine physical examination; per-rectal needle biopsies revealed a single focus of well differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient had no history of urinary obstruction or of bowel difficulties. Accordingly, this was clinical stage II carcinoma of the prostate. The patient chose to receive external radiation therapy and was given small-field rotational treatment to a dose of 7000 rad (70 Gy) at a rate of 800 rad (8 Gy) weekly. Late in treatment, he experienced transitory diarrhea with flatulence, but this cleared with completion of treatment. Twenty months later he began to note frequent soft bowel movements, occasionally with red blood. At sigmoidoscopy 24 months after completion of treatment, the rectal mucosa was noted to be friable with minimal bleeding, presumably the result of radiation proctitis.

  14. Fully automated prostate magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound fusion via a probabilistic registration metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Rachel; Bloch, B. Nicholas; Feleppa, Ernest; Barratt, Dean; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we present a novel, automated, registration method to fuse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate. Our methodology consists of: (1) delineating the prostate on MRI, (2) building a probabilistic model of prostate location on TRUS, and (3) aligning the MRI prostate segmentation to the TRUS probabilistic model. TRUS-guided needle biopsy is the current gold standard for prostate cancer (CaP) diagnosis. Up to 40% of CaP lesions appear isoechoic on TRUS, hence TRUS-guided biopsy cannot reliably target CaP lesions and is associated with a high false negative rate. MRI is better able to distinguish CaP from benign prostatic tissue, but requires special equipment and training. MRI-TRUS fusion, whereby MRI is acquired pre-operatively and aligned to TRUS during the biopsy procedure, allows for information from both modalities to be used to help guide the biopsy. The use of MRI and TRUS in combination to guide biopsy at least doubles the yield of positive biopsies. Previous work on MRI-TRUS fusion has involved aligning manually determined fiducials or prostate surfaces to achieve image registration. The accuracy of these methods is dependent on the reader's ability to determine fiducials or prostate surfaces with minimal error, which is a difficult and time-consuming task. Our novel, fully automated MRI-TRUS fusion method represents a significant advance over the current state-of-the-art because it does not require manual intervention after TRUS acquisition. All necessary preprocessing steps (i.e. delineation of the prostate on MRI) can be performed offline prior to the biopsy procedure. We evaluated our method on seven patient studies, with B-mode TRUS and a 1.5 T surface coil MRI. Our method has a root mean square error (RMSE) for expertly selected fiducials (consisting of the urethra, calcifications, and the centroids of CaP nodules) of 3.39 +/- 0.85 mm.

  15. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test that checks the level of PSA in your blood. In some cases, a high level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high level, such as infection in the prostate or ...

  16. Enlarged Prostate (BPH)

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine out of the body. As men age, their prostate grows bigger. If it gets too large, it ...

  17. Preliminary observations on the results of combined temporary /sup 129/iridium implantation and external beam irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, P.C.; Forbes, K.A.; Prassvinichai, S.; Miller, J.B.; Golji, H.; Martin, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    We treated 43 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate confined to the pelvis with a combination of staging pelvic lymphadenectomy, temporary implantation of the prostate with /sup 129/iridium and external beam irradiation. The procedure was relatively safe with low early morbidity. However, there were significant late complications. Of these patients 29 had needle biopsy of the prostate 1 year after completion of therapy and 15 demonstrated residual tumor. Clinical stage C and poorly differentiated tumors were not well controlled.

  18. PROMIS — Prostate MR imaging study: A paired validating cohort study evaluating the role of multi-parametric MRI in men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    El-Shater Bosaily, A.; Parker, C.; Brown, L.C.; Gabe, R.; Hindley, R.G.; Kaplan, R.; Emberton, M.; Ahmed, H.U.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies are prone to detection errors. Multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) may improve the diagnostic pathway. Methods PROMIS is a prospective validating paired-cohort study that meets criteria for level 1 evidence in diagnostic test evaluation. PROMIS will investigate whether multi-parametric (MP)-MRI can discriminate between men with and without clinically-significant prostate cancer who are at risk prior to first biopsy. Up to 714 men will have MP-MRI (index), 10–12 core TRUS-biopsy (standard) and 5 mm transperineal template mapping (TPM) biopsies (reference). The conduct and reporting of each test will be blinded to the others. Results PROMIS will measure and compare sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of both MP-MRI and TRUS-biopsy against TPM biopsies. The MP-MRI results will be used to determine the proportion of men who could safely avoid biopsy without compromising detection of clinically-significant cancers. For the primary outcome, significant cancer on TPM is defined as Gleason grade >/= 4 + 3 and/or maximum cancer core length of ≥ 6 mm. PROMIS will also assess inter-observer variability among radiologists among other secondary outcomes. Cost-effectiveness of MP-MRI prior to biopsy will also be evaluated. Conclusions PROMIS will determine whether MP-MRI of the prostate prior to first biopsy improves the detection accuracy of clinically-significant cancer. PMID:25749312

  19. Comparison of transrectal photoacoustic, Doppler, and magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Miya; Horiguchi, Akio; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Irisawa, Kaku; Wada, Takatsugu; Asano, Tomohiko

    2016-03-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is the most popular imaging modality for diagnosing and treating prostate cancer. TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is mandatory for the histological diagnosis of patients with elevated serum prostatespecific antigen (PSA), but its diagnostic accuracy is not satisfactory due to TRUS's low resolution. As a result, a considerable number of patients are required to undergo an unnecessary repeated biopsy. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) can be used to provide microvascular network imaging using hemoglobin as an intrinsic, optical absorption molecule. We developed an original TRUS-type PAI probe consisting of a micro-convex array transducer with an optical illumination system to provide superimposed PAI and ultrasound images. TRUS-type PAI has the advantage of having much higher resolution and greater contrast than does Doppler TRUS. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of the transrectal PAI system. We performed a clinical trial to compare the image of the cancerous area obtained by transrectal PAI with that obtained by TRUS Doppler during prostate biopsy. The obtained prostate biopsy cores were stained with anti-CD34 antibodies to provide a microvascular distribution map. We also confirmed its consistency with PAI and pre-biopsy MRI findings. Our study demonstrated that transrectal identification of tumor angiogenesis under superimposed photoacoustic and ultrasound images was easier than that under TRUS alone. We recognized a consistent relationship between PAI and MRI findings in most cases. However, there were no correspondences in some cases.

  20. The role of transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: new contributions

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Pedro Marinho; Sepúlveda, Luís; Ramos, Rui; Sousa, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at evaluating the contribution of transrectal prostate ultrasound in the screening for prostate neoplasias and in the guidance of prostate biopsies. Materials and Methods Prospective study developed over a one-year period. All the patients with indication for prostate biopsy were evaluated. Regardless of PSA values, the patients underwent ultrasound in order to identify suspicious nodules (confirmed by two observers). Sextant biopsy was subsequently performed. In cases of finding suspicious nodules, an additional puncture directed to such nodules was done. Results In a total of 155 cases the prevalence of malignancy was of 53%. Suspicious nodules were detected in 34 patients, and 25 where malignant (positive predictive value of 74%). The specificity and sensitivity for suspicious nodules were 88% and 31% respectively. Comparatively with the randomly obtained sextant specimens, the rate of findings of neoplasia was higher in the specimens obtained with puncture directed to the nodule (p = 0.032). No statistically significant difference was observed in the Gleason score for both types of specimens (p = 0.172). Conclusion The high positive predictive value and the high rate of findings of neoplasia in specimens of suspicious nodules should be taken into consideration in the future. The authors suggest a biopsy technique similar to the one described in the present study (sextant biopsy plus puncture directed to the suspicious nodule). PMID:25798001

  1. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for treatment of T1/T2 prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghvi, N.; Gardner, T.; Koch, M.

    2003-04-01

    This FDA approved phase I/II clinical trial is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Sonablate device (Focus Surgery, Inc.) for the treatment of organ confined prostate cancer. 20 patients with biopsy proven prostate cancer, Gleason <=7 and PSA <=10 were treated under general anesthesia. Outcome data included serum PSA collected at day 3, 14, 30, 90, 180, PSA nadir (mean/median), and biopsy results at 6 months. Quality of life was assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score, International Impotence and Erectile Function score, and the SF-36 health survey. The mean patient age is 62.0, Gleason score of 6.18, PSA of 5.2, and prostate size 26.0 gm. Mean PSA results were 5.62, 44, 20, 1.68, 0.87, and 0.44 ng/ml at screening, 48-72 hours, 14 days, 30 days, 90 days and 180 days, respectively. There was one patient (9%) with a positive TRUS biopsy at 6 months, which resulted in a retreatment. There were no rectal injuries. Average pre-treatment IPSS, IIEF, and SF-36 scores were 9.55, 16.1, and 103.5. At the 30 day follow-up, they were 18.3, 3, and 97.4, respectively. HIFU is a minimally invasive modality that achieves complete prostatic ablation and is efficacious in the treatment of low-stage prostate cancer.

  2. Castration Therapy of Prostate Cancer Results in Downregulation of HIF-1{alpha} Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ubaidi, Firas L.T.; Schultz, Niklas; Egevad, Lars; Granfors, Torvald; Helleday, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Background and Purpose: Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation in combination with radiotherapy of prostate cancer is used to improve radioresponsiveness and local tumor control. Currently, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Because hypoxia causes resistance to radiotherapy, we wanted to test whether castration affects the degree of hypoxia in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In 14 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, six to 12 prostatic needle core biopsy specimens were taken prior to castration therapy. Bilateral orchidectomy was performed in 7 patients, and 7 were treated with a GnRH-agonist (leuprorelin). After castrationm two to four prostatic core biopsy specimens were taken, and the level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in cancer was determined by immunofluorescence. Results: Among biopsy specimens taken before castration, strong HIF-1{alpha} expression (mean intensity above 30) was shown in 5 patients, weak expression (mean intensity 10-30) in 3 patients, and background levels of HIF-1{alpha} (mean intensity 0-10) in 6 patients. Downregulation of HIF-1{alpha} expression after castration was observed in all 5 patients with strong HIF-1{alpha} precastration expression. HIF-1{alpha} expression was also reduced in 2 of 3 patients with weak HIF-1{alpha} precastration expression. Conclusions: Our data suggest that neoadjuvant castration decreases tumor cell hypoxia in prostate cancer, which may explain increased radiosensitivity after castration.

  3. Targeting Error Simulator for Image-guided Prostate Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Lasso, Andras; Avni, Shachar; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Motivation Needle-based biopsy and local therapy of prostate cancer depend multimodal imaging for both target planning and needle guidance. The clinical process involves selection of target locations in a pre-operative image volume and registering these to an intra-operative volume. Registration inaccuracies inevitably lead to targeting error, a major clinical concern. The analysis of targeting error requires a large number of images with known ground truth, which has been infeasible even for the largest research centers. Methods We propose to generate realistic prostate imaging data in a controllable way, with known ground truth, by simulation of prostate size, shape, motion and deformation typically encountered in prostatic needle placement. This data is then used to evaluate a given registration algorithm, by testing its ability to reproduce ground truth contours, motions and deformations. The method builds on statistical shape atlas to generate large number of realistic prostate shapes and finite element modeling to generate high-fidelity deformations, while segmentation error is simulated by warping the ground truth data in specific prostate regions. Expected target registration error (TRE) is computed as a vector field. Results The simulator was configured to evaluate the TRE when using a surface-based rigid registration algorithm in a typical prostate biopsy targeting scenario. Simulator parameters, such as segmentation error and deformation, were determined by measurements in clinical images. Turnaround time for the full simulation of one test case was below 3 minutes. The simulator is customizable for testing, comparing, optimizing segmentation and registration methods and is independent of the imaging modalities used. PMID:21096275

  4. Statistical volumetric model for characterization and visualization of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianping; Srikanchana, Rujirutana; McClain, Maxine A.; Wang, Yue J.; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-04-01

    To reveal the spatial pattern of localized prostate cancer distribution, a 3D statistical volumetric model, showing the probability map of prostate cancer distribution, together with the anatomical structure of the prostate, has been developed from 90 digitally-imaged surgical specimens. Through an enhanced virtual environment with various visualization modes, this master model permits for the first time an accurate characterization and understanding of prostate cancer distribution patterns. The construction of the statistical volumetric model is characterized by mapping all of the individual models onto a generic prostate site model, in which a self-organizing scheme is used to decompose a group of contours representing multifold tumors into localized tumor elements. Next crucial step of creating the master model is the development of an accurate multi- object and non-rigid registration/warping scheme incorporating various variations among these individual moles in true 3D. This is achieved with a multi-object based principle-axis alignment followed by an affine transform, and further fine-tuned by a thin-plate spline interpolation driven by the surface based deformable warping dynamics. Based on the accurately mapped tumor distribution, a standard finite normal mixture is used to model the cancer volumetric distribution statistics, whose parameters are estimated using both the K-means and expectation- maximization algorithms under the information theoretic criteria. Given the desired number of tissue samplings, the prostate needle biopsy site selection is optimized through a probabilistic self-organizing map thus achieving a maximum likelihood of cancer detection. We describe the details of our theory and methodology, and report our pilot results and evaluation of the effectiveness of the algorithm in characterizing prostate cancer distributions and optimizing needle biopsy techniques.

  5. Endomyocardial biopsy under echocardiographic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Gambino, Antonio; Bagozzi, Lorenzo; Guariento, Alvise; D'Amico, Gianpiero; Fedrigo, Marny; Gerosa, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Endomyocardial biopsy is a common procedure for monitoring cardiac allograft rejection; several techniques have been described so far, throughout different access sites and under echocardiographic or X-ray control. We describe the routine technique adopted at our centre based on echo-guided puncture of jugular vein and echocardiographic assessment of endomyocardial sampling with direct visualization of the bioptome tip. We also report the most common complications of the procedure, especially concerning the risk of iatrogenic tricuspid regurgitation, and same examples of histopathological findings drawn from our own iconographic collection. PMID:27247327

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of contralateral extraprostatic extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy for unilateral disease at biopsy: A global multi-institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Bienz, Marc; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Trudeau, Vincent; Alenizi, Abdullah M.; Valdivieso, Roger; Alom, Modar; Balbay, Mevlana Derya; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Albala, David M.; El-Hakim, Assaad; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Latour, Mathieu; Saad, Fred; Zorn, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed the incidence of contralateral prostate cancer (cPCa), contralateral EPE (cEPE) and contralateral positive surgical margins (cPSM) in patients diagnosed preoperatively with unilateral prostate cancer and evaluated risk factors predictive of contralateral disease extension. Methods: The occurrence of cPCa, cEPE and cPSM and the side-specific nerve-sparing technique performed were collected postoperatively from 327 men diagnosed with unilateral prostate cancer at biopsy. Parameters, such as the localization, proportion, and percentage of cancer in positive cores, were prospectively collected. Results: Overall, 50.5% of patients had bilateral disease, and were at higher risk when associated with a positive biopsy core at the apex (p = 0.016). The overall incidence of ipsilateral EPE and cEPE were 21.4% and 3.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared to cPCa, ipsilateral disease was at an almost 4-fold higher risk of extending out of the prostate (p < 0.001). None of the criteria tested were identified as useful predictors for cEPE. The low incidence of cEPE in our cohort could limit our ability to detect significance. The overall incidence of ipsilateral PSM and cPSM were 15.3% and 5.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). More aggressive nerve-sparing was not associated with a higher incidence of PSM. Prostate sides selected for more aggressive nerve-sparing were associated with younger patients (p < 0.001), a smaller prostate (p = 0.006), and a lower percentage of cancer in biopsy material (p = 0.008). Conclusion: Although the risk of cPCa is high in patients diagnosed with unilateral prostate cancer at biopsy, the risk of cEPE and cPSM is low, yet not insignificant. Contralateral aggressive nerve-sparing should be used with caution and should not compromise oncological outcome. PMID:26279712

  7. The Prostate Tumor Microenvironment Exhibits differentially expressed Genes Useful for Diagnosis — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    To develop a multi-site prospective clinical validation trial of the multigene diagnostic signature for the diagnosis of prostate cancer from non tumor containing biopsy tissue. Prostate cancer now affects one in five men in the U.S. It is diagnosed by examination of a biopsy sample of the prostate gland by a pathologist and treatment decisions such as the choice of surgery are usually not made without direct visualization of the presence of cancer by a pathologist. There are about one million such biopsy procedures in the U.S. every year. However about 1-200,000 are ambiguous owing to the absence of tumor but the presence of small changes such as atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP) or proliferations within otherwise normal glands (PIN, prostate intraepithelial neoplasia) that are highly suspicious for cancer. Studies by the UCI/NCI SPECS project on prostate cancer have led to a new way to diagnosis the presence of prostate cancer in these ambiguous changes. Researchers of the UCI/NCI SPECS project observed that the tissue around a tumor called stroma has many altered gene activities that are caused by molecules secreted by the tumor cells. Indeed these studies revealed that 114 genes exhibited altered activity in stroma near tumor compared to normal stroma. These changes can be used as a “signature” to examine new samples to determine the “presence of-tumor”. Such a test has many applications. Currently ambiguous cases are asked to return for a repeat biopsy in 3 to 12 months – an agonizing period for patients during which they receive no guidance and during which any tumor may continue to grow and spread. Thus, the new test would detect tumor 3 to 12 months prior to conventional practice. This will avoid repeated biopsy procedures. Patients who are positive by the new test may consider whether immediate medical treatment or neo adjuvant treatment is appropriate. In addition the ability to detect presence-of-tumor early will avoid the necessity

  8. Fast Diagnostics of BRAF Mutations in Biopsies from Malignant Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Huber, François; Lang, Hans Peter; Glatz, Katharina; Rimoldi, Donata; Meyer, Ernst; Gerber, Christoph

    2016-09-14

    According to the American skin cancer foundation, there are more new cases of skin cancer than the combined incidence of cancers of the breast, prostate, lung, and colon each year, and malignant melanoma represents its deadliest form. About 50% of all cases are characterized by a particular mutation BRAF(V600E) in the BRAF (Rapid Acceleration of Fibrosarcoma gene B) gene. Recently developed highly specific drugs are able to fight BRAF(V600E) mutated tumors but require diagnostic tools for fast and reliable mutation detection to warrant treatment efficiency. We completed a preliminary clinical trial applying cantilever array sensors to demonstrate identification of a BRAF(V600E) single-point mutation using total RNA obtained from biopsies of metastatic melanoma of diverse sources (surgical material either frozen or fixated with formalin and embedded in paraffin). The method is faster than the standard Sanger or pyrosequencing methods and comparably sensitive as next-generation sequencing. Processing time from biopsy to diagnosis is below 1 day and does not require PCR amplification, sequencing, and labels. PMID:27490749

  9. Pancreatic cancer: Are "liquid biopsies" ready for prime-time?

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Alexandra R; Valle, Juan W; McNamara, Mairead G

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a disease that carries a poor prognosis. Accurate tissue diagnosis is required. Tumours contain a high content of stromal tissue and therefore biopsies may be inconclusive. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have been investigated as a potential “liquid biopsy” in several malignancies and have proven to be of prognostic value in breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. They have been detected in patients with localised and metastatic pancreatic cancer with sensitivities ranging from 38%-100% using a variety of platforms. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has also been detected in pancreas cancer with a sensitivity ranging from 26%-100% in studies across different platforms and using different genetic markers. However, there is no clear consensus on which platform is the most effective for detection, nor which genetic markers are the most useful to use. Potential roles of liquid biopsies include diagnosis, screening, guiding therapies and prognosis. The presence of CTCs or ctDNA has been shown to be of prognostic value both at diagnosis and after treatment in patients with pancreatic cancer. However, more prospective studies are required before this promising technology is ready for adoption into routine clinical practice. PMID:27621566

  10. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT in Splenic Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kobe, Carsten; Maintz, David; Fischer, Thomas; Drzezga, Alexander; Chang, De-Hua

    2015-11-01

    A 65-year-old man who had prostate cancer presented with slightly progressive prostate-specific antigen values. In this situation of biochemical relapse, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT has proven to be superior to choline PET. The Ga-PSMA PET/CT of our patient revealed PSMA-positive tissue in the spleen. Although the localization was not typical for metastases, metastasis could not be excluded because of the intense focal tracer uptake. A supplementary MRI was performed but also failed to rule out a malignant origin. Finally, biopsy confirmed benign disease in the spleen in the form of granulomatous disease. PMID:26018688

  11. Analysis of the Human Prostate-Specific Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling Identifies TMEM79 and ACOXL as Two Putative, Diagnostic Markers in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Hurley, Gillian; Busch, Christer; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Stadler, Charlotte; Tolf, Anna; Lundberg, Emma; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Jirström, Karin; Bjartell, Anders; Gallagher, William M.; Uhlén, Mathias; Pontén, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    To better understand prostate function and disease, it is important to define and explore the molecular constituents that signify the prostate gland. The aim of this study was to define the prostate specific transcriptome and proteome, in comparison to 26 other human tissues. Deep sequencing of mRNA (RNA-seq) and immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling were combined to identify prostate specific gene expression patterns and to explore tissue biomarkers for potential clinical use in prostate cancer diagnostics. We identified 203 genes with elevated expression in the prostate, 22 of which showed more than five-fold higher expression levels compared to all other tissue types. In addition to previously well-known proteins we identified two poorly characterized proteins, TMEM79 and ACOXL, with potential to differentiate between benign and cancerous prostatic glands in tissue biopsies. In conclusion, we have applied a genome-wide analysis to identify the prostate specific proteome using transcriptomics and antibody-based protein profiling to identify genes with elevated expression in the prostate. Our data provides a starting point for further functional studies to explore the molecular repertoire of normal and diseased prostate including potential prostate cancer markers such as TMEM79 and ACOXL. PMID:26237329

  12. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

  13. A multi-modal prostate segmentation scheme by combining spectral clustering and active shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Robert; Tiwari, Pallavi; Rosen, Mark; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Pungavkar, Sona; Madabhushi, Anant

    2008-03-01

    Segmentation of the prostate boundary on clinical images is useful in a large number of applications including calculating prostate volume during biopsy, tumor estimation, and treatment planning. Manual segmentation of the prostate boundary is, however, time consuming and subject to inter- and intra-reader variability. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) and MR Spectroscopy (MRS) have recently emerged as promising modalities for detection of prostate cancer in vivo. In this paper we present a novel scheme for accurate and automated prostate segmentation on in vivo 1.5 Tesla multi-modal MRI studies. The segmentation algorithm comprises two steps: (1) A hierarchical unsupervised spectral clustering scheme using MRS data to isolate the region of interest (ROI) corresponding to the prostate, and (2) an Active Shape Model (ASM) segmentation scheme where the ASM is initialized within the ROI obtained in the previous step. The hierarchical MRS clustering scheme in step 1 identifies spectra corresponding to locations within the prostate in an iterative fashion by discriminating between potential prostate and non-prostate spectra in a lower dimensional embedding space. The spatial locations of the prostate spectra so identified are used as the initial ROI for the ASM. The ASM is trained by identifying user-selected landmarks on the prostate boundary on T2 MRI images. Boundary points on the prostate are identified using mutual information (MI) as opposed to the traditional Mahalanobis distance, and the trained ASM is deformed to fit the boundary points so identified. Cross validation on 150 prostate MRI slices yields an average segmentation sensitivity, specificity, overlap, and positive predictive value of 89, 86, 83, and 93% respectively. We demonstrate that the accurate initialization of the ASM via the spectral clustering scheme is necessary for automated boundary extraction. Our method is fully automated, robust to system parameters, and computationally efficient.

  14. Current role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, Olivier; Moulin, Morgan; Favelier, Sylvain; Genson, Pierre-Yves; Pottecher, Pierre; Crehange, Gilles; Cochet, Alexandre; Cormier, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) has shown promising results in diagnosis, localization, risk stratification and staging of clinically significant prostate cancer, and targeting or guiding prostate biopsy. mp-MRI consists of T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) combined with several functional sequences including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion or dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCEI) and spectroscopic imaging. Recently, mp-MRI has been used to assess prostate cancer aggressiveness and to identify anteriorly located tumors before and during active surveillance. Moreover, recent studies have reported that mp-MRI is a reliable imaging modality for detecting local recurrence after radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy. Because assessment on mp-MRI can be subjective, use of the newly developed standardized reporting Prostate Imaging and Reporting Archiving Data System (PI-RADS) scoring system and education of specialist radiologists are essential for accurate interpretation. This review focuses on the current place of mp-MRI in prostate cancer and its evolving role in the management of prostate cancer. PMID:26682144

  15. Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate Gland: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Divatia, Mukul K; Ro, Jae Y

    2016-09-01

    Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is characterized by prostatic carcinoma involving ducts and/or acini. The presence of IDC-P is usually associated with a high-grade Gleason score, large tumor volume, and adverse prognostic parameters, including extraprostatic extension and seminal vesicle invasion. When present, IDC-P is associated with worse outcomes, regardless of treatment status. IDC-P is included in a broader diagnostic category of atypical cribriform lesions of the prostate gland. This category of lesions also includes high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), urothelial carcinoma involving prostatic ducts or acini, and prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, amongst other intraductal proliferations. Differentiating between these entities is important as they have differing therapeutic and prognostic implications for patients, although differential diagnosis thereof is not always straightforward. The present review discusses IDC-P in regards to its morphological characteristics, molecular features, and clinical outcomes. Given the current state of knowledge, the presence of IDC-P should be evaluated and documented correctly in both radical prostatectomy and needle biopsy specimens, and the clinical implications thereof should be taken into consideration during treatment and follow up. PMID:27401634

  16. Percutaneous transperineal placement of gold 198 seeds for treatment of carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Crusinberry, R.A.; Kramolowsky, E.V.; Loening, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-one patients have been treated for carcinoma of the prostate with /sup 198/Au seeds placed transperineally using transrectal ultrasonic guidance. Twenty patients have been followed postoperatively for periods ranging from 3 to 31 months, with an average follow-up time of 12 months. Cumulative dose of radiation to the prostate calculated by dosimetry was either 9000 rads or 15,000 rads. Serial transrectal ultrasound examinations performed on these patients showed a decrease in prostate size in all patients within 6 months of treatment, with a statistically significant decrease observed between the third and sixth months. No significant difference in amount or rate of tumor regression was noted when tumor stage and grade were correlated to volume decrease after treatment. Patients who received the larger doses of radiation (15,000 rads) showed a significantly greater rate of decline in prostatic volume than those who received 9000 rads. Seven patients underwent prostate biopsy between 12 and 18 months after treatment; six biopsies showed residual tumor. Complications after treatment included urinary retention because of prostatic edema (three), radiation urethritis (three), and rectal ulceration (one). Transperineal placement of /sup 198/Au is well tolerated and offers an alternative to external beam radiation for treatment of carcinoma of the prostate.

  17. [Multiparametric MRI. The role of MRI techniques in the diagnosis, staging and follow up of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Joan C; Luna-Alcalá, Antonio; Boada, Maria; Barceló, Joaquim

    2015-04-01

    The current diagnosis of prostate cancer based on PSA values and systematic biopsy has limitations in its efficacy of detection and staging. Technical advances on imaging over the last decade, mainly MRI, enable improvements in the strategy of prostate cancer management in diagnosis, staging, follow up and therapy monitoring. MRI enables the combination of morphological (T2 sequences) and, at the same time, functional information by means of the application of sequences such as spectroscopy (SMRI), diffusion and dynamic intravenous contrast (CMRI) in the same study, giving the multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). Currently, it is not necessary to apply all sequences to obtain an mpMR study of optimal efficacy, so that a time shorter than 30 minutes is enough to obtain the necessary information depending on the clinical indication. The main clinical indications of prostatic MRI are a) local, regional or distance staging; b) Detection or guide for diagnostic biopsy for clinical risk suspicion or negative result in previous biopsies; c) active surveillance; and d) therapeutic monitoring. Furthermore, one of the most relevant features of prostate cancer, and a challenge for the mpMRI techniques is to be able to differentiate aggressive and non-significant neoplasias (latent). This update tries to review the current role of mpMRI in the management of prostate cancer using in combination the anatomical (T2) and functional (SMRI, DMRI and CMRI) information. We also describe the European prostate mpMRI guidelines, PI-RADS (Prostate imaging reporting data System). PMID:25948803

  18. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  19. Use of shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Rus, G.; Saffari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains as a major healthcare issue. Limitations in current diagnosis and treatment monitoring techniques imply that there is still a need for improvements. The efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis is still low, generating under and over diagnoses. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation is an emerging treatment modality, which enables the noninvasive ablation of pathogenic tissue. Clinical trials are being carried out to evaluate its longterm efficacy as a focal treatment for prostate cancer. Successful treatment of prostate cancer using non-invasive modalities is critically dependent on accurate diagnostic means and is greatly benefited by a real-time monitoring system. While magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for prostate imaging, its wider implementation for prostate cancer diagnosis remains prohibitively expensive. Conventional ultrasound is currently limited to guiding biopsy. Elastography techniques are emerging as a promising real-time imaging method, as cancer nodules are usually stiffer than adjacent healthy prostatic tissue. In this paper, a new transurethral approach is proposed, using shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer. A finite-difference time domain model is developed for studying the feasibility of the method, and an inverse problem technique based on genetic algorithms is proposed for reconstructing the location, size and stiffness parameters of the tumour. Preliminary results indicate that the use of shear waves for diagnosis and monitoring ablation of prostate cancer is feasible.

  20. Image-Guided Adrenal and Renal Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Karun V.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Swerdlow, Daniel; DaSilva, Daniel; Beck, Avi; Jain, Nidhi; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Image-guided biopsy is a safe and well-established technique that is familiar to most interventional radiologists (IRs). Improvements in image-guidance, biopsy tools and biopsy techniques now routinely allow for safe biopsy of renal and adrenal lesions which traditionally were considered difficult to reach or technically challenging. Image-guided biopsy is used to establish the definitive tissue diagnosis in adrenal mass lesions that can not be fully characterized with imaging or laboratory tests alone. It is also used to establish definitive diagnosis in some cases of renal parenchymal disease and has an expanding role in diagnosis and characterization of renal masses prior to treatment. Although basic principles and techniques for image-guided needle biopsy are similar regardless of organ, this paper will highlight some technical considerations, indications and complications which are unique to the adrenal gland and kidney because of their anatomic location and physiologic features. PMID:20540919

  1. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  4. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  5. Role of serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Larissa J; Janoski, Michele; Wachowicz, Keith; Yahya, Atiyah; Boychak, Oleksandr; Amanie, John; Pervez, Nadeem; Parliament, Matthew B; Pituskin, Edith; Fallone, B Gino; Usmani, Nawaid

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether addition of 3T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to an active surveillance protocol could detect aggressive or progressive prostate cancer. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with low risk disease were enrolled on this active surveillance study, all of which had Gleason score 6 or less disease. All patients had clinical assessments, including digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, every 6 mo with annual 3T mpMRI scans with gadolinium contrast and minimum sextant prostate biopsies. The MRI images were anonymized of patient identifiers and clinical information and each scan underwent radiological review without the other results known. Descriptive statistics for demographics and follow-up as well as the sensitivity and specificity of mpMRI to identify prostate cancer and progressive disease were calculated. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 24.8 mo) 11 of 23 patients with low-risk prostate cancer had disease progression and were taken off study to receive definitive treatment. Disease progression was identified through upstaging of Gleason score on subsequent biopsies for all 11 patients with only 2 patients also having a PSA doubling time of less than 2 years. All 23 patients had biopsy confirmed prostate cancer but only 10 had a positive index of suspicion on mpMRI scans at baseline (43.5% sensitivity). Aggressive disease prediction from baseline mpMRI scans had satisfactory specificity (81.8%) but low sensitivity (58.3%). Twenty-two patients had serial mpMRI scans and evidence of disease progression was seen for 3 patients all of whom had upstaging of Gleason score on biopsy (30% specificity and 100% sensitivity). CONCLUSION: Addition of mpMRI imaging in active surveillance decision making may help in identifying aggressive disease amongst men with indolent prostate cancer earlier than traditional methods. PMID:27158428

  6. Linkages Between Utilization of Prostate Surgical Pathology Services and Physician Self-Referral

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Federal law prohibits a physician from referring Medicare patients for procedures or services to health care entities in which the physician has a financial relationship. This law has exceptions which enable physicians to self-refer under certain conditions. This study evaluates the effects of self-referral on use rates of surgical pathology services performed in conjunction with prostate biopsies and whether such changes are linked to urologist self-referral arrangements. Data and Sample A targeted market area case study design was employed to identify the sample from Medicare claims data. The sample included male beneficiaries who resided in geographically dispersed counties; were continuously enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) during 2005-2007; and who met the criteria to be a potential candidate to undergo a prostate biopsy. Outcomes Prostate biopsy procedures per 1000 male Medicare beneficiaries in each county; counts of surgical pathology specimens (jars) associated with prostate biopsy procedures per 1000 male Medicare beneficiaries in each county. Findings Regression analysis shows the self-referral share (percentage) of total utilization was associated with significant increases in the use rate of prostate surgical pathology specimens (p<.01). The use rate of prostate surgical pathology specimens (jars) would be 41.5 units higher in a county where the self-referral share of total utilization was 50% compared to a county with no self-referral (share equals 0%). Conclusions The findings show that urologist self-referral of prostate surgical pathology services results in increased utilization and higher Medicare spending. The results suggest that exceptions in federal and state self-referral prohibitions need to be reevaluated. PMID:24800147

  7. Prostatic Artery Embolization as a Primary Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Preliminary Results in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim Mauricio da; Oliveira Cerri, Luciana Mendes de; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Marcelino, Antonio Sergio Zafred; Freire, Geraldo Campos; Moreira, Airton Mota; Srougi, Miguel; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2010-04-15

    Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) typically occurs in the sixth and seventh decades, and the most frequent obstructive urinary symptoms are hesitancy, decreased urinary stream, sensation of incomplete emptying, nocturia, frequency, and urgency. Various medications, specifically 5-{alpha}-reductase inhibitors and selective {alpha}-blockers, can decrease the severity of the symptoms secondary to BPH, but prostatectomy is still considered to be the traditional method of management. We report the preliminary results for two patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH, successfully treated by prostate artery embolization (PAE). The patients were investigated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, by digital rectal examination, urodynamic testing, prostate biopsy, transrectal ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Uroflowmetry and postvoid residual urine volume complemented the investigation at 30, 90, and 180 days after PAE. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia; embolization of the prostate arteries was performed with a microcatheter and 300- to 500-{mu}m microspheres using complete stasis as the end point. One patient was subjected to bilateral PAE and the other to unilateral PAE; they urinated spontaneously after removal of the urethral catheter, 15 and 10 days after the procedure, respectively. At 6-month follow-up, US and MRI revealed a prostate reduction of 39.7% and 47.8%, respectively, for the bilateral PAE and 25.5 and 27.8%, respectively, for the patient submitted to unilateral PAE. The early results, at 6-month follow-up, for the two patients with BPH show a promising potential alternative for treatment with PAE.

  8. Spectrum of prostatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate gland of male reproductive system is about the size of walnut and surrounds the urethra. Most frequently encountered diseases affecting prostate are Prostatitis, Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Prostatic cancer .Our objective of study was to evaluate the spectrum and correlation of prostatic lesions with presenting complaints of patient. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Pathology Department of Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences during the period of 1st January 2010 to December 2012. Pathology department of Dow Medical College collected specimens from both Civil Hospital and Lyari General Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Specimens were taken through transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy and radical prostatectomy. A questionnaire was made and information including name, age, ward name of hospital, laboratory number, clinical diagnosis and symptoms were noted in it. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result During the targeted months, 48 prostatic specimens were received with a mean age of 65.7 + -7.6 years. Common presenting complains were urinary retention in 23(47.9%) patients, followed by dribbling in 12(25%). Out of 48 patients, 42 have Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and 6 have Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. Both Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma were more prevalent in the age group of 60-70 years. Conclusion Frequency of prostatic cancer is on the rise and measures should be taken for its early detection. Screening protocols and awareness programs need to be introduced. Screening programs should be focused on level of androgens and molecular pathogenesis. PMID:24063260

  9. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the irradiated skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Edeiken, B.; deSantos, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    Percutaneous needle biopsy was performed in 20 patients who had radiologic abnormalities after irradiation of the skeleton. The biopsies were performed to determine the nature of the bone changes and to differentiate radiation necrosis from metastases or local tumor extension. Eleven patients had tumors, two of which were radiation-induced sarcomas; nine patients did not show evidence of tumor. One patient had osteomyelitis rather than the suspected tumor. The value of percutaneous needle biopsy in the postirradiated skeleton is discussed.

  10. The influence of isotope and prostate volume on urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Niehaus, Angela; Merrick, Gregory S. . E-mail: gmerrick@wheelinghospital.com; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Adamovich, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of isotope and prostate size on International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) normalization, catheter dependency, and the need for surgical intervention secondary to bladder outlet obstruction after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 1998 and June 2003, 976 consecutive patients underwent brachytherapy for clinical stage T1b-T3a (2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer) prostate cancer. Seven hundred eighty-nine (80.8%) were implanted with {sup 103}Pd and 187 (19.2%) with {sup 125}I. The median follow-up was 41.2 months. Patients were stratified into size cohorts {<=}25 cm{sup 3}, 25.1-35 cm{sup 3}, 35.1-45 cm{sup 3}, and >45 cm{sup 3}. Four hundred eighteen patients (42.8%) received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Four hundred eighty-six patients (49.7%) received supplemental external-beam radiation therapy (XRT). In all patients, an alpha blocker was initiated before implantation and continued at least until the IPSS returned to baseline. IPSS resolution was defined as a return to within one point of baseline. The median number of IPSS determinations per patient was 21. Clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters evaluated included patient age, pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, clinical T stage, percent positive biopsies, preimplant IPSS, ultrasound volume, planning volume, isotope, V{sub 100/150/20}, D{sub 9}, urethral dose (average and maximum), supplemental XRT, ADT, and the duration of ADT ({<=}6 months vs. >6 months). Catheter dependency and the need for postsurgical intervention were also evaluated. Results: For both isotopes and all prostate size cohorts, IPSS peaked 1 month after implantation and returned to baseline at a mean of 1.9 months. Stratification of prostate size cohorts by isotope demonstrated no significant differences in prolonged catheter dependency ({>=}5 days), IPSS resolution, or postimplant surgical intervention. In Cox regression analysis, IPSS normalization was best

  11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization in routinely processed bone marrow aspirate clot and core biopsy sections.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, R. N.; Mark, H. F.; Medeiros, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique which complements conventional cytogenetic banding analysis by allowing the evaluation of cells in interphase as well as metaphase. This technique has been used to study air-dried peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate smears. We have applied the FISH technique to study routinely processed sections of bone marrow aspirate clot and decalcified core biopsy specimens, fixed in either formalin or B5 and embedded in paraffin. We evaluated 28 specimens (8 aspirate clot and 20 core biopsy sections) for chromosome 8 copy number, studied previously by conventional cytogenetics, and found the following distribution: 15 with disomy, 11 with trisomy, and 2 with tetrasomy. Using a chromosome 8 alpha-satellite probe, we detected fluorescent hybridization signals in 18 of 28 specimens (64%); 6 of 8 (75%) aspirate clot sections, and 12 of 20 (60%) core biopsy sections. Ten of 13 (77%) B5-fixed and 8 of 15 (53%) formalin-fixed specimens had hybridizing signals. Specimen age was a significant factor; 10 of 11 (91%) specimens processed within the last 6 months showed signals, in contrast with 8 of 17 (47%) specimens older than 6 months. In the positive specimens, 200 cells were analyzed in areas where individual cells could be identified. In the disomic specimens, two signals per cell were seen in 34 to 66% of the cells. Rare cells (0-2%) with three signals were detected. In the trisomic specimens, three signals per cell were seen in 19 to 46% of the cells. In the tetrasomic specimens, four signals per cell were seen in 15 to 25% of the cells. We conclude that the FISH technique may be useful in the detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy and tetrasomy 8 in routinely processed bone marrow aspirate clot and decalcified core biopsy sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7992836

  12. Divergent clonal evolution of castration-resistant neuroendocrine prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Himisha; Prandi, Davide; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Benelli, Matteo; Puca, Loredana; Cyrta, Joanna; Marotz, Clarisse; Giannopoulou, Eugenia; Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V S K; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Tomlins, Scott A; Nanus, David M; Tagawa, Scott T; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Elemento, Olivier; Sboner, Andrea; Garraway, Levi A; Rubin, Mark A; Demichelis, Francesca

    2016-03-01

    An increasingly recognized resistance mechanism to androgen receptor (AR)-directed therapy in prostate cancer involves epithelial plasticity, in which tumor cells demonstrate low to absent AR expression and often have neuroendocrine features. The etiology and molecular basis for this 'alternative' treatment-resistant cell state remain incompletely understood. Here, by analyzing whole-exome sequencing data of metastatic biopsies from patients, we observed substantial genomic overlap between castration-resistant tumors that were histologically characterized as prostate adenocarcinomas (CRPC-Adeno) and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (CRPC-NE); analysis of biopsy samples from the same individuals over time points to a model most consistent with divergent clonal evolution. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis revealed marked epigenetic differences between CRPC-NE tumors and CRPC-Adeno, and also designated samples of CRPC-Adeno with clinical features of AR independence as CRPC-NE, suggesting that epigenetic modifiers may play a role in the induction and/or maintenance of this treatment-resistant state. This study supports the emergence of an alternative, 'AR-indifferent' cell state through divergent clonal evolution as a mechanism of treatment resistance in advanced prostate cancer. PMID:26855148

  13. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  14. Evidence for Field Cancerization of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Nonn, Larisa; Ananthanarayanan, Vijayalakshmi; Gann, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field cancerization, which is not yet well-characterized in the prostate, occurs when large areas of an organ or tissue surface are affected by a carcinogenic insult, resulting in the development of multi-focal independent premalignant foci and molecular lesions that precede histological change. METHODS Herein, we review the cumulative body of evidence concerning field effects in the prostate and critically evaluate the methods available for the identification and validation of field effect biomarkers. Validated biomarkers for field effects have an important role to play as surrogate endpoint biomarkers in Phase II prevention trials and as clinical predictors of cancer in men with negative biopsies. RESULTS Thus far, field effects have been identified involving nuclear morphometric changes, gene expression, protein expression, gene promoter methylation, DNA damage and angiogenesis. In addition to comparing cancer-adjacent benign tissue to more distant areas or to “supernormal” tissue from cancer-free organs, investigators can use a nested case–control design for negative biopsies that offers a number of unique advantages. CONCLUSIONS True carcinogenic field effects should be distinguished from secondary responses of the microenvironment to a developing tumor, although the latter may still lead to useful clinical prediction tools. PMID:19462462

  15. Reduced serum selenoprotein P concentrations in German prostate cancer patients.