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Sample records for 20-item toronto alexithymia

  1. Psychometric Properties of the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in a Group of Italian Younger Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faraci, Palmira; Gori, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alexithymia is a personality construct that inhibits and interferes with normal affect regulating abilities. The purpose of our study was to assess psychometric properties of TAS-20 in younger adolescents. Methods Data were collected from 508 younger adolescents (48.8% male and 51.2% female) with a mean age of 12.56 years (DS=0.50, range: 12-13 years). We administered the following scales: 20-Item-Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Results The confirmatory factor analysis performed on the second random subsample showed reasonable goodness-of-fit for the oblique bi-factorial model: [chi]2 (32, n=254)=54.22; p=0.008; χ2/df=1.69; NNFI=0.92; CFI=0.95; SRMR=0.05; RMSEA=0.05; 90% confidence interval=0.027-0.078. Conclusion Based on the outcomes of our research we support the idea of evaluating adolescents for alexithymia. PMID:26508961

  2. Factorial Validity and Measurement Invariance of the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in Clinical and Nonclinical Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meganck, Reitske; Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias

    2008-01-01

    The most widely used instrument to measure alexithymia is the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). However, different factor structures have been found in different languages. This study tests six published factor models and metric invariance across clinical and non-clinical samples. It also investigated whether there is a method effect of…

  3. Factorial structure of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in a large sample of somatoform patients.

    PubMed

    Koch, Anne Sarah; Kleiman, Alexandra; Wegener, Ingo; Zur, Berndt; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Geiser, Franziska; Conrad, Rupert

    2015-02-28

    Although a strong association between alexithymia and somatization has been postulated in numerous studies, no systematic study has investigated the psychometric properties of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) in a sample of patients with somatoform disorder yet. The purpose of this study was to ensure a valid assessment by the German version of the TAS-20 in somatoform samples. We investigated whether the original three-factor model proposed by Bagby et al. (1994a), which is widely used in clinical research and practice, is replicable in a large sample of somatoform patients (n=806). Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) the goodness-of-fit of the originally proposed factor structure was compared to three factor models generated with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and other factorial solutions derived from the literature. Our results demonstrate that the original three-factor model is not replicable in somatoform patients. Instead, the four-factor model by Franz et al. (2001b) described the data best. However, none of the models met all criteria of confirmatory factor analysis. Our results indicate that the three-factor model is not robust in the German version of the TAS-20. At this state of research we recommend to use the TAS-20 sum-score as a measure of alexithymia in somatoform patients in clinical practice. PMID:25613660

  4. [Factorial analysis and internal consistency of the French version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS 20), in obese women].

    PubMed

    Pinaquy, S; Chabrol, H; Barbe, P

    2002-01-01

    The term alexithymia is derived from the Greek and means no words for feeling and is used to describe a personality trait characterized by the inability to experience and express emotion. Alexithymia is a relevant feature in subjects with eating disorders. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) is the more used scale to assess alexithymia. The TAS 20 represents the latest revised and short version of the TAS, with psychometric properties clearly superior to the other alexithymia scales. The TAS 20 is a 20-items self-administered questionnaire including three subscales: ability to identify feelings, ability to describe feelings and externally oriented thinking. The TAS 20 was sparsely used in obese people and its validity was not studied at the present time in this specific population. The aim of this study was to assess the internal consistency and the factorial structure of the TAS 20 in a group of obese women. Method-The TAS 20 was administered to 192 obese women willing to loose weight, aged from 18 to 60 years. Their body mass index (BMI) was ranged from 27.5 to 55,0 kg/m2. The patients also completed a depression scale (Beck Depression Inventory 13). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to investigate the internal consistency of the scale. A confirmatory factorial analysis was performed to examine the validity of the initial three-factor structure in this population. The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using STATISTICA 5.0((R)). Results-An exploratory factorial analysis using the principal components method was performed to search for a more relevant factorial structure. The global internal consistency value (a) was 0,74 for the full scale. The a coefficients were 0.78 and 0.67 respectively, for the two first subscales, (ability to identify feelings and ability to describe feelings), but was low (a=0.33) for the last subscale (externally oriented thinking). This result questionned the initial three-factor solution and conducted us to perform a

  5. Multimethod alexithymia assessment in adolescents and young adults with a cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Dorard, Géraldine; Berthoz, Sylvie; Haviland, Mark G; Phan, Olivier; Corcos, Maurice; Bungener, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The value of alexithymia assessments in medical and psychiatric research is well documented, but such assessments in cannabis abusers are scarce. Moreover, despite repeated calls for multimethod alexithymia evaluations, researchers typically use 1 self-report only: the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Herein, we evaluated (1) the psychometric properties of the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS), (2) the correspondence between 3 alexithymia measures, (3) OAS raters' affect and its relationship to OAS scores, and (4) cannabis abusers' alexithymic features. Eighty-seven cannabis abusers completed self-reports measuring alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire-B), depression (13-item Beck Depression Inventory), and anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form Y) and asked relatives to rate them using the OAS. The raters also completed the self-report scales. The OAS met acceptable reliability and validity standards, with the exception of relatively low interrater reliability for one of its subscales. Rater affect appeared to influence OAS scores, albeit slightly. Patients' OAS scores were higher than scores reported for people-in-general samples and lower than those for outpatient clinical samples. Alexithymia rates were similar to those previously reported in cannabis abusers. Our results demonstrated the adequacy and appropriateness of the OAS in these (and related) clinical samples, which may encourage multimethod alexithymia assessments in both research and clinical practice. PMID:18970907

  6. Delinquency in male adolescents: the role of alexithymia and family structure.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Grégoire

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) (alexithymia), the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS) (anxiety), the Liste d'Adjectifs Bipolaires et en Echelles de Likert (LABEL) (personality-Big Five) and demographic data. Findings revealed that the adolescents of the offender group scored high on alexithymia and that proportion of disrupted family structure in the offender group is higher than in the control group. Logistic regressions confirmed that alexithymia and family structure are the strongest discriminatory factors for juvenile delinquency. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:16182361

  7. Absolute and relative stability of alexithymia in alcoholic inpatients undergoing alcohol withdrawal: relationship to depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Luts, Alain; Hers, Denis; Luminet, Olivier

    2008-01-15

    To evaluate whether alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients is a personality trait or a state-dependent phenomenon related to depression and anxiety, we evaluated absolute stability (the extent to which alexithymia scores change over time) and relative stability (the extent to which relative differences among individuals remain the same over time) of alexithymia during alcohol withdrawal. Seventy alcohol-dependent inpatients were assessed for alexithymia, depression and anxiety with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at the onset of withdrawal, after 2 days and 2 weeks. Paired t-tests and correlational analyses were performed to evaluate absolute and relative stability of alexithymia and hierarchical regression analyses to assess whether alexithymia was related to anxiety and depression. Alexithymia decreased significantly from onset to end of withdrawal, but two of its three subfactors remained stable. Alexithymia scores at onset correlated significantly with scores at end, after partialling out the effects of depression and anxiety. In conclusion, the relative stability of alexithymia contrasting with large decreases in depression and anxiety during alcohol withdrawal supports the view that alexithymia is a stable personality trait rather than a state-dependent phenomenon. PMID:17884180

  8. Relationship between alexithymia and coping strategies in patients with somatoform disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Toshiyuki; Choi, Hyungin; Nagoshi, Yasuhide; Wada, Yoshihisa; Fukui, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A multidimensional intervention integrating alexithymia, negative affect, and type of coping strategy is needed for the effective treatment of somatoform disorder; however, few studies have applied this approach to the three different dimensions of alexithymia in patients with somatoform disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between type of coping strategy and three different dimensions of alexithymia expressed in patients. Patients and methods A total of 196 patients with somatoform disorder completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale, and the Lazarus Stress Coping Inventory. The relationships between alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 score and subscales), demographic variables, and psychological inventory scores were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results The mean Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 total score (56.1±10.57) was positively correlated with the number of physical symptoms as well as with psychopathology scores (Self-Rating Depression Scale, State–Trait Anxiety Inventory trait, state, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale), but negatively correlated with planful problem solving, confrontive coping, seeking social support, and positive reappraisal coping scores. With respect to coping strategy, multiple regression analyses revealed that “difficulty in identifying feelings” was positively associated with an escape–avoidance strategy, “difficulty in describing feelings” was negatively associated with a seeking social support strategy, and “externally oriented thinking” was negatively associated with a confrontive coping strategy. Conclusion Alexithymia was strongly associated with the number of somatic symptoms and negative affect. Patients with high “difficulty in describing feelings” tend to

  9. Does perceived social support and parental attitude relate to alexithymia? A study in Finnish late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (p<0.04) with TAS-20 total score as well as the Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF) and Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF) subscales. The lack of social support from friends appeared to predict alexithymia more strongly than lack of support from family and significant other people. Against our hypothesis, maternal and paternal care was not directly associated with alexithymic features. This study highlights the significance of intrusive and overprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia. PMID:21185086

  10. Alexithymia in Chronic Pain Disorders.

    PubMed

    Di Tella, Marialaura; Castelli, Lorys

    2016-07-01

    This review proposes a critical discussion of the recent studies investigating the presence of alexithymia in patients suffering from different chronic pain (CP) conditions. The term CP refers to pain that persists or progresses over time, while alexithymia is an affective dysregulation, largely observed in psychosomatic diseases. Overall, the examined studies showed a high prevalence of alexithymia, especially difficulties in identifying feelings, in all the different CP conditions considered. However, the association between alexithymia and pain intensity was not always clear and in some studies this relationship appeared to be mediated by negative effect, especially depression. The role of alexithymia in CP should be clarified by future studies, paying particular attention to two aspects: the use of additional measures, in addition to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, to assess alexithymia, and the analysis of the potential differences in the evolution of different CP conditions with reference to the presence or absence of alexithymia. PMID:27215759

  11. Predicting symptoms in major depression after inpatient treatment: the role of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Günther, Vivien; Rufer, Michael; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Alexithymia has been considered to have a negative influence on the course of symptoms in various psychiatric disorders. Only a few studies of depressed patients have examined whether alexithymia predicts the outcome of therapeutic interventions or the course of symptoms in naturalistic settings. This prospective study investigated whether alexithymia is associated with depressive symptoms after a multimodal inpatient treatment. Forty-five inpatients suffering from acute major depression were examined in the initial phase of treatment and then again after seven weeks. Patients took part in a multimodal treatment programme comprising psychodynamic-interactional oriented individual and group therapy. The majority of patients were taking antidepressants during study participation. To assess alexithymia and depressive symptoms, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were administered at baseline and follow-up. When controlling for baseline depressive symptoms along with trait anxiety, high scores in the externally oriented thinking (EOT) facet of alexithymia at baseline predicted high severity of depressive symptoms at follow-up (for self-reported as well as interviewer-based scores). Inpatients suffering from major depression with a more pronounced external cognitive style might benefit less from a routine multimodal treatment approach (including psychodynamic interactional therapy, antidepressant medication, and complementary therapies). Intervention programmes might modify or account for alexithymic characteristics to improve the course of depressive symptoms in these patients. PMID:26935972

  12. Alexithymia and schizophrenias.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, G; Ricca, V

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify whether an increasing degree of alexithymia correlates with a prevalence of negative over positive symptoms. The framework of the research is phenomenologically oriented conception of the illness-coping vulnerability paradigm. Schizophrenic basic symptoms as markers of schizotropic process activity were assessed with the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen, and cognitive features of the personological matrix were investigated using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Our findings on a sample of 20 longitudinally followed outpatients advocate the hypothesis that among those factors characterizing the tendency towards the nonparanoid prototype of schizophrenia, impairment of language capacity and alexithymia may have a relevant role. PMID:8559950

  13. Dental fear and alexithymia among adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Vesa; Mattila, Aino K; Joukamaa, Matti; Lahti, Satu

    2011-07-01

    population sample, controlling for age, gender, education and marital status as well as depressive and anxiety disorders. An additional aim was to evaluate whether gender modified this association. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The two-stage stratified cluster sample (n = 8028) represented the Finnish population aged 30 years and older. Participants (n = 5241) answered the question 'How afraid are you of visiting a dentist?' They also filled out the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), which included three sub-scales, i.e. difficulties in identifying feelings (DIF), difficulties in describing feelings (DDF) and externally oriented thinking (EOT). Anxiety and depressive disorders were assessed with a standardized structured psychiatric interview according to DSM-IV criteria. To evaluate the association between dental fear and alexithymia, multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, adjusting simultaneously for the effects of possible confounding variables. RESULTS. Gender modified the association between dental fear and alexithymia. Among women, those reporting higher scores for TAS-20, DIF and EOT sub-scale scores were more likely to have high dental fear than were those reporting lower scores. Among men no such association was observed. Those participants who reported high DDF sub-scale scores were more likely to have high dental fear than were those reporting lower scores. CONCLUSIONS. Alexithymics are more likely to have high dental fear than non-alexithymics are. The findings support the suggestion that some people with dental fear may have internal personality vulnerability to anxiety disorders. PMID:21294672

  14. Association between the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Polymorphism and Alexithymia in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Min Jung; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Lee, Su Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Alexithymia, defined as a deficit in the ability to recognize and describe one's own feelings, may be related to the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Materials and Methods We recruited 244 patients with OCD (169 males, 75 females). Alexithymia was assessed using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and genotyping of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism was evaluated. Results Patients with the COMT Val/Val genotype had significantly higher total and "difficulty identifying feelings" (DIF) subdimension scores than those with the Val/Met or Met/Met genotypes. Patients with the COMT Val/Val genotype had significantly higher "difficulty describing feelings" (DDF) subdimension scores than those with the COMT Val/Met genotype. However, there were no differences in the scores for the "externally oriented thinking" (EOT) subdimension among the three genotypes. Conclusion These results indicate that the high-activity Val allele of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with increased alexithymic traits in patients with OCD. The present finding suggests that alexithymia is an endophenotype of OCD that is mediated by the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. PMID:26996573

  15. Alexithymia and fertility-related stress.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Griva, Faie; Vaslamatzis, Grigorios

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the relationship between alexithymia, the inability to identify and describe feelings and the absence of fantasies, and fertility-related distress is a relatively neglected area of research. The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the prevalence of alexithymia in a sample of infertile women, and (2) the association between alexithymia, coping strategies, and fertility-related stress. This study included 160 infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization in a public fertility clinic from September of 2013 to December of 2013. Self-report instruments were used to measure alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20), coping (COPE), and fertility-related stress (Fertility Problem Inventory). Bivariate and multiple linear regression were used. A high alexithymia score was positively associated with age, infertility duration, and low educational and economic level. Multivariate analyses showed that, controlling for demographic factors, high avoidance coping, low problem-appraisal coping, and high alexithymia were positively associated with fertility-related stress (β = 0.309, p < .001, β = -0.203, p = .006, β = 0.151, p = .050, respectively). Results of this study indicated that alexithymia during fertility treatment was associated with maladaptive coping strategies and psychological stress. In addition, the association between alexithymia and duration of infertility may be interpreted as secondary alexithymia acts as a coping strategy in infertile women. PMID:26361792

  16. The role of alexithymia in the development of functional motor symptoms (conversion disorder)

    PubMed Central

    Demartini, Benedetta; Petrochilos, Panayiota; Ricciardi, Lucia; Price, Gary; Edwards, Mark J; Joyce, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms leading to the development of functional motor symptoms (FMS) are of pathophysiological and clinical relevance, yet are poorly understood. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether impaired emotional processing at the cognitive level (alexithymia) is present in patients affected by FMS. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population of patients with FMS and in two control groups (patients with organic movement disorders (OMD) and healthy volunteers). Methods 55 patients with FMS, 33 patients affected by OMD and 34 healthy volunteers were recruited. The assessment included the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Test and the Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders. Results Alexithymia was present in 34.5% of patients with FMS, 9.1% with OMD and 5.9% of the healthy volunteers, which was significantly higher in the FMS group (χ2 (2)=14.129, p<0.001), even after controlling for the severity of symptoms of depression. Group differences in mean scores were observed on both the difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings dimensions of the TAS-20, whereas the externally orientated thinking subscale score was similar across the three groups. Regarding personality disorder, χ2 analysis showed a significantly higher prominence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in the FMS group (χ2 (2)=16.217, p<0.001) and 71.4% of those with OCPD also reached threshold criteria for alexithymia. Conclusions Because alexithymia is a mental state denoting the inability to identify emotions at a cognitive level, one hypothesis is that some patients misattribute autonomic symptoms of anxiety, for example, tremor, paraesthesiae, paralysis, to that of a physical illness. Further work is required to understand the contribution of OCPD to the development of FMS. PMID:24610939

  17. Alexithymia in chronic urticaria patients.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Filipe; Freitas, João; Barbosa, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Alexithymia has been described as an important dimension in several medical and psychiatric diseases. Chronic urticaria (CU) is a chronic condition, in which treatment is difficult. Our aim is to determine the prevalence of alexithymia traits in patients with CU, and to identify the relationships between alexithymia and psychological variables and quality-of-life dimensions. Fifty-five sequential CU patients in a faculty ambulatory specialized consultation, with an average age of 44.92, were compared with 31 healthy volunteers. Both groups were studied by means of validated scales for alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale [TAS-20]), attachment (Adult Attachment Scale-R [AAS-R]), psychopathology (Brief Symptom Inventory [BSI]), personality dimensions (The NEO Five-Factor inventory [NEO-FFI]) and quality of life (Short Form-36 [SF-36]). The classification of CU reactions was obtained from the patient's history, physical examination, laboratory assessment and histopathologic findings. All the patients were under treatment with sedating H1-antihistamines, non-sedating H1-antihistamines combination of H1 and H2 blocker, 2 H1-antihistamines and 3 H1-antihistamines. High traits of alexithymia were found on CU patients (56.9%) as well as high symptom rates of anxiety. Alexithymia traits were significantly positively correlated with insecure attachment styles, with psychopathological symptoms, and with the defense mechanism turn against self. We also reported a significant negative correlation between alexithymia traits and the dimensions of quality of life. Insecure attachment styles were positively correlated with psychopathological symptoms and negatively correlated with quality of life. We did not find significant statistical correlations between alexithymia and clinical variables. CU patients present serious difficulty in dealing with emotion arousal. There is strong evidence of a psychosomatic specificity in CU, with marked alexithymic traits. PMID:21328149

  18. Alexithymia Associated with Nightmare Distress in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Isabelle; Montplaisir, Jaques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Nielsen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is characterized by atypical REM sleep motor activity, vivid dreams and nightmares, and dream-enacting behaviors that can result in injuries to the patient and bed partner. It is also a known predictor of Parkinson disease (PD). Alexithymia has been associated with disturbances in sleep and dreaming (e.g., nightmares) and is a non-motor symptom of PD. We assessed alexithymia and disturbed dreaming in iRBD patients with the aim of determining if these two factors are elevated and interrelated among this population. Design: Questionnaire study of clinically diagnosed patients. Setting: Clinical sleep disorders center. Patients or participants: Thirty-two iRBD patients and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched control participants. Measurements and Results: Participants completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Dream Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. iRBD patients obtained higher TAS-20 total scores (62.16 ± 13.90) than did controls (52.84 ± 7.62; F1,59 = 10.44, P < 0.01), even when controlling for depressive symptoms, and more frequently attained the suggested cutoff for alexithymia than did controls (P < 0.01). iRBD patients obtained higher scores on the Difficulty Identifying Feelings alexithymia subscale. For both iRBD and control groups, the Difficulty Indentifying Feelings subscale correlated positively with the Nightmare Distress scale of the Dream Questionnaire. Conclusions: Elevated alexithymia scores among idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and especially a difficulty in identifying feelings, parallels evidence of dysautonomia in this population. The higher incidence of distressing nightmares and the association of nightmares with alexithymia further extend similar findings for both clinical and non-clinical samples and suggest that an affect regulation disturbance may be common to the two sets of symptoms. Citation: Godin I

  19. A Comparative Study on Alexithymia in Depressive, Somatoform, Anxiety, and Psychotic Disorders among Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sung hwa; Jo, Hyunyoung; Rim, Hyo Deog; Kim, Ju Hee; Kim, Hea Won; Bae, Geum Ye

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the characteristic differences in alexithymic construct in various psychiatric disorders because of a paucity of direct comparisons between psychiatric disorders. Therefore, this study explored disorder-related differences in alexithymic characteristics among Korean patients diagnosed with four major psychiatric disorders (n=388). Methods Alexithymic tendencies, as measured by the Korean version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20K), of patients classified into four groups according to major psychiatric diagnosis were compared. The groups consisted of patients with depressive disorders (DP; n=125), somatoform disorders (SM; n=78), anxiety disorders (AX; n=117), and psychotic disorders (PS; n=68). Results We found that substantial portions of patients in all groups were classified as having alexithymia and no statistical intergroup differences emerged (42.4%, 35.9%, 35.3%, and 33.3% for DP, SM, PS, and AX). However, patients with DP obtained higher scores in factor 2 (difficulties describing feelings) than those with SM or AX, after adjusting for demographic variables. Conclusion These findings suggest that alexithymia might be associated with a higher vulnerability to depressive disorders and factor 2 of TAS-20K could be a discriminating feature of depressive disorders. PMID:23251195

  20. Aging and Alexithymia Association with Reduced Right Rostral Cingulate Volume

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Sergio; Vaidya, Jatin G.; McCormick, Laurie M.; Jones, Andria; Robinson, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have linked alexithymia to an inability to process emotions appropriately. Older persons show changes in emotion processing and have higher alexithymia scores. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is one of the regions showing earlier decline in late-life and alexithymia appears to be related to a dysfunction in right hemisphere regions including the ACC subserving affective processes, the present study sought to test the hypothesis that reduced ACC volume accounts for the association between older age and alexithymia. Design Correlation analyses between functionally distinct ACC subregions, age and alexithymia features. Setting University of Iowa Participants 24 healthy volunteers aged twenty-four to seventy-nine years. Measurements Psychiatric and neuropsychological assessment and assessment of alexithymia using the twenty items Toronto Alexithymia Scale. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, and in-house developed methods for ACC parcellation. Results Older age directly correlated with higher overall alexithymia, and reduced bilateral rostral and right dorsal ACC grey matter volume. Furthermore, higher alexithymia scores correlated with reduced right rostral ACC volume. This correlation appeared to be influenced primarily by factor 3 of the alexithymia scale measuring diversion of attention to external details in place of internal feelings. Conclusions These results suggest that alexithymia in older age may be a result of structural changes in the right rostral ACC. PMID:18697882

  1. Caffeine use and alexithymia in university students.

    PubMed

    Lyvers, Michael; Duric, Natalija; Thorberg, Fred Arne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alexithymia refers to difficulties with identifying, describing, and regulating one's own emotions. This trait dimension has been linked to risky or harmful use of alcohol and illicit drugs; however, the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world, caffeine, has not been examined previously in relation to alexithymia. The present study assessed 106 male and female university students aged 18-30 years on their caffeine use in relation to several traits, including alexithymia. The 18 participants defined as alexithymic based on their Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) scores reported consuming nearly twice as much caffeine per day as did non-alexithymic or borderline alexithymic participants. They also scored significantly higher than controls on indices of frontal lobe dysfunction as well as anxiety symptoms and sensitivity to punishment. In a hierarchical linear regression model, sensitivity to punishment negatively predicted daily caffeine intake, suggesting caffeine avoidance by trait-anxious individuals. Surprisingly, however, TAS-20 alexithymia scores positively predicted caffeine consumption. Possible reasons for the positive relationship between caffeine use and alexithymia are discussed, concluding that this outcome is tentatively consistent with the hypo-arousal model of alexithymia. PMID:25188705

  2. Metacognition Beliefs and General Health in Predicting Alexithymia in Students

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Samaneh; Varandi, Shahryar Ranjbar; Hatami, Zohre; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the role of metacognition beliefs and general health in alexithymia in Iranian students. Methods: This descriptive and correlational study included 200 participants of high schools students, selected randomly from students of two cities (Sari and Dargaz), Iran. Metacognitive Strategies Questionnaire (MCQ-30); the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Farsi Version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were used for gathering the data. Using the Pearson’s correlation method and regression, the data were analyzed. Results: The findings indicated significant positive relationships between alexithymia and all subscales of general health. The highest correlation was between alexithymia and anxiety subscale (r=0.36, P<0.01). Also, there was a significant negative relationship between alexithymia and some metacognitive strategies. The highest significant negative relationship was seen between alexithymia and the sub-scale of risk uncontrollability (r=-0.359, P < 0.01). Based on the results of multiple regressions, three predictors explained 21% of the variance (R2=0. 21, F=7.238, P<0.01). It was found that anxiety subscale of General Health significantly predicted 13% of the variance of alexithymia (β=0.36, P<0.01) and risk uncontrollability subscale of Metacognition beliefs predicted about 8% of the variance of alexithymia (β=-0.028, P<0.01). Conclusions: The findings demonstrated that metacognition beliefs and general health had important role in predicting of alexithymia in students. PMID:26383206

  3. Alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2015-08-01

    Psychological factors have an impact on subjective pain experience. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a sample of 271 first visit chronic pain patients of six pain clinics. The patients completed the study questionnaire consisting of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Finnish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire short form-extended, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and pain variables. Alexithymic patients scored higher on Early Maladaptive Schemas and had more pain intensity, pain disability and depression than nonalexithymic patients. Both alexithymia and depression correlated significantly with most Early Maladaptive Schemas. The co-occurrence of alexithymia, Early Maladaptive Schemas and depression seems to worsen the pain experience. Screening of alexithymia, depression and Early Maladaptive Schemas may help to plan psychological treatment interventions for chronic pain patients. PMID:26040835

  4. Evidence of Contrasting Patterns for Suppression and Reappraisal Emotion Regulation Strategies in Alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Laloyaux, Julien; Fantini, Carole; Lemaire, Morgan; Luminet, Olivier; Larøi, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Alexithymia generally refers to difficulties in identifying and describing emotions. In this paper, two studies explored whether the emotion deficits observed in alexithymia may be related to the use of emotion regulation strategies. Relations with various sociodemographic variables were also explored. In the first study, 255 students completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. For the second study, 1107 participants from the general population completed the ERQ and the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire. Results demonstrated that alexithymia was related to the use of a suppression strategy and in particular to difficulties verbalizing emotions, suggesting that the capacity to communicate and name one's emotion is a central aspect in alexithymia. Concerning sociodemographic variables, alexithymia and the use of a suppression strategy were found to be related to age and to be higher in males. The results of these studies and their clinical implications for treatment are discussed. PMID:26252826

  5. Alexithymia and Acne Vulgaris: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Baykir, Murat; Ateş, Gülfem; Ekşioğlu, Meral

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess relationship between alexithymia and acne vulgaris in young people. Methods A hundred and eleven subjects between 15 and 25 years of age referred to out-patient clinic of dermatology with acne and 78 subjects applied to family physician for complaints other than acne were included in patient and control groups of the study, respectively. A questionnaire to determine demographic characteristics, an acne classification to determine severity of acne and Toronto Alexithymic Scale (TAS) to assess alexithymia were used. Results The mean scores of TAS were 52.7±10.8 and 51.7±10.7 in patient and control groups, respectively. Alexitymia was determined in 23.4% of the subjects in acne group and in 24.4% of control group. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of alexithymia, intermediate alexitymia and three-factors of TAS. Conclusion Alexithymia does not appear to be related to acne vulgaris. PMID:22216042

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALEXITHYMIA, PARENTING STYLE, AND PARENTAL CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba

    2015-10-01

    Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC). PMID:26444844

  7. Alexithymia in anorexia nervosa: the mediating role of depression.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra; Guerra, Marina Prista; Lencastre, Leonor; Miller, Kylee; Vieira, Filipa Mucha; Roma-Torres, António; Brandão, Isabel; Costa, Patrício

    2015-01-30

    The role of depression in the expression of alexithymia in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been controversially explained and several variables that may mask or increase the presence of emotional difficulties have scant examination in previous studies. This study aims to analyze the associations between alexithymia and state variables, such as age, BMI, illness duration, treatment duration, and medication status in AN participants, and to test the mediating role of depression in emotional difficulties. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were administrated to 160 females: 80 participants with AN and 80 healthy controls. High levels of alexithymia were not a function of state variables. The mediating role of depression differed by the alexithymia dimension, with total mediation found for the TAS-DDF and partial mediation found for the TAS-DIF. Alexithymia is a relevant feature throughout the spectrum of AN and does not seem to be related to developmental maturation and some clinical features. Depression is probably the variable that best accounts for the variance in alexithymia, but is not a complete explanation for the known cognitive-affective disturbances in AN. Specific emotional competencies require scrutiny during psychiatric treatment. PMID:25467697

  8. Alexithymia, empathy, and psychological symptoms in a family context.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Herta; Laporte, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Levels of alexithymia were measured with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) in families of women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), restricting anorexia nervosa (AN) and a nonclinical (NC) group. Measures were correlated with sociodemographic information, empathy (as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [IRI]), emotional distress (using the Symptom Checklist-90-R [SCL-90-R]), and experiences of abuse. We have found that male gender, age, and low socioeconomic status are correlated with factor 3 of the TAS-20; that women with BPD and AN are more alexithymic than control subjects; that women with AN are more alexithymic than their parents; and that alexithymia is inversely related to the capacity for empathy. Family members of women with BPD have the highest levels of alexithymia and in these families there seems to be a complementary association between alexithymia in one parent and low levels of empathy in the other. There may be an association between the general emotional distress, history of abuse, and high levels of alexithymia that occur in women with BPD. PMID:12439832

  9. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse, Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alexithymia in Two Outpatient Samples: Examination of Women Treated in Community and Institutional Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Linda M.; Toner, Brenda; Jackson, Jennifer; Desrocher, Mary; Stuckless, Noreen

    2006-01-01

    Relationships between trauma variables, complex post-traumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD), affect dysregulation, dissociation, somatization, and alexithymia were studied in 70 women with early-onset sexual abuse treated in community-based private (n = 25) or clinic outpatient settings (n = 45). Measures were the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20…

  10. Relation between alexithymia and the five-factor model of personality: a facet-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Luminet, O; Bagby, R M; Wagner, H; Taylor, G J; Parker, J D

    1999-12-01

    The relation between alexithymia and both the domain and the facet level of the five-factor model (FFM) of personality was examined in a sample of 101 university students by using the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby, Taylor, & Parker, 1994) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992c). Consistent with the alexithymia construct, the TAS-20 was positively correlated with Neuroticism (N) and negatively correlated with Extraversion (E) and Openness (O), whereas no significant relations were found with Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C). Analysis of the lower order traits (i.e., facets) of the FFM revealed that depression for N; positive emotions and assertiveness for E; feelings and actions for O; altruism, tender-mindedness, and modesty for A; and competence for C predicted alexithymia. These results support the uniqueness of the alexithymia construct, which is represented by a cluster of traits across the dimensions and facets of the FFM. PMID:10689648

  11. Sense of alexithymia in patients with anxiety disorders comorbid with recurrent urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Ogłodek, Ewa A; Szota, Anna M; Just, Marek J; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Szromek, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    Aim Alexithymia is associated with limited cognitive processing of emotions by an individual suffering from recurrent urticaria and alexithymia and makes them focus on somatic manifestations of emotional arousal and on poorly controlled compulsive reactions to negative stimulation. Alexithymia is considered to be a personality trait, which, along with other factors, predisposes individuals toward developing somatic diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the measurement of alexithymic features in patients with recurrent urticaria and to assess the types of concurrent anxiety disorders and overall anxiety level. Methods In order to diagnose clinical anxiety symptoms in patients, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were applied. Alexithymic features were measured by means of a shortened version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, characterized by high discrimination power, internal coherence, and reliability. Results According to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale results, the greatest contributing factor was “inability to differentiate between feelings and bodily sensations”. This was observed in both males and females. Most frequently, the patients were found to suffer from generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia. Conclusion Alexithymia may result from the difficulty associated with expressing emotions caused by anxiety disorders. Undergoing treatment for anxiety disorders may contribute to reduced exacerbation of urticaria. PMID:27143899

  12. Traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and posttraumatic symptomatology: a cross-sectional population-based study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Eichhorn, Svenja; Brähler, Elmar; Franz, Matthias; Friedrich, Michael; Glaesmer, Heide

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have established an association between number of traumatic experiences and alexithymia. The present study examines this relationship in a large-scale representative sample of the German general population (N=2,507) and explores the potential mediating effects of posttraumatic symptomatology, particularly avoidance/numbing. Methods Alexithymia was assessed with the German version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Posttraumatic symptomatology was operationalized by the symptom score of the modified German version of the Posttraumatic Symptom Scale, and traumatic experiences were assessed with the trauma list of the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Two mediation analyses were conducted. Results Of the total sample, 24.2% (n=606) reported at least one traumatic experience, 10.6% (n=258) were classified as alexithymic, and 2.4% (n=59) fulfilled the criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants who had survived five or more traumatic experiences had significantly higher alexithymia sum scores. The PTSD symptom cluster avoidance/numbing mediated the association between the number of traumatic experiences and alexithymia. Conclusions Our findings illustrate an association between number of traumatic experiences and alexithymia and the influence of emotional avoidance and numbing within this relationship. The significant relationship between alexithymia and number of traumatic experiences in a general population sample further supports the concept of multiple and complex traumatization as associated with alexithymia. The results suggest the importance of further investigations determining the causal impact of alexithymia both as a potential premorbid trait and as consequence of traumatization. Lastly, future investigations are needed to clarify alexithymia as a distinct trauma-relevant characteristic for better diagnostics and specialized trauma-integrative therapy. PMID:25206956

  13. A behavior genetic analysis of trait emotional intelligence and alexithymia: a replication.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Holly M; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Veselka, Livia; Harris, Juliette; Vernon, Philip A

    2013-04-01

    This replication study examines relations between alexithymia and trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) at the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental levels. A sample of 1,444 same-sex twin pairs (850 MZ pairs and 594 DZ pairs) completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. A subset of 494 same-sex twin pairs (287 MZ pairs and 207 DZ pairs) had earlier completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Individual differences in alexithymia were attributable to genetic, non-shared environmental, and shared environmental factors. All but one of the facets of alexithymia were negatively and significantly correlated with the factors of trait EI, and these phenotypic correlations were entirely attributable to correlated genetic and correlated non-shared environmental factors. These bivariate results provide a valuable replication of those of Baughman et al. (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 14, 2011, pp. 539-543), which was conducted with substantially smaller samples of twins. PMID:23298794

  14. Alexithymia in parents and adolescent anorexic daughters: comparing the responses to TSIA and TAS-20 scales

    PubMed Central

    Balottin, Laura; Nacinovich, Renata; Bomba, Monica; Mannarini, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Background A growing body of literature has been focusing on individual alexithymia in anorexia nervosa, while there are only scarce and conflicting studies on alexithymia in the families of anorexic patients, despite the important role played by family dynamics in the development of the anorexic disorder, especially in adolescent patients. The aim of this study is to assess alexithymia in anorexic adolescent patients and in their parents using a multimethod measurement to gain more direct, in-depth knowledge of the problem. Methods Forty-six subjects, anorexic adolescent patients and their parents, underwent the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) along with the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA), which represents the first comprehensive clinically structured interview focused specifically on assessing alexithymia. The use of latent trait Rasch analysis allowed a comparison of the two instruments’ sensitivity and ability to detect the presence and intensity of alexithymic components in patients and parents. Results Significant discordance was found between the two measures. The clinical instrument allowed detection of a greater level of alexithymia compared with the self-report, in particular in our adult parent sample. Moreover, a significant alexithymic gap emerged within families, particularly within parental couples, with noticeably more alexithymic fathers compared with the mothers. Conclusion The TSIA clinical interview may be a more sensitive instrument in detecting alexithymia, minimizing parents’ negation tendency. Clinical questions have arisen on how useful it would be to give greater weight to family functioning (ie, alexithymic gap) in order to predict the possibility of establishing a therapeutic alliance, and thus the outcome of the anorexic adolescent. PMID:25336959

  15. Temperament, character traits, and alexithymia in patients with panic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Izci, Filiz; Gültekin, Bulent Kadri; Saglam, Sema; Koc, Merve Iris; Zincir, Selma Bozkurt; Atmaca, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary aim of the present study was to compare temperament and character traits and levels of alexithymia between patients with panic disorder and healthy controls. Methods Sixty patients with panic disorder admitted to the psychiatry clinic at Fırat University Hospital were enrolled in the study, along with 62 healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I (SCID-I), Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and Panic Agoraphobia Scale (PAS) were administered to all subjects. Results Within the temperament dimension, the mean subscale score for harm avoidance was significantly higher in patients with panic disorder than in controls. With respect to character traits, mean scores for self-directedness and cooperativeness were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Rates of alexithymia were 35% (n=21) and 11.3% (n=7) in patients with panic disorder and healthy controls, respectively. The difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was significantly higher in patients with panic disorder (P=0.03). A moderate positive correlation was identified between PAS and TAS scores (r=0.447, P<0.01). Moderately significant positive correlations were also noted for PAS and TCI subscale scores and scores for novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence. Conclusion In our study sample, patients with panic disorder and healthy controls differed in TCI parameters and rate of alexithymia. Larger prospective studies are required to assess for causal associations. PMID:24876780

  16. Alexithymia and overeating.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, K; Broad, R D

    1994-01-01

    While obesity is a complex, multidetermined disorder, a significant subgroup of overeaters suffer from alexithymia, which contributes to weight gain and difficulties in losing weight. For these individuals, food is used to regulate tension and inner-feeling states. The authors advocate psychotherapy aimed toward helping clients differentiate feelings and develop the capacity for symbolization as the most effective treatment. PMID:7532296

  17. The Relationship Between Alopecia Areata and Alexithymia, Anxiety and Depression: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, J; Ouali, U; Mnif, L; Amouri, M; Turki, H; Jaoua, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of areas of hair loss on the scalp and other hair-bearing areas, but its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in patient's psychological status and relationships. Aim: The goal was to investigate a possible relationship between AA and alexithymia as well as two other emotional dimensions, anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with AA seen in the Department of Dermatology of Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax were included in this study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale questionnaire, alexithymia was assessed by Toronto Alexithymia scale 20, and severity of AA was measured by Severity of Alopecia Tool. Results: Patient's mean age was 32.92 years. 52% of patients were females. Depression and anxiety were detected respectively in 38% and 62% of patients. There was statistically significant difference between patients and control group in terms of depression (P = 0.047) and anxiety (P = 0.005). Forty-two percent of patients scored positive for alexithymia. No significant difference was found between patient and control groups (P = 0.683) in terms of alexithymia. Anxiety was responsible for 14.7% of variation in alexithymia (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our study shows a high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in AA patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the psychological impact of AA, especially as current treatments have limited effectiveness. PMID:25071275

  18. Illuminating the theoretical components of alexithymia using bifactor modeling and network analysis.

    PubMed

    Watters, Carolyn A; Taylor, Graeme J; Bagby, R Michael

    2016-06-01

    Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality construct that reflects deficits in affect awareness (difficulty identifying feelings, DIF; difficulty describing feelings, DDF) and operative thinking (externally oriented thinking, EOT; restricted imaginal processes, IMP), and is associated with several common psychiatric disorders. Over the years, researchers have debated the components that comprise the construct with some suggesting that IMP and EOT may reflect constructs somewhat distinct from alexithymia. In this investigation, we attempt to clarify the components and their interrelationships using a large heterogeneous multilanguage sample (N = 839), and an interview-based assessment of alexithymia (Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia; TSIA). To this end, we used 2 distinctly different but complementary methods, bifactor modeling and network analysis. Results of the confirmatory bifactor model and related reliability estimates supported a strong general factor of alexithymia; however, the majority of reliable variance for IMP was independent of this general factor. In contrast, network analysis results were based on a network comprised of only substantive partial correlations among TSIA items. Modularity analysis revealed 3 communities of items, where DIF and DDF formed 1 community, and EOT and IMP formed separate communities. Network metrics supported that the majority of central items resided in the DIF/DDF community and that IMP items were connected to the network primarily through EOT. Taken together, results suggest that IMP, at least as measured by the TSIA, may not be as salient a component of the alexithymia construct as are the DIF, DDF, and EOT components. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26168310

  19. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Thickness Is Related to Alexithymia in Childhood Trauma-Related PTSD.

    PubMed

    Demers, Lauren A; Olson, Elizabeth A; Crowley, David J; Rauch, Scott L; Rosso, Isabelle M

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is highly prevalent in samples with childhood maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been identified as a key region involved in alexithymia, early life trauma, and PTSD. Functional alterations in the dACC also have been associated with alexithymia in PTSD. This study examined whether dACC morphology is a neural correlate of alexithymia in child maltreatment-related PTSD. Sixteen adults with PTSD and a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, or exposure to domestic violence, and 24 healthy controls (HC) completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 (TAS-20) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness of the dACC was measured using FreeSurfer, and values were correlated with TAS-20 scores, controlling for sex and age, in both groups. Average TAS-20 score was significantly higher in the PTSD than the HC group. TAS-20 scores were significantly positively associated with dACC thickness only in the PTSD group. This association was strongest in the left hemisphere and for TAS-20 subscales that assess difficulty identifying and describing feelings. We found that increasing dACC gray matter thickness is a neural correlate of greater alexithymia in the context of PTSD with childhood maltreatment. While findings are correlational, they motivate further inquiry into the relationships between childhood adversity, emotional awareness and expression, and dACC morphologic development in trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:26439117

  20. Alexithymia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the role of anxiety, depression, and glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Dilek; Kelleci, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of alexithymia in patients with type 2 DM and the factors affecting it. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 326 patients with type 2 DM. Study data were collected with the Personal Information Form, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Glycemic control was assessed by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) results. The analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Pear-son’s correlation, and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the patients, 37.7% were determined to have alexithymia. A significant relationship was determined between alexithymia and HbA1c, depression, and anxiety. According to binary logistic regression analyses, alexithymia was 2.63 times higher among those who were in a paid employment than those who were not, 2.09 times higher among those whose HbA1c levels were ≥7.0% than those whose HbA1c levels were <7.0%, 3.77 times higher among those whose anxiety subscale scores were ≥11 than those whose anxiety subscale scores were ≤10, and 2.57 times higher among those whose depression subscale scores were ≥8 than those whose depression subscale scores were ≤7. Conclusion In this study, it was determined that two out of every five patients with DM had alexithymia. Therefore, their treatment should be arranged to include mental health care services. PMID:27499615

  1. Metacognition and Body Image in Predicting Alexithymia in Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Samaneh; Gharechahi, Maryam; Hatami, Zohreh; Ranjbar Varandi, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance dependency is one of the biggest problems and worries of the world. It stunts the growth of society and causes various problems such as reduction in public health, increase in mortality, rise in social and domestic traumas, loss of educational and occupational opportunities, involvement with the judicial system, and development of the substance-abuse cycle. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the role of metacognition and body image in predicting alexithymia in substance abusers. Patients and Methods: The research sample included addicts (males and females aged 10 to 70 years) who referred to the addiction treatment and counseling centers of three Iranian cities of Zahedan, Sari, and Neyriz. Participants were selected by random sampling. The metacognitive strategy questionnaire (MCQ-30), physical self-description questionnaire (PSDQ), and Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-20) were used for data collection. The hypotheses were tested using the Pearson’s correlation method and regression analysis. Results: According to the results of the current study, the highest correlation was between alexithymia and the cognitive awareness subscale (r = 0.305; P < 0.01).There was no significant correlation between alexithymia and body image. Based on the multiple regression analysis, the three predictors explained 11% of the variance (R2 = 0. 11, F = 3.981; P < 0.01). Cognitive awareness significantly predicted 9% of the variance (β = 0.305; P < 0.01), and the other subscales predicted about 2%. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that metacognition had an important role in predicting alexithymia in the substance abusers, which underscores the necessity of precautionary measures. PMID:26495262

  2. When parenting fails: alexithymia and attachment states of mind in mothers of female patients with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Cecilia Serena; Cavanna, Donatella; Guiducci, Valentina; Bizzi, Fabiola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years alexithymia and attachment theory have been recognized as two parallel research lines trying to improve the information on the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). However, no research has analyzed these constructs among patients’ families. In this study we compared alexithymia and attachment in mothers of patients with EDs and a control group. Further, we hypothesized that mothers of daughters with EDs with insecure and unresolved states of mind will reported high levels of alexithymia. Lastly, we explored the daughters’ evaluations of maternal alexithymia. Methods: 45 mothers of ED women and 48 mothers of healthy controls (N = 93) matched for age and socio-demographic variables were administered by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20) (S), while two sub-groups of “ED” mothers (n = 20) and “non-ED” ones (n = 22) were assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Moreover, the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS) was administered to the daughters for evaluating maternal alexithymia. Results: Regarding alexithymia, no differences were found between ED and non-ED mothers according to the TAS-20, while ED mothers showed more unresolved AAI classifications than non-ED mothers. No correlations were found between the TAS-20 and the AAI. Lastly, ED mothers were evaluated more alexithymic by their daughters with the OAS than those in the control group, and their alexithymic traits were significantly correlated with dismissing states of mind (idealization and lack of memory) in the AAIs. Discussion: Our results highlighted an interesting discrepancy among mothers with ED daughters between the low level of alexithymia provided by their self-reports and the high level of alexithymia observed by their daughters, although the OAS showed severe methodological limitations. Maternal attachment states of mind characterized by the lack of resolution of past losses could be connected to a confusing and incoherent

  3. The relationship between alexithymia, anxiety, depression, and internet addiction severity in a sample of Italian high school students.

    PubMed

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Cava, Lucia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA) severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls) recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed. PMID:25401143

  4. The Relationship between Alexithymia, Anxiety, Depression, and Internet Addiction Severity in a Sample of Italian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Cava, Lucia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA) severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls) recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed. PMID:25401143

  5. Alexithymia Affects Pre-Hospital Delay of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Meta-Analysis of Existing Studies

    PubMed Central

    Preti, Antonio; Sancassiani, Federica; Cadoni, Federica; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background: The time between the onset of symptoms and reperfusion is a critical determinant of the clinical course of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Any delay in seeking help will affect patient’s outcome. Alexithymia can influence the information processing but also the skills to detect the signal of an ongoing AMI. Method: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating the role of alexithymia in pre-hospital delay after AMI. Pubmed/Medline and PsychINFO/Ovid search from 1990 until 2012. Results: Out of 29 studies investigating the role of psychological factors in pre-hospital delay after AMI, 3 studies specifically assessed alexithymia, involving 258 patients. All studies used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale to group patients into clusters by time to presentation after AMI. Meta-analysis of data showed that the patients with higher emotional awareness (i.e., low alexithymia) had shorter time to presentation after AMI. Conclusions: Preliminary evidence indicates that alexithymia may have a role in seeking help delay after AMI. Further studies are necessary to better appreciate how alexithymia influence help-seeking in patients with an evolving AMI and in what extent their ineffective behavior can be changed. PMID:23878612

  6. Lack of Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Alexithymia: Evidence from Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Min Jung; Kim, Wonji; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Se Joo

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with structural and functional alterations in brain regions, which involve social-emotional processing. Therefore, oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual differences in alexithymia, which is considered to be a dysfunction of emotional processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recruited 355 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (234 men, 121 women). Alexithymia was measured by using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We performed single-marker and haplotype association analyses with eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs237885, rs237887, rs2268490, rs4686301, rs2254298, rs13316193, rs53576, and rs2268498) in the oxytocin receptor gene. There were no significant associations between any of the eight single nucleotide polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene and alexithymia. In addition, a six-locus haplotype block (rs237885-rs237887-rs2268490-rs4686301-rs2254298-rs13316193) was not significantly associated with alexithymia. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the oxytocin receptor gene may not explain a significant part of alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:26599592

  7. Alexithymia, empathy, emotion identification and social inference in anorexia nervosa: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Ressico, Francesca; Gambaro, Eleonora; Palazzolo, Anna; Mazzarino, Massimiliano; Bert, Fabrizio; Siliquini, Roberta; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    Alexithymia, difficulties in facial emotion recognition, poor socio-relational skills are typical of anorexia nervosa (AN). We assessed patients with AN and healthy controls (HCs) with mixed stimuli: questionnaires (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-TAS, Interpersonal Reactivity Index-IRI), photographs (Facial Emotion Identification Test-FEIT) and dynamic images (The Awareness of Social Inference Test-TASIT). TAS and IRI Personal Distress (PD) were higher in AN than HCs. Few or no differences emerged at the FEIT and TASIT, respectively. Larger effect sizes were found for the TAS results. Despite higher levels of alexithymia, patients with AN seem to properly acknowledge others' emotions while being inhibited in the expression of their own. PMID:27086047

  8. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, dissociation, and alexithymia in an Italian sample of flood victims

    PubMed Central

    Craparo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio; Mazzola, Elvira; Petruccelli, Irene; Pellerone, Monica; Rotondo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated a significant association between dissociation and posttraumatic symptoms. A dissociative reaction during a traumatic event may seem to predict the later development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Moreover, several researchers also observed an alexithymic condition in a variety of traumatized samples. Methods A total of 287 flood victims (men =159, 55.4%; women =128, 44.6%) with an age range of 17–21 years (mean =18.33; standard deviation =0.68) completed the following: Impact of Event Scale–Revised, Dissociative Experiences Scale II, Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire. Results We found significant correlations among all variables. Linear regression showed that peritraumatic dissociation plays a mediator role between alexithymia, dissociation, and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusion Our results seem to confirm the significant roles of both dissociation and alexithymia for the development of posttraumatic symptoms. PMID:25489247

  9. A longitudinal mediational study on the stability of alexithymia among alcohol-dependent outpatients in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Thorberg, Fred Arne; Young, Ross McD; Sullivan, Karen A; Lyvers, Michael; Hurst, Cameron P; Connor, Jason P; Tyssen, Reidar; London, Edythe D; Noble, Ernest P; Feeney, Gerald F X

    2016-02-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and an externally oriented thinking style. Alexithymia has been described as a trait-like risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders. Few studies have investigated the absolute (whether mean scores change over time) and relative (extent to which relative differences among individuals remain the same over time) stability of alexithymia among men and women with alcohol dependence, or have considered potential underlying mechanisms. Social learning processes contribute to and maintain alcohol problems. The reinforcement of alcohol expectancies is one plausible mechanism that links the difficulties in emotional processing associated with alexithymia and alcohol use. The present study investigated the stability of alexithymia as well as alcohol expectancy as a mediator of alexithymia. Three hundred fifty-five alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled in a cognitive behavioral treatment program. Ninety-two alcohol-dependent patients completed assessments at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Results indicated that total Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby, Parker, & Taylor, 1994) mean score, difficulty identifying feelings, and difficulty describing feelings decreased significantly over time with a larger decrease in alexithymia mean scores for females. Externally oriented thinking mean scores did not change. The TAS-20 and its subfactors demonstrated significant correlations, from baseline to follow-up, which were stronger for males than for females. Regression analyses showed that the total TAS-20 mean scores, difficulty identifying feelings, and difficulty describing feelings were partially mediated through assertion alcohol expectancies. In conclusion, this suggests that alexithymia has relative stability and is a trait-like factor among alcohol-dependent treatment seekers. PMID:26795394

  10. A behavioral-genetic study of alexithymia and its relationships with trait emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Holly M; Schwartz, Sara; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Veselka, Livia; Petrides, K V; Vernon, Philip A

    2011-12-01

    The present study is the first to examine relationships between alexithymia and trait emotional intelligence (trait El or trait emotional self-efficacy) at the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental levels. The study was also conducted to resolve inconsistencies in previous twin studies that have provided estimates of the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in alexithymia. Participants were 216 monozygotic and 45 dizygotic same-sex twin pairs who completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. In a pilot study, a sub-sample of 118 MZ and 27 DZ pairs also completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Results demonstrated that a combination of genetic and non-shared environmental influences contribute to individual differences in alexithymia. As expected, alexithymia and trait El were negatively correlated at the phenotypic level. Bivariate behavioral genetic analyses showed that that all but one of these correlations was primarily attributable to correlated genetic factors and secondarily to correlated non-shared environmental factors. PMID:22506309

  11. Perceived Stress, Alexithymia, and Psychological Health as Predictors of Sedative Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gilan, Nader Rajabi; Reshadat, Sohyla; Komasi, Saeid; Ghasemi, Seyed Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background The harmful effects of sedative medications and substances in conjunction with limited research regarding predictive psychological constructs of drug abuse necessitate further investigation of associated factors. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the roles of perceived stress, alexithymia, and psychological health as predictors of sedative abuse in medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 548 students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were selected using stratified random sampling. The data were obtained using the Perceived Stress Scale, an alexithymia scale (Farsi version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20), and a General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological health. Data were analyzed using discriminant analyses. Results The results demonstrated that the user and non-user of sedative substances groups had significantly different predictive variables (except for social function disorder) (P>0.05). Physical complaints, alexithymia, and perceived stress, which had standard coefficients of 0.80, 0.60, and -0.27, respectively, predicted sedative drug use. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that perceived stress, alexithymia, physical complaints, anxiety, and depression are associated with sedative drug abuse. PMID:26435810

  12. Relationship of internet addiction severity with depression, anxiety, and alexithymia, temperament and character in university students.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Coskun, Kerem Senol; Ugurlu, Hilal; Yildirim, Fatma Gul

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) severity with alexithymia, temperament, and character dimensions of personality in university students while controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. A total of 319 university students from two conservative universities in Ankara volunteered for the study. Students were investigated using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Internet Addiction Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the university students enrolled in the study, 12.2 percent (n=39) were categorized into the moderate/high IA group (IA 7.2 percent, high risk 5.0 percent), 25.7 percent (n=82) were categorized into the mild IA group, and 62.1 percent (n=198) were categorized into the group without IA. Results revealed that the rate of moderate/high IA group membership was higher in men (20.0 percent) than women (9.4 percent). Alexithymia, depression, anxiety, and novelty seeking (NS) scores were higher; whereas self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) scores were lower in the moderate/high IA group. The severity of IA was positively correlated with alexithymia, whereas it was negatively correlated with SD. The "difficulty in identifying feelings" and "difficulty in describing feelings" factors of alexithymia, the low C and high NS dimensions of personality were associated with the severity of IA. The direction of this relationship between alexithymia and IA, and the factors that may mediate this relationship are unclear. Nevertheless, university students exhibiting high alexithymia and NS scores, along with low character scores (SD and C) should be closely monitored for IA. PMID:23363230

  13. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Methods The study included participants who had previously participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing IEI, namely, a measure of repressive coping combining scores on the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and a negative affectivity scale (NAS). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted using IEI variables as the dependent variables. Results The TMAS and MCSDS scores were independently associated with the IEI variables, but there was no evidence of a role of the repressive coping construct. While the total alexithymia score was unrelated to IEI, the TAS-20 subscale of difficulties identifying feelings (DIF) was independently associated with symptoms attributed to IEI. Negative affectivity was a strong independent predictor of the IEI variables and a mediator of the association between DIF and IEI. Conclusion Our results provide no evidence for a role of repressive coping in IEI, and our hypothesis of an association with alexithymia was only partly supported. In contrast, strong associations between IEI and negative emotional reactions, defensiveness and difficulties identifying feelings were found, suggesting a need for exploring the influence of these emotional reactions in IEI. PMID:21432559

  14. Alexithymia, anger and psychological distress in patients with myofascial pain: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Lorys; De Santis, Federica; De Giorgi, Ilaria; Deregibus, Andrea; Tesio, Valentina; Leombruni, Paolo; Granieri, Antonella; Debernardi, Cesare; Torta, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate psychological distress, anger and alexithymia in a group of patients affected by myofascial pain (MP) in the facial region. Methods: 45 MP patients [mean (SD) age: 38.9 (11.6)] and 45 female healthy controls [mean (SD) age: 37.8 (13.7)] were assessed medically and psychologically. The medically evaluation consisted of muscle palpation of the pericranial and cervical muscles. The psychological evaluation included the assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory—short form), anxiety [State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y)], emotional distress [Distress Thermometer (DT)], anger [State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory—2 (STAXI-2)], and alexithymia [Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)]. Results: the MP patients showed significantly higher scores in the depression, anxiety and emotional distress inventories. With regard to anger, only the Anger Expression-In scale showed a significant difference between the groups, with higher scores for the MP patients. In addition, the MP patients showed significantly higher alexithymic scores, in particular in the Difficulty in identifying feelings (F1) subscale of the TAS-20. Alexithymia was positively correlated with the Anger Expression-In scale. Both anger and alexithymia showed significant positive correlations with anxiety scores, but only anger was positively correlated with depression. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms associated with a higher prevalence of alexithymia and expression-in modality to cope with anger was found in the MP patients. Because the presence of such psychological aspects could contribute to generate or exacerbate the suffering of these patients, our results highlight the need to include accurate investigation of psychological aspects in MP patients in normal clinical practice in order to allow clinicians to carry out more efficacious management and treatment strategies. PMID:23914181

  15. Comparing Sensory Information Processing and Alexithymia between People with Substance Dependency and Normal

    PubMed Central

    Bashapoor, Sajjad; Hosseini-Kiasari, Seyyedeh Tayebeh; Daneshvar, Somayeh; Kazemi-Taskooh, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensory information processing and alexithymia are two important factors in determining behavioral reactions. Some studies explain the effect of the sensitivity of sensory processing and alexithymia in the tendency to substance abuse. Giving that, the aim of the current study was to compare the styles of sensory information processing and alexithymia between substance-dependent people and normal ones. Methods The research method was cross-sectional and the statistical population of the current study comprised of all substance-dependent men who are present in substance quitting camps of Masal, Iran, in October 2013 (n = 78). 36 persons were selected randomly by simple randomly sampling method from this population as the study group, and 36 persons were also selected among the normal population in the same way as the comparison group. Both groups was evaluated by using Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) and adult sensory profile, and the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test was applied to analyze data. Findings The results showed that there are significance differences between two groups in low registration (P < 0.020, F = 5.66), sensation seeking (P < 0.050, F = 1.92), and sensory avoidance (P < 0.008, F = 7.52) as a components of sensory processing and difficulty in describing emotions (P < 0.001, F = 15.01) and difficulty in identifying emotions (P < 0.002, F = 10.54) as a components of alexithymia. However, no significant difference were found between two groups in components of sensory sensitivity (P < 0.170, F = 1.92) and external oriented thinking style (P < 0.060, F = 3.60). Conclusion These results showed that substance-dependent people process sensory information in a different way than normal people and show more alexithymia features than them. PMID:26885354

  16. Chronic idiopathic urticaria, psychological co-morbidity and posttraumatic stress: the impact of alexithymia and repression.

    PubMed

    Hunkin, Victoria; Chung, Man Cheung

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), psychological co-morbidity, posttraumatic stress, repression and alexithymia. 89 participants with CIU and 105 without CIU responded to an online questionnaire. Both groups completed the general health questionnaire-12, the perceived stress scale, the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale and the Toronto alexithymia scale-20 and were categorised into four defence mechanism groups (repressive, defensive, high-anxious, low-anxious). CIU participants also completed the Skindex-17 and a self-report severity measure. CIU participants reported higher levels of alexithymia than the control group and their defence mechanism was most likely to be categorised as defensive, with conscious self-image management reported alongside high manifest anxiety. Partial least squares analysis revealed significant paths between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity and psychological co-morbidity. Posttraumatic stress was associated with alexithymia and type of defence mechanism. Only being in the high-anxious group partially mediated the relationship between posttraumatic stress and CIU severity. In conclusion, there is evidence for a relationship between CIU and trauma. The severity of posttraumatic symptoms varies depending upon alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms used. Disease severity and psychological co-morbidity are differentially influenced by the relationships between trauma, alexithymic traits and defence mechanisms. PMID:22362490

  17. Disordered eating attitudes, alexithymia and suicide probability among Turkish high school girls.

    PubMed

    Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Soylu, Nusret; Avci, Kadriye; Coşkun, Kerem Şenol; Kocak, Uğur; Taş, Hanife Uzel

    2015-03-30

    We aimed to examine association between disordered eating attitudes (DEAs), alexithymia and suicide probability among adolescent females and to explore potential link between alexithymia and suicide probability in subjects with DEAs. 381 female students completed Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS). It was found that 13.2% (n=52) of the subjects have DEAs. Results indicated that total TAS-20 score and scores of Difficulty in Identifying Feelings (DIF) and Difficulty in Describing Feelings (DDF) subscales were significantly higher in DEAs group than in those non DEAs group (p<0.05). Additionally, total SPS score (p<0.001), Hopelessness (p=0.001), Suicide Ideation (p<0.001) and Hostility (p=0.003) subscales scores of SPS were significantly higher in the alexithymic DEAs than the non-alexithymic DEAs group. In order to control potential effect of depression, SPS subscales were used as covariate factors in ANCOVA. Negative Self-Evaluation subscale yielded a statistically significant difference between groups, other subscales did not. Results point out these; DEAs are relatively frequent phenomenon among female students in Turkey and presence of alexithymia was associated with an increased suicide probability in adolescents with DEAs. The results should be evaluated taking into account that depressive symptomatology was not assessed using a depression scale. PMID:25619436

  18. Alexithymia, suicide risk and serum lipid levels among adult outpatients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Campanella, Daniela; Serroni, Nicola; Moschetta, Francesco Saverio; Di Emidio, Fabiola; Conti, Chiara; Carano, Alessandro; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Siracusano, Alberto; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    To elucidate the relationships between alexithymia, suicide ideation and serum lipid levels in drug-naïve adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Panic Disorder (PD), 72 patients were evaluated. Measures were the Panic Attack and Anticipatory Anxiety Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Scale of Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Alexithymic patients showed higher scores on all rating scales and altered serum lipid levels than non-alexithymics. In the hierarchical regression model, the presence of lower HDL-C and higher VLDL-C levels and Difficulty in Identifying Feelings dimension of TAS-20 were associated with higher suicide ideation. In conclusion, alexithymic individuals with PD may show a cholesterol dysregulation that may be linked to suicide ideation. The authors discuss study limitations and future research needs. PMID:23332553

  19. Report Card on Child Poverty in Toronto. Toronto Campaign 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Colin

    This report provides detailed information on the child poverty rates in Toronto from 1990 to 1998. The report card offers income data for Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It includes new income data for Toronto from the Family Databank of Statistics Canada. This databank uses information reported by all income tax filers and from the Canada Child Tax…

  20. Latina Landscape: Queer Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Karleen Pendleton

    2008-01-01

    A group of Latinas sat down one day around a wooden table on the third floor of a downtown Toronto community center, lit candles and began to write. They came together through a flier inviting all Latinas interested in writing. On the second meeting, they named themselves Lengua Latina (Latin Tongue). Lengua Latina is a structure established by…

  1. Toronto's Postwar Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John

    1984-01-01

    Discusses Toronto's postwar development as measured by: population growth patterns; households; families; age structure; dwelling type; and labor force participation. Growth rings based on municipal boundaries are used as the basis for all analyses. Policy issues related to physical/social environment and women's role related to urban growth are…

  2. [Obesity, alexithymia, psychopathology and binge eating: a comparative study of 40 obese patients and 32 controls].

    PubMed

    De Chouly De Lenclave, M B; Florequin, C; Bailly, D

    2001-01-01

    Alexithymia may be considered as a personality feature characterized by poorness of imaginary life, speech focused on actual facts and physical sensations, general inaccuracy in or paucity of the words used to express emotions, and recourse to acting out to avoid intrapsychic conflicts. The possible link between alexithymia and psychosomatic or psychopathological disorders is now well documented. In particular, studies suggested that alexithymia may be frequently observed in obese or bulimic patients. This study was designed to investigate the link between obesity and alexithymia according to the presence or not of binge eating problems; 40 obese female patients (BMI > or = 27.3) seeking obesity treatment and 32 normal weight women used as controls were included in the study. In the obese group, 11 patients (27.5%) exhibited binge-eating disorder according to the DSM IV criteria. Alexithymia was assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), and past and current mental disorders were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID). In addition, current depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean TAS score was found significantly higher in obese patients than in controls (72.6 +/- 11.8 vs 65.2 +/- 9.3, respectively; p < 0.005). In the same way, alexithymia (defined by TAS score > or = 74) was found significantly more frequent in obese patients than in controls (52.5% vs 21.8%, respectively; p < 0.03). However, among obese patients no significant difference was found between patients with and without binge-eating disorder. Current major depression was also found significantly more frequent in obese patients than in controls (15% vs 0%, respectively; p < 0.03), and the mean BDI score was very significantly higher in obese patients (12.2 +/- 8.7 vs 4.6 +/- 4.6, respectively; p < 0.0001). Comparisons between obese patients with and without binge-eating disorder showed that only past major depression was

  3. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ALEXITHYMIA AND PAIN INTENSITY, PAIN INTERFERENCE, AND VITALITY IN PERSONS WITH NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASE: CONSIDERING THE EFFECT OF NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, Masako; Molton, Ivan R.; Jensen, Mark P.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Amtmann, Silvia; O’Brien, Sarah; Arimura, Tatsuyuki; Kubo, Chiharu

    2010-01-01

    Alexithymia, the inability to identify or label emotions, has been shown to be associated with pain in patients with a number of chronic pain conditions. We sought to: (1) replicate this association in samples of persons with chronic pain secondary to neuromuscular disease; (2) extend this finding to other important pain-related measures, and (3) to determine whether relationships among alexithymia and study variables existed after controlling for negative affect. One hundred and twenty-nine individuals with muscular dystrophy and chronic pain were administered measures of alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20), pain intensity (0–10 NRS), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory Interference scale), mental health (SF-36 Mental Health scale; as a proxy measure of negative affect) and vitality (SF-36 Vitality scale). Higher TAS scores were associated significantly with higher pain intensity and interference, and less vitality. Although the strengths of these associations were reduced when mental health was used as a control, the associations between the Difficulty Identifying Feelings scale and vitality, and the Externally Oriented Thinking and Total TAS scales and pain intensity remained statistically significant. The findings replicate and extend previous findings concerning the associations between alexithymia and important pain-related variables in a sample of persons with chronic pain and neuromuscular disease. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which the associations are due to (1) a possible causal effect of alexithymia on patient functioning that is mediated via its effects on negative affect or (2) the possibility that alexithymia/outcome relationships reflect response bias caused by general negative affectivity. PMID:20207082

  4. A Behavior Analytic Interpretation of Alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Sabrina M; Follette, William C

    2014-04-01

    Alexithymia is a term used to describe individuals who seem unable to experience or at least describe emotions. This paper offers a theoretical interpretation of alexithymia from a radical behaviorist perspective. While there have been attempts to explain the etiology of alexithymia, the current analysis is unique in that it provides direct treatment implications. The pragmatic analysis described focuses on the verbal behavior of individuals rather than looking "inside" for explanations. This is supported by a review of experimental research that has failed to find consistencies among alexithymic individuals' physiological responding. Descriptions of the various discriminative and consequential stimulus conditions involved in the complex learning histories of individuals that could result in an alexithymic presentation are provided. This analysis helps situate the alexithymia construct in a broader behavior analytic understanding of emotions. Finally this paper outlines implications for assessment and treatment, which involve influencing discriminative and consequential interpersonal stimulus conditions to shape verbal behavior about emotions. PMID:25473602

  5. A Behavior Analytic Interpretation of Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Follette, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Alexithymia is a term used to describe individuals who seem unable to experience or at least describe emotions. This paper offers a theoretical interpretation of alexithymia from a radical behaviorist perspective. While there have been attempts to explain the etiology of alexithymia, the current analysis is unique in that it provides direct treatment implications. The pragmatic analysis described focuses on the verbal behavior of individuals rather than looking “inside” for explanations. This is supported by a review of experimental research that has failed to find consistencies among alexithymic individuals’ physiological responding. Descriptions of the various discriminative and consequential stimulus conditions involved in the complex learning histories of individuals that could result in an alexithymic presentation are provided. This analysis helps situate the alexithymia construct in a broader behavior analytic understanding of emotions. Finally this paper outlines implications for assessment and treatment, which involve influencing discriminative and consequential interpersonal stimulus conditions to shape verbal behavior about emotions. PMID:25473602

  6. A brief 20-item dental/medical health literacy screen (REALMD-20)

    PubMed Central

    Gironda, Melanie; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Messadi, Diana; Holtzman, Jennifer; Atchison, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Few health literacy instruments are available to clinicians to help understand the implications of patient difficulty understanding health information. Those that do exist are lengthy and would not be conducive to use in a busy clinical setting. Long-term dental and medical outcomes may improve if health care providers can identify individuals with low health literacy levels who may benefit from tailored communication, yet few instruments are available for clinical use. The purpose of this study is to introduce a brief 20-item screener for limited dental/medical health literacy among adult dental patients. Methods Two-hundred adult patients seeking treatment at a dental clinic in a large medical complex completed a health literacy screening instrument and survey. Steps in the development of the 20-item instrument are described. Comparison of the 20-item dental/medical instrument with other health literacy measures are calculated using mean health literacy scores, tests of reliability and readability, and correlation coefficients. Results Scores on the brief 20-item measure varied significantly by race, education level, language use, needing help with medical/health materials forms. Those with lower dental/medical health literacy, as measured by the REALMD-20 were less likely to receive regular follow-up care than those with higher literacy. Conclusions The REALMD-20 is a quick screening instrument that can be used by clinicians to detect limited dental/medical health literacy among adult patients seeking treatment in dental/medical clinic settings. PMID:23293880

  7. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise

  8. Somatic Symptoms Evoked by Exam Stress in University Students: The Role of Alexithymia, Neuroticism, Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Eberle, Hanna; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Objective The etiology of somatization is incompletely understood, but could be elucidated by models of psychosocial stress. Academic exam stress has effectively been applied as a naturalistic stress model, however its effect on somatization symptoms according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria has not been reported so far. Baseline associations between somatization and personality traits, such as alexithymia, have been studied exhaustively. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown if personality traits have an explanatory value for stress induced somatization. Methods This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study assessed the effects of university exams on somatization — and the reversal of effects after an exam-free period. Repeated-observations were obtained within 150 students, measuring symptom intensity before, during and after an exam period, according to the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms 7-day (SOMS-7d). Additionally, self-reports on health status were used to differentiate between medically explained and medically unexplained symptoms. Alexithymia, neuroticism, trait-anxiety and baseline depression were surveyed using the Toronto-Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Big-Five Personality Interview (NEO-FFI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II). These traits were competitively tested for their ability to explain somatization increases under exam stress. Results Somatization significantly increased across a wide range of symptoms under exam stress, while health reports pointed towards a reduction in acute infections and injuries. Neuroticism, alexithymia, trait anxiety and depression explained variance in somatization at baseline, but only neuroticism was associated with symptom increases under exam stress. Conclusion Exam stress is an effective psychosocial stress model inducing somatization. A comprehensive quantitative description of bodily symptoms under exam stress is supplied. The results do not support the stress-alexithymia

  9. The impact of self-efficacy, alexithymia and multiple traumas on posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizures: a moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Cheung; Allen, Rachel D; Dennis, Ian

    2013-12-30

    This study investigated the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizure, whether alexithymia mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and psychiatric outcomes, and whether the mediational effect was moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas. Seventy-one (M=31, F=40) people with a diagnosis of epilepsy recruited from support groups in the United Kingdom completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. They were compared with 71 people (M=29, F=42) without epilepsy. For people with epilepsy, 51% and 22% met the diagnostic criteria for post-epileptic seizure PTSD and for PTSD following one other traumatic life event respectively. For the control group, 24% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD following other traumatic life events. The epilepsy group reported significantly more anxiety and depression than the control. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis showed that self-efficacy was significantly correlated with alexithymia, post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Alexithymia was also significantly correlated with post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Mediation analyses confirmed that alexithymia mediated the path between self-efficacy and post-epileptic seizure PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Moderated mediation also confirmed that self-efficacy and PTSD from one other trauma moderated the effect of alexithymia on outcomes. To conclude, people can develop posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and psychiatric co-morbidity following epileptic seizure. These psychiatric outcomes are closely linked with their belief in personal competence to deal with stressful situations and regulate their own functioning, to process rather than defend against distressing emotions, and with the degree of PTSD from other traumas. PMID:23978734

  10. Alexithymia and its relationships with body checking and body image in a non-clinical female sample.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Carano, Alessandro; Gambi, Francesco; Campanella, Daniela; Giannetti, Paola; Ceci, Anna; Mancini, Enrico; La Rovere, Raffaella; Cicconetti, Alessandra; Penna, Laura; Di Matteo, Danilo; Scorrano, Barbara; Cotellessa, Carla; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Serroni, Nicola; Ferro, Filippo Maria

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate in a non-clinical sample of undergraduate women, the relationships between alexithymia, body checking and body image, identifying predictive factors associated with the possible risk of developing an Eating Disorder (ED). The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ), Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were completed by 254 undergraduate females. We found that alexithymics had more consistent body checking behaviors and higher body dissatisfaction than nonalexithymics. In addition, alexithymics also reported a higher potential risk for ED (higher scores on EAT-26) when compared to nonalexithymics. Difficulty in identifying and describing feelings subscales of TAS-20, Overall appearance and Specific Body Parts subscales of BCQ as well as lower self-esteem was associated with higher ED risk in a linear regression analysis. Thus, a combination of alexithymia, low self-esteem, body checking behaviors and body dissatisfaction may be a risk factor for symptoms of ED at least in a non-clinical sample of university women. PMID:17606227

  11. Stress levels, Alexithymia, Type A and Type C personality patterns in undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Bobîrnac, G; Tipa, R

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since there have been a number of empirical observations that may lead to the conclusion of an increasing rate of risk behaviors in Romanian students, such as aggression, over–competitive conduct and lack of collaboration, immorality, peer pressure and even an increasing rate of suicide, and suicide attempts, we have undergone a study to indentify if there is a high rate of risk type personality patterns that may lead to these deportments. Material and methods: We have selected a total number of 500 students from the three largest universities in Bucharest, Romania–‘Carol Davila’ University of Medicine and Pharmacy (UMF), Bucharest Polytechnics University (UPB), and the Bucharest Academy of Economical Studies (ASE). All subjects received a questionnaire containing four diagnostic tools and several demographics questions. We have chosen the Twenty Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS20), the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS–13) and the Anger–In Questionnaire for type C personality pattern. We have also added the Columbia stress analysis questionnaire for the evaluation of stress levels and coping capacity at the moment the subjects were interviewed. Results: Columbia stress survey results confirm that there is a high stress level among students of all universities, but a more detailed stratification by university, gender and analyzed factor shows a very high F factor and T factor positive responses. Alexithymia, Type A and Type C personality patterns show a much higher prevalence than the general population, especially in medical students. We have found higher frequencies in men for all of the three studied parameters. Conclusions: Approaching alexithymia and type A behavior both by cognitive methods and by assessing and addressing consequential risk factors should become an issue among universities. PMID:20968210

  12. Alexithymia and Affect Intensity of Fine Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Marion; Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Research on creative artists has examined mainly their personality traits or cognitive abilities. However, it seems important to explore also their emotional traits to complete the profile. This study examines two emotional characteristics: alexithymia and affect intensity. Even if most research suggests that artists are less alexithymic and…

  13. Alexithymia, not autism, is associated with impaired interoception.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Hall, Richard; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulties perceiving the internal state of one's body (i.e., impaired interoception), causing the socio-emotional deficits which are a diagnostic feature of the condition. However, research indicates that alexithymia - characterized by difficulties in recognizing emotions from internal bodily sensations - is also linked to atypical interoception. Elevated rates of alexithymia in the autistic population have been shown to underpin several socio-emotional impairments thought to be symptomatic of ASD, raising the possibility that interoceptive difficulties in ASD are also due to co-occurring alexithymia. Following this line of inquiry, the present study examined the relative impact of alexithymia and autism on interoceptive accuracy (IA). Across two experiments, it was found that alexithymia, not autism, was associated with atypical interoception. Results indicate that interoceptive impairments should not be considered a feature of ASD, but instead due to co-occurring alexithymia. PMID:27253723

  14. Teaching to Teach in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Kien; Waddell, Andrea E.; Lofchy, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The training objectives for postgraduate education in the United States and Canada both state that teaching skills should be formally developed during training. This article reviews the development of the Teaching-to-Teach program at the University of Toronto Department of Psychiatry, the current curriculum, evaluation, and future…

  15. Is there a psychoneuroimmunological pathway between alexithymia and immunity? Immune and physiological correlates of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Guilbaud, Olivier; Corcos, Maurice; Hjalmarsson, Linnea; Loas, Gwenolé; Jeammet, Philippe

    2003-09-01

    The term "alexithymia" was coined by Sifneos. It is characterised by a lack of words to express emotion (a: absence of; lexi: words; thymia: emotions, affects). Its characteristics were suggested to occur more frequently in individuals with so-called "psychosomatic disorders", but this is still a matter of controversy. Here we review the psychosomatic network of alexithymia, i.e. the immune and physiological correlates of alexithymia. Some studies suggest that inaccuracy in recognising emotional states, or the way of coping with negative emotions, may influence immune function. Alexithymia is associated with higher tonic baseline levels of sympathetic activity and lower sympathetic reactivity during acute stress. Few studies have reported a diminished immune-mediated cellular response in alexithymics with oversecretion of glucocorticoids. We hypothesise that alexithymic subjects may suffer from unnoticed chronic stress with physiological and endocrine and immune consequences. Alexithymia may skew the Th-1/Th-2 balance toward Th-2 dominant immunity and lower cell-mediated (Th-1) immune response and may increase an individual's risk for stress-related disorder. PMID:14499176

  16. The 20 item prosopagnosia index (PI20): relationship with the Glasgow face-matching test

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, Sophie; Gaule, Anne; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The 20 item prosopagnosia index (PI20) was recently developed to identify individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. While the PI20’s principal purpose is to aid researchers and clinicians, it was suggested that it may serve as a useful screening tool to identify people with face recognition difficulties in applied settings where face matching is a critical part of their occupation. Although the PI20 has been validated using behavioural measures of face recognition, it has yet to be validated against a measure of face-matching ability that is more representative of applied settings. In this study, the PI20 was therefore administered with the Glasgow face-matching test (GFMT). A strong correlation was observed between PI20 and GFMT scores, providing further validation for the PI20, indicating that it is likely to be of value in applied settings. PMID:26715995

  17. Alexithymia in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goldberg, Jeremy; Bennett, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Given the recent findings regarding the association between alexithymia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the accumulating evidence for the presence of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) in relatives of individuals with ASD, we further explored the construct of alexithymia in parents of children with ASD as a potential part of the BAP. We…

  18. Alexithymia in children with and without autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Cáit; Lombardo, Michael V; Auyeung, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    Alexithymia refers to pronounced difficulty in identifying and describing one's own emotions and is associated with an externally oriented focus of thinking. Alexithymia is known to be much more common in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared with the typically developing (TD) adult population. However, we know very little about alexithymia in young children with ASD and advancing our understanding of this topic may be of critical clinical and translational importance. Here, we present the first study to examine alexithymia in children with ASD. We find that alexithymia is substantially elevated in ASD on both self- and parent-report measures. Despite both measures being sensitive to on-average group differentiation, we find no evidence of correlation between such measures, indicating that children and their parents may be using different sources of information. Parent-rated alexithymia is also associated with increasing levels of autistic traits. Discrepancy between self and other alexithymia ratings are also associated with autistic traits, but only in ASD. These results underscore the idea that assessing alexithymia in ASD at younger ages may help identify important subgroups that have particular difficulties in the domain of emotion processing. Autism Res 2016, 9: 773-780. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26426084

  19. The relationship between self-harm and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Norman, Hilary; Borrill, Jo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the literature concerning the relationship between alexithymia and self-harm. Fifteen studies were selected following a systematic search of relevant databases. Results indicate significantly higher levels of alexithymia in women who self-harm compared with women who do not self-harm. Studies of men were less conclusive and require further investigation. A subsample of the studies found that childhood abuse and bullying were more likely to be associated with self-harm if alexithymia was present as a mediator. Other studies found that depression mediated between alexithymia and self-harm. The results indicate that the poor emotional cognition and expression associated with alexithymia may increase vulnerability to self-harm, particularly in women. PMID:26011069

  20. The 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20): a self-report instrument for identifying developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Sowden, Sophie; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Self-report plays a key role in the identification of developmental prosopagnosia (DP), providing complementary evidence to computer-based tests of face recognition ability, aiding interpretation of scores. However, the lack of standardized self-report instruments has contributed to heterogeneous reporting standards for self-report evidence in DP research. The lack of standardization prevents comparison across samples and limits investigation of the relationship between objective tests of face processing and self-report measures. To address these issues, this paper introduces the PI20; a 20-item self-report measure for quantifying prosopagnosic traits. The new instrument successfully distinguishes suspected prosopagnosics from typically developed adults. Strong correlations were also observed between PI20 scores and performance on objective tests of familiar and unfamiliar face recognition ability, confirming that people have the necessary insight into their own face recognition ability required by a self-report instrument. Importantly, PI20 scores did not correlate with recognition of non-face objects, indicating that the instrument measures face recognition, and not a general perceptual impairment. These results suggest that the PI20 can play a valuable role in identifying DP. A freely available self-report instrument will permit more effective description of self-report diagnostic evidence, thereby facilitating greater comparison of prosopagnosic samples, and more reliable classification. PMID:26543567

  1. Alexithymia, not autism, predicts poor recognition of emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Richard; Brewer, Rebecca; Shah, Punit; Bird, Geoffrey

    2013-05-01

    Despite considerable research into whether face perception is impaired in autistic individuals, clear answers have proved elusive. In the present study, we sought to determine whether co-occurring alexithymia (characterized by difficulties interpreting emotional states) may be responsible for face-perception deficits previously attributed to autism. Two experiments were conducted using psychophysical procedures to determine the relative contributions of alexithymia and autism to identity and expression recognition. Experiment 1 showed that alexithymia correlates strongly with the precision of expression attributions, whereas autism severity was unrelated to expression-recognition ability. Experiment 2 confirmed that alexithymia is not associated with impaired ability to detect expression variation; instead, results suggested that alexithymia is associated with difficulties interpreting intact sensory descriptions. Neither alexithymia nor autism was associated with biased or imprecise identity attributions. These findings accord with the hypothesis that the emotional symptoms of autism are in fact due to co-occurring alexithymia and that existing diagnostic criteria may need to be revised. PMID:23528789

  2. The left amygdala: A shared substrate of alexithymia and empathy.

    PubMed

    Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Lamm, Claus; Pripfl, Juergen; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail

    2015-11-15

    Alexithymia, a deficit in emotional self-awareness, and deficits in empathy, which encompasses the awareness of other's emotions, are related constructs that are both associated with a range of psychopathological disorders. Neuroimaging studies suggest that there is overlap between the neural bases of alexithymia and empathy, but no systematic comparison has been conducted so far. The aim of this structural magnetic resonance imaging study was to disentangle the overlap and differences between the morphological profiles of the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, and to find out to what extent these differ between women and men. High-resolution T1 anatomical images were obtained from 125 healthy right-handers (18-42 years), 70 women and 55 men. By means of voxel-based morphometry, region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed on gray matter volumes of several anatomically defined a-priori regions previously linked to alexithymia and empathy. Partial correlations were conducted within the female and male group using ROI parameter estimates as dependent variables and the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, respectively, as predictors, controlling for age. Results were considered significant if they survived Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The left amygdala was identified as a key substrate of both alexithymia and empathy. This association was characterized by an opposite pattern: The cognitive alexithymia dimension was linked to smaller, the two empathy dimensions to larger left amygdala volume. While sex-specific effects were not observed for empathy, they were evident for the affective alexithymia dimension: Men-but not women-with difficulty fantasizing had smaller gray matter volume in the middle cingulate cortex. Moreover, structural covariance patterns between the left amygdala and other emotion-related brain regions differed markedly between alexithymia and empathy. These differences

  3. Mycoplasma genitalium in Toronto, Ont

    PubMed Central

    Gesink, Dionne; Racey, C. Sarai; Seah, Christine; Zittermann, Sandra; Mitterni, Leo; Juzkiw, Jerry; Jamieson, Heather; Greer, Jane; Singh, Sudesh; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Allen, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in Toronto, Ont; detect mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance; and describe treatment outcomes. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Setting A sexual health clinic in Toronto. Participants A consecutive sample of men and women attending the sexual health clinic between September 1, 2013, and December 20, 2013. Interventions Participants underwent testing for M genitalium, along with standard sexually transmitted infection screening. All samples that had positive results for M genitalium were tested for mutations associated with resistance to macrolides and fluoroquinolones. Mycoplasma genitalium treatment was based on resistance profile and verified with a test of cure. Main outcome measures Positive results for M genitalium and antibiotic resistance. Results A total of 1193 men and women participated in the study. Overall, 4.5% of the 884 men and 3.2% of the 309 women had positive test results for M genitalium. Asymptomatic infection was common (52.0%). Macrolide resistance–mediating mutations were found in 58.0% of the M genitalium infections. No treatment failure was observed for azithromycin-treated cases. Treatment failure was suspected for 16.7% of cases treated with moxifloxacin. Conclusion Mycoplasma genitalium is present in Canada, with a prevalence comparable to chlamydia and gonorrhea, and has high macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:27331225

  4. Relationship of Alexithymia Ratings to Dopamine D2-type Receptors in Anterior Cingulate and Insula of Healthy Control Subjects but Not Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Okita, Kyoji; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Payer, Doris E.; Robertson, Chelsea L.; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Individuals with substance-use disorders exhibit emotional problems, including deficits in emotion recognition and processing, and this class of disorders also has been linked to deficits in dopaminergic markers in the brain. Because associations between these phenomena have not been explored, we compared a group of recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals (n=23) with a healthy-control group (n=17) on dopamine D2-type receptor availability, measured using positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride. Methods: The anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices were selected as the brain regions of interest, because they receive dopaminergic innervation and are thought to be involved in emotion awareness and processing. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale, which includes items that assess difficulty in identifying and describing feelings as well as externally oriented thinking, was administered, and the scores were tested for association with D2-type receptor availability. Results: Relative to controls, methamphetamine-dependent individuals showed higher alexithymia scores, reporting difficulty in identifying feelings. The groups did not differ in D2-type receptor availability in the anterior cingulate or anterior insular cortices, but a significant interaction between group and D2-type receptor availability in both regions, on self-report score, reflected significant positive correlations in the control group (higher receptor availability linked to higher alexithymia) but nonsignificant, negative correlations (lower receptor availability linked to higher alexithymia) in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Conclusions: The results suggest that neurotransmission through D2-type receptors in the anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices influences capacity of emotion processing in healthy people but that this association is absent in individuals with methamphetamine dependence. PMID:26657175

  5. Cognitive Alexithymia Is Associated with the Degree of Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Jorien; Swart, Marte; van Rijn, Sophie; van der Meer, Lisette; Wunderink, Lex; Wiersma, Durk; Krabbendam, Lydia; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is a personality construct denoting emotion processing problems. It has been suggested to encompass two dimensions: a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analyzing emotions, while the affective dimension reflects the level of emotional arousal and imagination. Alexithymia has been previously proposed as a risk factor for developing psychosis. More specifically, the two alexithymia dimensions might be differentially related to the vulnerability for psychosis. Therefore, we examined the two dimensions of alexithymia, measured with the BVAQ in 94 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, 52 subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing psychosis, 38 patients with schizophrenia and 109 healthy controls. The results revealed that siblings and patients had higher levels of cognitive alexithymia compared to controls. In addition, subjects at UHR for psychosis had even higher levels of cognitive alexithymia compared to the siblings. The levels of affective alexithymia in siblings and patients were equal to controls. However, UHR individuals had significantly lower levels of affective alexithymia (i.e. higher levels of emotional arousal and fantasizing) compared to controls. Alexithymia was further related to subclinical levels of negative and depressive symptoms. These findings indicate that alexithymia varies parametrically with the degree of risk for psychosis. More specifically, a type-II alexithymia pattern, with high levels of cognitive alexithymia and normal or low levels of affective alexithymia, might be a vulnerability factor for psychosis. PMID:26030357

  6. Are alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder synonymous diagnoses?

    PubMed

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Estey, Alisa J; Segal, Daniel L; Marle, Peter D

    2013-02-01

    Relationships among alexithymia, personality disorders, and higher-order psychopathological and interpersonal dimensions were examined in 199 college students and a close relative of each. Alexithymia, the difficulty to express and identify emotions, was measured by the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS; [Haviland, M. G., Warren, W. L., & Riggs, M. L. (2000). An observer scale to measure alexithymia. Psychosomatics, 41, 385-392]), which was completed by each student's relative. Each student completed three self-report measures: the Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI; [Coolidge, F. L. (2000). Coolidge Axis II Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author.), the Five Dimensional Personality Test (5DPT; [van Kampen, D. (2009). Personality and psychopathology: A theory-based revision of Eysenck's PEN model. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 5, 9-21]), and the Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI; [Coolidge, F. L. (1998). Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author]). Results indicated that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with personality disorders and their traits, such as schizoid, avoidant, and paranoid. With regard to the issue of the similarity and difference between alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder, there was sufficient evidence across all of the measures to suggest that they are not synonymous entities. Finally, alexithymic traits were associated with concurrent depressive traits even in a non-clinical sample. PMID:23021894

  7. Neuroimaging studies of alexithymia: physical, affective, and social perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia refers to difficulty in identifying and expressing one’s emotions, and it is related to disturbed emotional regulation. It was originally proposed as a personality trait that plays a central role in psychosomatic diseases. This review of neuroimaging studies on alexithymia suggests that alexithymia is associated with reduced neural responses to emotional stimuli from the external environment, as well as with reduced activity during imagery, in the limbic and paralimbic areas (i.e., amygdala, insula, anterior/posterior cingulate cortex). In contrast, alexithymia is also known to be associated with enhanced neural activity in somatosensory and sensorimotor regions, including the insula. Moreover, neural activity in the medial, prefrontal, and insula cortex was lowered when people with alexithymia were involved in social tasks. Because most neuroimaging studies have been based on sampling by self-reported questionnaires, the contrasted features of neural activities in response to internal and external emotional stimuli need to be elucidated. The social and emotional responses of people with alexithymia are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. PMID:23537323

  8. Alexithymia and eating disorders: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or frightening and may use their eating disorder symptoms (i.e., restricting food intake, bingeing, and/or purging) as a way to avoid or cope with their feelings. The current critical review synthesizes the literature on alexithymia and eating disorders and examines alexithymia levels across eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified), the role of alexithymia in binge eating disorder, and the influence of alexithymia on the development of eating disorders as well as treatment outcome. The clinical implications of the research conducted to date and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24999402

  9. Acid aerosol transport episodes in Toronto, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.D.; Waldman, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    Authors used recently developed equipment to continuously monitor levels of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 4/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentrations in the ambient air outside Toronto, Ontario. These data were combined with 48-hour isobaric air mass back-trajectories ending in Toronto on each of the four days with highest acid (and sulfate) aerosol levels. The air masses with highest acid levels were found to have first passed over the SO/sub 2/ source region of the U.S. and then across the Great Lakes to Toronto. The role of ammonia as a modulator of aerosol acidity for eastern U.S. cities but not for Toronto (where the Great Lakes serve as ammonia sinks) is also discussed.

  10. Toronto: The Evolution of an Urban Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelt, Jacob

    1984-01-01

    In the course of history, the Toronto, Canada, landscape has acquired many interesting and attractive features. The history of its urban renewal projects, suburban expansion, inner city change, residential preservation and stabilization, and central city development is examined. (RM)

  11. The relationship between two types of impaired emotion processing: repressive coping and alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Lynn B.; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    The constructs of repressive coping and alexithymia are both related to impaired emotion processing, yet individuals with a repressive coping style (repressors) score lower than controls on standard self-report measures of alexithymia. A large body of evidence indicates that repressors avoid negative affect. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship between repressive coping and alexithymia by using independently-rated interviews with the aim of bypassing repressors’ tendency of avoiding negative affect. Results showed that repressors scored high on alexithymia, similar to anxious individuals on the independently-rated interview, but scored low on alexithymia on a questionnaire measure. Our findings confirm a link between alexithymia and repressive coping and stress the need for non-standard measures in exploring the nature of the relationship between repressive coping and alexithymia. PMID:26136706

  12. The Assessment of Alexithymia in Medical Settings: Implications for Understanding and Treating Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Mark A.; Neely, Lynn C.; Burger, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    The construct of alexithymia encompasses the characteristics of difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and a limited imaginal capacity. These characteristics are thought to reflect deficits in the cognitive processing and regulation of emotions and to contribute to the onset or maintenance of several medical and psychiatric disorders. This article reviews recent methods for assessing alexithymia and examines how assessing alexithymia can inform clinical practice. Alexithymia is associated with heightened physiological arousal, the tendency to notice and report physical symptoms, and unhealthy compulsive behaviors. Alexithymic patients may respond poorly to psychological treatments, although perhaps not to cognitive-behavioral techniques, and it is unclear whether alexithymia can be improved through treatment. Interpretive problems regarding alexithymia include its overlap with other traits, whether it is secondary to illness or trauma, the possibility of subtypes, and low correlations among multiple measures. Nonetheless, we encourage the assessment of alexithymia in applied settings. PMID:18001224

  13. Alexithymia and posttraumatic stress: subscales and symptom clusters.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Vanheule, Stijn; Deheegher, John

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between the emotion-regulating factor alexithymia and the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after critical incidents in a nonclinical sample of 136 nurses and ambulance personnel working in military facilities. The results showed that alexythima accounts for variance in PTSD symptoms. Breaking PTSD into its 4 symptom clusters, alexithymia was found to predict numbing and hyperarousal symptoms but not avoidance or reexperiencing symptoms. Finally, the rarely investigated, but clinically relevant, distinctive subdimensions of alexithymia were examined in relation to the 4 PTSD clusters. The difficulty identifying feelings subscale contributed most to the numbing and hyperarousal PTSD subscales. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:20564753

  14. Three scales of alexithymia: do they measure the same thing?

    PubMed

    Norton, N C

    1989-01-01

    The psychometric properties of three scales of alexithymia were examined in a sample of 187 female undergraduates. The Shalling Sifneos Personality Scale (SSPS) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Alexithymia scale had little internal consistency. The scored archetypal test with nine elements (SAT9) had very low interrater reliability. As predicted, the tree measures were not significantly related to one another and the SSPS had a more clearly defined factor structure than the MMPI scale. The MMPI and SSPS scales were differentially related to measures of symptomatology but were similarly related to extraversion, absorption, and SAT scores. Of the three scales, the SSPS appeared to have the highest content validity. The results suggest that alexithymia is not a unitary construct and that its reification as such may be premature. PMID:2778620

  15. Impaired emotion recognition is linked to alexithymia in heroin addicts

    PubMed Central

    Craparo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio; Dell’Aera, Stefano; Costanzo, Giulia; Fasciano, Silvia; Tomasello, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Several investigations document altered emotion processing in opiate addiction. Nevertheless, the origin of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here we examined the role of alexithymia in the ability (i.e., number of errors—accuracy and reaction times—RTs) of thirty-one heroin addicts and thirty-one healthy controls to detect several affective expressions. Results show generally lower accuracy and higher RTs in the recognition of facial expressions of emotions for patients, compared to controls. The hierarchical multivariate regression analysis shows that alexithymia might be responsible of the between groups difference with respect to the RTs in emotion detection. Overall, we provide new insights in the clinical interpretation of affective deficits in heroin addicts suggesting a role of alexithymia in their ability to recognize emotions. PMID:27069803

  16. Impaired emotion recognition is linked to alexithymia in heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Craparo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio; Dell'Aera, Stefano; Costanzo, Giulia; Fasciano, Silvia; Tomasello, Antonia; Vicario, Carmelo M

    2016-01-01

    Several investigations document altered emotion processing in opiate addiction. Nevertheless, the origin of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here we examined the role of alexithymia in the ability (i.e., number of errors-accuracy and reaction times-RTs) of thirty-one heroin addicts and thirty-one healthy controls to detect several affective expressions. Results show generally lower accuracy and higher RTs in the recognition of facial expressions of emotions for patients, compared to controls. The hierarchical multivariate regression analysis shows that alexithymia might be responsible of the between groups difference with respect to the RTs in emotion detection. Overall, we provide new insights in the clinical interpretation of affective deficits in heroin addicts suggesting a role of alexithymia in their ability to recognize emotions. PMID:27069803

  17. Subclinical alexithymia modulates early audio-visual perceptive and attentional event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have highlighted the advantage of using audio–visual oddball tasks (instead of unimodal ones) in order to electrophysiologically index subclinical behavioral differences. Since alexithymia is highly prevalent in the general population, we investigated whether the use of various bimodal tasks could elicit emotional effects in low- vs. high-alexithymic scorers. Methods: Fifty students (33 females and 17 males) were split into groups based on low and high scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). During event-related potential (ERP) recordings, they were exposed to three kinds of audio–visual oddball tasks: neutral-AVN—(geometrical forms and bips), animal-AVA—(dog and cock with their respective shouts), or emotional-AVE—(faces and voices) stimuli. In each condition, participants were asked to quickly detect deviant events occurring amongst a train of repeated and frequent matching stimuli (e.g., push a button when a sad face–voice pair appeared amongst a train of neutral face–voice pairs). P100, N100, and P300 components were analyzed: P100 refers to visual perceptive and attentional processing, N100 to auditory ones, and the P300 relates to response-related stages, involving memory processes. Results: High-alexithymic scorers presented a particular pattern of results when processing the emotional stimulations, reflected in early ERP components by increased P100 and N100 amplitudes in the emotional oddball tasks [P100: F(2, 48) = 20,319, p < 0.001; N100: F(2, 96) = 8,807, p = 0.001] as compared to the animal or neutral ones. Indeed, regarding the P100, subjects exhibited a higher amplitude in the AVE condition (8.717 μV), which was significantly different from that observed during the AVN condition (4.382 μV, p < 0.001). For the N100, the highest amplitude was found in the AVE condition (−4.035 μV) and the lowest was observed in the AVN condition (−2.687 μV, p = 0.003). However, no effect was found on the

  18. Deliberate self-harm in substance-dependent patients and relationship with alexithymia and personality disorders: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Verrocchio, M C; Conti, C; Fulcheri, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study Is to evaluate differences in the prevalence of deliberate self-harm (DSH), alexithymia, and clinical personality patterns and syndromes between treatment-seeking substance-dependents and a comparison group, and to investigate the relationship of DSH with alexithymia, and personality disorders. One hundred and fifty-four subjects participated in the study (77 substance-dependent inpatients and 77 comparison group). DSM-IV diagnoses of substance dependence were made by the clinicians of the Addiction Services following assessment that included clinical observation. Participants were evaluated by the Deliberate Self Harm Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. An Identifying Information Form was used to collect demographic information (e.g. age, educational history, marital status, and employment status). Only to the clinical sample information was added on: types of substance used, age at first substance use, age at regular substance use, and previous treatment attempts. Significant group differences were found for all measures (DSH, TAS-20, MCMI-III). Among substance-dependent patients there was a significant difference between groups with and without DSH in terms of previous treatment attempts, Hypomania and Borderline personality disorder. DSH were significantly correlated with difficulty in identifying feelings in all cases in both the comparison group and in the personality disorders group, and with difficulty describing feelings in the personality disorders group. Personality disorder and drug dependency were predictors for DSH. This study suggests that treatment of substance-dependents should involve screening for deliberate self-harm behavior, difficulty identifying and describing feelings, and personality disorders. Probably, when these problems are detected, specific psychological intervention should be integrated to usual treatment for substance-dependent patients. PMID:21122286

  19. Greening the Toronto District School Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Emily

    2002-01-01

    The Toronto District School Board (Ontario) established a department of environmental education to lighten the school board's impact on the environment and to increase ecological literacy among students. School programs have been developed in the areas of eco-literacy, energy conservation, waste management, and school yard greening. One program…

  20. University of Toronto: Marketing from Scratch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mun, Almira

    2008-01-01

    Established in 1827, the University of Toronto is regarded as one of Canada's leading academic and research institutions. It has the highest number of students (both undergraduate and graduate), the most faculty members, and the widest range of courses among Canadian universities. It has often been referred to as the "Harvard of the North" because…

  1. Emotion recognition deficits in eating disorders are explained by co-occurring alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Rebecca; Cook, Richard; Cardi, Valentina; Treasure, Janet; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has yielded inconsistent findings regarding the ability of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) to recognize facial emotion, making the clinical features of this population hard to determine. This study tested the hypothesis that where observed, emotion recognition deficits exhibited by patients with EDs are due to alexithymia, a co-occurring condition also associated with emotion recognition difficulties. Ability to recognize facial emotion was investigated in a sample of individuals with EDs and varying degrees of co-occurring alexithymia, and an alexithymia-matched control group. Alexithymia, but not ED symptomology, was predictive of individuals' emotion recognition ability, inferred from tolerance to high-frequency visual noise. This relationship was specific to emotion recognition, as neither alexithymia nor ED symptomology was associated with ability to recognize facial identity. These findings suggest that emotion recognition difficulties exhibited by patients with ED are attributable to alexithymia, and may not be a feature of EDs per se. PMID:26064585

  2. The Relationships between Early Trauma, Dissociation, and Alexithymia in Alcohol Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ardino, Vittoria; Gori, Alessio; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Addiction is often considered a dissociative behavior that is related to alexithymia and developmental trauma. The study aims were to explore the relationships between early trauma, alexithymia, and dissociation. Methods A total of 117 (males=60; females=57) alcohol-addicted individuals and 117 healthy individuals (males=60; females=57) were administered a series of self-report questionnaires that assess traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and pathological dissociation. Results Correlation analyses indicated significant correlations between alexithymia, dissociation, and trauma and a significant difference between the target and control groups, with higher alexithymia and dissociation scores in the target group. Conclusion These findings suggest that trauma, alexithymia, and dissociation are predictors of alcohol addiction. PMID:25110508

  3. I don't know how I feel, therefore I act: alexithymia, urgency, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hanako; Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between alexithymia, impulsivity, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 429 undergraduate students who reported drinking alcohol at least once in the past 3 months. Negative urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, whereas positive urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol consumption. In addition, positive urgency moderated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, increasing the strength of this association. These results indicate distinct relationships between alexithymia and negative urgency and positive urgency in predicting alcohol consumption and related problems. The findings of this research contribute to the body of the literature on alexithymia, self-regulation, and etiology of alcohol misuse and related consequences. Furthermore, the findings of the current study provide support for the importance of emotion identification and expression skills training in substance abuse treatment. PMID:23384454

  4. Loss-Chasing, Alexithymia, and Impulsivity in a Gambling Task: Alexithymia as a Precursor to Loss-Chasing Behavior When Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between loss-chasing, the propensity to continue gambling to recover from losses, alexithymia, a personality trait associated poor emotional processing and impulsivity, the tendency to act quickly without reflection or consideration of the consequences. Method: Two experiments are reported (E1: N = 60, Males, 11; Age, 21.6 years. E2: N = 49, Males, 22; Age, 21.1 years). In experiment 1, two groups (low alexithymia, high alexithymia) completed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). Loss-chasing behavior was investigated. In experiment 2, both alexithymia (low, high) and impulsivity (low, high) were examined also using the CGT. A further change was the order of bet proportion from ascending to descending. Results: Experiment 1 shows loss-chasing behavior in participants high in alexithymia but not those low in alexithymia (ηp2=0.09). Experiment 2 shows loss-chasing behavior in participants both low and high in alexithymia but it was greater for participants high in alexithymia (ηp2 = 0.09). The effect of impulsivity was not statistically significant (ηp2 = 0.01). Loss-chasing behavior was correlated with the emotional facets of alexithymia but not the cognitive facet. Conclusions: Alexithymia is a precursor to loss-chasing when gambling and loss-chasing reflects the cognitive and emotional aspects of gambling. Specifically, the tendency to loss-chase depends on the need to recoup previous losses and failure to process the emotional consequences of those losses. PMID:26834676

  5. Visceral larva migrans (toxocariasis) in Toronto.

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, M; Hill, A; Langer, H M; Keystone, J S

    1981-01-01

    A 7-year-old child was admitted to Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children in 1976 with symptoms and laboratory findings compatible with visceral larva migrans, a disease usually caused by Toxocara canis. This prompted a search for other cases seen at the hospital during the period 1952 through 1978. Only 18 cases were discovered that met at least three of six criteria and thus were considered possible or probably cases of the disease. Three possible cases of ocular toxocariasis during the same period were also uncovered. Fever was the commonest presenting symptom. Eosinophilia, leukocytosis and hyperglobulinemia were the most frequent laboratory findings. In view of the small number of cases found in 27 years at this large pediatric hospital with a broad referral base, it is concluded that visceral larva migrans poses little risk to the health of children in the Toronto area. PMID:7459767

  6. Acid aerosol transport episodes in Toronto, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.D. . Inst. of Environmental Medicine); Waldman, J. )

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the pollution data collected during a 1986 field study in order to assess the nature and sources of acidic aerosols in the Toronto metropolitan area during this period. Through the examination of the continuous and filter aerosol data, isobaric back-trajectories of air masses, weather maps, and available trace element data, assessment are made of the character and possible sources of acid aerosols in this Southern Ontario city.

  7. Alexithymia in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Its Relationship to Internalising Difficulties, Sensory Modulation and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Carter Leno, Virginia; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Jones, Catherine R.; Erskine, Catherine; Charman, Tony; Happé, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait frequently found in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and has been linked to impairments in emotion recognition and empathy. The presentation of alexithymia within ASD at younger ages remains unexplored, and was examined in the present study. Alexithymia rates were significantly elevated in ASD (55%;…

  8. Toronto Residents' Exposure to Ultrafine Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaliauskas, Kelly Maria

    In urban areas, ultrafine particles (UFP: defined as particulate matter with diameters less than 100nm) are emitted in significant quantities from vehicles and form through a complex series of secondary reactions in the atmosphere. Large uncertainties surrounding the long-term behaviour and spatial distribution of UFP in urban areas have been a significant obstacle for exposure assessment. This research examined one of the longest existing urban UFP data sets, collected at a roadside location in downtown Toronto. Between 2006 and 2011, the concentration of particles with diameters <50nm and 50-100nm decreased by 21% and 17%, respectively. This reduction in concentration was attributed to changes in the vehicle fleet and reduced usage of coal-fired power plants for electricity generation. In addition, this research found that the shape of the particle size distribution exhibited distinct temporal and spatial behaviour suggesting that a single monitoring station does not provide sufficient information about UFP for an entire urban area. This investigation also produced a land-use regression model that was used to estimate the range of concentrations that exist across Toronto during the summer months. The highest concentrations were consistently observed near the downtown core and around highways and industrial areas. Finally, this work provides a foundation for future field studies in Toronto.

  9. Abnormalities in Automatic Processing of Illness-Related Stimuli in Self-Rated Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Laura; Pintzinger, Nina M.; Tran, Ulrich S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate abnormalities in automatic information processing related to self- and observer-rated alexithymia, especially with regard to somatization, controlling for confounding variables such as depression and affect. Sample 89 healthy subjects (60% female), aged 19–71 years (M = 32.1). 58 subjects were additionally rated by an observer. Measures Alexithymia (self-rating: TAS-20, observer rating: OAS); automatic information processing (priming task including verbal [illness-related, negative, positive, neutral] and facial [negative, positive, neutral] stimuli); somatoform symptoms (SOMS-7T); confounders: depression (BDI), affect (PANAS). Results Higher self-reported alexithymia scores were associated with lower reaction times for negative (r = .19, p < .10) and positive (r = .26, p < .05) verbal primes when the target was illness-related. Self-reported alexithymia was correlated with number (r = .42, p < .01) and intensity of current somatoform symptoms (r = .36, p < .01), but unrelated to observer-rated alexithymia (r = .11, p = .42). Discussion Results indicate a faster allocation of attentional resources away from task-irrelevant information towards illness-related stimuli in alexithymia. Considering the close relationship between alexithymia and somatization, these findings are compatible with the theoretical view that alexithymics focus strongly on bodily sensations of emotional arousal. A single observer rating (OAS) does not seem to be an adequate alexithymia-measure in community samples. PMID:26090893

  10. Delinquency in Male Adolescents: The Role of Alexithymia and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Gregoire

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and…

  11. Mixed emotions: the contribution of alexithymia to the emotional symptoms of autism.

    PubMed

    Bird, G; Cook, R

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that autism is associated with disordered emotion processing and, in particular, with deficits of emotional reciprocity such as impaired emotion recognition and reduced empathy. However, a close examination of the literature reveals wide heterogeneity within the autistic population with respect to emotional competence. Here we argue that, where observed, emotional impairments are due to alexithymia-a condition that frequently co-occurs with autism-rather than a feature of autism per se. Alexithymia is a condition characterized by a reduced ability to identify and describe one's own emotion, but which results in reduced empathy and an impaired ability to recognize the emotions of others. We briefly review studies of emotion processing in alexithymia, and in autism, before describing a recent series of studies directly testing this 'alexithymia hypothesis'. If found to be correct, the alexithymia hypothesis has wide-reaching implications for the study of autism, and how we might best support subgroups of autistic individuals with, and without, accompanying alexithymia. Finally, we note the presence of elevated rates of alexithymia, and inconsistent reports of emotional impairments, in eating disorders, schizophrenia, substance abuse, Parkinson's Disease, multiple sclerosis and anxiety disorders. We speculate that examining the contribution of alexithymia to the emotional symptoms of these disorders may bear fruit in the same way that it is starting to do in autism. PMID:23880881

  12. Alexithymia, Coping Styles and Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Sample of Veterans Who Experienced Military Sexual Trauma.

    PubMed

    Gaher, Raluca M; O'Brien, Carol; Smiley, Paul; Hahn, Austin M

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined the association between alexithymia and coping styles (planning, positive reinterpretation and growth, social-emotion coping, and denial), and trauma symptoms in a clinical sample of 170 male and female veterans who experienced sexual trauma during military service. Denial was the only coping style positively associated with trauma symptoms, and it mediated the relationship between alexithymia and trauma symptoms. Alexithymia was negatively associated with planning. Likewise, alexithymia was negatively associated with social-emotional coping and with positive reinterpretation and growth. The results speak to the significant role that alexithymia has in predicting individual coping styles. PMID:25393043

  13. Training in Toronto's "New Economy"=La formation dans la "nouvelle" economie de Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspectives Series document includes statements about the new economy in Toronto made by four participants in a March 2001 forum. The new economy was defined by the moderator as "an economy that emphasizes knowledge and technical processes put to the production of goods and other outputs so that an individual's knowledge is viewed…

  14. Road salt movement into two Toronto streams

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.S.

    1980-06-01

    De-icing salts utilized to clear roadways during the winter in Toronto, Canada, are found to contribute to stream pollution. Two streams were investigated to observe the temporal and spatial movement of such salts. In the early stages of thaw periods, large increases in stream chloride were detected immediately downstream from road crossing points. Concentration was more uniform during the latter stages of thaws. Urban areas were characterized by a more rapid and complete removal of salt. Accumulation of snow and ice in roadside ditches in rural areas inhibits the movement of salt. (10 graphs, 1 map, 12 references, 4 tables)

  15. Graffiti Art: A Contemporary Study of Toronto Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Tracey E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines six graffiti artists in Toronto (Canada) who had formal art education at either the senior secondary or postsecondary level through tape-recorded interviews. Focuses on who they are, their views of the graffiti community in Toronto, the relationship between their artwork and education, and whom they each perceive as their audience. (CMK)

  16. The New Politics of Outdoor Education in the New Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Since January 1998, when six former Metro Toronto (Ontario) school boards were consolidated into one board, Toronto's outdoor education centers have experienced restructuring, work stoppages, strikes, relocation, and threats of closure. Outdoor education advocates must form a new united group, preferably from the bottom up, to lobby for adequate…

  17. Towards the Multi-Cultural School - Lessons from Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A multicultural program has been developed in Toronto's (Canada) non-Catholic public school system to accord a place to students' home cultures and to directly confront racism. Includes comments on Toronto Board of Education's policy on race and ethnic relations. (Author/JN)

  18. Understanding the role of personality and alexithymia in food preferences and PROP taste perception.

    PubMed

    Robino, Antonietta; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Pirastu, Nicola; La Bianca, Martina; Gasparini, Paolo; Carlino, Davide; Tepper, Beverly J

    2016-04-01

    Taste perception and food preferences are influenced by a variety of factors, including personality characteristics. The aims of this study were to examine the role of personality characteristics, such as alexithymia (a personality construct characterized by inability to identify, describe, and work with one's own feelings), in: 1) taste responses to the bitter genetic taste-marker PROP and 2) food liking. We studied 649 healthy subjects residing in six genetically-isolated villages of Northeast Italy. Data on PROP taste responsiveness, food liking, personality characteristics and TAS2R28 genotypes were collected. Results showed that PROP non-tasters had higher alexithymia scores than PROP tasters. Moreover, the presence of alexithymia in heterozygous individuals for the rs1726886 polymorphism of the TAS2R38 gene was associated with a reduction in the perceived intensity of PROP. Finally, higher alexithymia scores were associated with liking of alcohol, sweets and fats/meats whereas lower alexithymia scores were related to liking of vegetables, condiments and strong cheeses, Measures of temperament, character, anxiety and depression were also related to food liking. Our findings suggest that: 1) alexithymia, in addition to the TAS2R38 polymorphism, may play a role in responsiveness to the aversive and bitter taste of PROP; and 2) alexithymia, in combination with other personality traits, may provide important insights for better understanding food liking. PMID:26805725

  19. Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems. PMID:23244192

  20. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events in alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Starita, Francesca; Làdavas, Elisabetta; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties in different domains of emotion processing, especially in relation to negative emotions. Nevertheless, its causal mechanisms remain elusive. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events might be one such mechanism because it enables the individual to prepare to respond effectively to coming events. To test this, changes in skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during classical fear conditioning in sixty participants with high (HA), medium (MA) and low (LA) levels of alexithymia. Two coloured squares were presented, one was reinforced with a mild electrical stimulation (CS+) while the other was never reinforced (CS−). Critically, despite all groups showing higher SCR to CS+ compared to CS−, SCR to CS+ was lower and extinguished earlier in HA compared to MA and LA. These differences appeared to be attributable neither to differences in the intensity of stimulation received, nor to SCR to the stimulation itself. Groups showed comparable SCR to CS− as well. Therefore, HA exhibited decreased anticipation of the occurrence of a negative emotional event. Disruption of this mechanism may then compromise effective emotion recognition, emotional response and response regulation, which characterise HA, and represent a unifying causal mechanism underlying the difficulties in emotion processing of this group. PMID:27278856

  1. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Starita, Francesca; Làdavas, Elisabetta; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties in different domains of emotion processing, especially in relation to negative emotions. Nevertheless, its causal mechanisms remain elusive. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events might be one such mechanism because it enables the individual to prepare to respond effectively to coming events. To test this, changes in skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during classical fear conditioning in sixty participants with high (HA), medium (MA) and low (LA) levels of alexithymia. Two coloured squares were presented, one was reinforced with a mild electrical stimulation (CS+) while the other was never reinforced (CS-). Critically, despite all groups showing higher SCR to CS+ compared to CS-, SCR to CS+ was lower and extinguished earlier in HA compared to MA and LA. These differences appeared to be attributable neither to differences in the intensity of stimulation received, nor to SCR to the stimulation itself. Groups showed comparable SCR to CS- as well. Therefore, HA exhibited decreased anticipation of the occurrence of a negative emotional event. Disruption of this mechanism may then compromise effective emotion recognition, emotional response and response regulation, which characterise HA, and represent a unifying causal mechanism underlying the difficulties in emotion processing of this group. PMID:27278856

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in College Students: The Complex Interplay between Alexithymia, Emotional Dysregulation and Rumination

    PubMed Central

    Reupert, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Both Emotional Cascade Theory and Linehan’s Biosocial Theory suggest dysregulated behaviors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) emerge, in part, because of cycles of rumination, poor emotional recognition and poor emotion regulation. In this study we examined relationships between rumination, alexithymia, and emotion regulation in predicting dysregulated behaviors associated with BPD (e.g. self-harm, substance use, aggression), and explored both indirect and moderating effects among these variables. The sample comprised 2261 college students who completed self-report measures of the aforementioned constructs. BPD symptoms, stress, family psychological illness, and alexithymia exerted direct effects on behaviors. Symptoms had an indirect effect on behaviors through rumination, alexithymia and emotional dysregulation. In addition, the relationship between symptoms and dysregulated behaviors was conditional on level of rumination and alexithymia. Implications for early identification and treatment of BPD and related behaviors in college settings are discussed. PMID:27348858

  3. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in College Students: The Complex Interplay between Alexithymia, Emotional Dysregulation and Rumination.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Rebecca; Hasking, Penelope; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Both Emotional Cascade Theory and Linehan's Biosocial Theory suggest dysregulated behaviors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) emerge, in part, because of cycles of rumination, poor emotional recognition and poor emotion regulation. In this study we examined relationships between rumination, alexithymia, and emotion regulation in predicting dysregulated behaviors associated with BPD (e.g. self-harm, substance use, aggression), and explored both indirect and moderating effects among these variables. The sample comprised 2261 college students who completed self-report measures of the aforementioned constructs. BPD symptoms, stress, family psychological illness, and alexithymia exerted direct effects on behaviors. Symptoms had an indirect effect on behaviors through rumination, alexithymia and emotional dysregulation. In addition, the relationship between symptoms and dysregulated behaviors was conditional on level of rumination and alexithymia. Implications for early identification and treatment of BPD and related behaviors in college settings are discussed. PMID:27348858

  4. [Diagnosis of alexithymia in the workplace: definition and validation of an instrument].

    PubMed

    Catalano, S; Blandi, P; Miragliotta, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide, to develop and validate, a new instrument for measuring alexithymia in the workplace. To develop and validate the MAQ in the Italian population, verifying its psychometric properties, we involved 585 participants, ranged from 16 to 33 of age, divided by gender and level of schooling. All participants completed MAQ which contained 108 items, and then Principal Components Analysis with Oblimin rotation was elaborated to understand latent structure of alexithymia. The study showed Alexithymia is composed by five dimensions: (1) difficulty to communicate, (2) to identify emotions, (3) and to manage time such as a coping style, (4) diffident attachment, (5) and pragmatic way to think. The psychometric properties of MAQ and internal consistency were demonstrated to be robust. Reliability analysis by Alpha was significant. Hence, MAQ could be useful in evaluating of the main traits involved in Alexithymia. PMID:18575360

  5. The impact of autism spectrum disorder and alexithymia on judgments of moral acceptability.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Rebecca; Marsh, Abigail A; Catmur, Caroline; Cardinale, Elise M; Stoycos, Sarah; Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    One's own emotional response toward a hypothetical action can influence judgments of its moral acceptability. Some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit atypical emotional processing, and moral judgments. Research suggests, however, that emotional deficits in ASD are due to co-occurring alexithymia, meaning atypical moral judgments in ASD may be due to alexithymia also. Individuals with and without ASD (matched for alexithymia) judged the moral acceptability of emotion-evoking statements and identified the emotion evoked. Moral acceptability judgments were predicted by alexithymia. Crucially, however, this relationship held only for individuals without ASD. While ASD diagnostic status did not directly predict either judgment, those with ASD did not base their moral acceptability judgments on emotional information. Findings are consistent with evidence demonstrating that decision-making is less subject to emotional biases in those with ASD. PMID:26375827

  6. Metabolic mapping reveals sex-dependent involvement of default mode and salience network in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Colic, L; Demenescu, L R; Li, M; Kaufmann, J; Krause, A L; Metzger, C; Walter, M

    2016-02-01

    Alexithymia, a personality construct marked by difficulties in processing one's emotions, has been linked to the altered activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Although longitudinal studies reported sex differences in alexithymia, what mediates them is not known. To investigate sex-specific associations of alexithymia and neuronal markers, we mapped metabolites in four brain regions involved differentially in emotion processing using a point-resolved spectroscopy MRS sequence in 3 Tesla. Both sexes showed negative correlations between alexithymia and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in pregenual ACC (pgACC). Women showed a robust negative correlation of the joint measure of glutamate and glutamine (Glx) to NAA in posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), whereas men showed a weak positive association of Glx to NAA in dorsal ACC (dACC). Our results suggest that lowered neuronal integrity in pgACC, a region of the default mode network (DMN), might primarily account for the general difficulties in emotional processing in alexithymia. Association of alexithymia in women extends to another region in the DMN-PCC, while in men a region in the salience network (SN) was involved. These observations could be representative of sex specific regulation strategies that include diminished internal evaluation of feelings in women and cognitive emotion suppression in men. PMID:26341904

  7. The Sound of Feelings: Electrophysiological Responses to Emotional Speech in Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Background Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in the cognitive processing of emotions (cognitive dimension) and in the experience of emotions (affective dimension). Previous research focused mainly on visual emotional processing in the cognitive alexithymia dimension. We investigated the impact of both alexithymia dimensions on electrophysiological responses to emotional speech in 60 female subjects. Methodology During unattended processing, subjects watched a movie while an emotional prosody oddball paradigm was presented in the background. During attended processing, subjects detected deviants in emotional prosody. The cognitive alexithymia dimension was associated with a left-hemisphere bias during early stages of unattended emotional speech processing, and with generally reduced amplitudes of the late P3 component during attended processing. In contrast, the affective dimension did not modulate unattended emotional prosody perception, but was associated with reduced P3 amplitudes during attended processing particularly to emotional prosody spoken in high intensity. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a dissociable impact of the two alexithymia dimensions on electrophysiological responses during the attended and unattended processing of emotional prosody. The observed electrophysiological modulations are indicative of a reduced sensitivity to the emotional qualities of speech, which may be a contributing factor to problems in interpersonal communication associated with alexithymia. PMID:22615853

  8. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS SOIL RECYCLING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC), conducted a Superfund InnovativeTechnology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration of the THC Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The treatment train consists of three technologies op...

  9. The role of Toronto urban emissions in regional ozone episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiude; Roussel, Pascal B.; Meld, Octavio T.; Selorio, Percy M.

    To study the impact of the Greater Toronto urban emissions on O 3 levels in southern Ontario, the ambient ozone measurements made in Ontario during the time period of 1979-1988 were analysed. Statistics indicate an O 3 depression associated with the Greater Toronto urban plume under the conditions of regional O 3 episodes. An analysis of the 03 data at Dorset and Stouffville, two rural monitoring sites on the NE to NNE side of Toronto, with screening based on wind measurements, shows a possible negative impact of the Greater Toronto urban plume on the O 3 levels at 40 km downwind under regional episodic conditions. On average, the impact led to an O 3 depression of ˜ 22-27 ppbv within the Greater Toronto urban plume in comparison with the background air. A photochemical transport model was used further to investigate the impact of the Greater Toronto's anthropogenic emissions on O 3 levels downwind. The model includes a photochemical module, a vertical transport module and a horizontal mixing algorithm. Two sets of initial conditions were derived by running the model in the Eulerian mode, and by adjusting emissions to fit the ambient measurements of O 3, NO x and NMHCs under regional episodic conditions. The adjusted anthropogenic emission rates for the Greater Toronto urban area were 72.4 and 83.3 % of their original 1985 inventory values for NO x and NMHCs, respectively. The adjustment may reflect the uncertainties in the emissions inventory. Diurnal variations of the species at virtual receptors located at different downwind distances from Toronto were calculated by running the model following 25 plume puffs consecutively released at 60-minute intervals. The calculated O 3 depression at 40 km downwind is in good agreement with the historical ambient data. Calculated spatial distributions of the daily maximum O 3 levels indicate that, under the regional episodic conditions, there is an 03 depression of about 20 ppbv extending from the Greater Toronto urban core

  10. Atypical trait inferences from facial cues in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Rebecca; Collins, Fredrika; Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-10-01

    It is often difficult to distinguish strangers' permanent facial shapes from their transient facial expressions, for example, whether they are scowling or have narrow-set eyes. Overinterpretation of ambiguous cues may contribute to the rapid character judgments we make about others. Someone with narrow eyes might be judged untrustworthy, because of strong associations between facial anger and threat. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the trait judgments made by individuals with severe alexithymia, associated with impaired recognition of facial emotion. Consistent with the hypothesis, alexithymic participants demonstrated reduced interrater consistency when judging the character traits of unfamiliar faces, and the presence of subtle emotions. Nevertheless, where alexithymics perceived, or misperceived, emotion cues, the character traits inferred thereafter were broadly typical. The finding that individuals with developmental deficits of emotion recognition exhibit atypical attribution of character traits, confirms the hypothesis that emotion-recognition mechanisms play a causal role in character judgments. PMID:25867918

  11. Hearing Feelings: Affective Categorization of Music and Speech in Alexithymia, an ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Witteman, Jurriaan; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2011-01-01

    Background Alexithymia, a condition characterized by deficits in interpreting and regulating feelings, is a risk factor for a variety of psychiatric conditions. Little is known about how alexithymia influences the processing of emotions in music and speech. Appreciation of such emotional qualities in auditory material is fundamental to human experience and has profound consequences for functioning in daily life. We investigated the neural signature of such emotional processing in alexithymia by means of event-related potentials. Methodology Affective music and speech prosody were presented as targets following affectively congruent or incongruent visual word primes in two conditions. In two further conditions, affective music and speech prosody served as primes and visually presented words with affective connotations were presented as targets. Thirty-two participants (16 male) judged the affective valence of the targets. We tested the influence of alexithymia on cross-modal affective priming and on N400 amplitudes, indicative of individual sensitivity to an affective mismatch between words, prosody, and music. Our results indicate that the affective priming effect for prosody targets tended to be reduced with increasing scores on alexithymia, while no behavioral differences were observed for music and word targets. At the electrophysiological level, alexithymia was associated with significantly smaller N400 amplitudes in response to affectively incongruent music and speech targets, but not to incongruent word targets. Conclusions Our results suggest a reduced sensitivity for the emotional qualities of speech and music in alexithymia during affective categorization. This deficit becomes evident primarily in situations in which a verbalization of emotional information is required. PMID:21573026

  12. Predictors for DSM-5 nonsuicidal self-injury in female adolescent inpatients: The role of childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Lüdtke, Janine; In-Albon, Tina; Michel, Chantal; Schmid, Marc

    2016-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between various adverse childhood experiences, alexithymia, and dissociation in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in an inpatient sample of female adolescents. Seventy-two adolescents (aged 14-18 years) with NSSI disorder (n=46) or mental disorders without NSSI (n=26) completed diagnostic interviews and self-report measures to assess NSSI disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria, childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation. Alexithymia and dissociation were highly prevalent in both study groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only alexithymia was a significant predictor for NSSI, whereas childhood maltreatment and dissociation had no predictive influence. The association between alexithymia and NSSI emphasizes the significance of emotion regulation training for female adolescents with NSSI. Efforts to reduce NSSI behavior should therefore foster skills to heighten the perception and recognition of one's own emotions. PMID:27088878

  13. Alexithymia in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Its Relationship to Internalising Difficulties, Sensory Modulation and Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Carter Leno, Virginia; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Jones, Catherine R G; Erskine, Catherine; Charman, Tony; Happé, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait frequently found in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and has been linked to impairments in emotion recognition and empathy. The presentation of alexithymia within ASD at younger ages remains unexplored, and was examined in the present study. Alexithymia rates were significantly elevated in ASD (55%; 31/56 scoring above cut-off) versus non-ASD adolescents (16%; 5/32 scoring above cut-off). Within individuals with ASD, alexithymia was associated with increased self-reported anxiety, parent-reported emotional difficulties, self-reported sensory processing atypicalities, and poorer emotion recognition, but was not associated with theory of mind ability. Overall, our results suggest that alexithymia is highly prevalent, and has selective cognitive correlates in young people with ASD. PMID:26659552

  14. Cognitive Alexithymia Mediates the Association Between Avoidant Attachment and Interpersonal Problems in Patients With Somatoform Disorder.

    PubMed

    Koelen, Jurrijn A; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Liesbeth H M; Kempke, Stefan

    2016-08-17

    Patients with somatoform disorder (SFD) are characterized by the presence of chronic physical complaints that are not fully explained by a general medical condition or another mental disorder. Insecure attachment patterns are common in this patient group, which are often associated with interpersonal difficulties. In the present study, the mediational role of two types of alexithymia and negative affectivity (NA) was examined in the association between attachment styles and interpersonal problems in a group of 120 patients with SFD. Patients were requested to fill out several self-report questionnaires for the assessment of attachment strategies, alexithymia, NA, and interpersonal problems. Cognitive alexithymia (i.e., the inability to identify and verbalize emotions) mediated the relationship between avoidant attachment patterns and interpersonal problems, even after controlling for NA. Preliminary findings also suggested that NA acted as a moderator of the mediator cognitive alexithymia. These results have important implications for clinical practice, as this study clearly shows that interpersonal problems do not automatically follow from insecure attachment strategies, but are contingent upon alexithymic features. It is recommended to target alexithymic features in patients with SFD, particularly in the context of negative emotions. Therefore, cognitive alexithymia may be an important therapeutic focus, specifically in the treatment of avoidant ptients with SFD. PMID:27185015

  15. Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation. PMID:26318149

  16. Accounting for the associations between child maltreatment and internalizing problems: The role of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Stone, Katie; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing difficulties are one of the most widely documented consequences of child maltreatment. However, there is a need for studies delineating the factors that account for this association. Despite research showing that alexithymia is associated with both child maltreatment and internalizing problems, the role of alexithymia in the link between child maltreatment and internalizing problems has not received much attention in the literature. The current study evaluated whether a history of child maltreatment was associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness in emerging adulthood, and whether alexithymia partially accounted for these associations. Participants included 339 emerging adults ranging between 18 and 25 years of age (M=19.00, SD=1.26, 51.3% male). Exposure to child maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and loneliness symptoms. Tests of indirect effects suggested that associations between emotional neglect and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness were partially explained by alexithymia. However, alexithymia did not account for any other associations between the remaining four maltreatment types and internalizing problems. Findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the factors that might account for associations between child maltreatment and internalizing difficulties. Future directions and implications for interventions are reviewed. PMID:26774529

  17. Cost of severe haemophilia in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Heemstra, H E; Zwaan, T; Hemels, M; Feldman, B M; Blanchette, V; Kern, M; Einarson, T R

    2005-05-01

    Our objective was to determine costs and trends in treating boys with severe haemophilia A before our centre routinely used prophylaxis. One reviewer extracted data from patient charts to determine resource consumption for 17 boys with severe haemophilia A from 1978 to 1998 at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children. Resources included factor concentrate, doctors and health care professionals (physiotherapists/social workers), tests (laboratory, radiological and diagnostic) and hospitalizations. Subgroup analysis on those patients infected with HIV and/or hepatitis were also performed. Costs in Canadian Dollars were taken from standard lists and discounted at 3%. Total average cost (range) 62 292 dollars (3339-121 738) per year patient(-1); the largest fraction, 59 910 dollars (3103-119 480), 96.2% was accounted for by factor VIII. Hospitalizations accounted for 1832 dollars (0-5217) per patient year(-1) including drugs, nursing care and stay. Doctor and health care professionals visits averaged 252 dollars (36-462) and 72 dollars (0-175) per patient year(-1), laboratory and other tests cost 201 dollars (22-377) and 26 dollars (2-60) per patient year(-1), respectively. The average number of bleeds was 12.9 (2.0-22.0) per patient year(-1), decreasing since 1977 by 0.68 per patient year(-1) (R(2) = 0.56). Hospitalizations averaged 0.22 (0-4) per patient year(-1), lasting 2.3 days. From 1984, hospitalizations decreased by 0.025 patient(-1) year(-1) (R(2) = 0.76). Concurrently, the average treatment costs increased by 5456 dollars patient(-1) year(-1) (R(2) = 0.81). Clotting factor concentrate cost per patient increased by 5521 dollars year(-1) (R(2) = 0.82). Patients with virally transmitted diseases had considerable higher costs. The cost per year was substantial. Costs increased with virally transmitted diseases. Number of bleeds and hospitalizations over the period of study decreased and costs increased because of factor use in secondary prophylaxis. PMID:15876271

  18. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  19. The Contribution of Alexithymia to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms Dimensions: An Investigation in a Large Community Sample in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pozza, Andrea; Giaquinta, Nicoletta; Dèttore, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Poor attention has been dedicated to the relation between Alexithymia and specific OCD symptoms dimensions. Knowledge about which Alexithymia domains are the most affected ones in OCD dimensions could inform clinical practice, suggesting the need for the introduction of psychotherapeutic interventions targeting Alexithymia deficits. The current study aimed to investigate which OCD symptom dimension correlated with Alexithymia domains. A total of 425 community individuals (mean age = 27.80, SD = 9.89, 60% women) completed measures of Alexithymia, OCD symptoms dimensions, anxiety, and depression. Moderate correlations emerged between Difficulty Identifying Feelings and Hoarding (r = .36, p < .001) and Checking symptoms (r = .34, p < .001) and between Difficulty Describing Feelings and Pure Obsessing (r = .31, p < .001). Difficulty Identifying Feelings uniquely predicted OCD symptoms (β = 0.20, t = 3.96, and p < .001), after controlling for anxiety and depression. A main effect emerged of Alexithymia on Ordering (β = 0.70, t = 2.50, p < .05) and Pure Obsessing symptoms (β = 0.043, t = 2.08, and p < .05). Psychotherapeutic interventions specifically targeting Alexithymia should be integrated in the treatment of Ordering and Pure Obsessing symptoms. Difficulty Identifying Feelings and Difficulty Describing Feelings should be addressed in the psychotherapeutic treatment of Hoarding, Checking, and Pure Obsessing, respectively. PMID:26425542

  20. The Intervening Role of Alexithymia in the Relationship between Attachment Styles and Test Anxiety among Gifted High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Sepahvand, Esfandiar; Rafieian, Keivan; Roumani, Saeid; Komasi, Saeid; Reshadat, Soheyla

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the importance of test anxiety among gifted students, the present study was conducted to assess the intervening role of alexithymia in the relationship between test anxiety and attachment styles. Methods By means of simple random sampling, 300 participants were selected out of all the students at two high schools in Khorramabad, which are affiliated with the Iranian National Organization for Development of Exceptional Talents (SAMPAD). Test anxiety, alexithymia, and attachment style questionnaires were used for data collection. Pearson correlation and path analysis tests were used to analyze the data. Results The results showed a positive relationship between test anxiety and avoidant and anxious attachment styles. Alexithymia and test anxiety were also positively related. Moreover, the results indicated that 12% of changes in test anxiety were explained by avoidant and anxious attachment styles as well as alexithymia. The relationship between the avoidant attachment style and test anxiety was 0.06 through alexithymia. However, no significant relationship between anxious attachment and test anxiety through alexithymia was found. Conclusion The avoidant attachment style leads to test anxiety when the level of alexithymia increases in an individual. PMID:26217481

  1. University of Toronto Instructors' Experiences with Developing MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najafi, Hedieh; Rolheiser, Carol; Harrison, Laurie; Håklev, Stian

    2015-01-01

    We interviewed eight University of Toronto (U of T) instructors who have offered MOOCs on Coursera or EdX between 2012 and 2014 to understand their motivation for MOOC instruction, their experience developing and teaching MOOCs, and their perceptions of the implications of MOOC instruction on their teaching and research practices. Through…

  2. Highlights of the University of Toronto Urology Update 2014

    PubMed Central

    Herschorn, Sender

    2015-01-01

    At the University of Toronto Urology Update 2014, a faculty of Canadian and American experts presented a series of lectures covering a range of topics in the field of urology. Areas of focus included prostate cancer (PCa), functional urology, erectile dysfunction (ED), and surgical topics (e.g., percutaneous nephrolithotomy [PCNL]). PMID:25784963

  3. Test Pattern; Instructional Television at Scarborough College, University of Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John A.

    Scarborough College of the University of Toronto was the first North American college planned from its inception for television. Closed-circuit television was fully integrated into its physical fabric and academic program. Videotaped lectures, backed up by small group discussions, were to replace many live lectures. The plan was calculated not…

  4. What I Like Is How I Am: Impact of Alexithymia on Aesthetic Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannini, Anna Maria; Tizzani, Emanuela; Baralla, Francesca; Gurrieri, Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this work was to explore the impact of alexithymia on art works appreciation, to examine the influence of emotion regulation on art judgment. While observing a painting, the viewer's cognitive structure contains several types of information (semantic, episodic, and strategic) and is the repository of personal traits, motivations, and…

  5. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Disordered Eating among Undergraduate Females: Mediating Influence of Alexithymia and Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Disordered Eating, Alexithymia, and General Distress: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Drawing from trauma-related theory (e.g., M. F. Schwartz & P. Gay, 1996), this article presents a model of associations among child sexual abuse (CSA), psychological distress, alexithymia, and disordered eating (DE). Structural equation modeling was used to test this conceptual model with a sample of female college students (N = 589). Results…

  7. Alexithymia, emotion perception, and social assertiveness in adult women with Noonan and Turner syndromes.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Renée L; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Freriks, Kim; Verhaak, Chris M; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2015-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and Turner syndrome (TS) are associated with cognitive problems and difficulties in affective information processing. While both phenotypes include short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and a webbed neck, genetic etiology and neuropsychological phenotype differ significantly. The present study examines putative differences in affective information processing and social assertiveness between adult women with NS and TS. Twenty-six women with NS, 40 women with TS, and 40 female controls were matched on age and intelligence, and subsequently compared on (1) alexithymia, measured by the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, (2) emotion perception, evaluated by the Emotion Recognition Task, and (3) social assertiveness and social discomfort, assessed by the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior. Women with TS showed higher levels of alexithymia than women with NS and controls (P-values < 0.001), whereas women with NS had more trouble recognizing angry facial expressions in comparison with controls (P = 0.01). No significant group differences were found for the frequency of social assertiveness and the level of social discomfort. Women with NS and TS demonstrated different patterns of impairment in affective information processing, in terms of alexithymia and emotion perception. The present findings suggest neuropsychological phenotyping to be helpful for the diagnosis of specific cognitive-affective deficits in genetic syndromes, for the enhancement of genetic counseling, and for the development of personalized treatment plans. PMID:25711203

  8. Alexithymia as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Self-Injurious Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paivio, Sandra C.; McCulloch, Chantal R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether alexithymia mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in college women. Method: The sample was comprised of 100 female undergraduate students. Measures were the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [D. Bernstein, L. Fink, Manual for the Childhood…

  9. Dissociation between Emotional Remapping of Fear and Disgust in Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Scarpazza, Cristina; Làdavas, Elisabetta; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individuals are able to understand others’ emotions because they “embody” them, i.e., re-experience them by activating a representation of the observed emotion within their own body. One way to study emotion embodiment is provided by a multisensory stimulation paradigm called emotional visual remapping of touch (eVRT), in which the degree of embodiment/remapping of emotions is measured as enhanced detection of near-threshold tactile stimuli on one’s own face while viewing different emotional facial expressions. Here, we measured remapping of fear and disgust in participants with low (LA) and high (HA) levels of alexithymia, a personality trait characterized by a difficulty in recognizing emotions. The results showed that fear is remapped in LA but not in HA participants, while disgust is remapped in HA but not in LA participants. To investigate the hypothesis that HA might exhibit increased responses to emotional stimuli producing a heightened physical and visceral sensations, i.e., disgust, in a second experiment we investigated participants’ interoceptive abilities and the link between interoception and emotional modulations of VRT. The results showed that participants’ disgust modulations of VRT correlated with their ability to perceive bodily signals. We suggest that the emotional profile of HA individuals on the eVRT task could be related to their abnormal tendency to be focalized on their internal bodily signals, and to experience emotions in a “physical” way. Finally, we speculated that these results in HA could be due to a enhancement of insular activity during the perception of disgusted faces. PMID:26462241

  10. Educational Alliance for a Sustainable Toronto: The University of Toronto and the City's United Nations University (UNU) Regional Centre of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanovic, Ingrid Leman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the role that the University of Toronto has had in helping to establish a Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) on Education for Sustainable Development in Toronto, Canada. The way in which the RCE initiative has helped to move forward the university's own five-year plan will also be discussed.…

  11. The effects of autism and alexithymia on physiological and verbal responsiveness to music.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rory; Davis, Rob; Hill, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    It has been suggested that individuals with autism will be less responsive to the emotional content of music than typical individuals. With the aim of testing this hypothesis, a group of high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum was compared with a group of matched controls on two measures of emotional responsiveness to music, comprising physiological and verbal measures. Impairment in participants ability to verbalize their emotions (type-II alexithymia) was also assessed. The groups did not differ significantly on physiological responsiveness, but the autism group was significantly lower on the verbal measure. However, inclusion of the alexithymia score as a mediator variable nullified this group difference, suggesting that the difference was due not to absence of underlying emotional responsiveness to music in autism, but to a reduced ability to articulate it. PMID:22752845

  12. Alexithymia, a compounding factor for eating and social avoidance symptoms in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Courty, Annaig; Godart, Nathalie; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Socio-affective difficulties, in particular difficulties in representing, communicating and feeling emotions, may play a critical role in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore the links between alexithymia and two types of difficulties in AN: eating symptoms and social avoidance. Sixty adolescent girls with AN were recruited following hospitalisation in a specialised department. They completed self-administered questionnaires of alexithymia (TAS-20), of central symptoms of the eating disorders (EDI), and of anxious and depressive affects (SCL-90). Anxiety and social avoidance were assessed in the course of a standardised interview (LSAS). These measures were performed at inclusion, and at 6-, 12- and 18-months' follow-up. The relationship between TAS-20 and EDI or LSAS total scale scores across the four time points was assessed using mixed-effects models, including anxiety, depression, BMI, anorexia subtype, and age as co-factors. Partial least square regression was used to refine this multivariate analysis at subscale level, at inclusion and 18 months. Robust associations between TAS-20 and EDI scores were found, independently from anxious and depressive scores, nutritional state and AN subtype. These effects appeared more particularly linked to the implication of the dimensions difficulties identifying and describing feelings, interpersonal mistrust, feelings of inadequacy and interoceptive awareness deficit. There was also a durable association between alexithymia and social anxiety and avoidance, after adjusting for the confounding effects of depression, and anxiety, and the state of starvation. Difficulties in describing feelings appeared particularly involved here. Thus alexithymia does appear as a factor in the persistence of disorders in AN, and difficulties identifying and describing feelings could compound the social difficulties and major the relational isolation of these patients. PMID:25443977

  13. The influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on aggressive behavior of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    de Schutter, Marja A M; Kramer, Hein J M Th; Franken, Ernest J F; Lodewijkx, Hein F M; Kleinepier, Tom

    2016-09-30

    Current approaches in Dutch mental health care institutions towards inpatients' aggression have focused predominantly on environmental factors, such as training the staff in aggression management. However, personality traits might be an important factor in patients' aggression - as shown by incidents in the wards. This study explores the influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on psychiatric patients' aggressive behavior, through self-reports and through involvement in aggressive incidents. Personality traits influencing patients' aggression emphasize the importance of a more direct approach to their aggression. Clinical patients at Dutch mental health care institution Emergis (n=84) filled out questionnaires about their aggressiveness (using Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire Short Form), dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia. Multiple regression analyses indicated that dysfunctional impulsivity positively related to self-reported aggressive behavior. The relationship, however, could not be confirmed for inpatients' aggression as reported by the staff on the wards. Unexpectedly affective alexithymia negatively related to hostility. Gender differences in self-reported aggression were found. Female patients showed higher levels of hostility. Regression analyses indicated that the male gender positively related to physical aggression. Findings emphasize the importance of a new approach in Dutch mental health care, in which patients may engage in aggression-regulation training programs. PMID:27387554

  14. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  15. The association between depression and craving in alcohol dependency is moderated by gender and by alexithymia factors.

    PubMed

    Luminet, Olivier; Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Mariana; Fantini, Carole; de Timary, Philippe

    2016-05-30

    Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality trait that involves difficulties in identifying and describing feelings to others, a poor fantasy life and an externally oriented cognitive style. Alexithymia has been described as a vulnerability factor for mental and physical diseases. We investigated in a group of 158 alcohol-dependent patients (103 men, 55 women) the association between depression and craving for alcohol when these patients were starting a detoxification program, and the moderating impact of gender and alexithymia on this relation. We first found an interaction between depression and gender in the prediction of craving in the sense that only for women an increase in depressive mood was related to an increase in total craving. When examining gender separately, we found that alexithymia factors acted as moderators. For women, the link between depression and craving was strengthened for the ones scoring higher on "difficulties describing feelings". But for men, the link between depression and craving was reduced for the ones scoring higher on "externally-oriented thinking". These findings suggest that in some cases that need to be identified more systematically in the future, the "externally-oriented thinking" alexithymia factor can exert - at least in the short term - some protective effects. PMID:27137959

  16. Potential link between body dysmorphic disorder symptoms and alexithymia in an eating-disordered treatment-seeking sample.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Andrea Siân; Sullivan, Karen Anne

    2011-09-30

    This study aimed to explore the manifestation of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in a sample of people with eating disorders and to investigate possible associations between body dysmorphia and alexithymia. Forty patients currently seeking treatment for an eating disorder completed a battery of six measures assessing alexithymia, mood, eating behaviours, weight-related body image, body dysmorphia and non-weight related body image. Significant moderate positive correlations (Pearson's r) between selected variables were found, suggesting that participants with high levels of dysmorphic concern (imagined ugliness) have more difficulty with the affective elements of alexithymia, that is, identifying and describing feelings. When depression, eating attitudes, and weight-related body image concerns were controlled for, significant moderate positive correlations between this alexithymia factor and dysmorphic concerns remained present. An independent-samples t-test between eating-disordered participants with and without symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) revealed significant group differences in difficulties identifying feelings. This pattern of results was replicated when the groups were identified on the basis of dysmorphic concerns, as opposed to BDD symptoms. This study highlights the associations between alexithymia and body dysmorphia that have not previously been demonstrated. PMID:21803428

  17. Intestinal parasites in metropolitan Toronto day-care centres.

    PubMed Central

    Keystone, J S; Yang, J; Grisdale, D; Harrington, M; Pillon, L; Andreychuk, R

    1984-01-01

    In 1981, 900 children (aged 3 months to 10 years) and 146 staff attending 22 day-care centres in metropolitan Toronto chosen at random provided a stool specimen in a survey for intestinal parasites. Of the children, 4% to 36% were infected in 20 of 22 centres. Overall, 19% of the children and 14% of the staff had intestinal parasites: 8.6% and 4.0% respectively had Dientamoeba fragilis, and 7.8% and 2.0% respectively had Giardia lamblia. The highest prevalence of dientamebiasis was in the 7- to 10-year-olds, whereas giardiasis was detected most frequently in the 6-year-olds. Infection with intestinal parasites was not correlated with age, sex, duration in the day-care centre, dog ownership, travel history, gastrointestinal symptoms or the proportion of children in the day-care centre who were born in less developed countries. Immigrant children and children of parents born in industrialized countries (including Canada) were more likely to be infected than were children born in Canada of parents from the developing world. Dientamebiasis was associated with cat ownership. Thus, intestinal protozoa--in particular, D. fragilis and G. lamblia--are endemic in Toronto day-care centres. PMID:6478361

  18. Diphtheria and tetanus immunity among blood donors in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, L; Lau, W; Thipphawong, J; Kasenda, M; Xie, F; Bevilacqua, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin levels among blood donors in Toronto. DESIGN: Cross-sectional seroprevalence study. SETTING: Two fixed-site blood-donation clinics in Toronto from September to November 1994. PARTICIPANTS: Blood donors 20 years of age or older were eligible to participate; of the 781 eligible donors, 710 (90.9%) participated in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin levels and factors associated with disease susceptibility, such as vaccination history, country of birth, age and sex. A diphtheria antitoxin level lower than 0.01 lU/mL and a tetanus antitoxin level lower than 0.15 lU/mL were considered nonprotective. RESULTS: Among the participants, 147 (20.7%) had a diphtheria antitoxin level in the nonprotective range, and 124 (17.5%) had a tetanus antitoxin level that was nonprotective. Increasing age and lack of written vaccination records were associated with susceptibility to the 2 diseases. Birth outside Canada was significantly related to tetanus susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Adults over 50 years of age who did not know their vaccination history were the least likely to be protected against diphtheria and tetanus. The greatest benefit of any immunization strategy would be gained by targeting this group. PMID:9099166

  19. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port ...

  20. Toronto First Duty: Integrating Kindergarten, Childcare, and Parenting Support to Help Diverse Families Connect to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Janette; Corter, Carl

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this article is a research and development project underway in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The project is Toronto First Duty, reflecting that the "first duty of a state is to see that every child born therein shall be well-housed, clothed, fed, and educated, till it attain years of discretion," according to 19th century British social…

  1. Minority Ethnic Television in Toronto and Los Angeles: Two North American Approaches to Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoloff, David L.

    Toronto (Ontario, Canada) and Los Angeles (California) are two cities that provide television programs for specific ethnic groups. During a sample week, 13 percent of the total broadcast time of stations serving Greater Toronto was devoted to programs for ethnic groups. In another sample week, minority ethnic broadcasts took up 17 percent of the…

  2. Streaming in Toronto and Other Ontario Schools: A Review of the Literature. No. 157.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Maisy; And Others

    An overview is provided of streaming in the Toronto school system and a summary of studies presented from Toronto and other Ontario school systems which have examined the relationships between streaming and academic achievement, ethnic background, social origin and future placement of students. Streaming is defined as the placement of pupils in…

  3. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL RECYCLING TREATMENT TRAIN - THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port...

  4. Evaluation of Strength in the ``Toronto'' Osseous-Prosthesis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomo, R.; Cicciã¹, M.; Dini, R.; Franceschini, G.; Maiorana, C.

    2010-06-01

    Several surgical techniques like are today available in order to recovery large bone defects of the jaw. Aim of the surgeon is to obtain a good tridimensional volume to place dental implant and to recovery the patient’s aesthetics and function. Several prosthetic solution were considered for prosthetic rehabilitation. However after a bone graft surgery Toronto screwed prosthesis on dental implants, following Branemark intuitions, was considered the better prosthetic rehabilitation solution. According to Wölff, the dental implants osteointegration is related to the strengths directed to mandibular bone. Our investigation’s aim is to underline through FEM analysis the stress over the prosthetic elements and over bone surface in order to help the surgeon choice about the dental implant positioning, and at the same time reducing the bone trauma on the patients.

  5. Atmospheric dry and wet deposition of mercury in Toronto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Siddiqi, Zia; Song, Xinjie; Mandiwana, Khakhathi L.; Yousaf, Muhammad; Lu, Julia

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) speciation and deposition are critical in understanding the cycling of mercury in the environment. To estimate the dry and wet deposition of mercury in an urban environment, concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized inorganic mercury (GOIM), mercury associated with particles having size less than 2.5 μm (Hg(p) < 2.5) (December 2003-November 2004) and total particulate mercury (THg(p)) (June 2004-December 2004) in the atmosphere, as well as the concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) in atmospheric precipitation samples (June 2005-January 2006 and September 2007-March 2008), were measured in downtown Toronto, Canada.The dry deposition rates of GOIM, Hg(p) < 2.5 μm and THg(p) estimated between December 2003 and December 2004 were 0.17-2.33 μg m-2 month-1, 0.04-0.32 μg m-2 month-1 and 0.17-1.11 μg m-2 month-1, respectively, while the wet deposition rates of methyl mercury and total mercury between June 2005-January 2006 and September 2007-March 2008 were 0.01-0.08 μg m-2 month-1 and 0.32-8.48 μg m-2 month-1, respectively. The total dry deposition (7.66-26.06 μg m-2 a-1, calculated as the sum of GOIM and THg(p) deposition) and the total wet deposition (= the wet deposition of total mercury = 18.60 μg m-2 a-1) contributed proportionally to the total atmospheric Hg deposition in Toronto.

  6. Alexithymia and its impact on quality of life in a group of Brazilian women with migraine without aura

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Migraine is a type of primary headache widely known for its impact on quality of life of patients. Although the psychological aspects of the disease are receiving increasing attention in current research, some of them, as alexithymia, are still seldom explored. This study aimed to provide evidence on the relationships between markers of depression, anxiety, alexithymia, self-reflection, insight and quality of life in migraine. Methods Forty female outpatients from a Brazilian specialized headache hospital service and a paired control group were compared. Results The results revealed that women with migraine had higher levels of depression, anxiety and alexithymia, and lower levels of quality of life, self-reflection and insight, compared to controls. Quality of life in women with migraine was predicted by levels of depression and one alexithymia factor (ability to express emotions and fantasies). A binary regression analysis between clinical and control groups revealed the migraine group to comprise individuals with high anxiety, low quality of life in the physical domain and the presence of a concrete thinking style. Conclusions The results highlight the relevance of considering psychological variables in the routine healthcare practices for migraine patients in general, while keeping steady attention to individual case features. PMID:23565860

  7. Child Maltreatment, Subsequent Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and the Mediating Roles of Dissociation, Alexithymia and Self-Blame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swannell, Sarah; Martin, Graham; Page, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Hazell, Philip; Taylor, Anne; Protani, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although child maltreatment is associated with later non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), the mechanism through which it might lead to NSSI is not well understood. The current retrospective case-control study examined associations between child maltreatment and later NSSI, and investigated the mediating roles of dissociation, alexithymia,…

  8. Early school leaving among immigrants in Toronto secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Anisef, Paul; Brown, Robert S; Phythian, Kelli; Sweet, Robert; Walters, David

    2010-05-01

    While education statistics confirm that there is little difference in the dropout rates of native-born and immigrant youth, analyses of Toronto District School Board (TDSB) data have revealed significant variation in school persistence within immigrant groups. Among newcomer youth, the decision to leave school early has been reported to be strongly influenced by socioeconomic status as well as such factors as country of origin, age at arrival, generational status, family structure, and academic performance. While living in low-income conditions is thought to place both foreign- and Canadian-born youth at risk of poor school performance and early school withdrawal, their substantially higher incidence of poverty suggests that today's immigrant youth are likely to face greater obstacles to academic success that may in turn have detrimental, long-term consequences. This paper uses TDSB data to investigate the extent to which living below the low-income cutoff affects the likelihood of dropping out of secondary school, while taking into account generational status as well as a variety risk factors, noted above. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:20853810

  9. Growing urban health: community gardening in South-East Toronto.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Sarah; Yeudall, Fiona; Taron, Carolin; Reynolds, Jennifer; Skinner, Ana

    2007-06-01

    This article describes results from an investigation of the health impacts of community gardening, using Toronto, Ontario as a case study. According to community members and local service organizations, these gardens have a number of positive health benefits. However, few studies have explicitly focused on the health impacts of community gardens, and many of those did not ask community gardeners directly about their experiences in community gardening. This article sets out to fill this gap by describing the results of a community-based research project that collected data on the perceived health impacts of community gardening through participant observation, focus groups and in-depth interviews. Results suggest that community gardens were perceived by gardeners to provide numerous health benefits, including improved access to food, improved nutrition, increased physical activity and improved mental health. Community gardens were also seen to promote social health and community cohesion. These benefits were set against a backdrop of insecure land tenure and access, bureaucratic resistance, concerns about soil contamination and a lack of awareness and understanding by community members and decision-makers. Results also highlight the need for ongoing resources to support gardens in these many roles. PMID:17324956

  10. Bateson's two Toronto addresses, 1921: 2. Evolutionary faith.

    PubMed

    Cock, A G

    1989-01-01

    William Bateson's plenary address to the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Toronto in 1921 was titled "Evolutionary Faith and Modern Doubts." In it he expressed his deep-seated skepticism about the causes of evolution (and in particular, his dissatisfaction with Darwinian natural selection) while reaffirming his belief in the reality of evolution itself. The address led to controversy at both the scientific and popular levels. Scientific criticism centered on Bateson's rejection of natural selection; popular controversy, as evidenced by contemporary newspaper clippings, was very widespread, not least because religious fundamentalists misrepresented Bateson in their campaign against evolution. I draw attention to the forgotten case of F.E. Dean, a superintendent of schools at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, who in 1922 was forced to resign his post for merely challenging a resolution of the local school board banning the teaching of evolution in schools. Dean deserves to be remembered, along with John T. Scopes, as an early hero of the continuing fight for the right to teach evolution in U.S. schools. PMID:2647826

  11. Brain activation during the perception of stressful word stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships in anorexia nervosa patients with high degrees of alexithymia in an fMRI paradigm.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Onoda, Keiichi; Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yuri; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-02-28

    Several studies have reported that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have high levels of alexithymia. However, relatively little is known about the underlying neurobiological relationships between alexithymia and AN. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the brain responses in 30 AN patients and 20 healthy women during the processing of negative words concerning interpersonal relationships. We investigated the relationship between alexithymia levels and brain activation in AN. AN patients showed significant activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex while processing negative words concerning interpersonal relationships, as compared to the processing of neutral words. Moreover, the subjective rating of unpleasantness with negative words and neural activities in the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) negatively correlated with the level of alexithymia in AN. Our neuroimaging results suggest that AN patients tend to cognitively process negative words concerning interpersonal relationships, resulting in activation of the prefrontal cortex. Lower activation of the amygdala, PCC and ACC in response to these words may contribute to the impairments of emotional processing that are hallmarks of alexithymia. Functional abnormalities associated with alexithymia may be involved in the emotional processing impairments in AN patients. PMID:22398299

  12. Mismatched racial identities, colourism, and health in Toronto and Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2011-10-01

    Using original telephone survey data collected from adult residents of Toronto (n = 685) and Vancouver (n = 814) in 2009, I investigate associations between mental and physical health and variously conceived racial identities. An 'expressed racial identity' is a self-identification with a racial grouping that a person will readily express to others when asked to fit into official racial classifications presented by Census forms, survey researchers, insurance forms, and the like. Distinguishing between Asian, Black, South Asian, and White expressed racial identities, I find that survey respondents expressing Black identity are the most likely to report high blood pressure or hypertension, a risk that is slightly attenuated by socioeconomic status, and that respondents expressing Asian identity are the most likely to report poorer self-rated mental health and self-rated overall health, risks that are not explained by socioeconomic status. I also find that darker-skinned Black respondents are more likely than lighter-skinned Black respondents to report poor health outcomes, indicating that colourism, processes of discrimination which privilege lighter-skinned people of colour over their darker-skinned counterparts, exists and has implications for well-being in Canada as it does in the United States. Finally, 'reflected racial identity' refers to the racial identity that a person believes that others tend to perceive him or her to be. I find that expressed and reflected racial identities differ from one another for large proportions of self-expressed Black and South Asian respondents and relatively few self-expressed White and Asian respondents. I also find that mismatched racial identities correspond with relatively high risks of various poor health outcomes, especially for respondents who consider themselves White but believe that others tend to think they are something else. I conclude by presenting a framework for conceptualizing multifaceted suites of racial

  13. Emissions of VPOC from residences in the metropolitan Toronto area

    SciTech Connect

    Fellin, P.; Otson, R.

    1997-12-31

    Airborne vapor phase organic compound (VPOC) concentrations were determined indoors and outdoors concurrently over 24 h periods for 44 randomly selected residences in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Indoor to outdoor air exchange rates, measured by means of a perfluorocarbon tracer technique, averaged 0.45 and ranged from 0.04 to 2.2 air changes per hour (ach). For compounds occurring above the method detection limits (MDL), indoor sources contributed significantly to the occurrence of 7 of the 30 target VPOC since indoor to outdoor concentration ratios were greater than 1 for more than 50% of the homes for these compounds. Emissions from residences to the ambient air were calculated, and ranged up to 725 g/yr/residence for the sum of the target compounds for the residence with the largest emissions and averaged 96 g/yr/residence for all residences. The four compounds with the largest emissions averaged 53 (maximum, 500), 41 (maximum, 220), 22 (maximum, 110) and 20 (maximum, 240) g/yr/residence, respectively, for 1,4-dichlorobenzene, d-limonene, naphthalene and toluene. In a previous study, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and toluene were among the three VPOC with the greatest emissions from residences. However, the emissions were calculated from measured indoor concentrations, outdoor values were obtained at different times or by different methods, and average rather than individually measured air exchange rates were used. The emissions estimated in this study were compared to those from the previous study, and their impact on ambient air quality was estimated.

  14. Working with Toronto neighbourhoods toward developing indicators of community capacity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Cleverly, Shelley; Poland, Blake; Burman, David; Edwards, Richard; Robertson, Ann

    2003-12-01

    Often the goal of health and social development agencies is to assess communities and work with them to improve community capacity. Particularly for health promoters working in community settings and to ensure consistency in the definition of health promotion, the evaluation of health promotion programmes should be based on strengths and assets, yet existing information for planning and evaluation purposes usually focuses on problems and deficits. A model and definition of community capacity, grounded in community experience and focusing on strengths and assets, was developed following a 4-year, multi-site, qualitative, action research project in four Toronto neighbourhoods. There was significant community involvement in the four Community Advisory Committees, one for each study site. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews and focus groups were conducted with 161 residents and agency workers identified by the Community Advisory Committees. The data were analyzed with the assistance of NUDIST software. Thematic analysis was undertaken in two stages: (i) within each site and (ii) across sites, with the latter serving as the basis for the development of indicators of community capacity. This paper presents a summary of the research, the model and the proposed indicators. The model locates talents and skills of community members in a larger context of socioenvironmental conditions, both inside and outside the community, which can act to enable or constrain the expression of these talents and skills. The significance of the indicators of community capacity proposed in the study is that they focus on identifying and measuring the facilitating and constraining socioenvironmental conditions. PMID:14695365

  15. Health status of newly arrived refugees in Toronto, Ont

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among newly arrived refugee patients and whether there is variation by key demographic factors. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Primary care clinic for refugee patients in Toronto, Ont. Participants A total of 1063 refugee patients rostered at the clinic from December 2011 to June 2014. Main outcome measures Demographic information (age, sex, and region of birth); prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Strongyloides, Schistosoma, intestinal parasites, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis infections; and varicella immune status. Results The median age of patients was 29 years and 56% were female. Refugees were born in 87 different countries. Approximately 33% of patients were from Africa, 28% were from Europe, 14% were from the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 14% were from Asia, and 8% were from the Americas (excluding 4% born in Canada or the United States). The overall rate of HIV infection was 2%. The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 4%, with a higher rate among refugees from Asia (12%, P < .001). Hepatitis B immunity was 39%, with higher rates among Asian refugees (64%, P < .001) and children younger than 5 years (68%, P < .001). The rate of hepatitis C infection was less than 1%. Strongyloides infection was found in 3% of tested patients, with higher rates among refugees from Africa (6%, P = .003). Schistosoma infection was identified in 15% of patients from Africa. Intestinal parasites were identified in 16% of patients who submitted stool samples. Approximately 8% of patients were varicella nonimmune, with higher rates in patients from the Americas (21%, P < .001). Conclusion This study highlights the importance of screening for infectious diseases among refugee patients to provide timely preventive and curative care. Our data also point to possible policy and clinical implications, such as targeted screening approaches and improved access to vaccinations and

  16. Source Attribution of Toronto Regional Air Pollution Measured with Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, C.; Strong, K.; Jones, D. B.; Fast, H.; Fogal, P. F.; McLinden, C. A.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Pommier, M.

    2013-12-01

    Toronto is the centre of Canada's largest population and is often downwind of the industrial midwestern United States, where there is an even larger population and significant anthropogenic emissions. As a result, surface O3 in the region often exceeds the Canada-Wide Standard and the provincial Ambient Air Quality Criterion. Therefore, the Toronto region makes for an interesting North-American site to study atmospheric composition. There have been ground-based, solar-absorption Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements of tropospheric (0-5 km) O3 and CO columns (among other species) for over a decade at the Univerisity of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO, 43.66oN, 79.40oW, 174 masl) and Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE, 44.23oN, 79.78oW, 251 masl). In combination with surface measurements of these species from the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada, and satellite overpasses of the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, we have a large number of tropospheric O3 and CO observations in both downtown Toronto and the surrounding rural area from 2002 to the present. Using these datasets, we have examined pollution events in Toronto characterized by enhanced O3 and/or CO tropospheric columns, and we have conducted source attribution analyses using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint. We will present several case studies, in which we quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions, and biogenic emissions to Toronto-area pollution events. We will discuss the conditions for which the tropospheric columns are well-correlated to the surface measurements, and when they are not. We will also present statistics on nine years of data (2002 to 2010), to better understand when and how the Toronto-area O3 and CO enhancements occur, which will be useful for future air quality policies.

  17. Toronto area ozone: Long-term measurements and modeled sources of poor air quality events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, C. H.; Strong, K.; Jones, D. B. A.; Walker, T. W.; Jiang, Z.; Henze, D. K.; Cooke, M. A.; McLinden, C. A.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Pommier, M.; Fogal, P. F.

    2015-11-01

    The University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory and Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments each has over a decade of ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements in southern Ontario. We present the Toronto area FTIR time series from 2002 to 2013 of two tropospheric trace gases—ozone and carbon monoxide—along with surface in situ measurements taken by government monitoring programs. We interpret their variability with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and determine the atmospheric conditions that cause pollution events in the time series. Our analysis includes a regionally tagged O3 model of the 2004-2007 time period, which quantifies the geographical contributions to Toronto area O3. The important emission types for 15 pollution events are then determined with a high-resolution adjoint model. Toronto O3, during pollution events, is most sensitive to southern Ontario and U.S. fossil fuel NOx emissions and natural isoprene emissions. The sources of Toronto pollution events are found to be highly variable, and this is demonstrated in four case studies representing local, short-, middle-, and long-range transport scenarios. This suggests that continental-scale emission reductions could improve air quality in the Toronto region. We also find that abnormally high temperatures and high-pressure systems are common to all pollution events studied, suggesting that climate change may impact Toronto O3. Finally, we quantitatively compare the sensitivity of the surface and column measurements to anthropogenic NOx emissions and show that they are remarkably similar. This work thus demonstrates the usefulness of FTIR measurements in an urban area to assess air quality.

  18. Alexithymia, Emotional Dysregulation, and Recovery from Alcoholism: Therapeutic Response to Assessment of Mood

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Higgins, Margaret M.; Staller, Karen M.; Klatt, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial which tested the effects of a gratitude intervention on well-being in a sample of individuals in outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Follow-up qualitative interviews unexpectedly revealed that participants found the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to be helpful to their recovery in the ways that it asked them to identify and rate their emotions. Participant statements were purposively sampled and analyzed using grounded theory methods to produce a conceptual framework illustrating the process of mood identification and its sequelae. Evidence of existing alexithymia and emotional dysregulation, dominance of negative mood, and increasing ability to identify, accept, and regulate mood as part of recovery was found. Findings suggest that emotion regulation is a compelling topic for those in recovery from AUD, and may deserve a more prominent role in treatment. PMID:25810468

  19. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick. PMID:25912626

  20. Accountability in the City of Toronto's 10 long-term care homes.

    PubMed

    Wyers, Lindsay; Gamble, Brenda; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residential homes provide a supportive environment for residents requiring nursing care and assistance with daily living activities. The LTC sector is highly regulated. We examine the approaches taken to ensure the delivery of quality and safe care in 10 LTC homes owned and operated by the City of Toronto, Ontario, focusing on mandatory accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs). Results are based on document review and seven interviews with LTC managers responsible for the management and operation of the 10 LTC homes. One issue identified was the challenges associated with implementing new legislative and regulatory requirements to multiple bodies with differing requirements, particularly when boundaries do not coincide (e.g., the City of Toronto's Long-Term Care Homes and Services Division must establish 10 different accountability agreements with the five LHINs that span into the City of Toronto's geographic area). PMID:25305393

  1. Accountability in the City of Toronto's 10 Long-Term Care Homes

    PubMed Central

    Wyers, Lindsay; Gamble, Brenda; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residential homes provide a supportive environment for residents requiring nursing care and assistance with daily living activities. The LTC sector is highly regulated. We examine the approaches taken to ensure the delivery of quality and safe care in 10 LTC homes owned and operated by the City of Toronto, Ontario, focusing on mandatory accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs). Results are based on document review and seven interviews with LTC managers responsible for the management and operation of the 10 LTC homes. One issue identified was the challenges associated with implementing new legislative and regulatory requirements to multiple bodies with differing requirements, particularly when boundaries do not coincide (e.g., the City of Toronto's Long-Term Care Homes and Services Division must establish 10 different accountability agreements with the five LHINs that span into the City of Toronto's geographic area). PMID:25305393

  2. Technology evaluation report: Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) soil recycle treatment train

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenreich, L.C.; Matuson, A.; Peters, J.; Evans, J.

    1993-07-01

    The report summarizes the results and activities of the demonstration testing of Toronto Harbor Commissioners (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The Demonstration was conducted at a site within the Port Industrial District (PID) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The demonstration examined a part of THC's on-going evaluation of the treatment train during the first nine months of 1992. EPA elected to sample the process during the processing of Soil B, which based on field sampling, was expected to exhibit relatively high organic (oil and grease, s) and inorganic (heavy metals) contaminants.

  3. Report of haemoglobin J-Toronto and alpha thalassemia in a family from North of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Bayat, Nooshin; Hadavi, Valeh; Karami, Hosein; Roshan, Payam; Najmabadi, Hossein; Rohanizadeh, Hamed

    2012-04-01

    We report of an Iranian family with history of a rare haemoglobin variant, Haemoglobin J associated with alpha thalassemia, discovered while performing premarital thalassemia screening. In the present study we report the first case of haemoglobin J-Toronto [alpha 5 (A3) Ala > Asp] on -globin gene, found in a 16-year-old female from Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Further investigation characterized the same mutation for mother and brother of the proband, whilst mother was also a carrier of an alpha thalassemia gene mutation (-alpha3.7). Haemoglobin J-Toronto was previously just reported from Canada and has not been found in any part of Iran. PMID:22755290

  4. The Hong Fook experience: working with ethnocultural communities in Toronto 1982-2002.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hung-Tat; Chung, Raymond C Y

    2005-09-01

    The experience of the first 20 years of a community mental health service for the Asian communities in Toronto, the Hong Fook Mental Health Association, is presented within the context of the overall development of mental health services to ethnocultural minorities in Toronto and Canada. The various people involved and the relationships with other stakeholders are described. Through the discussion, the socio-political and cultural factors contributing to its successes and failures are highlighted. The future for Hong Fook, and the mental health system at large, is considered. The article finishes with an outline of the philosophical basis that has sustained Hong Fook's development. PMID:16268238

  5. Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) soil recycle treatment train. Applications analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenreich, L.C.; Matuson, A.; Peters, J.; Evans, J.

    1993-04-01

    This project consists of a demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The treatment train consists of three processes. The first process utilizes an attrition soil wash process to separate relatively uncontaminated soil from a more heavily contaminated fine slurry. The contaminated fine slurry is then further processed in a metals removal process or a bioslurry reactor process or both to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals contamination. The Toronto Harbour Commissioners conducted a long-term evaluation of this treatment train at a 55 tons per day pilot plant at 185 Cherry Street in the port of Toronto, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program conducted a demonstration project that examined in detail the processing of soil from one of the sites being evaluated in the overall project. The goals of this study were to evaluate the technical effectiveness and economics of a treatment process sequence and to assess the potential applicability of the process to other wastes and/or other Superfund and hazardous waste sites.

  6. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and the Delivery of Continuing Medical Education: Case Study from Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dave; Ryan, David; Sibbald, Gary; Rachlis, Anita; Davies, Sharon; Manchul, Lee; Parikh, Sagar

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) struck Toronto in the spring of 2003, causing many deaths, serious morbidity, forced quarantine of thousands of individuals, and the closure of all provincial hospitals for several weeks. Given the direction by public health authorities to cancel or postpone all continuing medical education…

  7. Schooling Transnational Speakers of the Societal Language: Language Variation Policy-Making in Madrid and Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecter, Sandra R.; García Parejo, Isabel; Ambadiang, Théophile; James, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-national comparative study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Madrid, Spain examines educational policies and practices that target immigrant students for whom the language variety normally spoken in the host country represents a second dialect. Policy contexts and schooling environments of the two urban centres were analyzed to gain deeper…

  8. Critical Theory of Education and Ethnicity: The Case Study of the Toronto Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamai, Shmuel

    1987-01-01

    The main theories linking education and ethnicity are reviewed and evaluated, using the Jewish population in Toronto as an example. An alternative framework for analyzing nondominant minority communities is presented. There is a need to be more specific with concepts such as cultural resistance and reproduction to give them more pluralistic…

  9. Managing Conduct: A Comparative Policy Analysis of Safe Schools Policies in Toronto, Canada and Buffalo, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Public school districts in Buffalo, USA and Toronto, Canada reviewed their safe schools policies in 2008. Revised Codes of Conduct are compared to earlier versions and each other, and a conceptual policy web is used to understand how local, state/provincial, national, and international influences affect local safe school policies. The comparison…

  10. Reading the Urban Landscape: The Case of a Campus Tour at York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardekjian, Adrina; Classens, Michael; Sandberg, L. Anders

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a campus tour assignment in a first-year undergraduate environmental studies course at York University, Toronto, Canada. As a pedagogical tool, the assignment enables students to interrogate the dominant narratives of a university's immediate physical spaces and to apply broader theoretical and practical concepts to their…

  11. The Application of the Systems Approach to School Building in Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbie, Roderick G.

    A description is presented of the building system program developed by the Metropolitan Toronto School Board, Study of Educational Facilities. The organization of the project is discussed, and the rationale is presented for the selection of an open systems approach to the School Board's building needs. Detailed information is given regarding the…

  12. Multiliteracies, Pedagogy and Identities: Teacher and Student Voices from a Toronto Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giampapa, Frances

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I draw on an ethnographic case study of one Toronto elementary school, as part of a Canada-wide action research project: Multiliteracy Project (www.multiliteracies.ca). I have explored how Perminder, a grade-4 teacher, developed a multiliteracies pedagogy, drawing on her own and her students' identities and linguistic and cultural…

  13. Women's Class Strategies as Activism in Native Community Building in Toronto, 1950-1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Bobiwash, Heather

    2003-01-01

    Between the end of World War II and the early 1970s, many Native women in Ontario came to Toronto in the hopes of accessing higher education, jobs, and freedom denied them on reserves under the oppression of federal government tutelage. However, much of the literature on Native rural-urban migration in Canada concentrates on an association between…

  14. Everyday Racism in Canadian Schools: Ideologies of Language and Culture among Korean Transnational Students in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from a 2.4-year ethnography with Korean Early Study Abroad (ESA, pre-college-aged study abroad) students in Toronto high schools, I examine the intersections among race, class, language, culture and citizenship (including immigrant status) in the identity construction and language learning of these students. Conceptualising race as a…

  15. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consists of a demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train. he treatment train consists of three processes. he first process utilizes an attrition soil wash process to separate relatively uncontaminated soil from a more heavil...

  16. White Fear: Analyzing Public Objection to Toronto's Africentric School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine-Rasky, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    In September 2009, the Toronto District School Board opened a publicly funded Africentric alternative school that today serves a population of about 135 students. While the founding of the eponymous school was the result of successful advocacy on the part of African-Canadian communities in the city, it was met with controversy. Readily observed in…

  17. Citizenship Education Practices of Politically Active Teachers in Porto Alegre, Brazil and Toronto, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John P.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the ways politically active secondary teachers, involved either in formal politics or in social movements, practiced citizenship education in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and Toronto, Canada. The author's aim was to explore the complex ways and multiple spaces in which these teachers' roles as both citizens and citizenship…

  18. Alexithymia, Assertiveness and Psychosocial Functioning in HIV: Implications for Medication Adherence and Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Roger C; Ironson, Gail; Antoni, Michael; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Psychosocial function and adherence to antiretroviral regimen are key factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease management. Alexithymia (AL) is a trait deficit in the ability to identify and describe feelings, emotions and bodily sensations. A structural equation model was used to test whether high levels of AL indirectly relate to greater non-adherent behavior and HIV disease severity via psychosocial dysfunction. Blood draws for HIV-1 viral load and CD4 T-lymphocyte, along with psychosocial surveys were collected from 439 HIV positive adults aged 18-73 years. The structural model supports significant paths from: (1) AL to non-active patient involvement, psychological distress, and lower social support, (2) psychological distress and non-active involvement to non-adherent behavior, and (3) non-adherence to greater HIV disease severity (CFI = .97, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). A second model confirmed the intermediary effect of greater patient assertiveness on the path from AL to social support and non-active patient involvement (CFI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). Altogether, AL is indirectly linked with HIV disease management through it's association with poor psychosocial function, however greater patient assertiveness buffers the negative impact of AL on relationship quality with healthcare providers and members of one's social support network. PMID:26143246

  19. Reduced empathic concern leads to utilitarian moral judgments in trait alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Indrajeet; Silani, Giorgia

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with moral dilemmas supports dual-process model of moral decision making. This model posits two different paths via which people can endorse utilitarian solution that requires personally harming someone in order to achieve the greater good (e.g., killing one to save five people): (i) weakened emotional aversion to the prospect of harming someone due to reduced empathic concern for the victim; (ii) enhanced cognition which supports cost-benefit analysis and countervails the prepotent emotional aversion to harm. Direct prediction of this model would be that personality traits associated with reduced empathy would show higher propensity to endorse utilitarian solutions. As per this prediction, we found that trait alexithymia, which is well-known to have deficits in empathy, was indeed associated with increased utilitarian tendencies on emotionally aversive personal moral dilemmas and this was due to reduced empathic concern for the victim. Results underscore the importance of empathy for moral judgments in harm/care domain of morality. PMID:24904510

  20. The impact of gentrification on ethnic neighbourhoods in Toronto: a case study of little Portugal.

    PubMed

    Murdie, Robert; Teixeira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on the nature and impact of gentrification, there has been little consideration of the effects of gentrification on ethnic neighbourhoods. This study evaluates the negative and positive effects of gentrification on the Portuguese in west central Toronto. Details concerning the settlement patterns of the Portuguese, the characteristics of Portuguese residents and patterns of gentrification in inner-city Toronto were obtained from census data. Evaluations of neighbourhood change and attitudes of the residents towards gentrification were obtained from key informant and focus group interviews. The results suggest considerable ambivalence among the respondents, but most agreed that the long-term viability of Little Portugal as an immigrant reception area with a good supply of low-cost housing is in doubt. PMID:21174893

  1. Energy solutions, neo-liberalism, and social diversity in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada's environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and 'smart growth'). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders' positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

  2. Trend analysis of long-term temperature time series in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsin, Tanzina; Gough, William A.

    2010-08-01

    As the majority of the world’s population is living in urban environments, there is growing interest in studying local urban climates. In this paper, for the first time, the long-term trends (31-162 years) of temperature change have been analyzed for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Annual and seasonal time series for a number of urban, suburban, and rural weather stations are considered. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for the assessing of the significance and detection of trends, and the sequential Mann test is used to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significant trends for annual mean and minimum temperatures are detected for almost all stations in the GTA. Winter is found to be the most coherent season contributing substantially to the increase in annual minimum temperature. The analyses of the abrupt changes in temperature suggest that the beginning of the increasing trend in Toronto started after the 1920s and then continued to increase to the 1960s. For all stations, there is a significant increase of annual and seasonal (particularly winter) temperatures after the 1980s. In terms of the linkage between urbanization and spatiotemporal thermal patterns, significant linear trends in annual mean and minimum temperature are detected for the period of 1878-1978 for the urban station, Toronto, while for the rural counterparts, the trends are not significant. Also, for all stations in the GTA that are situated in all directions except south of Toronto, substantial temperature change is detected for the periods of 1970-2000 and 1989-2000. It is concluded that the urbanization in the GTA has significantly contributed to the increase of the annual mean temperatures during the past three decades. In addition to urbanization, the influence of local climate, topography, and larger scale warming are incorporated in the analysis of the trends.

  3. Better governance in academic health sciences centres: moving beyond the Olivieri/Apotex Affair in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Ferris, L E; Singer, P A; Naylor, C D

    2004-02-01

    The Toronto experience suggests that there may be several general lessons for academic health sciences complexes to learn from the Olivieri/Apotex affair (OAA) regarding the ethics, independence, and integrity of clinical research sponsored by for profit enterprises. From a local perspective, the OAA occurred when there already was a focus on the complex and changing relationships among the University of Toronto, its medical school, the fully affiliated teaching hospitals, and off campus faculty because of intertwined interests and responsibilities. The OAA became a catalyst that accelerated various systemic reforms, particularly concerning academic/industry relations. In this article, the evolving governance framework for the Toronto academic health sciences complex is reviewed and these policy and process reforms discussed. These reforms have created collaborative activity among research ethics boards and contract research offices of the partner institutions, and allowed the joint university/hospital ethics centre to play a role in governance and policy, while respecting the missions and mandates of the involved institutions. Although few of the policies are dramatically innovative, what is arguably novel is the elaboration of an overarching governance framework that aims to move ethics to a central focus in the academic complex. Time alone will tell how sustainable and effective these changes are. PMID:14872067

  4. Ethnocultural and sex characteristics of patients attending a tertiary care pain clinic in Toronto, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Yegneswaran, Balaji; Nicholson, Keith; Lakha, SF; Papagapiou, Marios; Steiman, Amanda J; Ng, Danny; Cohodarevic, Tea; Umana, Margarita; Zurowski, Mateusz

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethnocultural factors and sex may greatly affect pain perception and expression. Emerging literature is also documenting racial and ethnic differences in pain access and care. OBJECTIVE: To define the sex and ethnocultural characteristics of patients attending a tertiary care, university-affiliated pain clinic in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: Data were collected on 1242 consecutive, new patients seen over a three-year period at the Comprehensive Pain Program (CPP) in downtown Toronto. Data were compared with the Canada 2001 Census. RESULTS: English-speaking, Canadian-born patients constituted 58.6% of the CPP population, similar to the 2001 Canadian Census data for the Greater Toronto Area. Certain visible minority groups (Indo-Pakistani and Chinese) were significantly under-represented, while European groups were over-represented. While women outnumbered men, they presented with lower levels of physical pathology in general, particularly in certain ethnic groups. Patients from Europe (representing primarily immigrants who arrived in Canada before 1960), were older, by 10 years to 15 years, than the average CPP population, and had a much higher incidence of physical or medical disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The implications of the study and the importance of sex and ethnicity in terms of presentation to Canadian pain clinics are discussed. Future well-designed studies are needed to shed light on the role of both patients’ and physicians’ ethnicity and sex in pain perception and expression, decision-making regarding pain treatments and acceptance of pain treatments. PMID:17505571

  5. Rescuing 100 Years of Data from the Toronto and Agincourt Magnetic Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springford, A.; Thomson, D. J.; Riegert, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We have an ongoing project to digitize a geomagnetic record that began in the 1840s at the Toronto magnetic observatory, on what is now the campus of the University of Toronto. As the city of Toronto grew, the observatory was relocated to Agincourt in 1898, and finally to Ottawa in 1968. The record provides a rare opportunity for high resolution study of geomagnetic phenomena far into the past and over a long time scale. The magnetograms, originally recorded on photographic paper, were transferred to 35mm film in the 1980s. We are now converting these film copies to digital images and devising algorithms for unsupervised extraction of the time series data contained therein. Using the digital images, we are able to extract data with a time resolution of approximately 15 seconds, a magnetic resolution of approximately 0.1 nT, and 24-bit quantization. Spectra computed from the extracted time series are characteristic of spectra computed from current digital instruments, indicating that the extracted data are of high quality. Unsupervised extraction is important for reproducibility and because there are in excess of 32,000 images totalling about 500Gb of computer storage. However, given that perfect extraction performance is impossible due to varying image quality, artefacts such as hand-written notes, and quirks of the recording device, we are developing a semi-supervised approach to ensure data quality.

  6. Affective agnosia: Expansion of the alexithymia construct and a new opportunity to integrate and extend Freud's legacy.

    PubMed

    Lane, Richard D; Weihs, Karen L; Herring, Anne; Hishaw, Alex; Smith, Ryan

    2015-08-01

    We describe a new type of agnosia consisting of an impairment in the ability to mentally represent or know what one is feeling. Freud the neurologist coined the term "agnosia" in 1891 before creating psychoanalysis in 1895 but the term has not been previously applied to the domain of affective processing. We propose that the concept of "affective agnosia" advances the theory, measurement and treatment of what is now called "alexithymia," meaning "lack of words for emotion." We trace the origin of the alexithymia construct and discuss the strengths and limitations of extant research. We review evidence that the ability to represent and put emotions into words is a developmental achievement that strongly influences one's ability to experience, recognize, understand and use one's own emotional responses. We describe the neural substrates of emotional awareness and affective agnosia and compare and contrast these with related conditions. We then describe how this expansion of the conceptualization and measurement of affective processing deficits has important implications for basic emotion research and clinical practice. PMID:26054794

  7. Emotional Awareness, Relationship Quality, and Satisfaction in Patients With Parkinson's Disease and Their Spousal Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Lucia; Pomponi, Massimiliano; Demartini, Benedetta; Ricciardi, Diego; Morabito, Bruno; Bernabei, Roberto; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship quality and satisfaction in couples, in which one partner had PD, obtaining the perspective of both patients and partner and to examine the impact of alexithymia, empathy, depression, and anxiety on ratings of relationship quality and satisfaction. Fifteen PD patients and partners completed the following scales: the Dyadic Adjustment Scale; Couple Satisfaction Index (CSI); the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale; the Empathy Quotient; the Hamilton Depression and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). We evaluated patients' motor functions by means of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and patients' quality of life by means of the PD Questionnaire. Patients were significantly less satisfied with the relationship than their partners as revealed by CSI (p = 0.031) and they were more depressed (p = 0.003) and anxious (p = 0.015). A negative correlation between measures of relationship quality and satisfaction and alexithymia was found in the patients group. No correlations were found between measures of relationship quality and satisfaction (both of patients and partners) and any other demographical and clinical variables. CSI and HAM-A were predictors of patient's social support evaluation. The presence of alexithymia in PD is an important factor affecting relationship quality and satisfaction. PMID:26226241

  8. Are Toronto's streams sick? A look at the fish and benthic invertebrate communities in the Toronto region in relation to the urban stream syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Angela M; Croft-White, Melanie V; Moryk, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Impacts of urbanization on aquatic ecosystems are intensifying as urban sprawl spreads across the global land base. The urban stream syndrome (USS) identifies "symptoms" associated with urban development including changes in biotic communities, hydrology, water chemistry, and channel morphology. Direct relationships between road density (as surrogate of urbanization) and indicators of the USS were identified for streams in the Toronto region. Significant negative relationships were revealed between road density and biological (fish and benthic macroinvertebrate) richness, diversity, and fish Index of Biotic Integrity scores. Significant positive relationships were found between road density and tolerant fish/benthic macroinvertbrates, benthos Family Biotic Index scores, mean summer stream temperature, stream flashiness, and several water quality variables. Analysis of biological data showed that only four fish species and a reduced number of benthic macroinvertebrate families remained at the most urbanized sites. Road density was found to be a major determinant in both the fish and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure. PMID:23467859

  9. Investigation of facial emotion recognition, alexithymia, and levels of anxiety and depression in patients with somatic symptoms and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Ahmet; Kiliç, Alperen; Deveci, Erdem; Kirpinar, İsmet

    2016-01-01

    Background The concept of facial emotion recognition is well established in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Although emotional disturbances are strongly associated with somatoform disorders, there are a restricted number of studies that have investigated facial emotion recognition in somatoform disorders. Furthermore, there have been no studies that have regarded this issue using the new diagnostic criteria for somatoform disorders as somatic symptoms and related disorders (SSD). In this study, we aimed to compare the factors of facial emotion recognition between patients with SSD and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) and to retest and investigate the factors of facial emotion recognition using the new criteria for SSD. Patients and methods After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 54 patients who were diagnosed with SSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria and 46 age- and sex-matched HC were selected to participate in the present study. Facial emotion recognition, alexithymia, and the status of anxiety and depression were compared between the groups. Results Patients with SSD had significantly decreased scores of facial emotion for fear faces, disgust faces, and neutral faces compared with age- and sex-matched HC (t=−2.88, P=0.005; t=−2.86, P=0.005; and t=−2.56, P=0.009, respectively). After eliminating the effects of alexithymia and depressive and anxious states, the groups were found to be similar in terms of their responses to facial emotion and mean reaction time to facial emotions. Discussion Although there have been limited numbers of studies that have examined the recognition of facial emotion in patients with somatoform disorders, our study is the first to investigate facial recognition in patients with SSD diagnosed according to the DSM-5 criteria. Recognition of facial emotion was found to be disturbed in patients with SSD. However, our findings suggest that

  10. An air dispersion model for the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sylvestre-Williams, Barbara; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2012-01-01

    Air quality is a major concern for the public; therefore, the reliability of accurate models in predicting the air quality is of a major interest. In this study, a Gaussian air dispersion model, known as the Air dispersion model for Road Sources in Urban areaS (ARSUS), was developed to predict the ground level concentrations for a contaminant of interest. It was demonstrated that this model could be used successfully in place of or in conjunction with ambient air monitoring stations in determining the local Air Quality Index (AQI). The ARSUS model was validated against the US EPA ISC3 model before it was used to conduct two studies in this investigation. These two studies simulated weekday morning rush-hour tailpipe emissions of CO and predicted ground level concentrations. The first study used the ARSUS model to predict ground level concentrations of CO from the tailpipe emissions for roads and highways located in the vicinity of the Toronto West ambient air monitoring station. The second study involved an expansion of the domain to predict ground level concentrations of CO from tailpipe emissions from highways in the City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The predicted concentrations were then compared to the data collected from the Toronto West ambient air monitoring station. The results of the ARSUS model indicated that the air quality in the immediate vicinity of roads or highways is highly impacted by the tailpipe emissions. Higher concentrations were observed for the areas adjacent to the road and highway sources. The tailpipe emissions of CO from highways had a higher contribution to the local air quality. The predicted ground level concentrations from the ARSUS model under-predicted when compared to the observed data from the monitoring station; however, despite this, the predictive model is viable. PMID:22506705

  11. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ΔFFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (ΔCO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ΔFFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories

  12. Toronto, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rofes, Eric

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces Karleen Pendleton Jimenez's book for young children, "Are You a Boy or a Girl?", represents a landmark achievement in queer literature in the early childhood classroom and deserves special attention by pre-school and primary teachers, academics working in early childhood education, and parents, particularly parents with…

  13. An international comparison of cancer survival: Toronto, Ontario, and Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan areas.

    PubMed Central

    Gorey, K. M.; Holowaty, E. J.; Fehringer, G.; Laukkanen, E.; Moskowitz, A.; Webster, D. J.; Richter, N. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether socioeconomic status has a differential effect on the survival of adults diagnosed with cancer in Canada and the United States. METHODS: The Ontario Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program provided a total of 58,202 and 76,055 population-based primary malignant cancer cases for Toronto, Ontario, and Detroit, Mich, respectively. Socioeconomic data for each person's residence at time of diagnosis were taken from population censuses. RESULTS: In the US cohort, there was a significant association between socioeconomic status and survival for 12 of the 15 most common cancer sites; in the Canadian cohort, there was no such association for 12 of the 15 sites. Among residents of low-income areas, persons in Toronto experienced a survival advantage for 13 of 15 cancer sites at 1- and 5-year follow-up. No such between-country differentials were observed in the middle- or high-income groups. CONCLUSIONS: The consistent pattern of a survival advantage in Canada observed across various cancer sites and follow-up periods suggests that Canada's more equitable access to preventive and therapeutic health care services is responsible for the difference. PMID:9240106

  14. Energy Solutions, Neo-Liberalism, and Social Diversity in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada’s environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and ‘smart growth’). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders’ positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

  15. The management of child abuse and neglect cases in schools: the Toronto model.

    PubMed

    McClare, G

    1983-01-01

    School staffs have a major role in the prevention, identification and referral of cases of child abuse and neglect. School administrators, teachers and school support staffs require knowledge about abuse and neglect, as well as a clear set of guidelines and procedures for dealing with it if they are to carry out these responsibilities effectively. The Toronto Board of Education has developed a program that has involved superintendents, principals, teachers, pupil personnel staff, caretakers, secretaries and community resources in an educational program oriented to the management of child abuse cases in their schools. The Board's Child Abuse Committee has developed a document which outlines employees' responsibilities under the legislation, provides assistance in the identification of child abuse and neglect cases, and outlines procedures for referral both internally and to the community. The document was used as the base for an extensive staff development program during the school year 1979-80, in which all of the system's 6,000 school based employees participated. The Toronto Board's Child Abuse Program incorporated the establishment of the position "Resource Person, Child Abuse" for the purpose of consultation with school staffs, as well as the ongoing provision of resource material and staff training. The paper outlines the development of the program, includes guidelines and procedures for school staffs, the legislation under which it operates, the content of the training program, and an evaluation of the program with suggestions for replication. PMID:6684980

  16. Realizing Partnership Potential: A Report on a Formal Collaboration between a Teaching and Learning Centre and Libraries at the University of Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolan, John; Bellamy, Patricia; Rolheiser, Carol; Szurmak, Joanna; Vine, Rita

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the University of Toronto's Centre for Teaching Support & Innovation (CTSI) and University of Toronto Libraries (UTL) jointly launched Partnering for Academic Student Success (PASS), a partnership to foster new opportunities for collaboration between academic librarians and those involved in developing excellence in university…

  17. Stable carbon isotope ratios of ambient secondary organic aerosols in Toronto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccon, M.; Kornilova, A.; Huang, L.; Moukhtar, S.; Rudolph, J.

    2015-09-01

    A method to quantify concentrations and stable carbon isotope ratios of secondary organic aerosols has been applied to study atmospheric nitrophenols in Toronto, Canada. The sampling of five nitrophenols, all with substantial secondary formation from the photooxidation of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), was conducted in the gas phase and particulate matter (PM) together and in PM alone. Their concentrations in the atmosphere are in the low ng m-3 range and, consequently, a large volume of air (> 1000 m3) is needed to analyze samples for stable carbon isotope ratios, resulting in sampling periods of typically 24 h. While this extended sampling period increases the representativeness of average values, it at the same time reduces possibilities to identify meteorological conditions or atmospheric pollution levels determining nitrophenol concentrations and isotope ratios. Average measured carbon isotope ratios of the different nitrophenols are between -34 and -33 ‰, which is well within the range predicted by mass balance. However, the observed carbon isotope ratios cover a range of nearly 9 ‰ and approximately 20 % of the isotope ratios of the products have isotope ratios lower than predicted from the kinetic isotope effect of the first step of the reaction mechanism and the isotope ratio of the precursor. This can be explained by isotope fractionation during reaction steps following the initial reaction of the precursor VOCs with the OH radical. Limited evidence for local production of nitrophenols is observed since sampling was done in the Toronto area, an urban center with significant anthropogenic emission sources. Strong evidence for significant local formation of nitrophenols is only found for samples collected in summer. On average, the difference in carbon isotope ratios between nitrophenols in the particle phase and in the gas phase is insignificant, but for a limited number of observations in summer, a substantial difference is observed. This

  18. Using FTIR measurements of stratospheric composition to identify midlatitude polar vortex intrusions over Toronto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, C.; Strong, K.; Adams, C.; Bourassa, A. E.; Daffer, W. H.; Degenstein, D. A.; Fast, H.; Fogal, P. F.; Manney, G. L.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Pavlovic, B.; Wiacek, A.

    2013-11-01

    Using 11 years of trace gas measurements made at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (43.66°N, 79.40°W) and Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (44.23°N, 79.78°W), along with derived meteorological products, we identify a number of polar intrusion events, which are excursions of the polar vortex or filaments from the polar vortex extending down to midlatitudes. These events are characterized by enhanced stratospheric columns (12-50 km) of hydrogen fluoride (HF), by diminished stratospheric columns of nitrous oxide (N2O), and by a scaled potential vorticity above 1.2 × 10-4s-1. The events comprise 16%of winter/spring (November to April inclusive) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements from January 2002 to March 2013, and we find at least two events per year. The events are corroborated by Modèle Isentrope du transport Méso-échelle de l'Ozone Stratosphérique par Advection, Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications potential vorticity maps, and Global Modeling Initiative N2O maps. During polar intrusion events, the stratospheric ozone (O3) columns over Toronto are usually greater than when there is no event. Our O3 measurements agree with the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System satellite instrument and are further verified with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite observations. We find six cases out of 53 for which chemical O3depletion within the polar vortex led to a reduction in stratospheric O3 columns over Toronto. We have thus identified a dynamical cause for most of the winter/spring variability of stratospheric trace gas columns observed at our midlatitude site. While there have been a number of prior polar intrusion studies, this is the first study to report in the context of 11 years of ground-based FTIR column measurements, providing insight into the frequency of midlatitude polar vortex intrusions

  19. The Ethnic Elderly in Metro Toronto Hospitals, Nursing Homes, and Homes for the Aged: Communication and Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldov, Morris; Chow, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Developed database on ethnic elderly persons; examined extent of communication problems they face in hospitals, nursing homes, and homes for aged in Metro Toronto; and reported on institutional response. Nursing home supervisors (n=77) reported that communication was essential to health care needs of ethnic elderly individuals. Most health care…

  20. Boundary Spanners and Advocacy Leaders: Black Educators and Race Equality Work in Toronto and London, 1968-1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This comparative study examines the historical development of race equality efforts during the 1970s and 1980s in two global cities--Toronto and London--and the role of African Canadian and Black British educators in longstanding school-community partnerships. I characterize the leadership stance of Black educators as boundary spanners and…

  1. A Guide to Research Collections in Microform in the University of Toronto Library. Reference Series No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagle, Iqbal, Comp.

    The microform collections of the University of Toronto Library are described with instructions for readers who wish to use them. The collections consist of microform reproductions of rare, out-of-print material and government documents. The entries are alphabetically arranged. Each is composed of details of subject coverage, bibliographical access…

  2. "Fear of Stigmatisation": Black Canadian Youths' Reactions to the Implementation of a Black-Focused School in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Megan K.; Zinga, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The black-focused school introduced by the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) in 2009 has been controversial since the community consultations were conducted. Although media representations and Dei (1996, 2006) provide insight into what Torontonians' reactions are to the proposed black-focused school, the reactions of black youth in the Greater…

  3. Academic Achievement, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Motivation of Immigrant Adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the self-reported academic achievement, academic self-concept, and academic motivation of 573 immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) secondary schools. Descriptive Discriminant Analyses indicated that the immigrant adolescents had higher performance in mathematics, higher math and school…

  4. Homeworking: Home Office or Home Sweatshop? Report on Current Conditions of Homeworkers in Toronto's Garment Industry. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Roxana; Wong, Renita Yuk-Lin; Choi, Angela

    The current conditions of home workers in the garment industry in Toronto, Canada, were examined through in-depth telephone interviews with 30 Chinese-speaking immigrant women who were employed as home workers in 1999. The paper dicusses the formal training and informal learning experiences of immigrant woman who are garment workers. A comparison…

  5. The 1991 Every Secondary Student Survey, Part II: Detailed Profiles of Toronto's Secondary School Students. No. 204.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Maisy; And Others

    In November 1991 a survey was conducted of all students in Toronto (Ontario, Canada) secondary schools. The initial report gave demographic information about the student population. This report includes subgroup profiles, such as the characteristics of female versus male students, the similarities and differences among racial and ethnic groups,…

  6. Tapping into the "Standing-Reserve": A Comparative Analysis of Workers' Training Programmes in Kolkata and Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitra, Saikat; Maitra, Srabani

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines employment-related training programmes offered by state funded agencies and multinational corporations in Toronto (Canada) and Kolkata (India). In recent years both cities have witnessed a rise in the service sector industries aligned with global regimes of flexible work and the consequent reinvention of a worker subject that…

  7. DEVELOPMENTS AT TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH HELD AT TORONTO, CANADA ON JUNE 23-27, 1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is an interpretive analysis of formal and informal developments at the Tenth International Conference on Water Pollution Research held in Toronto, Canada, on June 23-27, 1980. Pertinent conference developments are summarized and categorized as follows: modelling of la...

  8. 'By Just What Procedure Am I To Be Guillotined?': Academic Freedom in the Toronto Forestry Faculty between the Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlberg, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the University of Toronto (Canada) forestry faculty; university president Robert Falconer's firing of W. N. Millar, an outspoken professor; and the politically sensitive university climate during early 20th century. Dissention over Millar's firing brought focus on limited academic freedom of speech and caused further restriction of…

  9. Weather sensitivity for zoo visitation in Toronto, Canada: a quantitative analysis of historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Gough, William A.

    2016-03-01

    Based on a case study of the Toronto Zoo (Canada), multivariate regression analysis, involving both climatic and social variables, was employed to assess the relationship between daily weather and visitation. Zoo visitation was most sensitive to weather variability during the shoulder season, followed by the off-season and, then, the peak season. Temperature was the most influential weather variable in relation to zoo visitation, followed by precipitation and, then, wind speed. The intensity and direction of the social and climatic variables varied between seasons. Temperatures exceeding 26 °C during the shoulder season and 28 °C during the peak season suggested a behavioural threshold associated with zoo visitation, with conditions becoming too warm for certain segments of the zoo visitor market, causing visitor numbers to decline. Even light amounts of precipitation caused average visitor numbers to decline by nearly 50 %. Increasing wind speeds also demonstrated a negative influence on zoo visitation.

  10. Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening (ToPAS) questionnaire: a report from the GRAPPA 2009 annual meeting.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Vinod; Gladman, Dafna D

    2011-03-01

    The Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening questionnaire (ToPAS) was developed as a tool to screen for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in patients with psoriasis as well as in the general population. Thus, it differs from PsA-specific screening tools and may be used to screen for PsA in epidemiologic and family investigations. In a presentation at the 2009 annual meeting of GRAPPA (Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis) in Stockholm, Sweden, the authors described the development, testing, and validation of the ToPAS tool. Results of a comparison of the ToPAS questionnaire with the Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation (PASE) questionnaire were also presented. Modification and further validation of the ToPAS are under way. PMID:21362783

  11. Lidar measurements of the stratosphere at the Eureka and Toronto NDSC stations

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, S.R.; Carswell, A.I.; Bird, J.; Donovan, D.; Duck, T.; Whiteway, J.

    1996-12-31

    Lidar observations of stratospheric ozone, aerosol and temperature have been carried out at Toronto (43.8N, 79.5W) since 1989 and during winter months at the Arctic Stratospheric Observatory (AStrO) at Eureka (80N, 86W) since 1992. The Raman DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) systems utilized at both observatories are briefly described and the measurements are discussed. The measurements at AStrO are discussed in relation to the dynamics of stratospheric polar vortex and the presence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). Results from the winters of 1994/95 and 1995/96 indicate very low polar stratospheric temperatures, capable of inducing polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and exhibit an appreciable ozone depletion.

  12. Population Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Invasive Serotype IV Group B Streptococcus, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Li, Aimin; Gomes, Janice; Seah, Christine; Demczuk, Walter; Martin, Irene; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; Melano, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that 37/600 (6.2%) invasive infections with group B Streptococcus (GBS) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, were caused by serotype IV strains. We report a relatively high level of genetic diversity in 37 invasive strains of this emerging GBS serotype. Multilocus sequence typing identified 6 sequence types (STs) that belonged to 3 clonal complexes. Most isolates were ST-459 (19/37, 51%) and ST-452 (11/37, 30%), but we also identified ST-291, ST-3, ST-196, and a novel ST-682. We detected further diversity by performing whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis and found evidence of recombination events contributing to variation in some serotype IV GBS strains. We also evaluated antimicrobial drug resistance and found that ST-459 strains were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin, whereas strains of other STs were, for the most part, susceptible to these antimicrobial drugs. PMID:25811284

  13. Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto,Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven

    2003-08-26

    The effect of heat-island reduction (HIR) strategies on annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area is calculated, using an hourly building energy simulation model. Results show that ratepayers could realize potential annual energy savings of over $11M from the effects of HIR strategies. The residential sector accounts for over half (59%) of the total savings, offices 13% and retail stores 28%. Savings from cool roofs are about 20%, shade trees 30%, wind shielding of trees 37%, and ambient cooling by trees and reflective surfaces 12%. These results are preliminary and highly sensitive to the relative price of gas and electricity. Potential annual electricity savings are estimated at about 150GWh and potential peak-power avoidance at 250MW.

  14. Tensions in providing services to South Asian victims of wife abuse in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Agnew, V

    1998-04-01

    This article examines the tensions in providing services to South Asian victims of wife abuse in Toronto, Canada. It focuses on major community-based organizations of South Asian women, particularly on the South Asian Family Support Services. These community-based organizations provide services to non-English speaking, working-class immigrant women. This study found out that the dependency towards state funds for their programs necessitates them to modify their feminist agendas and restrain their criticisms of patriarchal society. Yet, these organizations have made no attempts in looking for other ways to operate without state funding. Community-based groups have to balance the immediate needs of the women they serve against their long-term feminist goals of reducing violence by men and destabilizing the patriarchal state. Although they give importance to securing access to social services for these women, supporting them does little to reveal the systematic power relations behind wife abuse. PMID:12295439

  15. Dietary Calcium: a low priority in treatment of essential hypertension by Toronto family practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, EK

    1986-01-01

    A sample of Toronto family practitioners was surveyed in order to ascertain whether increased dietary calcium was recommended in the treatment of essential hypertension. It was found that in excess of four-fifths of the same make no dietary calcium recommendations. It was concluded that this was the result of one or more of the following: 1. the low priority granted to nutrition in medical schools and continuing education courses contributes to a lack of awareness of nutritional therapies; 2. the relatively small body of literature pertaining to calcium and hypertension in contrast to the large volume of publications concerning drug therapies may contribute to a lack of familiarity with the research into calcium and hypertension; 3. the fact that the data to date have not established a definite causal relationship between low dietary calcium and hypertension may contribute to a lack of conviction as to the efficacy of increased dietary calcium as a treatment.

  16. Bringing hope and change: a study of youth probation officers in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswar, Janani

    2013-09-01

    Although youth probation (in some countries described as youth justice or youth offending work) has been widely discussed in older and more recent criminological literature, less attention has been paid to youth probation officers' accounts of their attitudes and strategies. In this study, the author uses in-depth interviews with 20 youth probation officers in Toronto, examining officers' attitudes toward the youth they work with and how these attitudes are reflected in the strategies that the officers use to achieve their professional goals. Findings reveal that the officers balance their authoritative and supportive roles not only to hold youth accountable, to encourage them to assert control over their lives, and to maintain optimism about the possibility of a nondeviant life, but also to assist the youth in attaining the means and resources necessary to make positive changes. These findings are interpreted within the framework of Canadian youth justice legislation as well as the broader desistance literature. PMID:22573709

  17. Health and growth status of immigrant and refugee children in Toronto, Ontario: A retrospective chart review

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Leila; Lofters, Aisha K; Hoffmann, Susan M; Polsky, Jane Y; Rouleau, Katherine D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe selected anthropometric and health status variables among immigrant and refugee children ≤6 years of age within an inner city clinic in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients born between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008, was conducted at a Toronto community health centre serving a primarily immigrant and refugee population. Outcome measures included calculated age-specific percentiles for height and weight, and the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, enteric parasites, elevated lead levels, HIV and hepatitis B. Postal codes were collected and used to determine the patient’s neighbourhood income quintile. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients, born between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008, were identified. Of these, a total of 210 charts were manually reviewed. The prevalence of height-for-age and weight-for-age under the third percentile on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Charts were 7.2% and 11.6%, respectively, and 8.4% and 5.0%, respectively, on the WHO Growth Standards Chart. Prevalence rates were also calculated for anemia (22.8%), iron deficiency (53.3%), hepatitis B (2.5%), parasitic infections (33.6%), elevated blood lead levels (4.9%) and HIV (0%). Neighbourhood income quintiles revealed that 46.7% of patients were residing in the lowest (ie, poorest) income quintile neighbourhoods. CONCLUSION: These findings reveal a high burden of illness within the population presenting to an immigrant/refugee health clinic, and illustrate the need for further research in this area, as well as increased efforts to ensure appropriate screening within clinics serving a high volume of newcomer patients. PMID:26744562

  18. Variability of atmospheric ammonia related to potential emission sources in downtown Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qingjing; Zhang, Leiming; Evans, Greg J.; Yao, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    The variability of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in downtown Toronto was investigated through the analysis of 24 hr integrated denuder NH3 samples collected at a site above a street canyon every third day from July 2003 to September 2011 (Dataset 1). The measured NH3 mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit to 14.7 ppb during the eight-year period. Distinctive seasonal variations were observed with summer averages (±standard deviation) of 3.9 ± 1.6 ppb and winter averages of 1.1 ± 0.6 ppb. Two other datasets, weekly/biweekly passive samples of NH3 monitored at 74 agricultural and remote sites across southern Ontario during the period of June 2006 to March 2007 (Dataset 2) and semi-continuous measurements of NH3 and ammonium (pNH4+) in PM2.5 collected at a site inside a street canyon approximately 170 m away from the downtown site in December 2008 and February, March and May 2009 (Dataset 3), were further used to evaluate the potential NH3 sources in downtown Toronto. The NH3 mixing ratios at the downtown location were higher than those at the surrounding agricultural sites, and the mixing ratios within the street canyon were almost double those measured above it. These results suggested that the observed NH3 at the downtown location was mainly from local sources within the street canyon. Analysis of Dataset 3 showed that the diurnal cycles of NH3 at the downtown location cannot be simply explained by traffic and water consumption patterns. A green space inside the street canyon was identified as a potential important source contributing to the observed NH3 when T > 0 °C. However, the major NH3 emission sources at T ≤ 0 °C are yet to be investigated.

  19. Concentrations in air of organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphate flame retardants in Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Ahrens, Lutz; Jantunen, Liisa; Harner, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of organobromine (BFRs), organochlorine (CFRs) and organophosphate esters flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) in air were monitored for over one year at an urban site in Toronto, Canada during 2010-2011. The mean value for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) (gas + particle phase) was 38 pg/m3 with BDE-47 and BDE-99 as the dominant congeners. The mean concentrations in air for ∑non-BDE (BFRs and CFRs), was 9.6 pg/m3 - about four times lower than the BDEs. The brominated FRs: TBP-AE, BTBPE, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and the chlorinated syn- and anti-DP were detected frequently, ranging from 87% to 96%. Highest concentrations in air among all flame retardant classes were observed for the Σ-PFRs. The yearly mean concentration in air for ΣPFRs was 2643 pg/m3 with detection frequency higher than 80%. Except for TBP-AE and b- DBE-DBCH, non-BDEs (BFRs, CFRs and PFRs) were mainly associated with the particle phase. BDE concentrations in air were positively correlated with temperature indicating that volatilization from local sources was an important factor controlling levels in air. This correlation did not hold for most BFRs, CFRs and PFRs which were mainly on particles. For these compounds, air concentrations in Toronto are likely related to emissions from point sources and advective inputs. This study highlights the importance of urban air monitoring for FRs. Urban air can be considered a sentinel for detecting changes in the use and application of FRs in commercial products.

  20. Sources of personal exposure to fine particles in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    David Kim; Andrea Sass-Kortsak; James T. Purdham; Robert E. Dales; Jeffrey R. Brook

    2005-08-01

    Individuals are exposed to particulate matter from both indoor and outdoor sources. The aim of this study was to compare the relative contributions of three sources of personal exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) by using chemical tracers. The study design incorporated repeated 24-hr personal exposure measurements of air pollution from 28 cardiac-compromised residents of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Each study participant wore the Rupprecht & Patashnick ChemPass Personal Sampling System 1 day a week for a maximum of 10 weeks. During their individual exposure measurement days the subjects reported to have spent an average of 89% of their time indoors. Particle phase elemental carbon, sulfate, and calcium personal exposure data were used in a mixed-effects model as tracers for outdoor PM2.5 from traffic-related combustion, regional, and local crustal materials, respectively. These three sources were found to contribute 13% {+-} 10%, 17% {+-}16%, and 7% {+-} 6% of PM2.5 exposures. The remaining fraction of the personal PM2.5 is hypothesized to be predominantly related to indoor sources. For comparison, central site outdoor PM2.5 measurements for the same dates as personal measurements were used to construct a receptor model using the same three tracers. In this case, traffic-related combustion, regional, and local crustal materials were found to contribute 19% {+-} 17%, 52% {+-} 22%, and 10% {+-} 7%, respectively. The results indicate that the three outdoor PM2.5 sources considered are statistically significant contributors to personal exposure to PM2.5. The results also suggest that among the Toronto subjects, who spent a considerable amount of time indoors, exposure to outdoor PM2.5 includes a greater relative contribution from combustion sources compared with outdoor PM2.5 measurements where regional sources are the dominant contributor. 56 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Alexithymic features and automatic amygdala reactivity to facial emotion.

    PubMed

    Kugel, Harald; Eichmann, Mischa; Dannlowski, Udo; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Suslow, Thomas

    2008-04-11

    Alexithymic individuals have difficulties in identifying and verbalizing their emotions. The amygdala is known to play a central role in processing emotion stimuli and in generating emotional experience. In the present study automatic amygdala reactivity to facial emotion was investigated as a function of alexithymia (as assessed by the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale). The Beck-Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to measure participants' depressivity and trait anxiety. During 3T fMRI scanning, pictures of faces bearing sad, happy, and neutral expressions masked by neutral faces were presented to 21 healthy volunteers. The amygdala was selected as the region of interest (ROI) and voxel values of the ROI were extracted, summarized by mean and tested among the different conditions. A detection task was applied to assess participants' awareness of the masked emotional faces shown in the fMRI experiment. Masked sad and happy facial emotions led to greater right amygdala activation than masked neutral faces. The alexithymia feature difficulties identifying feelings was negatively correlated with the neural response of the right amygdala to masked sad faces, even when controlling for depressivity and anxiety. Reduced automatic amygdala responsivity may contribute to problems in identifying one's emotions in everyday life. Low spontaneous reactivity of the amygdala to sad faces could implicate less engagement in the encoding of negative emotional stimuli. PMID:18314269

  2. Investigating emotional impairments in adults with autism spectrum disorders and the broader autism phenotype.

    PubMed

    Berthoz, Sylvie; Lalanne, Christophe; Crane, Laura; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2013-08-15

    There is an increasing interest in the socio-affective atypicalities observed in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to further explore emotional responsiveness in adults with ASD using well-validated self-reports of alexithymia and to determine whether anhedonic features are part of a broader autism phenotype (BAP). Participants comprised 38 adults with ASD, 87 parents of ASD individuals and 47 typical controls. All participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, as well as the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales. The ASD group differed from controls and parents on most measures, with the exception of physical and social anhedonia, relative to parents. Parents differed from controls on social anhedonia, and a higher proportion of parents were classed as alexithymic, relative to controls. Cluster analysis revealed that some parents share more similarities with ASD participants than with controls. The results suggest that socio-affective impairments characteristic of ASD are part of the BAP. PMID:23747233

  3. Associations between facial emotion recognition, cognition and alexithymia in patients with schizophrenia: comparison of photographic and virtual reality presentations.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J; Rus-Calafell, M; Márquez-Rejón, S; Ribas-Sabaté, J

    2012-01-01

    Emotion recognition is known to be impaired in schizophrenia patients. Although cognitive deficits and symptomatology have been associated with this impairment there are other patient characteristics, such as alexithymia, which have not been widely explored. Emotion recognition is normally assessed by means of photographs, although they do not reproduce the dynamism of human expressions. Our group has designed and validated a virtual reality (VR) task to assess and subsequently train schizophrenia patients. The present study uses this VR task to evaluate the impaired recognition of facial affect in patients with schizophrenia and to examine its association with cognitive deficit and the patients' inability to express feelings. Thirty clinically stabilized outpatients with a well-established diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed in neuropsychological, symptomatic and affective domains. They then performed the facial emotion recognition task. Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences between the two presentation conditions (photographs and VR) in terms of overall errors made. However, anger and fear were easier to recognize in VR than in photographs. Moreover, strong correlations were found between psychopathology and the errors made. PMID:22954834

  4. The self to other model of empathy: providing a new framework for understanding empathy impairments in psychopathy, autism, and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Bird, Geoffrey; Viding, Essi

    2014-11-01

    Despite increasing empirical and theoretical work on empathy, particularly on the content of empathic representations, there is a relative lack of consensus regarding the information processing necessary for empathy to occur. Here we attempt to delineate a mechanistic cognitive model of empathy in order to provide a framework within which neuroimaging work on empathy can be located, and which may be used in order to understand various disorders characterised by atypical levels of empathy. To this end data from individuals with psychopathy, autism, and alexithymia inform the model, and the model is used to provide a unifying framework for any empathy impairments seen in these disorders. The model adopts a developmental framework and tries to address the four difficult questions of empathy: How do we know what another is feeling? What is the role of theory of mind in empathy? How does the state of another cause a corresponding state in the self? How do we represent another's emotion once emotional contagion has taken place? PMID:25454356

  5. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and

  6. Stable carbon isotope ratios of ambient secondary organic aerosols in Toronto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccon, M.; Kornilova, A.; Huang, L.; Moukhtar, S.; Rudolph, J.

    2015-06-01

    A method to quantify concentrations and stable carbon isotope ratios of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been applied to study atmospheric nitrophenols in Toronto, Canada. The sampling of five nitrophenols, all primarily formed from the photo-oxidation of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOC), in the gas phase and particulate matter (PM) together and PM alone was conducted. Since all of the target compounds are secondary products, their concentrations in the atmosphere are in the low ng m-3 range and consequently a large volume of air (> 1000 m3) is needed to analyze samples for stable carbon isotope ratios, resulting in sampling periods of typically 24 h. While this extended sampling period increases the representativeness of average values, it at the same time reduces possibilities to identify meteorological conditions or atmospheric pollution levels determining nitrophenol concentrations and isotope ratios. Average measured carbon isotope ratios of the different nitrophenols are between -34 and -33‰, which is well within the range predicted by mass balance calculations. However, the observed carbon isotope ratios cover a range of nearly 9‰, and approximately 20% of the isotope ratios of the products have isotope ratios lower than predicted from the kinetic isotope effect of the first step of the reaction mechanism and the isotope ratio of the precursor. This can be explained by isotope fractionation during reaction steps following the initial reaction of the precursor VOCs with the OH radical. Limited evidence for local production of nitrophenols is observed since sampling was done in the Toronto area, an urban centre with significant anthropogenic emission sources. Strong evidence for significant local formation of nitrophenols is only found for samples collected in summer. On average, the difference in carbon isotope ratios between nitrophenols in the particle phase and in the gas phase is insignificant, but for a limited number of observations in

  7. Highlights of the 2004 scientific sessions of the Heart Failure Society of America, Toronto, Canada, September 12 to 15, 2004.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peter; Konstam, Marvin A; Force, Thomas

    2005-02-15

    The annual scientific meeting of the Heart Failure Society of American (HFSA) brings together cardiologists, surgeons, nurses, and allied health care workers who are interested in improving the diagnosis, treatment, quality of life, and survival of patients affected by heart failure. The meeting integrates the best of basic advances with clinical trials and outcomes observations in a single seamless forum. The meeting in Toronto, Canada, attracted close to 3,000 attendees. PMID:15708712

  8. Promoting HIV Testing for Gay and Bisexual Men: An Evaluation of the 2011-2012 Campaign in Toronto and Ottawa.

    PubMed

    Adam, Barry D; Gardner, Sandra; Major, Carol; Campbell, Diana; Light, Lucia; Globerman, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a social marketing campaign directed toward high-risk men who have sex with men in Toronto and Ottawa to encourage testing for HIV and syphilis; improve knowledge about HIV transmission, seroconversion symptoms, and the HIV window period; and heighten awareness of syphilis transmission and its relationship to facilitating HIV transmission. Evaluation data were collected from a large-scale online pre-and postcampaign survey of sexually active men who have sex with men and from laboratory testing data. Men who turned up to be tested also filled out an exit survey. The campaign websites attracted some 15,000 unique visitors, 54% of whom had an IP address in Toronto or Ottawa. Laboratory data showed a 20% increase in HIV testing in Toronto over the campaign compared to the previous year. The overall rate of HIV-positive tests remained relatively constant. Knowledge levels about seroconversion symptoms, sexually transmitted infection and HIV transmission, and the HIV window period were significantly better among postcampaign survey respondents aware of the campaign compared to postcampaign respondents who were not aware and compared to precampaign respondents. PMID:26384927

  9. Toward a joint health and disease management program. Toronto hospitals partner to provide system leadership.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Anne Marie; Gollish, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Deborah; McGlasson, Rhona; Waddell, James

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Health and Disease Management Program in the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network (TC LHIN) is envisioned as a comprehensive model of care for patients with hip and knee arthritis. It includes access to assessment services, education, self-management programs and other treatment programs, including specialist care as needed. As the first phase of this program, the hospitals in TC LHIN implemented a Hip and Knee Replacement Program to focus on improving access and quality of care, coordinating services and measuring wait times for patients waiting for hip or knee replacement surgery. The program involves healthcare providers, consumers and constituent hospitals within TC LHIN. The approach used for this program involved a definition of governance structure, broad stakeholder engagement to design program elements and plans for implementation and communication to ensure sustainability. The program and approach were designed to provide a model that is transferrable in its elements or its entirety to other patient populations and programs. Success has been achieved in creating a single wait list, developing technology to support referral management and wait time reporting, contributing to significant reductions in waits for timely assessment and treatment, building human resource capacity and improving patient and referring physician satisfaction with coordination of care. PMID:19369812

  10. Source, concentration, and distribution of elemental mercury in the atmosphere in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Elaine; Tharumakulasingam, Kavitharan; Athar, Makshoof; Yousaf, Muhammad; Cheng, Irene; Huang, Y; Lu, Julia; Yap, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury [GEM] at 1.8, 4, and 59 m above ground, in parking lots, and in indoor and outdoor air was measured in Toronto City, Canada from May 2008-July 2009. The average GEM value at 1.8 m was 1.89 ± 0.62 ng m(-3). The GEM values increased with elevation. The average GEM in underground parking lots ranged from 1.37 to 7.86 ng m(-3) and was higher than those observed from the surface parking lots. The GEM in the indoor air ranged from 1.21 to 28.50 ng m(-3), was higher in the laboratories than in the offices, and was much higher than that in the outdoor air. All these indicate that buildings serve as sources of mercury to the urban atmosphere. More studies are needed to estimate the contribution of urban areas to the atmospheric mercury budget and the impact of indoor air on outdoor air quality and human health. PMID:21251742

  11. Spatial clustering and the temporal mobility of walking school trips in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Raktim; Buliung, Ron N; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2010-07-01

    Interest in utilitarian sources of physical activity, such as walking to school, has emerged in response to the increased prevalence of sedentary behavior in children and youth. Public health practitioners and urban planners need to be able to survey and monitor walking practices in space and time, with a view to developing appropriate interventions. This study explored the prevalence of walking to and from school of 11-13 year olds in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. The Getis-Ord (G(i)(*)) local spatial statistic, Markov transition matrices, and logistic regressions were used to examine the spatial clustering of walking trips in the study area, and to document any temporal drift of places in and out of walking clusters. Findings demonstrate that walking tends to cluster within the urban and inner-suburban GTA, and in areas with low household income. Temporally persistent cluster membership was less likely within inner-suburban and outer-suburban places. The evidence suggests that interventions to increase active school transportation need to acknowledge spatial and temporal differences in walking behavior. PMID:20207186

  12. Seeing double, thinking twice: the Toronto drag kings and (re-) articulations of masculinity.

    PubMed

    Noble, Jean Bobby

    2002-01-01

    Through a close reading of the performances of masculinity by the Toronto drag kings, this chapter argues that drag king shows parody the hyper-masculine star at his most contradictory and dialogic. Given that drag king performances parody both the contradictions of masculinity on stage, and the productive technologies of the star, king performances are essentially both meta-theatrical (performances about performing where lights, music, body language, dance all make the man) and meta-performative (performances which are at once conditioned by the performative reiterations which enable a fiction of identity in the first place). Finally, I explore the rather abstracted question of what cultural work the category of "drag king" does. I argue that it is a term which articulates a series of productive but necessary slippages in and through the contradictory and dialogic practices of identification. The bottom line is this: drag kings are situated in and play with the ironic no man's land between "lesbian," "butch," "transman" and "bio-boy" where the sell evident is neither. PMID:12769283

  13. Factors influencing compliance with quarantine in Toronto during the 2003 SARS outbreak.

    PubMed

    DiGiovanni, Clete; Conley, Jerome; Chiu, Daniel; Zaborski, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to cull lessons from Toronto's experiences with large-scale quarantine during the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in early 2003. We focused on issues that affected the population's willingness to comply with quarantine. Information was acquired from interviews, telephone polling, and focus groups. Issues of quarantine legitimacy, criteria for quarantine, and the need to allow some quarantined healthcare workers to leave their homes to go to work were identified. Also important was the need to answer questions from people entering quarantine about the continuation of their wages, salaries, and other forms of income while they were not working, and about the means by which they would be supplied with groceries and other services necessary for daily living. The threat of enforcement had less effect on compliance than did the credibility of compliance-monitoring. Fighting boredom and other psychological stresses of quarantine, muting the forces of stigma against those in quarantine, and crafting and delivering effective and believable communications to a population of mixed cultures and languages also were critical. The need for officials to develop consistent quarantine policies, procedures, and public messages across jurisdictional boundaries was paramount. PMID:15650436

  14. Mental Health and Hospital Chaplaincy: Strategies of Self-Protection (Case Study: Toronto, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This is a study about emotion management among a category of healthcare professional – hospital chaplains – who have hardly been the subject of sociological research about emotions. The aim of the study was to understand how chaplains manage their work-related emotions in order to protect their mental health, whilst also providing spiritual care. Methods: Using in-depth, semi structured interviews, the author spoke with 21 chaplains from five faith traditions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism and modern paganism) in different Toronto (Canada) Hospitals to see how they manage their emotion, and what resources they rely on in order to protect their mental health. Data analysis was perfumed according to Sandelowski’s method of qualitative description. Results: The average age and work experience of the subjects interviewed in this study are 52 and 9.6 respectively. 11 chaplains worked part-time and 10 chaplains worked full-time. 18 respondents were women and the sample incudes 3 male chaplains only. The findings are discussed, among others, according to the following themes: work-life balance, self-reflexivity, methods of self-care, and chaplains’ emotional make-up. Conclusion: Emotion management per se is not a problem. However, if chaplains fail to maintain a proper work-life balance, job pressure can be harmful. As a strategy, many chaplains work part-time. As a supportive means, an overwhelming number of chaplains regularly benefit from psychotherapy and/or spiritual guidance. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644502

  15. Enhancing patient safety through the management of Clostridium difficile at Toronto East General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tomiczek, Arladeen; Stumpo, C; Downey, James F

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 Toronto East General Hospital experienced a steady increase in the number of C. difficile cases diagnosed within the hospital. This was identified as a patient safety issue, and several areas of the hospital came together to address the problem. Pharmacy immediately started a medication review of past cases. Environmental services took the lead on the environmental cleaning, and a process was put into place with Infection Control so that housekeeping knew of every room that contained a patient with C. difficile and enhanced cleaning could be practised. Staff, including nursing, housekeeping and porters, were educated on C. difficile and the methods of transmission. A business case was developed for a disposable bedpan system, and this was approved by the senior team. A new washable product was tried out with success for the overhead patient light pulls and bathroom call bell systems. Infection rates were shared with staff through a variety of venues. As a result of the initiatives, the hospital has seen a decrease of 50% in the rates of C. difficile. A bonus was that our MRSA rates dropped as well. PMID:17087168

  16. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature.

  17. Long-path measurements of pollutants and micrometeorology over Highway 401 in Toronto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, R. M.; You, Y.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Moussa, S.; Liggio, J.; Su, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Highway traffic emissions are an important source of air pollution, especially in urban areas. Traffic-related pollution has been linked to a number of adverse health effects, such as respiratory problems, cancer, heart failure, and a general increase in mortality. Determining the pollutants involved and quantifying their emission rates is paramount in developing high resolution air quality models to predict future developments with some confidence. Highway 401, as it passes through Toronto, is the world's busiest highway with a typical traffic volume of over 450,000 vehicles per day. In July 2015, three weeks of measurements were conducted over the 401 with an open-path FTIR (Fourier Transform infra-red) spectrometer in parallel with a scintillometer, integrating a variety of gas concentrations as well as turbulence parameters over a 310m path length. Relationships between traffic volume, micrometeorological conditions and the build-up and venting of pollutants on the highway are analyzed and quantified, demonstrating the role of stratification and turbulence in the accumulation and dispersal of traffic emissions. The feasibility of deriving emission rates by combining the micrometeorological data from the scintillometer with the gas concentrations from the FTIR using an inverse dispersion approach is investigated. The suitability of this novel approach for long-term monitoring of emissions is discussed. The findings will be compared with output from a high-resolution air quality model (GEM-MACH) to aid future improvements in the sub-grid parameterization of pollutant dispersion.

  18. Right lobe living-donor hepatectomy—the Toronto approach, tips and tricks

    PubMed Central

    Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Laurence, Jerome M.; Levy, Gary A.; Grant, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a well-established treatment for end-stage liver disease. Nevertheless, it has not been extensively accepted in North America or Europe as it has been in Asia. At the University of Toronto we initiated our LDLT program in 2000 and since then our program has grown each year, representing today the largest LDLT program in North America. Our right-lobe LDLT experience from 2000−2014 includes 474 right lobes. Only 30% of our grafts have included the middle hepatic vein. We present excellent outcomes in terms of graft and patient survival which is not different to that achieved with deceased donor liver transplantation. In the present study we will discuss the evolution, challenges and current practices of our LDLT program. We will discuss what is and has been the program philosophy. We will also discuss how we evaluate our donors and the extensive workup we do before a donor is accepted for live donation. Furthermore we will discuss some tips and tricks of how we perform the right hepatectomy for live donation. PMID:27115005

  19. Development of a land-use regression model for ultrafine particles in Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Yao, Xiaohong; Reali, Christopher; Sun, Tim; Evans, Greg J.

    2015-06-01

    This study applies land-use regression (LUR) to characterize the spatial distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP) in a large city. Particle number (PN) concentrations were measured in residential areas around Toronto, Canada, between June and August 2008. A combination of fixed and mobile monitoring was used to assess spatial gradients between and within communities. The fixed monitoring locations included a central site, two downtown sites, and four residential sites located 6-15 km from the downtown core. The mobile data included average PN concentrations collected on 112 road segments from 10 study routes that were repeated on three separate days. The mobile data was used to create the land-use regression model while the fixed sites were used for validation purposes. The predictor variables that best described the spatial variation of PN concentration (R2 = 0.72, validated R2 = 0.68) included population density within 300 m, total resource and industrial area within 1000 m, total residential area within 3000 m, and major roadway and highway length within 3000 m. The LUR model successfully predicted the afternoon peak PN concentration (slope = 0.96, R2 = 0.86) but over-predicted the 24-h average PN concentration (slope = 1.28, R2 = 0.72) measured at seven fixed monitoring sites.

  20. Latent segmentation based count models: Analysis of bicycle safety in Montreal and Toronto.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen

    2016-10-01

    The study contributes to literature on bicycle safety by building on the traditional count regression models to investigate factors affecting bicycle crashes at the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level. TAZ is a traffic related geographic entity which is most frequently used as spatial unit for macroscopic crash risk analysis. In conventional count models, the impact of exogenous factors is restricted to be the same across the entire region. However, it is possible that the influence of exogenous factors might vary across different TAZs. To accommodate for the potential variation in the impact of exogenous factors we formulate latent segmentation based count models. Specifically, we formulate and estimate latent segmentation based Poisson (LP) and latent segmentation based Negative Binomial (LNB) models to study bicycle crash counts. In our latent segmentation approach, we allow for more than two segments and also consider a large set of variables in segmentation and segment specific models. The formulated models are estimated using bicycle-motor vehicle crash data from the Island of Montreal and City of Toronto for the years 2006 through 2010. The TAZ level variables considered in our analysis include accessibility measures, exposure measures, sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, road network characteristics and built environment. A policy analysis is also conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model for planning purposes. This macro-level research would assist decision makers, transportation officials and community planners to make informed decisions to proactively improve bicycle safety - a prerequisite to promoting a culture of active transportation. PMID:27442595

  1. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature. PMID:26362852

  2. Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-11-30

    In 2000, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) embarked on an initiative to quantify the potential benefits of Heat Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (shade trees, reflective roofs and pavements) in reducing cooling energy use in buildings, lowering the ambient air temperature and improve air quality. This report summarizes the efforts of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to assess the impacts of HIR measures on building cooling- and heating-energy use. We discuss our efforts to calculate annual energy savings and peak-power avoidance of HIR strategies in the building sector of the Greater Toronto Area. The analysis is focused on three major building types that offer most saving potentials: residence, office and retail store. Using an hourly building energy simulation model, we quantify the energy saving potentials of (1) using cool roofs on individual buildings [direct effect], (2) planting deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], (3) planting coniferous wind-shielding vegetation near building [direct effect], (4) ambient cooling by a large-scale program of urban reforestation with reflective building roofs and pavements [indirect effect], (5) and the combined direct and indirect effects. Results show potential annual energy savings of over $11M (with uniform residential and commercial electricity and gas prices of $0.084/kWh and $5.54/GJ) could be realized by ratepayers from the combined direct and indirect effects of HIR strategies. Of that total, about 88 percent was from the direct impact roughly divided equally among reflective roofs, shade trees and wind-shielding, and the remainder (12 percent) from the indirect impact of the cooler ambient air temperature. The residential sector accounts for over half (59 percent) of the total, offices 13 percent and retail stores 28 percent. Savings from cool roofs were about 20 percent, shade trees 30 percent, wind shielding of tree 37 percent, and indirect effect 12 percent

  3. Continuous Near-Road Monitoring of Ultrafine Particles from 2010-2015 in Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Sofowote, U.; Debosz, J.; Munoz, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have an aerodynamic diameter less than 100 nanometre (nm). Their large surface areas per unit mass favor absorption of toxic chemicals in air. UFPs could penetrate deep into the respiratory or cardiovascular systems and pose adverse health effects. Recent studies showed the association between children exposure to UFPs and their systolic blood pressure. In urban environments, primary sources of UFPs are from road traffic emissions and account for most of the total particle numbers. Controls on UPFs rely on better understanding of their emission sources and environmental behaviour. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change have monitored UFPs since 2010 at two near-road stations in Toronto by using TSI 3031 UFP monitors. One station is located in mixed residential and industrial area and 16 meters from a major road with over 20,000 vehicles per day. The other station is surrounded by mixed residential and commercial buildings and 20 meters from a major road with over 20,000 vehicles per day. UFPs concentrations were monitored using six size channels: 20-30nm, 30-50nm, 50-70nm, 70-100nm, 100-200nm, and 200-450nm. The TSI 3031 monitors generally performed well for long-term UFP monitoring. Multi-year measurements of UFPs at the two stations show no apparent inter-annual variation or seasonality. Smaller particles (i.e., 20-50 nm) were found to be composed of over 50% of the measured particles. The observations are generally consistent with the theoretical understanding of particle nuclei mode and accumulation mode. When air mass originated from road traffic, UFPs were elevated in morning traffic hours and to a less extent in the late afternoon. The elevated UFPs number concentrations coincided with other traffic-related air pollutants like nitrogen oxides and black carbon. Moreover, higher number concentrations were found on weekdays than weekends. The observations suggest that UFPs are mostly from vehicle emissions.

  4. Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Among Latin American Women in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Toner, Brenda; Mason, Robin; Vidal, Carolina; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-12-01

    Research from the United States suggests that Latin American immigrant and refugee women are one of the groups most greatly impacted by intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated mental health consequences including higher rates of depression than women from other ethno-racial groups. In Canada, little is known about the experience of IPV and mental health among this population. Even in the broader North American context, how Latin American women themselves perceive the connection between IPV and depression is unknown. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Using a convenience and snowball sampling method, semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted and thematic content analysis was completed supported by Nvivo9(®) qualitative data management software. All participants had experienced some form of IPV in their adult lives, with psychological violence being the most common. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population. PMID:25472614

  5. Metal-Microbial Interactions in Toronto Sunnyside Beach: Impact on Water Quality and Public Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plach, J. M.; Elliott, A.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Assessing recreational water quality requires a fundamental understanding of metal-microbial interactions and the key biogeochemical processes occurring in urban public beaches. Metals play an important role in the distribution and virulence (e.g. resistance) of microorganisms in water systems. In turn, microorganisms have a significant influence on metal cycling, thus affecting metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Bacteria adhere to floc, small suspended mineral-bacterial aggregates, in aquatic systems resulting in high-density floc-associated bacterial biofilm communities. These nanoparticulate bacterial microhabitats are important environmental sinks for metals and potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify (1) metal distributions among suspended floc, bed sediment and water-column aqueous compartments (2) important biogeochemical processes influencing metal cycling and (3) linkages between floc metals and the occurrence of floc associated antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens across a series of variably contaminated aquatic systems. Results of this project will provide new diagnostic indicators of pathogens in recreational water systems and aid in the development of public health policies to improve water quality and reduce water borne infectious disease. Here, results will be presented assessing the metal and microbial community dynamics in samples collected from Toronto's Sunnyside Beach (May 13 and August 20), an urban public beach on Lake Ontario. Water column, floc and bed sediments near and offshore were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and metal concentrations. Floc were imaged using DAPI and FISH to assess microbial community structure. Results to date, characterizing the linkages amongst bacteria, metal contaminant concentrations and sediment partitioning and system physico-chemical conditions will be discussed.

  6. Parasitic disease screening among HIV patients from endemic countries in a Toronto clinic

    PubMed Central

    Costiniuk, Cecilia T; Cooper, Curtis L; Doucette, Steve; Kovacs, Colin M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many North American-based HIV patients originate from parasitic disease-endemic regions. Strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis are important due to their wide distribution and potential for severe morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, as determined by serological screening, of strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis among patients in an HIV-focused, primary care practice in Toronto, Ontario. A secondary objective was to determine factors associated with positive serological screens. METHODS: A retrospective review of electronic patient records was conducted. Results of serological screens for parasites and relevant laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were identified. The patients’ mean CD4+ count was 0.45×109/L, median viral load was undetectable and 68% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Most originated from Africa (37%) and South America (35%). Of the 97 patients, 10.4% and 8.3% had positive or equivocal screening results for strongyloidiasis, respectively, 7.4% and 4.2% had positive or equivocal screening results for schistosomiasis and 5.5% and 6.8% had positive or equivocal screens for filariasis. Persons with positive parasitic serologies were more often female (28% versus 9%, P=0.03), younger in age (36 versus 43 years of age, P<0.01), had been in Canada for a shorter duration (5 versus 12 years, P<0.0001) and had a higher viral load (10,990 copies/mL versus <50 copies/mL, P <0.001). All patients were asymptomatic. Eosinophilia was not associated with positive screening results. CONCLUSIONS: Using symptoms and eosinophilia to identify parasitic infection was not reliable. Screening for strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis among patients with HIV from parasite-endemic countries is simple and benign, and may prevent future complications. The clinical benefits of screening for filariasis require further elucidation, but this practice appears to be the least warranted

  7. An Observational Study of Bullying as a Contributing Factor in Youth Suicide in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Cheung, Amy H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Bullying has been identified as a potential contributing factor in youth suicide. This issue has been highlighted in recent widely publicized media reports, worldwide, in which deceased youth were bullied. We report on an observational study conducted to determine the frequency of bullying as a contributing factor to youth suicide. Method: Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in youth aged between 10 and 19 in the city of Toronto from 1998 to 2011. Data abstracted were recent stressors (including bullying), clinical variables, such as the presence of mental illness, demographics, and methods of suicide. Results: Ninety-four youth suicides were included in the study. The mean age was 16.8 years, and 70.2% were male. Bullying was present in 6 deaths (6.4%), and there were no deaths where online or cyberbullying was detected. Bullying was the only identified contributing factor in fewer than 5 deaths. The most common stressors identified were conflict with parents (21.3%), romantic partner problems (17.0%), academic problems (10.6%), and criminal and (or) legal problems (10.6%). Any stressor or mental and (or) physical illness was detected in 78.7% of cases. Depression was detected in 40.4% of cases. Conclusions: Our study highlights the need to view suicide in youth as arising from a complex interplay of various biological, psychological, and social factors of which bullying is only one. It challenges simple cause-and-effect models that may suggest that suicide arises from any one factor, such as bullying. PMID:25702362

  8. A qualitative exploration of prescription opioid injection among street-based drug users in Toronto: behaviours, preferences and drug availability

    PubMed Central

    Firestone, Michelle; Fischer, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    Background There is evidence of a high prevalence of prescription opioid (PO) and crack use among street drug users in Toronto. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe drug use behaviours and preferences as well as the social and environmental context surrounding the use of these drugs among young and old street-based drug injection drug users (IDUs). Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 PO injectors. Topics covered included drug use history, types of drugs used, how drugs were purchased and transitions to PO use. Interviews were taped and transcribed. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Results Five prominent themes emerged from the interviews: 1) Combination of crack and prescription opioids, 2) First injection experience and transition to prescription opioids, 3) Drug preferences and availability, 4) Housing and income and 5) Obtaining drugs. There was consensus that OxyContin and crack were the most commonly available drugs on the streets of Toronto. Drug use preferences and behaviours were influenced by the availability of drugs, the desired effect, ease of administration and expectations around the purity of the drugs. Distinct experiences were observed among younger users as compared to older users. In particular, the initiation of injection drug use and experimentation with POs among younger users was influenced by their experiences on the street, their peers and general curiosity. Conclusion Given the current profile of street-based drug market in Toronto and the emergence of crack and POs as two predominant illicit drug groups, understanding drug use patterns and socio-economic factors among younger and older users in this population has important implications for preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:18928556

  9. The University of Toronto “Sioux Lookout Project”—a model of health care delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bain, H. W.; Goldthorpe, Gary

    1972-01-01

    The University of Toronto's Sioux Lookout Project is described in detail. The scheme is a collaborative one in which universities, governments, doctors, dentists, nurses, communities and consumers participate. After three years of operation it appears to be a feasible model for delivery of health care in a remote area under extremely adverse conditions. It is suggested that a modified version would be applicable to other underdoctored areas. The individual roles of the various participants are outlined. Universities, by giving some preference in their postgraduate training programs to doctors who have spent a year in practice, especially in remote areas, would make a major step towards correcting the maldistribution of doctors. PMID:5057009

  10. Neural correlate of the projection of mental states on the not-structured visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Massimiliano; Cecchini, Marco; Altavilla, Daniela; Palumbo, Letizia; Aceto, Paola; Ruggeri, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Lai, Carlo

    2014-06-24

    Projection is a spontaneous and complex mental activity responsible for the subjective meaning attribution. The hypotheses of this study were that the neural correlate of projection may involve frontal, parietal, and temporal brain areas, and that alexithymia may be negatively associated with intensities in limbic and paralimbic areas during projection. EEG data were recorded continuously at 250 Hz using NetStation 4.5.1 with 256-channels HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net in 20 healthy subjects during the presentation of structured and not-structured visual stimuli. The tasks were paying attention to the stimuli and thinking about the possible meaning of each image. Event related potential (ERP) components and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLoreta) were analyzed. Participants were administered the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale before stimulus presentation. Source analyses (sLORETA) showed a greater activated source in the left primary somatosensory cortex (BA1) compared to all the others BA in both conditions through all the ERP components. An involvement of the frontal (right-BA4, left- and right-BA9, left-BA11) and parietal (left and right-BA2 and left-BA7) areas was found in projective response to not-structured visual stimuli. Alexithymia levels were negatively correlated with the anterior (right-BA32) and posterior (left-BA29) cingulate cortex. Findings show the relevance of fronto-parieto circuits during projection, where the internally generating somatosensory representations could drive an intermodal meaning attribution during the task. Moreover, high alexithymia levels were associated with a reduced activation of the cingulated cortex. PMID:24831184

  11. Characteristics of pregnant women exposed to cocaine in Toronto between 1985 and 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, K; Koren, G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of pregnant women exposed to cocaine. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Women attending the Motherisk Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, from September 1985 to March 1990. PATIENTS: All women who had admitted using cocaine before or during pregnancy. Of the two control groups the first comprised women who had admitted using cannabinoids but not cocaine before or during pregnancy and the second those who attended the clinic just before the cocaine case but who had not used illicit drugs. OUTCOME MEASURES: Age, marital status, ethnic background, number of pregnancies, children and elective or spontaneous abortions, socioeconomic status of woman and male partner, alcohol use, cigarette use, frequency of cocaine use and total amount taken. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 1625 women 91 (5.6%) admitted to using cocaine: 86 during the current pregnancy, 3 before the current pregnancy, 1 before planning a pregnancy and 1 during a previous pregnancy. None of the cocaine users were considered to be addicts; only 20% had used the drug more than 10 times. A total of 74 women used cannabinoids only. The mean age of the cocaine users was 27.1 (standard deviation [SD] 5.3) years; this was significantly lower than that of the control subjects (30.5 [SD 5.2] years) (p less than 0.001). More of the cocaine users than of the women in either of the two control groups were single (60% v. 38% and 14%, p less than 0.001). The cannabinoid users had significantly higher parity and the nonusers a significantly lower incidence of elective abortions than the cocaine users. The cocaine users had a significantly lower socioeconomic status than the control subjects (p less than 0.001); similarly, the male partners of the cocaine users had a significantly lower socioeconomic status than the partners of the control subjects (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant cocaine users who seek drug counselling represent a unique risk group, with clustering of

  12. A comparison of health access between permanent residents, undocumented immigrants and refugee claimants in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ruth M; Klei, A G; Hodges, Brian D; Fisman, David; Kitto, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the immigrant experience accessing healthcare is essential to improving their health. This qualitative study reports on experiences seeking healthcare for three groups of immigrants in Toronto, Canada: permanent residents, refugee claimants and undocumented immigrants. Undocumented immigrants who are on the Canadian Border Services Agency deportation list are understudied in Canada due to their precarious status. This study will examine the vulnerabilities of this particular subcategory of immigrant and contrast their experiences seeking healthcare with refugee claimants and permanent residents. Twenty-one semi-structured, one-on-one qualitative interviews were conducted with immigrants to identify barriers and facilitators to accessing healthcare. The open structure of the interviews enabled the participants to share their experiences seeking healthcare and other factors that were an integral part of their health. This study utilized a community-based participatory research framework. The study identifies seven sections of results. Among them, immigration status was the single most important factor affecting both an individual's ability to seek out healthcare and her experiences when trying to access healthcare. The healthcare seeking behaviour of undocumented immigrants was radically distinct from refugee claimants or immigrants with permanent resident status, with undocumented immigrants being at a greater disadvantage than permanent residents and refugee claimants. Language barriers are also noted as an impediment to healthcare access. An individual's immigration status further complicates their ability to establish relationships with family doctors, access prescriptions and medications and seek out emergency room care. Fear of authorities and the complications caused by the above factors can lead to the most disadvantaged to seek out informal or black market sources of healthcare. This study reaffirmed previous findings that fear of deportation

  13. Long-term environmental fate of perfluorinated compounds after accidental release at Toronto airport.

    PubMed

    Awad, Emily; Zhang, Xianming; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Crozier, Patrick W; Reiner, Eric J; Fletcher, Rachael; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; a perfluorinated compound or PFC), its salts, and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride have recently been listed in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention due to their widespread presence, persistence, and toxicity. Because of the persistent nature of PFCs, it is generally presumed that the impact of direct discharges of these chemicals on a receiving environment would be long-lasting. However, long-term environmental fate studies based on field measurements are rare. We examined spatial and long-term (9 year) temporal trends of PFCs in water, sediment, fish, and fish liver collected in 2003, 2006, and 2009 from 10 locations spanning ∼20 km in Etobicoke and Spring Creeks, where an accidental release of fire fighting foam containing PFOS from nearby Toronto International Airport occurred in 2000. Even a decade after the spill, sediment PFOS concentrations are still elevated in Spring Creek Pond which received the foam discharge; however, the major impact is relatively localized likely due to the stormwater management nature of the pond and the diluting effect of Etobicoke Creek. Fish and fish liver PFOS concentrations at a Spring Creek location downstream of Spring Creek Pond declined by about 70 and 85%, respectively, between 2003 and 2009. PFOS in water at locations further downstream in Etobicoke Creek have declined by >99.99% since the spill; however, the 2009 water and fish levels were ∼2-10 times higher than upstream locations likely due to the long-term impact of the spill as well as urbanization. The decrease in the upstream PFOS concentrations likely reflects the reduction of PFOS sources due to phased out production by 3M and regulations on the use of PFOS in fire fighting foams. Field-based sediment/water distribution coefficients (K(D)) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated from environmental measurements. Log K(D) values were 0.54-1.65 for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) and 1.00-1.85 for

  14. Impact of lake breezes on ozone and nitrogen oxides in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.

    2015-05-01

    Meteorological and air quality datasets from summertime (May to September, 2010-2012) were analysed in order to assess the influence of lake-breeze circulations on pollutant levels in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). While previous estimates of the frequency of summer days experiencing lake breezes range between 25 and 32 % for the GTA, a simple algorithm using surface meteorological observations suggested Lake Ontario breezes occurred on 56% of summer days, whereas a more reliable multiplatform approach yielded a frequency of 74%. Data from five air quality stations across the GTA were used to compare air quality on days during which a lake-breeze circulation formed ("lake breeze days") versus days when one did not ("non-lake breeze days"). Average daytime O3 maxima were 13.6-14.8 ppb higher on lake breeze days relative to non-lake breeze days. Furthermore, the Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria (AAQC) for 1-h average O3 (80 ppb) and 8-h average O3 (65 ppb) were exceeded only on lake breeze days and occurred on a total of 30 and 54 days throughout the study period, respectively. A causal link between lake-breeze circulations and enhanced O3 was identified by examining several days in which only some of the air quality sites were inside the lake-breeze circulation. O3 mixing ratios at sites located within the circulation were at least 30 ppb higher than sites outside the circulation, despite similar temperatures, cloud conditions and synoptic regimes across the region. Rapid O3 increases were concurrent with the arrival of the lake-breeze front, suggesting O3-rich air from over the lake is being advected inland throughout the day. Lake-breeze circulations were found to have less impact on nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels. Morning NOx was greater on lake breeze days, probably due to the stagnant conditions favourable for lake breeze formation. During the late afternoon, only inland sites experience increased NOx on lake breeze days, likely as a result of being downwind

  15. Vitamin D status of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the greater Toronto area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiological and lifestyle factors put older adults at an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency and resulting negative health outcomes. Here we explore the vitamin D status in a sample of community dwelling older adults of diverse ancestry living in the Greater Toronto area (GTA). Methods Two hundred and twenty-four (224) adults over 60 years of age were recruited from the Square One Older Adult Centre, in Mississauga, Ontario. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured from dried blood spot cards. Dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin D were assessed via questionnaires. Skin pigmentation was assessed quantitatively by measuring melanin levels using a reflectometer. Results The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the total sample was 82.4 nmol/L. There were no statistically significant differences in serum 25(OH)D concentrations, supplemental or dietary vitamin D intakes between the three major ancestral groups (East Asians, Europeans and South Asians). Females had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations than males (84.5 nmol/L vs. 72.2 nmol/L, p = 0.012). The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L were 12.1%, and 38.8%, respectively. The mean daily supplemental intake of vitamin D was 917 IU/day. Vitamin D intake from supplements was the major factor determining 25(OH)D concentrations (p < 0.001). Conclusions Mean concentration of 25(OH)D in a sample of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the GTA exceeded 80 nmol/L, and there were no significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. These results sharply contrast with our recent study focused on young adults of diverse ancestry living in the same geographic area, in which we found substantially lower 25(OH)D concentrations (mean 39.5 nmol/L), low supplemental vitamin D intake (114 IU/day), and significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. High daily intake

  16. Modelling urban δ13C variations in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, S.; Vogel, F. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, Q.; Moran, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Even in urbanized regions, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are derived from a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources and are influenced by atmospheric transport across borders. As policies are introduced to reduce the emission of CO2, there is a need for independent verification of emissions reporting. In this work, we aim to use carbon isotope (13CO2 and 12CO2) simulations in combination with atmospheric measurements to distinguish between CO2 sources in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. This is being done by developing an urban δ13C framework based on existing CO2 emission data and forward modelling using a chemistry transport model, CHIMERE. The framework is designed to use region specific δ13C signatures of the dominant CO2 sources together with a CO2 inventory at a fine spatial and temporal resolution; the product is compared against highly accurate 13CO2 and 12CO2 ambient data. The strength of this framework is its potential to estimate both locally produced and regionally transported CO­2. Locally, anthropogenic CO­2 in urban areas is often derived from natural gas combustion (for heating) and gasoline/diesel combustion (for transportation); the isotopic signatures of these processes are significantly different (approximately d13CVPDB = -40 ‰ and -26 ‰ respectively) and can be used to infer their relative contributions. Furthermore, the contribution of transported CO2 can also be estimated as nearby regions often rely on other sources of heating (e.g. coal combustion), which has a very different signature (approximately d13CVPDB = -23 ‰). We present an analysis of the GTA in contrast to Paris, France where atmospheric observations are also available and 13CO2 has been studied. Utilizing our δ13C framework and differences in sectoral isotopic signatures, we quantify the relative contribution of CO2 sources on the overall measured concentration and assess the ability of this framework as a tool for tracing the evolution of sector

  17. Estimating distributions of long-term particulate matter and manganese exposures for residents of Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, C. A.; Pellizzari, E. D.; Rodes, C. E.; Mason, R. E.; Piper, L. L.

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), a manganese-based gasoline additive, has been used in Canadian gasoline for about 20 yr. Because MMT potentially increases manganese levels in particulate matter resulting from automotive exhausts, a population-based study conducted in Toronto, Canada assessed the levels of personal manganese exposures. Integrated 3-day particulate matter (PM 2.5) exposure measurements, obtained for 922 participant periods over the course of a year (September 1995-August 1996), were analyzed for several constituent elements, including Mn. The 922 measurements included 542 participants who provided a single 3-day observation plus 190 participants who provided two observations (in two different months). In addition to characterizing the distributions of 3-day average exposures, which can be estimated directly from the data, including the second observation for some participants enabled us to use a model-based approach to estimate the long-term (i.e. annual) exposure distributions for PM 2.5 mass and Mn. The model assumes that individuals' 3-day average exposure measurements within a given month are lognormally distributed and that the correlation between 3-day log-scale measurements k months apart (after seasonal adjustment) depends only on the lag time, k, and not on the time of year. The approach produces a set of simulated annual exposures from which an annual distribution can be inferred using estimated correlations and monthly means and variances (log scale) as model inputs. The model appeared to perform reasonably well for the overall population distribution of PM 2.5 exposures (mean=28 μg m -3). For example, the model predicted the 95th percentile of the annual distribution to be 62.9 μg m -3 while the corresponding percentile estimated for the 3-day data was 86.6 μg m -3. The assumptions of the model did not appear to hold for the overall population of Mn exposures (mean=13.1 ng m -3). Since the population included

  18. Compliance with Evidence-Based Guidelines in Acute Pancreatitis: an Audit of Practices in University of Toronto Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Hsu, J; Bawazeer, M; Marshall, J; Friedrich, J O; Nathens, A; Coburn, N; Huang, H; McLeod, R S

    2016-02-01

    Despite existing evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, clinical compliance with recommendations is poor. We conducted a retrospective review of 248 patients admitted between 2010 and 2012 with acute pancreatitis at eight University of Toronto affiliated hospitals. We included all patients admitted to ICU (52) and 25 ward patients from each site (196). Management was compared with the most current evidence used in the Best Practice in General Surgery Management of Acute Pancreatitis Guideline. Fifty-six patients (22.6 %) had only serum lipase tested for biochemical diagnosis. Admission ultrasound was performed in 174 (70.2 %) patients, with 69 (27.8 %) undergoing ultrasound and CT. Of non-ICU patients, 158 (80.6 %) were maintained nil per os, and only 18 (34.6 %) ICU patients received enteral nutrition, commencing an average 7.5 days post-admission. Fifty (25.5 %) non-ICU patients and 25 (48.1 %) ICU patients received prophylactic antibiotics. Only 24 patients (22.6 %) with gallstone pancreatitis underwent index admission cholecystectomy. ERCP with sphincterotomy was under-utilized among patients with biliary obstruction (16 [31 %]) and candidates for prophylactic sphincterotomy (18 [22 %]). Discrepancies exist between the most current evidence and clinical practice within the University of Toronto hospitals. A guideline, knowledge translation strategy, and assessment of barriers to clinical uptake are required to change current clinical practice. PMID:26621675

  19. Qualitative cross-sectional study of the perceived causes of depression in South Asian origin women in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Ekanayake, Samanthika; Ahmad, Farah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore how South Asian origin women in Toronto, Canada, understand and explain the causes of their depression. Design Cross-sectional in-depth qualitative interviews. Setting Outpatient service in Toronto, Ontario. Participants Ten women with symptoms of depression aged between 22 and 65 years of age. Seven were from India, two from Sri Lanka and one from Pakistan. Four were Muslim, three Hindu and three Catholic. Two participants had university degrees, one a high school diploma and seven had completed less than a high school education. Eight were married, one was unmarried and one a widow. Results Three main factors emerged from the participant narratives as the causes of depression: family and relationships, culture and migration and socioeconomic. The majority of the participants identified domestic abuse, marital problems and interpersonal problems in the family as the cause of their depression. Culture and migration and socioeconomic factors were considered contributory. None of our study participants reported spiritual, supernatural or religious factors as causes of depression. Conclusion A personal–social–cultural model emerged as the aetiological paradigm for depression. Given the perceived causation, psycho-social treatment methods may be more acceptable for South Asian origin women. PMID:22337816

  20. Interactive Online Modules and Videos for Learning Geological Concepts at the University of Toronto Department of Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veglio, E.; Graves, L. W.; Bank, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    We designed various computer-based applications and videos as educational resources for undergraduate courses at the University of Toronto in the Earth Science Department. These resources were developed in effort to enhance students' self-learning of key concepts as identified by educators at the department. The interactive learning modules and videos were created using the programs MATLAB and Adobe Creative Suite 5 (Photoshop and Premiere) and range from optical mineralogy (extinction and Becke line), petrology (equilibrium melting in 2-phase systems), crystallography (crystal systems), geophysics (gravity anomaly), and geologic history (evolution of Canada). These resources will be made available for students on internal course websites as well as through the University of Toronto Earth Science's website (www.es.utoronto.ca) where appropriate; the video platform YouTube.com may be used to reach a wide audience and promote the material. Usage of the material will be monitored and feedback will be collected over the next academic year in order to gage the use of these interactive learning tools and to assess if these computer-based applications and videos foster student engagement and active learning, and thus offer an enriched learning experience.

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of College Unions-International (54th, March 24-27, 1974, Toronto, Ontario, Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. Unions-International, Ithaca, NY.

    Contained in this document are the proceedings of the 54th annual conference of the Association of College Unions-International held in Toronto Canada. The document contains reports on the four primary themes of the conference: The Relationship Between the Union, the Educational Institution and Society; Multi-culturalism; Student…

  2. Re-Bordering Spaces of Trauma: Auto-Ethnographic Reflections on the Immigrant and Refugee Experience in an Inner-City High School in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerverger, Grace

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research study is to offer a glimpse into the lives of some newly-arrived students of different racial, linguistic and religious backgrounds as they confront the process of immigration and therefore personal and social displacement within the context of a Toronto inner-city high school. These students carry with them hidden…

  3. STS in Engineering: The Teaching and Research Activities of the Centre for Technology and Social Development at the University of Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the conceptual framework and three core courses of the certificate program in Preventive Engineering and Social Development at the Centre for Technology and Social Development at the University of Toronto. Preventive approaches examine how technology fits into, interacts with, and depends on human life, society, and the biosphere to…

  4. Segregation or "Thinking Black"?: Community Activism and the Development Of Black-Focused Schools in Toronto and London, 1968-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: On January 29, 2008 the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) approved a city-wide Africentric elementary school under their Alternative School policy, sparking a contentious debate. Calls for Black-focused schools also arose in 2008 in London in response to the disengagement of African Caribbean youth. The historical record…

  5. "You Have to Adapt Because You Have No Other Choice": The Stories of Strength and Resilience of 208 Homeless Youth in New York City and Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Davidson, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 208 homeless youth interviewed on streets and in agencies in New York City and Toronto. The interviews focused on the participants' stories about their struggles to survive and negotiate meaningful and healthy lives in coming to the streets, living on the…

  6. Issues Related to Student Part-Time Work: What Did Research Find in the Toronto Situation and Other Context? No. 215.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Maisy

    Research done during the last 10 years on part-time employment of secondary students was compared with results of a study of part-time employment in Toronto (Ontario, Canada). The literature has indicated that whether part-time work is beneficial or harmful depends on the amount of time students spend at work. In comparison with students with no…

  7. "All Methods--and Wedded to None": The Deaf Education Methods Debate and Progressive Educational Reform in Toronto, Canada, 1922-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the deaf education methods debate in the public schools of Toronto, Canada. The author demonstrates how pure oralism (lip-reading and speech instruction to the complete exclusion of sign language) and day school classes for deaf schoolchildren were introduced as a progressive school reform in 1922. Plans for further oralist…

  8. Making the links between community structure and individual well-being: community quality of life in Riverdale, Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Raphael, D; Renwick, R; Brown, I; Steinmetz, B; Sehdev, H; Phillips, S

    2001-09-01

    An inquiry into community quality of life was carried out within a framework that recognizes the complex relationship between community structures and individual well-being. Through use of focus groups and key informant interviews, community members, service providers, and elected representatives in a Toronto community considered aspects of their community that affected quality of life. Community members identified strengths of access to amenities, caring and concerned people, community agencies, low-cost housing, and public transportation. Service providers and elected representatives recognized diversity, community agencies and resources, and presence of culturally relevant food stores and services as strengths. At one level, findings were consistent with emerging concepts of social capital. At another level, threats to the community were considered in relation to the hypothesized role neo-liberalism plays in weakening the welfare state. PMID:11439254

  9. The Toronto General Hospital Transitional Pain Service: development and implementation of a multidisciplinary program to prevent chronic postsurgical pain

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel; Weinrib, Aliza; Fashler, Samantha R; Katznelzon, Rita; Shah, Bansi R; Ladak, Salima SJ; Jiang, Jiao; Li, Qing; McMillan, Kayla; Mina, Daniel Santa; Wentlandt, Kirsten; McRae, Karen; Tamir, Diana; Lyn, Sheldon; de Perrot, Marc; Rao, Vivek; Grant, David; Roche-Nagle, Graham; Cleary, Sean P; Hofer, Stefan OP; Gilbert, Ralph; Wijeysundera, Duminda; Ritvo, Paul; Janmohamed, Tahir; O’Leary, Gerald; Clarke, Hance

    2015-01-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), an often unanticipated result of necessary and even life-saving procedures, develops in 5–10% of patients one-year after major surgery. Substantial advances have been made in identifying patients at elevated risk of developing CPSP based on perioperative pain, opioid use, and negative affect, including depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms. The Transitional Pain Service (TPS) at Toronto General Hospital (TGH) is the first to comprehensively address the problem of CPSP at three stages: 1) preoperatively, 2) postoperatively in hospital, and 3) postoperatively in an outpatient setting for up to 6 months after surgery. Patients at high risk for CPSP are identified early and offered coordinated and comprehensive care by the multidisciplinary team consisting of pain physicians, advanced practice nurses, psychologists, and physiotherapists. Access to expert intervention through the Transitional Pain Service bypasses typically long wait times for surgical patients to be referred and seen in chronic pain clinics. This affords the opportunity to impact patients’ pain trajectories, preventing the transition from acute to chronic pain, and reducing suffering, disability, and health care costs. In this report, we describe the workings of the Transitional Pain Service at Toronto General Hospital, including the clinical algorithm used to identify patients, and clinical services offered to patients as they transition through the stages of surgical recovery. We describe the role of the psychological treatment, which draws on innovations in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy that allow for brief and effective behavioral interventions to be applied transdiagnostically and preventatively. Finally, we describe our vision for future growth. PMID:26508886

  10. Therapeutic interventions employed by Greater Toronto Area chiropractors on pregnant patients: results of a cross-sectional online survey

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Tammy; Wells, Kayla; Benoit, Samantha; Yohanathan, Sahila; Capelletti, Lauren; Stuber, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Due to different biomechanical, nutritional, and hormonal considerations, it is possible that chiropractors may employ different therapeutic interventions and recommendations for pregnant patients than non-pregnant ones. The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic interventions that chiropractors who are members of the Ontario Chiropractic Association in the Greater Toronto Area most commonly provide to pregnant patients. Methods: An introductory e-mail was sent in October 2011 to 755 members of the Ontario Chiropractic Association within the Greater Toronto Area five days prior to a 15 question survey being distributed via e-mail. Reminder e-mails were sent 13 days and 27 days later. Using descriptive statistics, demographic information was reported along with reported use of different treatments and recommendations for pregnant patients Results: A response rate of 23% was obtained. The majority of the respondents (90%) reported using the Diversified technique on pregnant patients, followed by soft tissue therapy (62%) and Activator (42%). The most common adjunctive therapy recommended to pregnant patients was referral to massage therapy (90%). Most of the respondents (92%) indicated that they prescribe stretching exercises to pregnant patients and recommend a multivitamin (84%) or folic acid (81%) to pregnant patients. Conclusion: In agreement with previous research on chiropractic technique usage on non-pregnant patients, the majority of respondents indicated treating pregnant patients with the Diversified technique, with other chiropractic techniques being utilized at varying rates on pregnant patients. Most respondents indicated prescribing exercise, and making adjunctive and nutritional recommendations frequently for their pregnant patients. PMID:23754858

  11. [TRALI in the University Hospital of Nancy: a reevaluation of the incidence after applying strict criteria of Toronto].

    PubMed

    Bernasinski, M; Gette, S; Malinovsky, J-M; Viry Babel, F; Charpentier, C; Audibert, G; Guirlet, M N; Lorne, E; Moubarak, M; Zogheib, E; Dupont, H; Ozier, Y; Mertes, P-M

    2013-03-01

    "Transfusion-related acute lung injury" (TRALI) is a post-transfusion lesional pulmonary edema, potentially severe, better defined since the conference of Toronto in 2004. The incidence of TRALI reported in France remains low in part because of its ignorance by physicians. The objective of our study was to evaluate retrospectively transfusion accidents with respiratory complications that occurred in Nancy University Hospital and reported to the haemovigilance between 1996 and 2006, from the software "Traceline" listing all the blood transfusion complications from signs observed. The analysis of the files has been performed by applying rigorously diagnostic criteria of Toronto. Forty-one cases of respiratory complications were found in 34,573 blood products. Ten cases of TRALI were diagnosed while only one case had been reported to the haemovigilance. The remaining nine cases were previously labeled transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO). No cases of TRALI have been identified in the ICU. Our work can find an incidence of TRALI 10 times greater than previously reported. Ignorance of TRALI and the lack of consensus definition before 2004 are not sufficient to explain these results. This study demonstrates the potential interest of database and computerized declaration system based on the symptoms observed. It highlights the vulnerability of the current haemovigilance too dependent on a single medical observer. Although TRALI are recognized as serious complications, sometimes requiring resuscitative care, our work was not isolated severe TRALI in ICU. Physician awareness of TRALI to the identification and to the declaration, including ICU should be continued. Finally, the diagnostic criteria for TRALI must be adapted to the ICU. PMID:23523095

  12. Touching the Lived Body in Patients with Medically Unexplained Symptoms. How an Integration of Hands-on Bodywork and Body Awareness in Psychotherapy may Help People with Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Calsius, Joeri; De Bie, Jozef; Hertogen, Raf; Meesen, Raf

    2016-01-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are a considerable presenting problem in general practice. Alexithymia and difficulties with mental elaboration of bodily arousal are hypothesized as a key mechanism in MUS. In turn, this inability influences the embodied being and participating of these patients in the world, which is coined as ‘the lived body’ and underlies what is mostly referred to as body awareness (BA). The present article explores a more innovative hypothesis how hands-on bodywork can influence BA and serve as a rationale for a body integrated psychotherapeutic approach of MUS. Research not only shows that BA is a bottom-up ‘bodily’ affair but is anchored in a interoceptive-insular pathway (IIP) which in turn is deeply connected with autonomic and emotional brain areas as well as verbal and non-verbal memory. Moreover, it is emphasized how skin and myofascial tissues should be seen as an interoceptive generator, if approached in the proper manual way. This article offers supportive evidence explaining why a ‘haptic’ touch activates this IIP, restores the myofascial armored body, helps patients rebalancing their window of tolerance and facilitates BA by contacting their bodily inner-world. From a trans-disciplinary angle this article reflects on how the integration of bodywork with non-directive verbal guidance can be deeply healing and resourcing for the lived body experience in MUS. In particular for alexithymic patients this approach can be of significance regarding their representational failure of bodily arousal. PMID:26973560

  13. The “Toronto prosthesis”, an appealing method for restoring patients candidates for hybrid overdentures: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Macedo de Paula, Carla; Albaladejo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The implant is a therapeutic resource in constant evolution, and the different types of implants and techniques have been increasingly used in cases of both fully or partially edentulous patients. In some cases they provide more conservative treatment, and in others better stability, retention, and function. To achieve a satisfactory result, there are several factors that should be taken into account: the type and quality of the bone, bone density, the placement location of implants, retrievability of restorations, the patient’s motivation, and economic issues. Trainees should be aware of the limitations of the techniques that can be used for successful prosthetic rehabilitation. This work describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a fully edentulous mandible treated with dental implants using the ‘Toronto Bridge” technique for restoring both function and aesthetics. This type of prosthesis is a screwed-in mesostructure with milled abutments for the cementation of single or multiple suprastructures. This device could also be named “abutment-hybrid overdenture” The main advantages and disadvantages of this protocol are discussed. Key words:Implant-supported restorations, dental implants. PMID:24455041

  14. Client safety in assisted living: perspectives from clients, personal support workers and administrative staff in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Speller, Brittany; Stolee, Paul

    2015-03-01

    As the population ages, the demand for long-term care settings is expected to increase. Assisted living is a suitable and favourable residence for older individuals to receive care services specific to their needs while maintaining their independence and privacy. With the growing transition of older individuals into assisted living, facilities need to ensure that safe care is continually maintained. The purpose of this study was to determine the gaps and strengths in care related to safety in assisted living facilities (ALFs). A qualitative descriptive research design was used to provide a comprehensive understanding of client safety from the perspectives of clients, administrative staff and personal support workers. Interviews were conducted with 22 key informants from three ALFs in Toronto, Ontario throughout July 2012. All interviews were semi-structured, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial deductive analysis used directed coding based on a prior literature review, followed by inductive analysis to determine themes. Three themes emerged relating to the safety of clients in ALFs: meaning of safety, a multi-faceted approach to providing safe care and perceived areas of improvement. Sub-themes also emerged including physical safety, multiple factors, working as a team, respecting clients' independence, communication and increased education and available resources. The study findings can contribute to the improvement and development of new processes to maintain and continually ensure safe care in ALFs. PMID:25175102

  15. Surgical site infection prevention: a survey to identify the gap between evidence and practice in University of Toronto teaching hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Eskicioglu, Cagla; Gagliardi, Anna R.; Fenech, Darlene S.; Forbes, Shawn S.; McKenzie, Marg; McLeod, Robin S.; Nathens, Avery B.

    2012-01-01

    Background A gap exists between the best evidence and practice with regards to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. Awareness of evidence is the first step in knowledge translation. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 59 general surgeons and 68 residents at University of Toronto teaching hospitals. Five domains pertaining to SSI prevention with questions addressing knowledge of prevention strategies, efficacy of antibiotics, strategies for changing practice and barriers to implementation of SSI prevention strategies were investigated. Results Seventy-six individuals (60%) responded. More than 90% of respondents stated there was evidence for antibiotic prophylaxis and perioperative normothermia and reported use of these strategies. There was a discrepancy in the perceived evidence for and the self-reported use of perioperative hyperoxia, omission of hair removal and bowel preparation. Eighty-three percent of respondents felt that consulting published guidelines is important in making decisions regarding antibiotics. There was also a discrepancy between what respondents felt were important strategies to ensure timely administration of antibiotics and what strategies were in place. Checklists, standardized orders, protocols and formal surveillance programs were rated most highly by 75%–90% of respondents, but less than 50% stated that these strategies were in place at their institutions. Conclusion Broad-reaching initiatives that increase surgeon and trainee awareness and implementation of multifaceted hospital strategies that engage residents and attending surgeons are needed to change practice. PMID:22617541

  16. Immigration, barriers to healthcare and transnational ties: A case study of South Korean immigrants in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Kwak, Min-Jung

    2015-05-01

    The paper analyzes the healthcare-seeking behavior of South Korean immigrants in Toronto, Canada, and how transnationalism shapes post-migration health and health-management strategies. Built upon largely separate research areas in ethnicity and health, health geography, and transnationalism, the paper conceptualizes immigrant health as influenced by individual characteristics, the migration and resettlement experience, and place effects at both a local and a transnational scale. A mixed-method approach is used to capture insights into health status and experiences in accessing local and transnational healthcare among South Korean immigrants - a fast growing visible minority group in Canada. Statistical analysis of data from the Canadian Community Health Survey discloses patterns and trends in health and healthcare use among the Korean Canadian, overall foreign-born, and native-born populations. Focus groups reveal in-depth information on the decline of Korean immigrants' health status and the array of sociocultural, economic and geographic barriers in accessing healthcare in Canada, which gave rise to their transnational use of health resources in the home country. The transnational strategies included traveling to South Korea for medical examinations or treatment, importing medications from South Korea to Canada, and consulting health resources in South Korea by phone or email. The results provide timely knowledge on how a recent immigrant group adapts to Canada in the domain of health and adds a transnational perspective to the literature on ethnicity and health. PMID:25481040

  17. Unravelling Barriers to Accessing HIV Prevention Services Experienced by African and Caribbean Communities in Canada: Lessons from Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Amibor, Paulson; Ogunrotifa, Ayodeji Bayo

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to accessing HIV-prevention services, experienced by African and Caribbean communities in Canada, is an issue warranting sustained research. This study seeks to achieve a better understanding of the nature of HIV-prevention services in Canada, and to explore the dynamics, which underpin barriers to accessing these services confronting African and Caribbean populations in Toronto (Canada). This study also endeavours to assess what is being done to reduce these barriers. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 7 professionals and community workers who were involved in organizing, researching and delivering HIV-prevention services were conducted for this study. Four themes pertaining to barriers to accessing HIV-prevention services, including, levels of cultural competence and sensitivity among service providers; cultural and social stigma directed at persons living with HIV/AIDS; various social determinants of health, including gender, race and precarious immigration status’; as well as constrained funding resources that are available for service providers; were uncovered in the findings of the study. The paper concludes that several health promotion and health education initiatives exist, which can help reduce these barriers to HIV-prevention service access for these populations. However, in order to ensure their effectiveness there will be much needed involvement from community and other relevant government agencies, which will need to work separately and in conjunction with one another, in order to tackle some of the broader issues that affect these populations. PMID:22980228

  18. Road de-icing salt as a potential constraint on urban growth in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Ken W. F.; Maier, Herb

    2007-04-01

    North America's fifth most populated municipality — the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) — is undergoing rapid urban development with serious questions being raised regarding the long-term impacts of urban growth on the quality and quantity of ground and surface water. Degradation of groundwater quality by NaCl de-icing salt is the primary concern since there are no cost effective alternatives to NaCl de-icing salt and there is little evidence that salt loadings to the subsurface can be significantly reduced. In 2001, the issue acquired a new sense of urgency when de-icing chemicals containing inorganic chloride salts (with or without ferrocyanide de-caking agents) were designated as toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. To heighten concerns, future growth in the GTA will inevitably take place in areas where groundwater is regularly used for potable supply. Studies using groundwater flow and transport models show that significant deterioration of groundwater quality can be expected in shallow aquifers as a result of urban development with chloride concentrations approaching the drinking water quality standard of 250 mg/l. Results demonstrate that urban planning needs a fresh approach that explicitly includes groundwater protection and aquifer management in the decision-making process, clearly defines acceptable environmental performance standards and makes greater use of groundwater models to evaluate alternative urban designs.

  19. Invertebrate fossils (Insecta: Trichoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera) from the Pleistocene Scarborough Formation at Toronto, Ontario, and their paleoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Nancy E.; Westgate, John A.; Williams, D. Dudley; Morgan, Anne; Morgan, Alan V.

    1981-09-01

    Larval caddisfly, chironomid, and beetle remains have been recovered from the Pleistocene Scarborough Formation in the Toronto region of southern Ontario. Three stratigraphic levels were sampled at the northeastern end of the Scarborough Bluffs; the youngest horizon yielded 16 chironomid taxa, 33 caddisfly taxa, and 28 beetle taxa, whereas the two older levels yielded somewhat less diverse assemblages. Only one taxon in each of the caddisfly and chironomid groups was identified from the presumed correlative beds at Woodbridge, Ontario, but numerous beetle fragments were recovered, several of which have been specifically identified and match species found previously in the upper part of the Scarborough Formation. The youngest sampled assemblage in the Scarborough Formation at the northeastern end of the Scarborough Bluffs is interpreted as indicating cool climatic conditions in a boreal forest environment, given the present-day distributions and feeding habits of these river, lake, and terrestrial taxa. The mean July temperature at this time was probably about 15°C, as compared to the present-day value of 20.5°C. The forest was poorer in deciduous species during deposition of the older part of the formation as preserved here. These results agree well with previous interpretations based on plant remains. We suggest that both aquatic and terrestrial insects are good indicators of macroclimate.

  20. Impossible cases can be cured when all the factors are known: gender, psychiatry and Toronto's Juvenile Court, 1912-1930.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Mental health professionals intent on leaving their mark on juvenile justice and committed to behaviour modification forged a partnership with Toronto's Juvenile Court during the 1920s. However, the routine practice of the court did not allow for intensive investigation of juvenile offenders or for careful study of the causes of delinquency. Conferences started in 1925 by W. E. Blatz bridged this gap by offering a number of advantages that could not be realized under the court's busy routine. Taking charge of a limited number of offenders permitted psychiatrists to more thoroughly examine special cases such as recidivists, intensely debate treatment strategies, more carefully supervise individual cases, and test their theories about the causes of juvenile crime. Conference case files reveal that psychiatrically informed strategies of regulation were a novel way to respond to deviance and that gender-specific understandings of, and strategies for, appropriate conduct also served to reproduce prevailing ideals for working-class boys and girls. With clear ideas about appropriate conduct for girls and boys, mental health professional attempted to create such standards in the delinquents whose cases appeared before them. PMID:13678042

  1. Science Across Borders: 5th Annual Natural Health Product Research Conference—March 26–29, 2008, Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Canada is experiencing a growing interest in the use of alternative therapies and products particularly natural health products (NHP). In 1997, Canadians spent around C$ 2 billion on NHP. In an attempt to catch with this popularity of NHP use, Canadian researchers and administrators from academia, industry and government jointly established the Natural Health Product Research Society of Canada (NHPRS). Since its formation, NHPRS has been organizing an annual meeting which brings together world renowned researchers and experts in the area of NHP research. For 2008, the annual NHPRS meeting took place in Toronto from the 26th to 29th of March with a focus on ‘Science Across Borders: Global Natural Health Products Research’. The scientific program was spread into three days of plenary lectures and oral presentations. The different sessions containing these talks were on: ethnobotany around the world; chemical analysis of NHP; product standards and quality control; ethnomedicine; novel analytical approaches; systemic research, nutrisciences and molecular medicine; and drug development from NHP. The meeting proved to be a great success in terms of the speakers that were invited and based on the data that was presented which highlighted recent research taking place in the field of NHP not only in Canada but from many parts of the world. PMID:18955362

  2. Increased Nigral SLC6A3 Activity in Schizophrenia Patients: Findings From the Toronto-McLean Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, James L; Xiong, Nian; Yu, Jinlong; Zai, Clement C; Pouget, Jennie G; Li, Jie; Liu, Kefu; Qing, Hong; Wang, Tao; Martin, Eden; Levy, Deborah L; Lin, Zhicheng

    2016-05-01

    SLC6A3, which encodes the primary regulator of extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration, the DA transporter, has been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ). However, the details of its genetic effect on risk remain largely unknown. The purpose of this candidate gene study was to identify a specificSLC6A3activity associated with SCZ by using functional genetic approaches. We first examined gene activity in DA neurons isolated from case-control postmortem nigral tissue and found that the averageSLC6A3mRNA level in controls was only 0.37-fold of that in cases (P= .0034). To understand this expression difference, we examined the association of 10 genetic markers, mostly located in the promoter region, with SCZ in 1717 subjects collected from Toronto and McLean cohorts, including 881 controls and 836 cases and identified the 5' promoter SNP rs1478435 as having a significant association signal (uncorrectedPvalue: .00462; adjustedPvalue: .0319) in unrelated Caucasians. Allele T was over-represented in controls (OR = .75); T-carrier controls had decreased mRNA levels in nigral DA neurons, contributing to the reduced activity in the controls. In vitro functional analysis confirmed that T carriers displayed attenuated enhancement of promoter activity. These findings collectively suggest that increased nigralSLC6A3activity may be a risk factor for SCZ, and may help to explain high rates of comorbidity with substance abuse. PMID:26707863

  3. Road de-icing salt as a potential constraint on urban growth in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ken W F; Maier, Herb

    2007-04-01

    North America's fifth most populated municipality--the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)--is undergoing rapid urban development with serious questions being raised regarding the long-term impacts of urban growth on the quality and quantity of ground and surface water. Degradation of groundwater quality by NaCl de-icing salt is the primary concern since there are no cost effective alternatives to NaCl de-icing salt and there is little evidence that salt loadings to the subsurface can be significantly reduced. In 2001, the issue acquired a new sense of urgency when de-icing chemicals containing inorganic chloride salts (with or without ferrocyanide de-caking agents) were designated as toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. To heighten concerns, future growth in the GTA will inevitably take place in areas where groundwater is regularly used for potable supply. Studies using groundwater flow and transport models show that significant deterioration of groundwater quality can be expected in shallow aquifers as a result of urban development with chloride concentrations approaching the drinking water quality standard of 250 mg/l. Results demonstrate that urban planning needs a fresh approach that explicitly includes groundwater protection and aquifer management in the decision-making process, clearly defines acceptable environmental performance standards and makes greater use of groundwater models to evaluate alternative urban designs. PMID:17166621

  4. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-04-30

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  5. The Toronto Hospital Alertness Test scale: relationship to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and symptoms of depression and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Azmeh; Chung, Sharon A; Maresky, Lance; Danish, Affan; Bingeliene, Arina; Shen, Jianhua; Shapiro, Colin M

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Toronto Hospital Alertness Test (THAT) scale was designed to measure alertness, defined as the capacity of the mind to respond appropriately to external and internal stimuli. The present study’s aim is to determine normative values of alertness on the THAT and to explore the relationship among excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and alertness. Methods Normative data were collected from 60 healthy males and females. To explore the relationship among alertness, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depression, and anxiety, data were collected from charts of sleep clinic patients. All study subjects completed measures for fatigue, sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Results The average score on the THAT was 34.9±7.2 (range 22–50) for the control group. The cutoff score for the THAT, indicative of clinically significant reduced alertness, was determined to be ≤20.5 (mean −2 SD). THAT alertness scores were found to be modestly, significantly, and negatively correlated with fatigue levels (r=−0.39, P<0.001), depressive symptoms (r=−0.53, P<0.001), and anxiety symptoms (r=−0.41, P<0.001). No correlations were found between alertness levels and daytime sleepiness. Regression analyses revealed a significant model (F=19.9, P<0.001, adjusted R2=0.35) with depressive symptoms (P<0.001) and fatigue (P=0.006) emerging as the only significant predictors of scores on the THAT. Conclusion The findings of this study support that sleepiness is not the same as poor alertness. Depressive symptoms and fatigue, but not sleepiness, were found to have a strong and significant impact on levels of alertness. This is the first study to link poor alertness to depressive symptoms. PMID:26855603

  6. The impacts of precursor reduction and meteorology on ground-level ozone in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, S. C.; Murphy, J. G.; Geddes, J. A.; Wang, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a major component of photochemical smog and is a known human health hazard, as well as a damaging factor for vegetation. Its precursor compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), have a variety of anthropogenic and biogenic sources and exhibit non-linear effects on ozone production. As an update to previous studies on ground-level ozone in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), we present an analysis of NO2, VOC and O3 data from federal and provincial governmental monitoring sites in the GTA from 2000 to 2012. We show that, over the study period, summertime 24 h VOC reactivity and NO2 midday (11:00-15:00) concentrations at all sites decreased significantly; since 2000, all sites experienced a decrease in NO2 of 28-62% and in measured VOC reactivity of at least 53-71%. Comparing 2002-2003 to 2011-2012, the summed reactivity of OH towards NO2 and a suite of measured VOCs decreased from 8.6 to 4.6 s-1. Ratios of reactive VOC pairs indicate that the effective OH concentration experienced by primary pollutants in the GTA has increased significantly over the study period. Despite the continuous decrease in precursor levels, ozone concentrations are not following the same pattern at all stations; it was found that the Canada-wide Standard for ozone continues to be exceeded at all monitoring stations. Additionally, while the years 2008-2011 had consistently lower ozone levels than previous years, 2012 experienced one of the highest recorded summertime ozone concentrations and a large number of smog episodes. We demonstrate that these high ozone observations in 2012 may be a result of the number of days with high solar radiation, the number of stagnant periods and the transport of high ozone levels from upwind regions.

  7. Moderate altitude is not associated with adverse postoperative outcomes for patients undergoing bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis and Fontan operation: A comparative study among Denver, Edmonton, and Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi; Malhotra, Sunil P.; Yu, Xiaoyang; Rutledge, Jennifer; Rebeyka, Ivan M.; Ross, David B.; Rausch, Christopher; Gu, Hong; McCrindle, Brian; Lacour-Gayet, Francois; Ivy, Dunbar; Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Objective Outcomes of patients with single ventricle physiology undergoing cavopulmonary palliations depend on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and have been suggested to be adversely affected by living at elevated altitude. We compared the pulmonary hemodynamic data in correlation with postoperative outcomes at the 3 centers of Denver, Edmonton, and Toronto at altitudes of 1604, 668, and 103 meters, respectively. Methods Hemodynamic data at pre-bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BCPA) and pre-Fontan catheterization between 1995 and 2007 were collected. Death from cardiac failure or heart transplantation in the same period was used to define palliation failure. Results There was no significant correlation between altitude (ranged from 1 to 2572 meters) and PVR, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) or transpulmonary gradient (TPG) at pre-BCPA and pre-Fontan catheterization. BCPA failure occurred in 11 (9.2%) patients in Denver, 3 (2.9%) in Edmonton, and 34 (11.9%) in Toronto. Fontan failure occurred in 3 (6.1%) patients in Denver, 5 (7.2%) in Edmonton, and 11 (7.0%) in Toronto. There was no significant difference in BCPA and Fontan failure among the 3 centers. BCPA failure positively correlated with PVR and the presence of a right ventricle as the systemic ventricle. Fontan failure positively correlated with PAP and TPG. Conclusions Moderate altitude is not associated with an increased PVR or adverse outcomes in patients with a functional single ventricle undergoing BCPA and the Fontan operation. The risk factors for palliation failure are higher PVR, PAP, and TPG and a systemic right ventricle, but not altitude. Our study reemphasizes the importance of cardiac catheterization assessments of pulmonary hemodynamics before BCPA and Fontan operations. PMID:23353110

  8. The promise of recovery: narratives of hope among homeless individuals with mental illness participating in a Housing First randomised controlled trial in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Maritt; Zerger, Suzanne; Wise Harris, Deborah; Plenert, Erin; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hope is widely embraced as an important factor in the recovery process. The role of housing in inspiring hope and facilitating recovery has been explored with homeless populations but is not well understood. This study explores perspectives on hopes for recovery and the role of housing on these hopes from the perspective of homeless adults experiencing mental illness participating in a multisite Housing First randomised controlled trial in Canada. The study draws on data from in-depth qualitative interviews with participants from the Toronto, Ontario site of the ‘At Home/Chez Soi’ Project. Design In-depth interviews were conducted with a subsample of participants from a larger Housing First randomised controlled trial. Setting The research took place in Toronto, Canada. Participants 60 participants in the larger trial (36 from the Housing First group and 24 from the Treatment as Usual group) took part in in-depth interviews. Method Participants for the in-depth interviews were purposively selected from the larger trial sample in Toronto and participated in an interview at the beginning of the study (baseline). Data from the baseline interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method derived from grounded theory methods. Results Participants’ narratives show clear visualisation of goals for recovery, and emphasise that housing is an integral factor that can facilitate hope and support dimensions of recovery. However, some participants had difficulty adjusting to housing, and were concerned about feeling socially isolated, which could have negative implications for hopefulness and recovery. Conclusions Housing First interventions should explicitly incorporate hope-inspiring, recovery-oriented approaches and support participants while adjusting to housing in order to sustain hopefulness. PMID:24589826

  9. Connecting for change: networks as a vehicle for regional health reform the early experiences of the Child Health Network for the Greater Toronto Area.

    PubMed

    Alidina, Shehnaz; Jarvis, Sheila; Nickoloff, Beverley; Tolkin, Jonathan; Trypuc, Joann

    2002-01-01

    The Child Health Network (CHN) for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is a partnership of hospital, rehabilitation and community providers committed to developing a regional system to deliver high quality, accessible, family-centred care for mothers, newborns, children and youth. This article reviews the history and model of the CHN, assesses its achievements, and provides insights into the challenges and lessons learned by the network. Stemming from the CHN's commitment to quality, accessibility and efficiency, regionalization of maternal, newborn and children's services is emerging as a success story. PMID:12078357

  10. État de santé des nouveaux réfugiés à Toronto, en Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la prévalence de certaines maladies infectieuses parmi les patients nouvellement réfugiés et la présence ou non d’une variation en fonction de facteurs démographiques clés. Conception Revue rétrospective de dossiers. Contexte Clinique de soins primaires pour patients réfugiés à Toronto, en Ontario. Participants Au total, 1063 patients réfugiés inscrits à la clinique entre décembre 2011 à juin 2014. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Données démographiques (âge, sexe et pays de naissance); prévalence de VIH, d’hépatite B, d’hépatite C, d’infections à strongyloïdes, à schistosomes, à parasite intestinal, de gonorrhée, de chlamydia et de syphilis; et immunité contre la varicelle. Résultats L’âge médian des patients était de 29 ans et 56 % étaient de sexe féminin. Les réfugiés étaient nés dans 87 pays différents. Environ 33 % des patients étaient originaires d’Afrique, 28 % d’Europe, 14 % de la région de la Méditerranée orientale, 14 % d’Asie et 8 % des Amériques (à l’exception de 4 % nés au Canada ou aux États-Unis). Le taux global de VIH était de 2 %. La prévalence d’hépatite B était de 4 %, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Asie (12 %, p < 0,001). L’immunité contre l’hépatite B était de 39 %, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Asie (64 %, p < 0,001) et les enfants de moins de 5 ans (68 %, p < 0,001). Le taux d’hépatite C se situait à moins de 1 %. Une infection à strongyloïdes a été dépistée chez 3 % des patients testés, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Afrique (6 %, p = 0,003). Une infection à schistosomes a été dépistée chez 15 % des patients africains. Des parasites intestinaux ont été observés chez 16 % des patients ayant soumis un échantillon de selles. Environ 8 % des patients n’étaient pas immunisés contre la varicelle, ce taux étant sup

  11. Association of Psychologic and Nonpsychologic Factors With Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Salmalian, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea seems to be one the most common gynecologic condition in women of childbearing age. Objectives: The aim of this research was to evaluate psychologic and nonpsychologic risk factors of primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical sciences students of Babol University of Medical Sciences. In this study, 180 females with dysmenorrhea and 180 females without dysmenorrhea were enrolled. Psychological risk factors were evaluated in four domains including affect, social support, personality, and alexithymia. Four questionnaires were used to assessed aforementioned domains, namely, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), depression, anxiety, stress (DAS-21), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory of Personality (NEO-FFI). In addition, nonpsychologic factors were evaluated in three domains including demographic characteristics, habits, and gynecologic factors. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The strongest predictor of primary dysmenorrhea was low social support (OR = 4.25; 95% CI, 2.43-7.41). Risk of dysmenorrhea was approximately 3.3 times higher in women with alexithymia (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.88-5.62), 3.1 times higher in women with menstrual bleeding duration ≥ 7 days (OR = 3.06; 95% CI, 1.73-5.41), 2.5 times higher in women with a neurotic character (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.42-4.50), 2.4 times higher in women with a family history of dysmenorrhea (OR = 2.43; 95% CI, 1.42-4.50), and twice higher in women with high caffeine intake (OR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.09-3.59). Conclusions: Low social support, alexithymia, neuroticism trait, long menstrual bleeding, family history of dysmenorrhea, and high-caffeine diet are important risk factors for women with primary dysmenorrhea. This study recommended considering psychologic factors as an adjuvant to medical risks in evaluation and treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

  12. Proceedings of the 2009 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2009 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (33rd, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 5-June 9, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.; Oesterle, Susan, Ed.; Abu-Bakare, Veda, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2009 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at York University in Toronto, Ontario. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study Group…

  13. The challenges of evaluating health systems networks: lessons learned from an early evaluation of the Child Health Network for the Greater Toronto Area.

    PubMed

    Alidina, Shehnaz; Jordan, Michele

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the first system-wide evaluation of the Child Health Network (CHN) for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), a partnership of 29 community and hospital care providers. The CHN performance evaluation sought to identify the impact of the network on the delivery of maternal, newborn and child health services in the GTA. CHN members identified seven criteria to be evaluated (appropriate care, accessibility, effectiveness, satisfaction, integrated and coordinated care, accountability and affordability) and then collaborated in selecting measurable indicators for each criterion. Data were compiled from administrative data sets, or collected as needed. This undertaking succeeded in providing a comprehensive assessment of the network's performance, identification of strategies to improve outcomes and network sustainability, as well as practical information that will inform the important new field of network evaluation. PMID:17727205

  14. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Viral and Bacterial Infections in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Loutfy, Mona R.; Tharao, Wangari; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Huibner, Sanja; Kesler, Maya; Halpenny, Roberta; Grennan, Troy; Brunetta, Jason; Smith, Graham; Reko, Tatjana; Kaul, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been associated with HIV transmission risk and disease progression among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM), but the frequency and distribution of STIs in this community in Canada has not been extensively studied. Methods We recruited MSM living with and without HIV from a large primary care clinic in Toronto. Participants completed a detailed socio-behavioural questionnaire using ACASI and provided blood for syphilis, HIV, HBV and HCV, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology, urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and a self-collected anal swab for human papillomavirus (HPV) molecular diagnostics. Prevalences were expressed as a proportion and compared using chi-square. Results 442 MSM were recruited, 294 living with HIV and 148 without. Active syphilis (11.0% vs. 3.4%), ever HBV (49.4% vs. 19.1%), HCV (10.4% vs. 3.4%), HSV-2 (55.9% vs. 38.2%), CMV (98.3% vs. 80.3%) and high-risk (HR) anal HPV (67.6% vs. 51.7%) infections were significantly more common in men living with HIV. Chlamydia and gonorrhea were infrequent in both groups. Regardless of HIV infection status, age and number of lifetime male sexual partners were associated with HBV infection and lifetime injection drug use with HCV infection. Conclusions Syphilis and viral infections, including HBV, HCV, HSV-2, CMV, and HR-HPV, were common in this clinic-based population of MSM in Toronto and more frequent among MSM living with HIV. This argues for the implementation of routine screening, vaccine-based prevention, and education programs in this high-risk population. PMID:27391265

  15. État de santé des nouveaux réfugiés à Toronto, en Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Graziano, Daniela; Janakiram, Praseedha; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la prévalence de certaines maladies chroniques parmi les nouveaux réfugiés et la présence ou non d’une variation en fonction de facteurs démographiques clés. Conception Revue rétrospective de dossiers. Contexte Clinique de soins primaires pour patients réfugiés à Toronto, en Ontario. Participants Au total, 1063 patients réfugiés inscrits à la clinique entre décembre 2011 et juin 2014. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Données démographiques (âge, sexe et pays de naissance); prévalence de résultats anormaux au test Pap, d’anémie, d’élévation de la tension artérielle (TA) et de présence de marqueurs de prédiabète ou de diabète (glycémie aléatoire, glycémie à jeun ou taux d’hémoglobine A1c élevés). Résultats Plus de la moitié de nos patients étaient des femmes (56 %) et l’âge médian était de 29 ans. Les réfugiés étaient nés dans 87 pays différents. Les pays d’origine du plus grand nombre de réfugiés étaient la Hongrie (210 patients), la Corée du Nord (119 patients) et le Nigéria (93 patients). La plupart des patients sont arrivés à titre de demandeurs d’asile (92 %) plutôt qu’à titre de réfugiés pris en charge par le gouvernement (5 %). Dans l’ensemble, 11 % des patientes ayant subi un test Pap ont obtenu des résultats de cytologie cervicale anormaux, ce taux étant le plus élevé parmi les patientes originaires d’Asie (26 %; p = 0,028). La prévalence d’anémie parmi les enfants de moins de 15 ans était de 11 %; et elle était de 14 % parmi les enfants de moins de 5 ans. Environ 25 % des femmes de plus de 15 ans étaient anémiques, ce taux était le plus élevé parmi les patientes originaires d’Afrique (37 %; p < 0,001). L’élévation de la TA a été observée chez 30 % des adultes de plus de 15 ans, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les patients de sexe masculin (38 %; p < 0,001) et originaires d’Europe (42 %; p < 0,001). Les marqueurs biologiques

  16. Musical activity and emotional competence – a twin study

    PubMed Central

    Theorell, Töres P.; Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Mosing, Miriam A.; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that musical activities may contribute to the prevention of alexithymia. We tested whether musical creative achievement and musical practice are associated with lower alexithymia. 8000 Swedish twins aged 27–54 were studied. Alexithymia was assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Musical achievement was rated on a 7-graded scale. Participants estimated number of hours of music practice during different ages throughout life. A total life estimation of number of accumulated hours was made. They were also asked about ensemble playing. In addition, twin modelling was used to explore the genetic architecture of the relation between musical practice and alexithymia. Alexithymia was negatively associated with (i) musical creative achievement, (ii) having played a musical instrument as compared to never having played, and – for the subsample of participants that had played an instrument – (iii) total hours of musical training (r = -0.12 in men and -0.10 in women). Ensemble playing added significant variance. Twin modelling showed that alexithymia had a moderate heritability of 36% and that the association with musical practice could be explained by shared genetic influences. Associations between musical training and alexithymia remained significant when controlling for education, depression, and intelligence. Musical achievement and musical practice are associated with lower levels of alexithymia in both men and women. Musical engagement thus appears to be associated with higher emotional competence, although effect sizes are small. The association between musical training and alexithymia appears to be entirely genetically mediated, suggesting genetic pleiotropy. PMID:25076933

  17. Neural mechanism of unconscious perception of surprised facial expression.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xujun; Dai, Qian; Gong, Qiyong; Chen, Huafu

    2010-08-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have uncovered partly separable neural substrates for perceiving different facial expressions presented below the level of conscious awareness. However, as one of the six basic emotions, the neural mechanism of unconsciously perceiving surprised faces has not yet been investigated. Using a backward masking procedure, we studied the neural activities in response to surprised faces presented below the threshold of conscious visual perception by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eighteen healthy adults were scanned while viewing surprised faces, which presented for 33 ms and immediately "masked" by a neutral face for 467 ms. As a control, they viewed masked happy or neutral faces as well. In comparison to both control conditions, masked surprised faces yielded significantly greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, which associated previously with novelty detection. In the present study, automatic activation of these areas to masked surprised faces was investigated as a function of individual differences in the ability of identifying and differentiating one's emotions, as assessed by the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The correlation results showed that, the subscale, Difficulty Identifying Feelings, was negatively correlated with the neural response of these areas to masked surprised faces, which suggest that decreased activation magnitude in specific brain regions may reflect increased difficulties in recognizing one's emotions in everyday life. Additionally, we confirmed activation of the right amygdala and right thalamus to the masked surprised faces, which was previously proved to be involved in the unconscious emotional perception system. PMID:20398771

  18. A group-based HIV and sexually transmitted infections prevention intervention for lesbian, bisexual, queer and other women who have sex with women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada: study protocol for a non-randomised cohort pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H; Navia, Daniela; Rwigema, Marie-Jolie; Tharao, Wangari; Este, David; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The limited research that exists suggests that lesbian, bisexual queer (LBQ) and other women who have sex with women are at similar risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) as heterosexual women. However, scant research has evaluated HIV and STI prevention strategies for LBQ women. The authors present the rationale and study protocol for developing and pilot testing a psychoeducational group-based HIV and STI prevention intervention with LBQ women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre non-randomised cohort pilot study. The target population is LBQ women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada. The authors aim to recruit 40 participants using purposive peer-driven recruitment methods. Participants will conduct a pretest followed by a 2-day group programme of six 2 h sessions addressing stigma, STI and HIV prevention, healthy relationships, safer sex self-efficacy, self-worth, social support and LBQ community engagement. Participants will conduct a post-test directly following the intervention and 6 weeks after the intervention. The primary outcome is safer sex practices; our prespecified index of clinically significant change is an effect size of 0.50. Secondary outcomes include: safer sex self-efficacy, STI testing frequency, STI knowledge, resilient coping, social support, sexual stigma, access to care, depression and self-esteem. We will conduct mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre–post test score change. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval was attained from the Office of Research Ethics (REB: 29291), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Trial results will be published according to the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomised Designs (TREND) statement, regardless of the outcomes. Trial registration number This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT02067845. PMID:24760356

  19. "The normative idea of queer is a white person": understanding perceptions of white privilege among lesbian, bisexual, and queer women of color in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Rwigema, Marie-Jolie

    2014-01-01

    White privilege constructs whiteness as normative and central to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) identities and is reproduced through social norms, media representations, and daily interactions. We aimed to enhance understanding of the processes by which white privilege was experienced among lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women of color in Toronto, Canada. We conducted two focus groups with LBQ women of color, one with participants who self-identified as masculine of center (n = 8) and the second with participants who identified as feminine of center (n = 8). Findings indicate that LBQ women of color experience intersectional stigma (e.g., homophobia, racism, sexism) on a daily basis. Participant narratives revealed that white privilege shaped the representations of women of color in a particular way that promoted their exclusion from white LBQ spaces and broader society. By representing queerness as white, LBQ women of color were rendered invisible in both queer and racialized communities. LBQ women of color were further marginalized by constructions of "real" women as passive, feminine and white, and conversely perceptions of women of color as aggressive, emotional, and hypersexualized. These representations inform spatialized practices and social interactions through constructing racialized communities as discriminatory and "backwards" while maintaining the invisibility of white privilege and racism in LBQ spaces. PMID:24641077

  20. Re-bordering spaces of trauma: auto-ethnographic reflections on the immigrant and refugee experience in an inner-city high school in Toronto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerverger, Grace

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this research study is to offer a glimpse into the lives of some newly-arrived students of different racial, linguistic and religious backgrounds as they confront the process of immigration and therefore personal and social displacement within the context of a Toronto inner-city high school. These students carry with them hidden but enduring scars that influence all aspects of their educational lives. In many cases their experience is steeped in trauma. Using auto-ethnographic methodology, this research is devoted to giving voice to these students who inhabit a space filled with suffering and loss but also resilience and cautious hope. If we really care about these vulnerable students in our classrooms, we must rethink and reshape our understanding of teaching and learning that is more fundamentally linked to the lived experiences of students coming from places of war and other oppressions. These issues are crucial for the future of nation-building and citizenship education in pluralistic Western societies such as Canada, both in and out of school.

  1. Effect of a dedicated oral care program on periodontal status of medically compromised patients at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute Dental Clinic.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Robert; Hebbes, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Medically compromised patients attending the dental clinic at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute have considerable gingival inflammation and breath odor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing on the periodontal status of these patients and to determine if there were any additional benefit in combining brushing with an application of an antibiotic rinse. During the first 7 days of the study, the teeth of 11 participants were brushed twice a day by a dental hygienist using a soft-bristle suction toothbrush without toothpaste. Soft interproximal brushes were used to clean interproximal surfaces from the facial aspect. During the second week, facial and interproximal cleaning were repeated in the same patients, but the toothbrush and interproximal brush were dipped in 10-mL of a solution consisting of water and 40 mg/mL of metronidazole with nystatin. Each patient underwent an oral examination and biofilm sampling at baseline, after brushing without toothpaste (week 1), and after brushing with antibiotic solution (week 2). After week 1, tissues improved substantially, and there was a notable change in the biofilm on the teeth. The addition of an antibiotic solution increased healing and resulted in a further decrease in oral biofilm. Medically compromised patients would benefit considerably from a treatment regimen of antibiotic solution to decrease oral infection followed by a daily oral care program of brushing and interdental cleaning to maintain healthy oral tissues. PMID:27367641

  2. Satellite Monitoring of Urban Sprawl and Assessment of its Potential Environmental Impact in the Greater Toronto Area Between 1985 and 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furberg, Dorothy; Ban, Yifang

    2012-12-01

    This research investigates urban sprawl in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) between 1985 and 2005 and the nature of the resulting landscape fragmentation, particularly with regard to the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM), an ecologically important area for the region. Six scenes of Landsat TM imagery were acquired in summer of 1985, 1995, and 2005. These images and their texture measures were classified into eight land cover classes with very satisfactory final overall accuracies (93-95 %). Analysis of the classifications indicated that urban areas grew by 20 % between 1985 and 1995 and by 15 % between 1995 and 2005. Landscape fragmentation due to spatio-temporal land cover changes was evaluated using urban compactness indicators and landscape metrics, and results from the latter were used to draw conclusions about probable environmental impact. The indicator results showed that urban proportions increased in nearly all areas outside of the metropolitan center, including on portions of the ORM. The landscape metrics reveal that low density urban areas increased significantly in the GTA between 1985 and 2005, mainly at the expense of agricultural land. The metric results indicate increased vulnerability and exposure to adverse effects for natural and semi-natural land cover through greater contrast and lowered connectivity. The degree of urban perimeter increased around most environmentally significant areas in the region. Changes like these negatively impact species and the regional water supply in the GTA. Further investigation into specific environmental impacts of urban expansion in the region and which areas on the ORM are most at risk is recommended.

  3. Are you ready? Exploring readiness to engage in exercise among people living with HIV and multimorbidity in Toronto, Canada: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Simonik, Alya; Vader, Kyle; Ellis, Denine; Kesbian, Dirouhi; Leung, Priscilla; Jachyra, Patrick; Chan Carusone, Soo; O'Brien, Kelly K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to explore readiness to engage in exercise among people living with HIV and multimorbidity. Design We conducted a descriptive qualitative study using face-to-face semistructured interviews with adults living with HIV. Setting We recruited adults (18 years or older) who self-identified as living with HIV and 2 or more additional health-related conditions from a specialty hospital in Toronto, Canada. Participants 14 participants with a median age of 50 years and median number of 9 concurrent health-related conditions participated in the study. The majority of participants were men (64%) with an undetectable viral load (71%). Outcome measures We asked participants to describe their readiness to engage in exercise and explored how contextual factors influenced their readiness. We analysed interview transcripts using thematic analysis. Results We developed a framework to describe readiness to engage in exercise and the interplay of factors and their influence on readiness among adults with HIV and multimorbidity. Readiness was described as a diverse, dynamic and fluctuating spectrum ranging from not thinking about exercise to routinely engaging in daily exercise. Readiness was influenced by the complex and episodic nature of HIV and multimorbidity comprised of physical impairments, mental health challenges and uncertainty from HIV and concurrent health conditions. This key factor created a context within which 4 additional subfactors (social supports, perceptions and beliefs, past experience with exercise, and accessibility) may further hinder or facilitate an individual's position along the spectrum of readiness to exercise. Conclusions Readiness to engage in exercise among people living with HIV is a dynamic and fluctuating construct that may be influenced by the episodic nature of HIV and multimorbidity and 4 subfactors. Strategies to facilitate readiness to exercise should consider the interplay of these factors in order to enhance

  4. “We don't exist”: a qualitative study of marginalization experienced by HIV-positive lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender women in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-01-01

    Background Lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender (LBQT) women living with HIV have been described as invisible and understudied. Yet, social and structural contexts of violence and discrimination exacerbate the risk of HIV infection among LBQT women. The study objective was to explore challenges in daily life and experiences of accessing HIV services among HIV-positive LBQT women in Toronto, Canada. Methods We used a community-based qualitative approach guided by an intersectional theoretical framework. We conducted two focus groups; one focus group was conducted with HIV-positive lesbian, bisexual and queer women (n=7) and the second with HIV-positive transgender women (n=16). Participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Focus groups were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing data to enhance understanding of factors that influence the wellbeing of HIV-positive LBQT women. Results Participant narratives revealed a trajectory of marginalization. Structural factors such as social exclusion and violence elevated the risk for HIV infection; this risk was exacerbated by inadequate HIV prevention information. Participants described multiple barriers to HIV care and support, including pervasive HIV-related stigma, heteronormative assumptions in HIV-positive women's services and discriminatory and incompetent treatment by health professionals. Underrepresentation of LBQT women in HIV research further contributed to marginalization and exclusion. Participants expressed a willingness to participate in HIV research that would be translated into action. Conclusions Structural factors elevate HIV risk among LBQT women, limit access to HIV prevention and present barriers to HIV care and support. This study's conceptualization of a trajectory of marginalization enriches the discussion of structural factors implicated in the wellbeing of LBQT women and highlights the necessity of addressing LBQT women's needs in HIV

  5. Comparison of the occurrence and survival of fecal indicator bacteria in recreational sand between urban beach, playground and sandbox settings in Toronto, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Robinson, Clare; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-01-15

    While beach sands are increasingly being studied as a reservoir of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), less is known about the occurrence of FIB in other recreational sands (i.e., sandboxes and playgrounds). In this study, different culture-based FIB enumeration techniques were compared and microbial source tracking assays were conducted on recreational sand samples from beaches, playgrounds and sandboxes around Toronto, ON. FIB were detected in every sand sample (n=104) with concentrations not changing significantly over the five month sampling period. Concentrations of FIB and a gull-specific DNA marker were significantly higher in foreshore beach sands, and indicated these were a more significant reservoir of FIB contamination than sandbox or playground sands. Human- and dog-specific contamination markers were not detected. All culture-based FIB enumeration techniques were consistent in identifying the elevated FIB concentrations associated with foreshore beach sands. However, significant differences between differential agar media, IDEXX and Aquagenx Compartment Bag Test were observed, with DC media and Enterolert being the most sensitive methods to detect Escherichia coli and enterococci, respectively. To better understand the elevated occurrence of E. coli in foreshore sands, microcosm survival experiments were conducted at two different temperatures (15 °C and 28 °C) using non-sterile saturated foreshore beach sands collected from two urban freshwater beaches with different sand type (fine grain and sand-cobble). Microcosms were inoculated with a mixture of eight sand-derived E. coli strains and sampled over a 28-day period. E. coli levels were found to decline in all microcosms, although survival was significantly greater in the finer sand and at the cooler temperature (15 °C). These results indicate that FIB can be widespread in any type of recreational sand and, while E. coli can survive for many weeks, it is most likely to accumulate in cooler fine

  6. Analysis of motor vehicle sources and their contribution to ambient hydrocarbon distributions at urban sites in Toronto during the Southern Ontario oxidants study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, R.; Singleton, D. L.; Lai, J. Y. K.; Khouw, B.; Singer, E.; Wu, Z.; Niki, H.

    Hydrocarbon distributions measured in the urban area of Toronto during the Southern Ontario Oxidants Study of 1992 are presented. Comparison is made to hydrocarbon distributions measured in other urban areas. Relative concentrations of olefins were found to be depleted aloft compared to the surface level measurements. Chemical mass balance modelling was used to apportion the measured hydrocarbon distributions at York University and other roadside sites to gasoline based sources. The most dominant contributing source was vehicle exhaust. The relative amount of unburned gasoline at York University was found to be significant in the summer, and higher than that observed there during the winter or at other roadside sites. The relative amount of evaporative emissions (gasoline vapour) apportioned by the CMB model at roadside sites was compared to evaporative emissions predicted by a mobile emission factor model, MOBILE5C. The percentage of gasoline based non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) apportioned to gasoline vapour by the CMB model was equivalent within error to the relative amount of evaporative NMHC predicted by the MOBILE5C model for summer temperatures. For winter temperatures, the MOBILE5C model predicted significantly less evaporative emissions than that apportioned by the CMB model. An anthropogenic source of isoprene in the urban area has been proposed and tested. The inclusion of an isoprene flux in the exhaust source profile, consistent with that measured in the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program, results in calculated isoprene concentrations that are in agreement with observed concentrations at roadside sites and at York University in the winter. During summer, the combustion related isoprene can only account for a small fraction of the observed isoprene at downtown sites and at York University, at most 20%.

  7. A Study of the Role of Small Ethnic Retail Grocery Stores in Urban Renewal in a Social Housing Project, Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Komakech, Morris D C; Jackson, Suzanne F

    2016-06-01

    Urban renewal often drives away the original residents, replacing them with higher income residents who can afford the new spaces, leading to gentrification. Urban renewal that takes place over many years can create uncertainties for retailers and residents, exacerbating the gentrification process. This qualitative study explored how the urban renewal process in a multi-cultural social housing neighborhood in Toronto (Regent Park) affected the small ethnic retail grocery stores (SERGS) that supplied ethnic foods and items to the ethnic populations living there. Interviews were conducted with ten SERGS store owners/managers and 16 ethnic residents who lived in Regent Park before renewal and were displaced, or who were displaced and returned. The SERGS stated that they provided culturally familiar items and offered a social credit scheme that recognized existing social relationships and allowed low-income residents to afford food and other amenities in a dignified manner and pay later, without penalty or interest. At the same time, the SERGS were unsupported during the renewal, were excluded from the civic planning processes, could not compete for space in the new buildings, and experienced declining sales and loss of business. The residents stated that the SERGS were trusted, provided a valued cultural social spaces for ethnic identity formation, and ethnic food security but they faced many uncertainties about the role of SERGS in a renewed neighborhood. Based on this study, it is recommended that ethnic retailers be recognized for the role they play in formulating ethnic identities and food security in mixed-use mixed-income communities and that they be included in planning processes during urban renewal. Such recognition may enable more former residents to return and lessen the gentrification. PMID:27142392

  8. Reducing widespread pipe sharing and risky sex among crystal methamphetamine smokers in Toronto: do safer smoking kits have a potential role to play?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crystal methamphetamine smoking is associated with many negative health consequences, including the potential for transmission of hepatitis. We examined whether or not a kit for crystal methamphetamine smoking might have some potential to reduce the negative health effects of crystal methamphetamine smoking. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with crystal methamphetamine smokers recruited by community health agencies and youth shelters in Toronto, Canada. Target groups included homeless/street-involved youth, sex workers, men who have sex with men, and youth in the party scene. Participants (n = 32) were asked questions about motivations for crystal methamphetamine use, the process of smoking, health problems experienced, sharing behaviour, risky sexual practices, and the ideal contents of a harm reduction kit. Results Pipe sharing was widespread among participants and was deemed integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Heated pipes were unlikely to cause direct injuries, but participants mentioned having dry, cracked lips, which may be a vector for disease transmission. Many reported having sex with multiple partners and being less likely to use condoms while on the drug. Demand for harm reduction kits was mixed. Conclusions Changing pipe sharing behaviours may be difficult because many participants considered sharing to be integral to the social experience of smoking crystal methamphetamine. Within the context of a broader health promotion and prevention program, pilot testing of safer smoking kits to initiate discussion and education on the risks associated with sharing pipes and unprotected sex for some communities (e.g., homeless/street-involved youth) is worth pursuing. PMID:22339847

  9. Satellite monitoring of urban sprawl and assessment of its potential environmental impact in the Greater Toronto Area between 1985 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Furberg, Dorothy; Ban, Yifang

    2012-12-01

    This research investigates urban sprawl in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) between 1985 and 2005 and the nature of the resulting landscape fragmentation, particularly with regard to the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM), an ecologically important area for the region. Six scenes of Landsat TM imagery were acquired in summer of 1985, 1995, and 2005. These images and their texture measures were classified into eight land cover classes with very satisfactory final overall accuracies (93-95 %). Analysis of the classifications indicated that urban areas grew by 20 % between 1985 and 1995 and by 15 % between 1995 and 2005. Landscape fragmentation due to spatio-temporal land cover changes was evaluated using urban compactness indicators and landscape metrics, and results from the latter were used to draw conclusions about probable environmental impact. The indicator results showed that urban proportions increased in nearly all areas outside of the metropolitan center, including on portions of the ORM. The landscape metrics reveal that low density urban areas increased significantly in the GTA between 1985 and 2005, mainly at the expense of agricultural land. The metric results indicate increased vulnerability and exposure to adverse effects for natural and semi-natural land cover through greater contrast and lowered connectivity. The degree of urban perimeter increased around most environmentally significant areas in the region. Changes like these negatively impact species and the regional water supply in the GTA. Further investigation into specific environmental impacts of urban expansion in the region and which areas on the ORM are most at risk is recommended. PMID:23052474

  10. Practices and perceptions regarding pain and pain management during routine childhood immunizations: Findings from a focus-group study with nurses working at Toronto Public Health, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Kikuta, Andrew; Gardezi, Fauzia; Dubey, Vinita; Taddio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the availability of a variety of evidence-based interventions, it has previously been reported that the majority of infants and children undergo vaccine injections without the benefit of analgesia. Nurses in public health administer a substantial number of injections; however, their attitudes and practices surrounding acute pain during vaccine injections have not been previously explored. METHODS: A focus-group interview was conducted in Toronto, Ontario, with 10 nurses who immunize children. Participants reported their perceptions and practices with regard to vaccine injection pain and pain management. RESULTS: Three key themes emerged: environmental and process factors, perceptions regarding the effectiveness of different analgesic interventions, and perceptions regarding pain and fear. Participants reported a lack of control over their environment, resulting in fear and discomfort for children. They recommended increased support from external partners such as school teachers and administrators. Participants reported that pharmacological interventions, such as topical local anesthetics, were not used; however, psychological and physical interventions were commonly used. Nurses questioned the effectiveness of topical anesthetics, and indicated that more education was required regarding effective analgesic interventions. Needle pain was reported to be the most prominent concern for children undergoing vaccine injections, and children were described as being fearful. DISCUSSION: Nurses reported vaccination setting, analgesic effectiveness and relative importance given to pain as important factors for pain and pain management during vaccine injections. Future studies should explore whether additional perspectives are present in vaccinators in other geographical regions. The effectiveness of educational resources and pain management programs aimed at improving current practices should be investigated. PMID:22654924

  11. Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Active Aging through the Lens of the 2002 World Health Organization Active Ageing Report: A Policy Framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Boushra; Wolbring, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    As populations continue to grow older, efforts to support the process of aging well are important goals. Various synonyms are used to cover aging well, such as active aging. The World Health Organization published in 2002 the report Active Ageing: A Policy Framework that according to the call for papers, has brought active ageing to the forefront of international public health awareness. The 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action was singled out in the call for papers as a key document promoting physical activity one goal of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework. Media are to report to the public topics of importance to them. We investigated the newspaper coverage of aging well and synonymous terms such as active aging through the lens of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. As sources we used the following newspapers: China Daily, The Star (Malaysia), two UK newspapers (The Guardian, The Times), a database of 300 Canadian newspapers (Canadian Newsstand) and a US newspaper (The New York Times). The study generated data answering the following four research questions: (1) how often are the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity mentioned; (2) how often is the topic of active aging and terms conveying similar content (aging well, healthy aging, natural aging and successful aging) discussed; (3) which of the issues flagged as important in the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity are covered in the newspaper coverage of active aging and synonymous terms; (4) which social groups were mentioned in the newspapers covered. The study found a total absence of mentioning of the two key documents and a low level of coverage of “active aging” and terms conveying similar content. It found further a lack of engagement with the issues raised in the two key documents and a low level

  12. Current perspectives on the pediatric hip: selected topics in hip dysplasia, Perthes disease, and chondrolysis: synopsis of the hip subspecialty session at the POSNA Annual Meeting, May 1, 2013, Toronto.

    PubMed

    Millis, Michael B; Zaltz, Ira

    2014-01-01

    The following are proceedings from the Hip Breakout Session held at the 2013 annual meeting of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America in Toronto, Canada. The organizer's goal of the meeting was to gather experts with years of clinical experience to discuss topics based upon both experience and current clinical evidence. The topics that were selected represented the most commonly encountered pathology where there are wide variations of clinical practice. The invited speakers were asked to summarize both their clinical experience and the current scientific evidence and to summarize areas that require further scientific investigation. PMID:25207735

  13. Analysis of newspaper coverage of active aging through the lens of the 2002 World Health Organization Active Ageing Report: A Policy Framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Boushra; Wolbring, Gregor

    2013-12-01

    As populations continue to grow older, efforts to support the process of aging well are important goals. Various synonyms are used to cover aging well, such as active aging. The World Health Organization published in 2002 the report Active Ageing: A Policy Framework that according to the call for papers, has brought active ageing to the forefront of international public health awareness. The 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action was singled out in the call for papers as a key document promoting physical activity one goal of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework. Media are to report to the public topics of importance to them. We investigated the newspaper coverage of aging well and synonymous terms such as active aging through the lens of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. As sources we used the following newspapers: China Daily, The Star (Malaysia), two UK newspapers (The Guardian, The Times), a database of 300 Canadian newspapers (Canadian Newsstand) and a US newspaper (The New York Times). The study generated data answering the following four research questions: (1) how often are the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity mentioned; (2) how often is the topic of active aging and terms conveying similar content (aging well, healthy aging, natural aging and successful aging) discussed; (3) which of the issues flagged as important in the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity are covered in the newspaper coverage of active aging and synonymous terms; (4) which social groups were mentioned in the newspapers covered. The study found a total absence of mentioning of the two key documents and a low level of coverage of "active aging" and terms conveying similar content. It found further a lack of engagement with the issues raised in the two key documents and a low level of

  14. A population-based study of premature mortality in relation to neighbourhood density of alcohol sales and cheque cashing outlets in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Flora I; Creatore, Maria Isabella; Gozdyra, Piotr; Park, Alison L; Ray, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    Objective Alcohol overuse and poverty, each associated with premature death, often exist within disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cheque cashing places (CCPs) may be opportunistically placed in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, where customers abound. We explored whether neighbourhood density of CCPs and alcohol outlets are each related to premature mortality among adults. Design Retrospective population-based study. Setting 140 neighbourhoods in Toronto, Ontario, 2005–2009. Participants Adults aged 20–59 years. Measures Our primary outcome was premature all-cause mortality among adults aged 20–59 years. Across neighbourhoods we explored neighbourhood density, in km2, of CCPs and alcohol outlets, and the relation of each to premature mortality. Poisson regression provided adjusted relative risks (aRRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for material deprivation quintile (Q), crime Q and number of banks. Results Intentional self-harm, accidental poisoning and liver disease were among the top five causes of premature death among males aged 20–59 years. The overall premature mortality rate was 96.3/10 000 males and 55.9/10 000 females. Comparing the highest versus lowest CCP density Q, the aRR for death was 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36) among males and 1.11 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.24) among females. The corresponding aRR comparing the highest Q versus lowest Q alcohol outlet density in relation to premature mortality was 1.36 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.48) for males and 1.11 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.24) for females. The pattern of the relation between either CCPs or alcohol outlet density and premature mortality was typically J shaped. Conclusions There is a J-shaped relation between CCP or alcohol outlet density and premature mortality, even on controlling for conventional measures of poverty. Formal banking and alcohol reduction strategies might be added to health promotion policies aimed at reducing premature mortality in highly affected neighbourhoods. PMID:25518874

  15. Prevalence of antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I/II in people of Caribbean origin in Toronto.

    PubMed Central

    Chiavetta, J; Nusbacher, J; Tam, F; Wall, A; Steaffens, J; Lee, H

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I/II (anti-HTLV-I/II) in people from an HTLV-I/II-endemic area (the Caribbean) living in a nonendemic region (Canada). DESIGN: Cross-sectional household survey. SETTING: Households in Toronto in 1989. PARTICIPANTS: A modified quota sampling method was used to recruit subjects of Caribbean origin as well as other Canadians. Of 2900 people invited to participate in the study 1323, 743 of Caribbean origin, were interviewed about their background and possible exposure to HTLV-I/II. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood samples were analysed for anti-HTLV-I/II by means of an enzyme-linked immunoassay, the result being confirmed by the Western blot technique and radioimmunoprecipitation assay. The samples were also analysed for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and for surrogate markers of non-A, non-B hepatitis. RESULTS: A total of 853 blood samples (64.5%) were analysed, 483 (56.6%) from subjects of Caribbean origin. The proportion of subjects who agreed to give a blood sample was similar for the Caribbean and non-Caribbean strata. Eleven subjects, all of Caribbean origin (2.3% of the Caribbean stratum), were confirmed to be positive for anti-HTLV-I/II. There were no significant differences between the antibody-positive and antibody-negative subjects with respect to sex, age, racial origin or residence in the Caribbean for at least 22 years. All anti-HTLV-I/II-positive subjects were negative for anti-HIV and HBsAg, and four (36.4%) were positive for antibody to HBsAg and to hepatitis B core antigen. CONCLUSIONS: Except for origin, an association between antibody positivity and other factors could not be demonstrated. The findings suggest that blood donor screening might include place of origin in addition to the usual lifestyle or behavioural factors. However, the need to ensure safety of transfusion must be balanced against the

  16. Henry Norris Russell's Toronto Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    In February 1924, at the invitation of C. A. Chant, Russell presented a set of 14 public lectures on the state of astronomy and astrophysics. Designed to be inspirational, they also reveal Russell's contemporary views on the state of astrophysics as well as his sense of proper practice in astronomy. During his visit, Russell was interviewed by local reporters who asked his opinion about building a large observatory, one of Chant's major projects. What Russell had to say about such ventures did not please Chant one bit.

  17. The Toronto Lesbian Family Study.

    PubMed

    Dundas, S; Kaufman, M

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven lesbian mothers completed standardized tools chosen to assess current functioning, followed by a video-taped interview. Verbal children were also interviewed. Questions involved perceptions of the mothers' and children's experiences of being homosexual or being raised by homosexual parents, knowledge and fantasies about the donor/father, feelings regarding the role of fathers, parents' experiences of being fathered, legal issues, and development. All mothers were strongly lesbian identified and most were completely "out." All but one mother planned to or had told their children. All mothers planned to reveal donor information at an appropriate age. Many, especially parents of boys, had concerns about lack of a male role model, but none felt this would negatively affect the child's development. Mothers were open to having their child ask questions and even seek out the donor when older. Thirty-one percent of mothers reported a positive relationship with their own father, 42% a father who was present but unavailable or punitive and 27% a completely absent father for large parts of their childhood. Couples divided parenting work based on individual strengths and interests, work schedules and demands. Only two of the couples felt that one of them played a role typical of a father. An aggregate score was compiled for each mother based on the number of negative outcomes in the standardized tools. The mean number of negative outcomes for the mothers was 3.15 (SD = 1.85). Of the six women with 5 or more negative outcomes on the scales, three were single parents and one had lost her partner when her child was two months old. On the CESD, three mothers showed depression levels that were high. The Internal External scale showed 42% of mothers to have an external locus of control. Three mothers scored negatively on the Family Assessment Device. Ninety-two percent of women showed moderate to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and the Parenting Stress Index found only 4 women showing enough stress to warrant follow-up. Mothers who reported very negative early experiences of coming out were more likely to report current depressive symptoms (p = .03). All but one child living in two-mother homes identified both mothers as part of their family. Our initial impression is that these are primarily strong families with a variety of parenting skills, stressors and philosophies. PMID:11206422

  18. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Misir, Vachan; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; O’Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Hwang, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374 PMID:26418677

  19. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender

  20. Emotion Processing in Parkinson’s Disease: A Three-Level Study on Recognition, Representation, and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Enrici, Ivan; Adenzato, Mauro; Ardito, Rita B.; Mitkova, Antonia; Cavallo, Marco; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lopiano, Leonardo; Castelli, Lorys

    2015-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterised by well-known motor symptoms, whereas the presence of cognitive non-motor symptoms, such as emotional disturbances, is still underestimated. One of the major problems in studying emotion deficits in PD is an atomising approach that does not take into account different levels of emotion elaboration. Our study addressed the question of whether people with PD exhibit difficulties in one or more specific dimensions of emotion processing, investigating three different levels of analyses, that is, recognition, representation, and regulation. Methodology Thirty-two consecutive medicated patients with PD and 25 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Participants performed a three-level analysis assessment of emotional processing using quantitative standardised emotional tasks: the Ekman 60-Faces for emotion recognition, the full 36-item version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) for emotion representation, and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) for emotion regulation. Principal Findings Regarding emotion recognition, patients obtained significantly worse scores than controls in the total score of Ekman 60-Faces but not in any other basic emotions. For emotion representation, patients obtained significantly worse scores than controls in the RME experimental score but no in the RME gender control task. Finally, on emotion regulation, PD and controls did not perform differently at TAS-20 and no specific differences were found on TAS-20 subscales. The PD impairments on emotion recognition and representation do not correlate with dopamine therapy, disease severity, or with the duration of illness. These results are independent from other cognitive processes, such as global cognitive status and executive function, or from psychiatric status, such as depression, anxiety or apathy. Conclusions These results may contribute to better understanding of the emotional problems that are often seen in patients

  1. Parental bonding and personality characteristics of first episode intention to suicide or deliberate self-harm without a history of mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial overlap between deliberate self-harm (DSH) and intention to suicide (ITS), although the psychopathologies and motivations behind these behaviors are distinctly different. The purpose of this study was to investigate (i) the pathway relationship among parental bonding, personality characteristics, and alexithymic traits, and (ii) the association of these features with ITS and DSH using structural equation modeling to determine the risks and protective factors for these behaviors. Methods Sixty-nine first-time DSH and 36 first-time ITS patients without medical or psychiatric illnesses, and 66 controls were recruited. The Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) were filled out by the participants. Results Our structural equation models showed that parental bonding had the greatest influence on the development of DSH behavior in patients. On the other hand, participants who were younger, less extraverted, with a greater extent of the alexithymic trait of difficulty identifying feeling (DIF), and a worse mental health condition, were more likely to develop ITS behavior. Males were more likely than females to develop the alexithymic trait of DIF. Conclusions Although there are many covariates that affect both ITS and DSH behaviors, these covariates may have different functions in the development of these behaviors, thus revealing the psychopathological difference between DSH and ITS. Policymakers should consider these differences and build intervention and prevention programs for gender- and age-specific high-risk groups to target the differences, with a focus on family counseling to treat DSH and a focus on attempting to increase emotional awareness to treat ITS. PMID:23635081

  2. Evaluating area-level spatial clustering of Salmonella Enteritidis infections and their socioeconomic determinants in the greater Toronto area, Ontario, Canada (2007 – 2009): a retrospective population-based ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been only a few region-level ecological studies conducted in Canada investigating enteric infections in humans. Our study objectives were to 1) assess the spatial clustering of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections in the Greater Toronto Area, and 2) identify underlying area-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that might explain the clustering of infections. Methods Retrospective data on S. Enteritidis infections from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from Ontario’s reportable disease surveillance database and were grouped at the forward sortation area (FSA) - level. A spatial scan statistic was employed to identify FSA-level spatial clusters of high infection rates. Negative binomial regression was used to identify FSA-level associations between S. Enteritidis infection rates and SES indicators obtained from the 2006 Census of Canada. Global Moran’s I statistic was used to evaluate the final model for residual spatial clustering. Results A spatial cluster that included nine neighbouring FSAs was identified in downtown Toronto. A significant positive curvilinear relationship was observed between S. Enteritidis infection rates and FSA-level average number of children at home per census family. Areas with high and areas with low average median family income had higher infection rates than FSAs with medium average median family income. Areas with a high proportion of visible minority population had lower infection rates than FSAs with a medium proportion of visible minority population. The Moran’s I statistic was not significant, indicating that no residual spatial autocorrelation was present after accounting for the SES variables in the final model. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that FSAs with high and low average median family income, medium proportion of visible minority population, and high average number of children at home per census

  3. Are residents of downtown Toronto influenced by their urban neighbourhoods? Using concept mapping to examine neighbourhood characteristics and their perceived impact on self-rated mental well-being

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is ample evidence that residential neighbourhoods can influence mental well-being (MWB), with most studies relying on census or similar data to characterize communities. Few studies have actively investigated local residents’ perceptions. Methods Concept mapping was conducted with residents from five Toronto neighbourhoods representing low income and non-low income socio-economic groups. These residents participated in small groups and attended two sessions per neighbourhood. The first session (brainstorming) generated neighbourhood characteristics that residents felt influenced their MWB. A few weeks later, participants returned to sort these neighbourhood characteristics and rate their relative importance in affecting residents’ ‘good’ and ‘poor’ MWB. The data from the sorting and rating groups were analyzed to generate conceptual maps of neighbourhood characteristics that influence MWB. Results While agreement existed on factors influencing poor MWB (regardless of neighbourhood, income, gender and age), perceptions related to factors affecting good MWB were more varied. For example, women were more likely to rank physical beauty of their neighbourhood and range of services available as more important to good MWB, while men were more likely to cite free access to computers/internet and neighbourhood reputation as important. Low-income residents emphasized aesthetic attributes and public transportation as important to good MWB, while non-low-income residents rated crime, negative neighbourhood environment and social concerns as more important contributors to good MWB. Conclusion These findings contribute to the emerging literature on neighbourhoods and MWB, and inform urban planning in a Canadian context. PMID:22862839

  4. Use of an HIV-risk screening tool to identify optimal candidates for PrEP scale-up among men who have sex with men in Toronto, Canada: disconnect between objective and subjective HIV risk

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, James; Kain, Taylor; Fowler, Shawn; Hart, Trevor A; Grennan, Troy; Maxwell, John; Tan, Darrell HS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Identifying appropriate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates is a challenge in planning for the safe and effective roll-out of this strategy. We explored the use of a validated HIV risk screening tool, HIV Incidence Risk Index for Men who have Sex with Men (HIRI-MSM), to identify “optimal” candidates among MSM testing at a busy sexual health clinic's community testing sites in Toronto, Canada. Methods Between November 2014 and April 2015, we surveyed MSM undergoing anonymous HIV testing at community testing sites in Toronto, Canada, to quantify “optimal” candidates for scaling up PrEP roll-out, defined as being at high objective HIV risk (scoring ≥10 on the HIRI-MSM), perceiving oneself at moderate-to-high HIV risk and being willing to use PrEP. Cascades were constructed to identify barriers to broader PrEP uptake. The association between HIRI-MSM score and both willingness to use PrEP and perceived HIV risk were explored in separate multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Of 420 respondents, 64.4% were objectively at high risk, 52.5% were willing to use PrEP and 27.2% perceived themselves at moderate-to-high HIV risk. Only 16.4% were “optimal” candidates. Higher HIRI-MSM scores were positively associated with both willingness to use PrEP (aOR=1.7 per 10 score increase, 95%CI=1.3–2.2) and moderate-to-high perceived HIV risk (aOR=1.7 per 10 score increase, 95%CI=1.2–2.3). The proportion of men who were “optimal” candidates increased to 42.9% when the objective HIV risk cut-off was changed to top quartile of HIRI-MSM scores (≥26). In our full cascade, a very low proportion (5.3%) of MSM surveyed could potentially benefit from PrEP under current conditions. The greatest barrier in the cascade was low perception of HIV risk among high-risk men, but considerable numbers were also lost in downstream cascade steps. Of men at high objective HIV risk, 68.3% did not perceive themselves to be at moderate-to-high HIV risk

  5. Toronto Educational Governance/Multiculturalism Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John; And Others

    This report is a narrative account of a seminar devoted to analyzing processes of change and discussing strategies used in various Western countries to plan, develop, implement, and manage change. Subtopics of focus were cultural pluralism, management, governance and finance; career preparation; and early childhood education. The seminar's opening…

  6. Disabilities and Inclusive Practices within Toronto Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Isabel; Tymon, Dorothy; Frempong, George

    2007-01-01

    A current objective in Canada is a provision of childcare services for all children. This objective has not been achieved as many children, especially those with disabilities, are often denied services from publicly funded daycare centres. The authors argue that policy discussions framed from an inclusive perspective provide a better understanding…

  7. Engagement in dance is associated with emotional competence in interplay with others

    PubMed Central

    Bojner Horwitz, Eva; Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres P. G.; Ullén, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This study has explored the relation between dance achievement and alexithymia in a larger Swedish population sample (Swedish Twin Registry) with a study sample of 5431 individuals. Dance achievement (CAQ) was assessed in relation to Alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20) including the three subscales: Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF), Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF), and Externally Oriented Thinking (EOT). The results show a significant negative association between the TAS subscale (EOT) and creative achievement in dance. A high EOT score corresponds to poor ability to communicate feelings to the environment. There was no consistent association between the other factors DIF and DDF and dance achievement. Dance activity and training seem to be involved in the body’s emotional interplay with others. Embodied cognition, emotional perception, and action are discussed as factors relevant to measuring the skill of a dancer. PMID:26284016

  8. Engagement in dance is associated with emotional competence in interplay with others.

    PubMed

    Bojner Horwitz, Eva; Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres P G; Ullén, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This study has explored the relation between dance achievement and alexithymia in a larger Swedish population sample (Swedish Twin Registry) with a study sample of 5431 individuals. Dance achievement (CAQ) was assessed in relation to Alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20) including the three subscales: Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF), Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF), and Externally Oriented Thinking (EOT). The results show a significant negative association between the TAS subscale (EOT) and creative achievement in dance. A high EOT score corresponds to poor ability to communicate feelings to the environment. There was no consistent association between the other factors DIF and DDF and dance achievement. Dance activity and training seem to be involved in the body's emotional interplay with others. Embodied cognition, emotional perception, and action are discussed as factors relevant to measuring the skill of a dancer. PMID:26284016

  9. Emotion regulation and mental representation of attachment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    PubMed

    Barbasio, Chiara; Granieri, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    Mental representations of attachment and emotion regulation influence individual patterns of stress response and vulnerability to illness. The present study investigates the adult attachment states of mind of 40 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using the Adult Attachment Interview. We also assessed alexithymia using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and dissociation using the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The results showed a high prevalence of the unresolved state of mind (13 patients, 32.5%) and the entangled state of mind (10 patients, 25%). The alexithymia score also varied significantly as a function of the mental representation of attachment and was modulated by amnestic dissociation. These findings suggest that adult attachment in patients with SLE influences the presence of alexithymic features. Moreover, these also indicate that dissociative states mediate the perception of painful memories and feelings, thus contributing to the partial avoidance of emotions and the failure to fully experience and recognize them. The clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:23538975

  10. Alexithymia, Affect Regulation, and Binge Drinking in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, F. Diane

    2015-01-01

    Numerous programs have been instituted to address the widely recognized problem of binge drinking in college students, with some excellent results. Yet binge drinking is commonly still viewed as a socially acceptable form of relaxing and bonding with peers, often with the stated goal of getting as drunk as possible as quickly as possible. The…

  11. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: Results of an Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Stickel, Anna; Schneider, Michael; Müller, Christian A.

    2015-01-01

    Current research on Internet addiction (IA) reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS) and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterize adult users of an Internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). All participants were listed gamers of “Combat Zone” in the SNS “Facebook.” In this sample, 16.2% of the participants were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5% fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of Internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies. PMID:26217238

  12. Characteristics of Social Network Gamers: Results of an Online Survey.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Stickel, Anna; Schneider, Michael; Müller, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Current research on Internet addiction (IA) reported moderate to high prevalence rates of IA and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in users of social networking sites (SNS) and online role-playing games. The aim of this study was to characterize adult users of an Internet multiplayer strategy game within a SNS. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using an online survey to assess sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and the rate of IA in a sample of adult social network gamers by Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). All participants were listed gamers of "Combat Zone" in the SNS "Facebook." In this sample, 16.2% of the participants were categorized as subjects with IA and 19.5% fulfilled the criteria for alexithymia. Comparing study participants with and without IA, the IA group had significantly more subjects with alexithymia, reported more depressive symptoms, and showed poorer quality of life. These findings suggest that social network gaming might also be associated with maladaptive patterns of Internet use. Furthermore, a relationship between IA, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was found that needs to be elucidated by future studies. PMID:26217238

  13. Context sensitivity in the detection of changes in facial emotion

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yuichi; Fujimura, Tomomi; Katahira, Kentaro; Honda, Manabu; Okada, Masato; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In social contexts, reading subtle changes in others’ facial expressions is a crucial communication skill. To measure this ability, we developed an expression-change detection task, wherein a series of pictures of changes in an individual’s facial expressions within contextual scenes were presented. The results demonstrated that the detection of subtle changes was highly sensitive to contextual stimuli. That is, participants identified the direction of facial-expression changes more accurately and more quickly when they were ‘appropriate’—consistent with the valence of the contextual stimulus change—than when they were ‘inappropriate’. Moreover, individual differences in sensitivity to contextual stimuli were correlated with scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, a commonly used measure of alexithymia tendencies. These results suggest that the current behavioural task might facilitate investigations of the role of context in human social cognition. PMID:27291099

  14. Context sensitivity in the detection of changes in facial emotion.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yuichi; Fujimura, Tomomi; Katahira, Kentaro; Honda, Manabu; Okada, Masato; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In social contexts, reading subtle changes in others' facial expressions is a crucial communication skill. To measure this ability, we developed an expression-change detection task, wherein a series of pictures of changes in an individual's facial expressions within contextual scenes were presented. The results demonstrated that the detection of subtle changes was highly sensitive to contextual stimuli. That is, participants identified the direction of facial-expression changes more accurately and more quickly when they were 'appropriate'-consistent with the valence of the contextual stimulus change-than when they were 'inappropriate'. Moreover, individual differences in sensitivity to contextual stimuli were correlated with scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, a commonly used measure of alexithymia tendencies. These results suggest that the current behavioural task might facilitate investigations of the role of context in human social cognition. PMID:27291099

  15. NAViGaTOR: Network Analysis, Visualization and Graphing Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin R.; Otasek, David; Ali, Muhammad; McGuffin, Michael J.; Xie, Wing; Devani, Baiju; van Toch, Ian Lawson; Jurisica, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Summary: NAViGaTOR is a powerful graphing application for the 2D and 3D visualization of biological networks. NAViGaTOR includes a rich suite of visual mark-up tools for manual and automated annotation, fast and scalable layout algorithms and OpenGL hardware acceleration to facilitate the visualization of large graphs. Publication-quality images can be rendered through SVG graphics export. NAViGaTOR supports community-developed data formats (PSI-XML, BioPax and GML), is platform-independent and is extensible through a plug-in architecture. Availability: NAViGaTOR is freely available to the research community from http://ophid.utoronto.ca/navigator/. Installers and documentation are provided for 32- and 64-bit Windows, Mac, Linux and Unix. Contact: juris@ai.utoronto.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19837718

  16. Subject Access to Serial Publications in Toronto Bank Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubert, Steven Blake

    1991-01-01

    A survey of five major bank libraries revealed three distinct levels of subject access to serial publications: manually based systems with no formal subject access; computer-aided systems in which the sorting capabilities of computerized serials management are utilized to generate printed lists arranged by subject; and online catalogs with subject…

  17. Investigation of health anxiety and its related factors in nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqun; Zhao, Yueqiu; Mao, Shengqin; Li, Guohong; Yuan, Yonggui

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health anxiety in a sample of nursing students to determine the relationships between health anxiety and life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia. Methods Two thousand and eighty-six nursing students in junior college, which were divided into five groups, were evaluated by questionnaires, including the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students, the Chinese version of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results The mean age, whether the individual was an only child, residence (urban or rural), and were significantly different between the groups. The self-assessment scores were also significantly different between the groups. The Short Health Anxiety Inventory total score and the factor of fearing the likelihood of becoming ill were significantly negatively correlated with the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students total score and its two factors, but were significantly positively correlated with psychoticism, neuroticism, and TAS-20 total scores and its scores of the three TAS-20 factors. The negative consequence scale of Short Health Anxiety Inventory was not significantly correlated with externally oriented thinking, but was significantly negatively correlated with extraversion. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that objective satisfaction, subjective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the three factors of TAS-20 were predictors of health anxiety. Conclusion Health anxiety was correlated with life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia in junior college nursing students. Subjective and objective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the identification and expression of emotions may be predictors of health anxiety in nursing students. PMID:25045266

  18. The Effects of Autism and Alexithymia on Physiological and Verbal Responsiveness to Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rory; Davis, Rob; Hill, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that individuals with autism will be less responsive to the emotional content of music than typical individuals. With the aim of testing this hypothesis, a group of high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum was compared with a group of matched controls on two measures of emotional responsiveness to music, comprising…

  19. Empathic Brain Responses in Insula Are Modulated by Levels of Alexithymia but Not Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Geoffrey; Silani, Giorgia; Brindley, Rachel; White, Sarah; Frith, Uta; Singer, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in social cognition are well recognized in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (henceforth "autism"). Here we focus on one crucial aspect of social cognition: the ability to empathize with the feelings of another. In contrast to theory of mind, a capacity that has often been observed to be impaired in individuals with autism,…

  20. Neural activity during interoceptive awareness and its associations with alexithymia—An fMRI study in major depressive disorder and non-psychiatric controls

    PubMed Central

    Wiebking, Christine; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alexithymia relates to difficulties recognizing and describing emotions. It has been linked to subjectively increased interoceptive awareness (IA) and to psychiatric illnesses such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and somatization. MDD in turn is characterized by aberrant emotion processing and IA on the subjective as well as on the neural level. However, a link between neural activity in response to IA and alexithymic traits in health and depression remains unclear. Methods: A well-established fMRI task was used to investigate neural activity during IA (heartbeat counting) and exteroceptive awareness (tone counting) in non-psychiatric controls (NC) and MDD. Firstly, comparing MDD and NC, a linear relationship between IA-related activity and scores of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) was investigated through whole-brain regression. Secondly, NC were divided by median-split of TAS scores into groups showing low (NC-low) or high (NC-high) alexithymia. MDD and NC-high showed equally high TAS scores. Subsequently, IA-related neural activity was compared on a whole-brain level between the three independent samples (MDD, NC-low, NC-high). Results: Whole-brain regressions between MDD and NC revealed neural differences during IA as a function of TAS-DD (subscale difficulty describing feelings) in the supragenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC; BA 24/32), which were due to negative associations between TAS-DD and IA-related activity in NC. Contrasting NC subgroups after median-split on a whole-brain level, high TAS scores were associated with decreased neural activity during IA in the sACC and increased insula activity. Though having equally high alexithymia scores, NC-high showed increased insula activity during IA compared to MDD, whilst both groups showed decreased activity in the sACC. Conclusions: Within the context of decreased sACC activity during IA in alexithymia (NC-high and MDD), increased insula activity might mirror a compensatory mechanism in

  1. Predictive role of different dimensions of burden for risk of complicated grief in caregivers of terminally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Carlo; Luciani, Massimiliano; Morelli, Emanuela; Galli, Federico; Cappelluti, Roberta; Penco, Italo; Aceto, Paola; Lombardo, Luigi

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether high levels of caregiver burden, as other confirmed predictors, are associated with the risk of prolonged grief disorder in caregivers of terminally ill patients. A predictive study was carried out in order to test the hypothesis. A demographic schedule, the Prolonged Grief 12 (PG-12), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Caregiver Burden Inventory were administered to 60 caregivers of 51 patients who were admitted in Hospice. In the regression analysis, difficulty in recognizing emotions, total burden, depression, and developmental burden dimension were significant predictors of PG-12 levels. Findings showed that feeling of deprivation of existential expectations represents the greater risk factor for the prolonged grief disorder, among the burden dimensions. PMID:23689368

  2. The Psychological Mindedness Scale: factor structure, convergent validity and gender in a non-psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Shill, Merton A; Lumley, Mark A

    2002-06-01

    Although the concept of psychological mindedness (PM) originated in the psychoanalytic literature, its use has been expanding beyond the realm of assessing suitability for, or psychic change following, psychotherapy or psychoanalysis. For example, since PM bespeaks a capacity to tolerate psychological conflict and stress intrapsychically rather than by regressive means of conflict management or resolution such as somatization, its role, like that of alexithymia, in the genesis of psychosomatic illness is becoming evident. The Psychological Mindedness Scale (PMS), a 45-item self-report instrument intended to measure PM, was administered to a non-clinical sample of 397 undergraduates to assess the stability of its previously reported item-factor loadings and factor structure. Two main factors emerged, viz. Belief in the benefits of discussing one's problems and Access to feelings. Lower-order factors were Willingness to discuss problems with others, Interest in meaning and motivation of own and others' behaviour and Openness to change. Convergent validity of the PMS was also demonstrated by the negative correlations obtained between its total and factor/subscale scores with those of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The PMS needs further development to increase the congruence between its factor structure and the concept of PM. Females were also found to be more psychologically minded than males. The implications of these findings and the potential uses of this scale are discussed. PMID:12396760

  3. Pancreatic Reference Set Application: Ivan Blasutig-University of Toronto (2014) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of this study is to independently validate a panel of serum biomarkers for the early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The biomarkers were identified in various discovery studies performed in our laboratory1-6. We hypothesize that our candidate biomarkers can be used as a panel that will perform better than CA19.9 alone for the early detection of PDAC. Such a panel has the potential to lead to improved patient outcomes by enabling patients to receive treatment as early as possible.

  4. The health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers in the Toronto sportswear industry.

    PubMed

    Gannagé, C M

    1999-01-01

    Immigrant women's conditions of work have worsened with new government and managerial strategies to restructure the Canadian apparel industry. Changes in occupational health and safety legislation have both given and taken away tools that immigrant women workers could use to improve the quality of their working lives. The author outlines a methodology for eliciting the health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers. PMID:10379459

  5. Paediatric cancer stage in population-based cancer registries: the Toronto consensus principles and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumit; Aitken, Joanne F; Bartels, Ute; Brierley, James; Dolendo, Mae; Friedrich, Paola; Fuentes-Alabi, Soad; Garrido, Claudia P; Gatta, Gemma; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Gross, Thomas; Howard, Scott C; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Moreno, Florencia; Pole, Jason D; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Ramirez, Oscar; Ries, Lynn A G; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Shin, Hee Young; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Sung, Lillian; Supriyadi, Eddy; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Torode, Julie; Vora, Tushar; Kutluk, Tezer; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2016-04-01

    Population-based cancer registries generate estimates of incidence and survival that are essential for cancer surveillance, research, and control strategies. Although data on cancer stage allow meaningful assessments of changes in cancer incidence and outcomes, stage is not recorded by most population-based cancer registries. The main method of staging adult cancers is the TNM classification. The criteria for staging paediatric cancers, however, vary by diagnosis, have evolved over time, and sometimes vary by cooperative trial group. Consistency in the collection of staging data has therefore been challenging for population-based cancer registries. We assembled key experts and stakeholders (oncologists, cancer registrars, epidemiologists) and used a modified Delphi approach to establish principles for paediatric cancer stage collection. In this Review, we make recommendations on which staging systems should be adopted by population-based cancer registries for the major childhood cancers, including adaptations for low-income countries. Wide adoption of these guidelines in registries will ease international comparative incidence and outcome studies. PMID:27300676

  6. School Public Relations and the SARS Epidemic in Toronto: An Interview with Brian Woodland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partlow, Michelle Chaplin

    2003-01-01

    In an interview, a school district director of communication shares his experiences about the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Ontario and offers timely advice for practitioners, including a proactive communications team and coordination of information with state and local health, police, and fire departments. (MLF)

  7. Islam, National Identity and Public Secondary Education: Perspectives from the Somali Diaspora in Toronto, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Public schools have historically been key sites where children learn of and adopt a common national identity. In states where multiculturalism plays a central role in the articulation of a national identity, schools actively recognize and support the diverse cultures of their students in fulfilling this function. Canada is a state where, via…

  8. Formative evaluation of an Inspection Certificate Program (ICP) pilot in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J J; Komorowski, C; Ruf, F

    1999-01-01

    The inspection certificate program consists of food establishments voluntarily posting a certificate to inform patrons that inspection reports can be accessed from operators or the public health department. A three-month pilot program was evaluated for program improvement purposes. Only 65% of the selected operators were willing to participate, which suggests a challenge to fully implementing the program. Thirty-nine randomly selected restaurant operators participated. Most operators posted the certificate at the front entrance, and patrons indicated that reports were clear. Operators were supportive of the program. Some operators reported that the program was good for business and offered suggestions to improve it. A total of 583 requests for reports were made which suggests that the program empowered patrons to request reports, mostly from operators. Most patron evaluation forms came from a few operators that had no deficiencies, which limits generalizability. PMID:10401175

  9. Examining the Hydrology of Carroll Cave and Toronto Springs, Missouri Through Groundwater Tracing and Geochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a karst area the relationship between activities occurring on the surface and the overall health of the subsurface environment are highly interconnected. However, the complex nature of karst flow systems can often make identification of these connections difficult. Carroll Cave a large stream cav...

  10. Test Review: J. A. Naglieri & S. Goldstein "Comprehensive Executive Function Inventory." Toronto, Ontario, Canada: MHS, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Climie, Emma A.; Cadogan, Sarah; Goukon, Rina

    2014-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Executive Function Inventory" (CEFI; Naglieri & Goldstein, 2013), published by Multi-Health Systems Inc. (MHS), is a new executive function (EF) rating scale for children and youth ages 5 to 18 years. The CEFI strives to accurately assess EF abilities based on self, parent, and teacher reports, and provides…

  11. Critical Issues in College System Management: Conference Proceedings (Toronto, Ontario, October, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, Fred, Ed.

    These proceedings contain all of the formal presentations made at a conference focusing on policy issues affecting the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario. Introductory remarks by Harry Fisher are followed by an outline by Blair Tully of the Ontario government's focus on high technology and the projects of the Board of Industrial…

  12. Association for Education of the Visually Handicapped Biennial Conference (Forty-Ninth, Toronto, Canada, June 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education of the Visually Handicapped, Philadelphia, PA.

    Essays on the visually handicapped are concerned with congenital rubella, an evaluation of multiply handicapped children, the use and abuse of the IQ, visual perception dysfunction, spatial perceptions in the partially sighted, programs in daily living skills, sex education needs, and physical activity as an enhancement of functioning. Other…

  13. The Dynamics of Ethnic Name Maintenance and Change: Cases of Korean ESL Immigrants in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I analysed Korean ESL immigrants' ethnic name changing phenomena. The interpretive discourse analyses of the 15 interview data obtained from six new immigrants, documented that four of them maintained their Korean names, whereas others anglicised their names depending upon their subjective identity positionings in a new society. In…

  14. American Psychiatric Association - 168th Annual Meeting (May 16-20, 2015 - Toronto, Canada).

    PubMed

    Kibble, A

    2015-06-01

    The theme of this year's American Psychiatric Association (APA) meeting was 'Psychiatry: integrating body and mind, heart and soul', with special focus given to advances in basic and cognitive neuroscience and how these may contribute to integrated care of mental health and illness. The program featured numerous tracks and subtracks in areas of interest such as addiction psychiatry, child, adolescent and geriatric psychiatry, and psychosomatic medicine. PMID:26261851

  15. Institutional responses to communicable diseases at Victoria College, University of Toronto, 1900-1940.

    PubMed

    Gidney, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1940 students and staff risked their lives to attend, and teach at, Victoria College. Not only did Victoria experience three major epidemics--diphtheria in 1911, influenza from 1918 to 1920, and smallpox in 1927--but almost yearly one or two students contracted diseases such as scarlet fever, measles, and mumps. Yet at a time when there was no health insurance and few hospital facilities, how did the university cope with the problem? This paper examines the care provided to Victoria's residential students. In the process the paper illustrates not only the upheaval endured by individual students but also the enormous financial and emotional toll paid by the institution, especially by members of its female staff. PMID:18447307

  16. World Hydrogen Energy Conference, 5th, Toronto, Canada, July 15-19, 1984, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.; Taylor, J. B.

    Among the topics discussed are thermochemical and hybrid processes for hydrogen production, pyrite-assisted water electrolysis, a hydrogen distribution network for industrial use in Western Europe, the combustion of alternative fuels in spark-ignition engines, the use of fuel cells in locomotive propulsion, hydrogen storage by glass microencapsulation, and FeTi compounds' hydriding. Also covered are plasmachemical methods of energy carrier production, synthetic fuels' production in small scale plants, products found in the anodic oxidation of coal, hydrogen embrittlement, and the regulating step in LaNi5 hydride formation.

  17. Towards sustainable development: 1997 progress report, [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (CA)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Reviews the activities of Ontario Hydro in support of its commitment to environmental improvement and sustainable development, beginning with a president`s report and environmental performance highlights for the year. The utility`s sustainable energy development policy and principles are stated, the environmental management system is described, and activities are reviewed in the areas of pollution prevention, energy efficiency, environmental protection, habitat enhancement, product stewardship, employee health and safety, public education on electrical safety, Aboriginal relations, and environmental commitment and responsibility. Includes comparative statistics of environmental indicators for the past five years and a glossary.

  18. 1986 CACTS International Conference on Air Cushion Technology, Toronto, Canada, Sept. 16-18, 1986, Preprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEwen, W. R.

    The present conference on the design and development, innovative configurational concepts, test result analyses and operational characteristics of ACVs gives attention to design criteria for light, high-speed ACVs in desert environments, preliminary over-water tests of linear propellers, tests on high speed hovercraft icebreaking, and the performance of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle. Also discussed are the use of ACVs as high speed ASW vehicles, performance criteria for air cushion heave dynamics, the bounce characteristics of an ACV's responsive skirt, and the use of hovercraft in ice enforcement.

  19. Creation of a retrospective searchable neuropathologic database from print archives at Toronto's University Health Network.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Sepehr; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Bernstein, Andrea; Gentili, Fred; Asa, Sylvia L; Croul, Sidney E

    2008-01-01

    University Health Network (UHN) Pathology, in its capacity of providing neuro-oncologic care, now utilizes a laboratory information system (LIS), which was instituted in September 2001. For the 75 years preceding the LIS, more than 50 000 pathology reports exist in paper format. High-throughput automated scanning of the paper archives was employed to add the most recent 30 years of paper records (30 000 neuropathology specimens) to the LIS. The searchable portable document format (PDF) files generated from the scans were filtered through a multi-tiered process driven by Java computer programs that selected relevant patient and diagnostic information. A second series of programs queried the neuropathologist-assigned diagnoses and successfully converted these to the standardized World Health Organization (WHO) format. This was achieved with a master list of key site and diagnostic terms, and prioritization rules that were determined on a trial and error basis. Categorization, verification, and consolidation were completed within 3 months and on a C$10 000 budget. PMID:17982470

  20. Educational Experiences and Mental Health among War-Zone Immigrants in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; Brazeau, Paulette; Martin, Krystle

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggested that educational engagement may enhance posttraumatic and post-migration adjustment and contribute to overall wellbeing among war-zone immigrants (Stermac et al., 2008). This study examined this further and compared the educational experiences and the health outcomes of immigrant students and non-students who had…

  1. Methylmercury in water, sediment, and invertebrates in created wetlands of Rouge Park, Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Kathleen A; Xie, Qun; Mitchell, Carl P J

    2012-12-01

    Thousands of hectares of wetlands are created annually because wetlands provide beneficial ecosystem services. Wetlands are also key sites for production of the bioaccumulative neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), but little is known about MeHg production in created systems. Here, we studied methylmercury in sediment, water, and invertebrates in created wetlands of various ages. Sediment MeHg reached 8 ng g(-1) in the newest wetland, which was significantly greater than in natural, control wetlands. This trend was mirrored in several invertebrate taxa, whose concentrations reached as high as 1.6 μg g(-1) in the newest wetland, above levels thought to affect reproduction in birds. The MeHg concentrations in created wetland invertebrate taxa generally decreased with increasing wetland age, possibly due to a combination of deeper anoxia and less organic matter accumulation in younger wetlands. A short-term management intervention and/or improved engineering design may be necessary to reduce the mercury-associated risk in newly created wetlands. PMID:22940274

  2. First Toronto Conference on Database Users. User Performance, Research Methods, and Human Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eric; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The first of three articles reports the effectiveness of a feature-matching approach to computer retrieval of graphic information. The second discusses the use of multivariate techniques to measure perceived complexity of database searching by users. The third explores the limitations of user consultation in database design. (Author/CLB)

  3. The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire: Evaluation of Psychometric Properties among Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totan, Tarik; Dogan, Tayfun; Sapmaz, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Today, it is widely accepted that empathy is a multidimensional factor that facilitates human relations. The common idea that empathy comprises more than one component has created diversity in the assessment of the said factor; many researchers have developed empathy scales that include different dimensions. However,…

  4. A Web-Based Database for Nurse Led Outreach Teams (NLOT) in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Li, Shirley; Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Ryan, David

    2016-01-01

    A web-based system can provide access to real-time data and information. Healthcare is moving towards digitizing patients' medical information and securely exchanging it through web-based systems. In one of Ontario's health regions, Nurse Led Outreach Teams (NLOT) provide emergency mobile nursing services to help reduce unnecessary transfers from long-term care homes to emergency departments. Currently the NLOT team uses a Microsoft Access database to keep track of the health information on the residents that they serve. The Access database lacks scalability, portability, and interoperability. The objective of this study is the development of a web-based database using Oracle Application Express that is easily accessible from mobile devices. The web-based database will allow NLOT nurses to enter and access resident information anytime and from anywhere. PMID:27577379

  5. First Toronto Conference on Database Users. Studies of User Needs and Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belkin, Nicholas J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Five papers discuss factors affecting human interactions with online information systems. Topics covered include the use of discourse analysis for interaction functions specification; the impact of optical data disks; the need for research into the search process; user access to data dictionaries; and the development of full text systems. (CLB)

  6. Identifying Source Mixing and Examining Water Chemistry Variations: The Carroll Cave - Toronto Springs System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Located in the Missouri Ozarks, Carroll Cave is a dendritic stream cave system, formed in Ordivician Gasconade dolomite. In 2002, a new survey effort was launched under the auspices of the Carroll Cave Conservancy to provide a comprehensive map of the system. Since that time, 29.89 km of estimated p...

  7. Research in digital mammography and tomosynthesis at the University of Toronto.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    There have been major advances in the field of breast cancer imaging since the early 1970s, both in technological improvements and in the use of the methods of medical physics and image analysis to optimize image quality. The introduction of digital mammography in 2000 provided a marked improvement in imaging of dense breasts. In addition, it became possible to produce tomographic and functional images on modified digital mammography systems. Digital imaging also greatly facilitated the extraction of quantitative information from images. My laboratory has been fortunate in being able to participate in some of these exciting developments. I will highlight some of the areas of our research interest which include modeling of the image formation process, development of high-resolution X-ray detectors for digital mammography and investigating new methods for analyzing image quality. I will also describe our more recent work on developing new applications of digital mammography including tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and measurement of breast density. Finally, I will point to a new area for our research--the application of the techniques of medical imaging to making pathology more quantitative to contribute to use of biomarkers for better characterizing breast cancer and directing therapeutic decisions. PMID:24961727

  8. The Effect of Visitor Motivation on the Success of Environmental Education at the Toronto Zoo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James G. W.; Joordens, Steve

    2014-01-01

    With the number and scope of environmental challenges continuing to increase, an understanding of the effectiveness of conservation programs is essential in order to allocate limited resources. This paper examines the effectiveness of environmental education within a zoo setting, focusing on the role of learners' identity-related motivation.…

  9. The Relationship among Alexithymia, Attachment Styles, and Racial Identity of African American Women in a Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Vickie Mecshell

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that substance abuse among African American women is occurring at an alarming rate that exceeds rates for White women. The heightened use of alcohol and drugs among African American women is a problem that resulted from their racial, historical, and structural position in American society. The literature reveals…

  10. A pilot study investigating changes in neural processing after mindfulness training in elite athletes

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Lori; May, April C.; Falahpour, Maryam; Isakovic, Sara; Simmons, Alan N.; Hickman, Steven D.; Liu, Thomas T.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes’ ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK)] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge. Participants completed a task involving anticipation and experience of loaded breathing during functional magnetic resonance imaging recording. There were five main results following mPEAK training: (1) elite athletes self-reported higher levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness and lower levels of alexithymia; (2) greater insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation during anticipation and post-breathing load conditions; (3) increased ACC activation during the anticipation condition was associated with increased scores on the describing subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; (4) increased insula activation during the post-load condition was associated with decreases in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale identifying feelings subscale; (5) decreased resting state functional connectivity between the PCC and the right medial frontal cortex and the ACC. Taken together, this pilot study suggests that mPEAK training may lead to increased attention to bodily signals and greater neural processing during the anticipation and recovery from interoceptive perturbations. This association between attention to and processing of interoceptive afferents may result in greater adaptation during stressful situations in elite athletes. PMID:26379521

  11. [The fragmentation of representational space in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Plagnol, A; Oïta, M; Montreuil, M; Granger, B; Lubart, T

    2003-01-01

    compatible with numerous etiological factors. Multiple clinical forms can be differentiated in accordance with the persistence of parasitic areas, the degree of fragmentation, and the formation of sutures. We use this approach to account for an empirical study concerning the analysis of analogical representations in schizophrenia. We used the Parallel Visual Information Processing Test (PVIPT) which assesses the analysis of interfering visual information. Subjects were asked to connect several small geometric figures printed on a transparency. The transparency was displayed above four photographs which were the interfering material. Then, subjects completed three tasks concerning the photographs: a recognition task, a recall task, and an affective qualification task. Using a case-by-case study, this test allows us to access the defense processes of the subjects, which is not possible with the usual methods in cognitive psychopathology. Twelve clinically-stable schizophrenic subjects participated in the study which also included a self-assessment of alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We obtained 2 main results: (a) creation of items in recall or false recognition by 8 subjects, and (b) lack of the usual -negative correlations between the alexithymia score and the recall, recognition and affective qualification scores in the PVIPT. These 2 results contrast with what has been previously observed for alexithymia using the same methodology. The result (a) confirms an interfering activation in schizophrenic memory, which can be interpreted in our framework as indicative of parasitic areas. The creation of items suggests the formation of sutures between the semantic content of photographs and some delusional fragments. The result (b) suggests that the apparent alexithymia in schizophrenia is a defense against interfering activation in parasitic areas. We underline the interest of individual protocols to exhibit the dynamic interplay between an interfering activity in

  12. Impact of brain tumour location on emotion and personality: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study on mentalization processes.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Fabio; Shallice, Tim; Ius, Tamara; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2014-09-01

    Patients affected by brain tumours may show behavioural and emotional regulation deficits, sometimes showing flattened affect and sometimes experiencing a true 'change' in personality. However, little evidence is available to the surgeon as to what changes are likely to occur with damage at specific sites, as previous studies have either relied on single cases or provided only limited anatomical specificity, mostly reporting associations rather than dissociations of symptoms. We investigated these aspects in patients undergoing surgery for the removal of cerebral tumours. We argued that many of the problems described can be ascribed to the onset of difficulties in one or more of the different levels of the process of mentalizing (i.e. abstracting and reflecting upon) emotion and intentions, which impacts on everyday behaviour. These were investigated in terms of (i) emotion recognition; (ii) Theory of Mind; (iii) alexithymia; and (iv) self-maturity (personality disorder). We hypothesized that temporo/limbic areas would be critical for processing emotion and intentions at a more perceptual level, while frontal lobe structures would be more critical when higher levels of mentalization/abstraction are required. We administered four different tasks, Task 1: emotion recognition of Ekman faces; Task 2: the Eyes Test (Theory of Mind); Task 3: Toronto Alexithymia Scale; and Task 4: Temperament and Character Inventory (a personality inventory), both immediately before and few days after the operation for the removal of brain tumours in a series of 71 patients (age range: 18-75 years; 33 female) with lesions located in the left or right frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Lobe-based and voxel-based analysis confirmed that tasks requiring interpretation of emotions and intentions at more basic (less mentalized) levels (Tasks 1 and 2) were more affected by temporo/insular lesions, with emotion recognition (Task 1) being maximally impaired by anterior temporal and amygdala

  13. Test Review: C. Keith Conners "Conners 3rd Edition" Toronto, Ontario, Canada--Multi-Health Systems, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Grace S.; Thomas, Hillary M.

    2010-01-01

    "Conners 3rd Edition" is the most updated version of a series of measures for assessing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and common comorbid problems/disorders in children and adolescents ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. Related problems that the test helps assess include executive dysfunction, learning problems, aggression, and…

  14. Issues and Options in Adult Literacy: A National Symposium. Proceedings (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 17-29, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document is a summary of the proceedings of a symposium that was attended by more than 100 adult literacy practitioners, researchers, and government officials in Ontario (Canada). The largest part of the document consists of summaries of the issues and policy/program options discussed in relation to the following aspects of adult literacy…

  15. Unfavorable Results After Free Tissue Transfer to Head and Neck: Lessons Based on Experience from the University of Toronto.

    PubMed

    Kuuskeri, Marika; O'Neill, Anne C; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of the functional and aesthetic unfavorable results of head and neck reconstruction, and provide suggestions on how to address these issues. Understanding the consequences of an unsuccessful reconstruction provides the foundation for proper planning and personalized approach to reconstruction of lost structures. PMID:27601389

  16. Rethinking the Influence of Male Teachers: Investigating Gendered and Raced Authority in an Elementary School in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of debates about male teacher shortage, a powerful discourse about the influence of male and minority teachers as role models has acquired a particular legitimacy in the popular imaginary. In short, the call for more male teachers functions as a common-sense justification for their necessary recruitment and has been tied to a…

  17. Analyzing Barriers to Energy Conservation in Residences and Offices: The Rewire Program at the University of Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Leah C.; Mildenberger, Matto; Savan, Beth; Kolenda, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Conducting a barriers analysis is an important first step when designing proenvironmental behavior change interventions. Yet, detailed information on common barriers to energy conservation campaigns remains unavailable. Using a pair of original surveys, we leverage the theory of planned behavior to report on the most important barriers for…

  18. Late neurological complications after prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer: The Toronto experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lishner, M.; Feld, R.; Payne, D.G.; Sagman, U.; Sculier, J.P.; Pringle, J.F.; Yeoh, J.L.; Evans, W.K.; Shepherd, F.A.; Maki, E. )

    1990-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 58 long-term survivors of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) (greater than 2 years) for neurological complications and their impact on the well-being of these patients. We also attempted to have patients complete a questionnaire regarding any possible neurological problems. This was done in 14 patients. Metastasis to the CNS occurred significantly less often in patients who received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in a dose of 20 Gy in five equal fractions (two of 48), compared with patients who did not receive it (four of 10) (P less than .006). Delayed neurological complications occurred in nine of 48 (19%) patients who received PCI. However, in only two patients did PCI appear to be responsible for progressive dementia. In the other seven patients (one with weakness in the arms and legs, one with transient left hemiparesis, two with hearing loss, and three with various visual disturbances), chemotherapeutic agents (mainly cisplatin and vincristine) and underlying diseases probably contributed significantly to the occurrence of these complications. In addition, these neurological disturbances were transient or ran a stable course and did not adversely affect the daily life of these patients. In comparison, among the 10 patients who did not receive PCI one had progressive dementia and another had hemiparesis secondary to probable brain embolism. We conclude that the use of PCI in these doses was effective in reducing the frequency of CNS metastases and had an adverse effect on the daily life and well-being only in a minority of the patients. Until results of controlled randomized studies show otherwise, PCI should continue to be used as a part of the combined modality treatment of completely responding patients with limited SCLC.

  19. Work and Family: New Partnerships. Work and Family Conference Proceedings (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 30-December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Deborah, Ed.

    This conference involving business, labor, policymakers and dependent care service providers covered issues related to the conflict between family and work responsibilities. The conference addressed the conflict's scope, substance, and major issues. Also covered are: information-gathering efforts which concerned institutions' national and…

  20. Developing Ecological Footprint Scenarios on University Campuses: A Case Study of the University of Toronto at Mississauga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Tenley M.; Dalton, Chelsea; Loo, Jennifer; Benakoun, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The ecological footprint represents a simple way to assess the amount of materials consumed and waste produced by a given entity. The approach has been applied to countries, towns, households, and more recently university campuses. One of the challenges of using the ecological footprint at a university is the difficulty of determining how…

  1. Vibration-translation energy transfer in vibrationally excited diatomic molecules. Ph.D. Thesis - York Univ., Toronto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A semiclassical collision model is applied to the study of energy transfer rates between a vibrationally excited diatomic molecule and a structureless atom. The molecule is modeled as an anharmonic oscillator with a multitude of dynamically coupled vibrational states. Three main aspects in the prediction of vibrational energy transfer rates are considered. The applicability of the semiclassical model to an anharmonic oscillator is first evaluated for collinear encounters. Second, the collinear semiclassical model is applied to obtain numerical predictions of the vibrational energy transfer rate dependence on the initial vibrational state quantum number. Thermally averaged vibration-translation rate coefficients are predicted and compared with CO-He experimental values for both ground and excited initial states. The numerical model is also used as a basis for evaluating several less complete but analytic models. Third, the role of rational motion in the dynamics of vibrational energy transfer is examined. A three-dimensional semiclassical collision model is constructed with coupled rotational motion included. Energy transfer within the molecule is shown to be dominated by vibration-rotation transitions with small changes in angular momentum. The rates of vibrational energy transfer in molecules with rational frequencies that are very small in comparison to their vibrational frequency are shown to be adequately treated by the preceding collinear models.

  2. Sex Trade Involvement in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Toronto, Canada: Narratives of Social Exclusion and Fragmented Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Liborio, Renata Maria Coimbra

    2011-01-01

    An extensive international literature has been developed regarding the risk trajectories of sex trade-involved children and youth. This literature has not, however, substantially incorporated the narratives of youths regarding their experiences. In this article, the contemporary literature on child and youth sex trade-involvement is reviewed and…

  3. Forum on Turbulent Flows - 1990; Joint CSME/ASME Spring Meeting, Toronto, Canada, June 4-7, 1990, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, W. M.; Morris, M. J.; Samimy, M.

    The present conference on turbulent flows discusses mathematical modeling of metal flow in aluminum reduction pots, low Reynolds number turbulence modeling of rotating flows, the decay of turbulent pipe flow, a Lagrangian Monte Carlo model of turbulent dispersion in the convective planetary boundary layer, order within chaos in confined jet flows, and an experimental investigation into the effect of initial conditions on simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation of fluctuations in the transition of a planar turbulent jet. Also discussed are a numerical study of twin-jet impingement upwash flow, vorticity and velocity measurements in a 2:1 mixing layer, a numerical investigation of turbulent cube flow, the effect of mean fluid velocity gradients on particle velocity fluctuations in turbulent flows, and steady flow in a three-dimensional rectangular cavity that is yawed from the freestream turbulent boundary layer.

  4. The impacts of precursor reduction and meteorology on ground-level ozone in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, S. C.; Murphy, J. G.; Geddes, J. A.; Wang, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a major component of photochemical smog and is a known human health hazard as well as a damaging factor for vegetation. Its precursor compounds, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), have a variety of anthropogenic and biogenic sources and exhibit non-linear effects on ozone production. As an update to previous studies on ground-level ozone in the GTA, we present an analysis of NO2, VOC and O3 data from federal and provincial governmental monitoring sites in the GTA from 2000-2012. We show that over the study period, summertime 24 h VOC reactivity and NO2 midday (11:00-15:00) concentrations at all sites decreased significantly; since 2000, all sites experienced a decrease in NO2 of 28-62% and in measured VOC reactivity of at least 53-71%. Comparing 2002/2003 to 2011/2012, the summed reactivity of OH towards NO2 and a suite of measured VOCs decreased from 8.6 to 4.6 s-1. Ratios of reactive VOC pairs indicate that the effective OH concentration experienced by primary pollutants in the GTA has increased significantly over the study period. Despite the continuous decrease in precursor levels, ozone concentrations are not following the same pattern at all stations; it was found that the Canada-Wide Standard for ozone continues to be exceeded at all monitoring stations. Additionally, while the years 2008-2011 had consistently lower ozone levels than previous years, 2012 experienced one of the highest recorded summertime ozone concentrations and a large number of smog episodes. We demonstrate that these high ozone observations in 2012 may be a result of the number of days with high solar radiation, the number of stagnant periods and the transport of high ozone levels from upwind regions.

  5. COMMUNITY COLLEGES 1966, A NATIONAL SEMINAR ON THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE IN CANADA (TORONTO, MAY 30-JUNE 1, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THOMAS, ALAN M.

    THIS REPORT ILLUSTRATES THE DIFFERENCES IN PHILOSOPHY AND FUNCTION BETWEEN AMERICAN AND CANADIAN COMMUNITY COLLEGES, AS WELL AS VARIATIONS AMONG THE CANADIAN PROVINCES. THE ONTARIO PROGRAM, DESCRIBED IN MOST DETAIL, IS AN EXAMPLE OF ONE PHILOSOPHY, IT HAS A 2-YEAR PROGRAM APPROVED BY THE UNIVERSITY, BUT ITS PROGRAM IN THE 18 REGIONAL COLLEGES IS…

  6. Some remarks on the RDC/TMD Validation Project: report of an IADR/Toronto-2008 workshop discussion.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Naeije, M

    2010-10-01

    A large-scale, multi-site study has been performed to examine the reliability and validity of the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) and to suggest revisions of the current RDC/TMD. During an International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Workshop in July 2008, preliminary results of this RDC/TMD Validation Project were presented. One of us was invited to be the critical discussant of the Workshop session in which the Study Group's papers were presented. This article is based on that contribution. One of our concerns relates to the possible circularity and bias, introduced by incorporating the RDC/TMD tests under investigation into the criterion examination. This may have had serious consequences for the outcomes of the validity study as well as for the proposed revisions of the diagnostic algorithms. In addition, a more detailed description of the process of replacing the RDC/TMD tests by other tests is needed. Further, to come to a revised RDC/TMD, it is crucial to know not only how the test outcomes are capable of discriminating between patients with TMD pain and pain-free subjects, as studied in this Validation Project, but also, more importantly, how they discriminate between patients with TMD pain and patients with oro-facial pain (OFP) complaints of non-TMD origin. We welcome the suggestion of an international expert panel to consider, deliberate, and reach consensus on a revised version of the RDC/TMD. Finally, we agree that the suggested expansions of the RDC/TMD taxonomy stress the need for the development of an RDC for OFP, which would include, as an integral part, the revised RDC/TMD. PMID:20374440

  7. Technology for Consumers: Proceedings of the RESNA International Conference (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 6-11, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presperin, Jessica J., Ed.

    This proceedings document contains approximately 250 papers and posters presented at a conference on the advancement of rehabilitation and assistive technology. Individual sessions focused on the following topics: quantitative functional evaluation, upper limb and therapeutic stimulation, human-computer interface developments, information…

  8. [Report of Sata Clinical Fellowship; brain death and organ donation in hospital for sick children, Toronto, Canada].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M

    2000-04-01

    I have experienced two cases of pediatric organ donation from the brain dead patients in Hospital for Sick Children in three months. First case was a 9-year-old boy after a traffic accident. Second case was an 11-year-old boy with intracranial hemorrhage. Brain death is diagnosed by clinical criteria alone in Canada, as in many of developed countries. EEG or brain flow studies are not mandatory. In the first case, brain death was confirmed after additional brain flow study, EEG, and SSEP because of cervical spinal injury. Second case was diagnosed as brain death by clinical criteria alone, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed after brain death diagnosis. MORE (multiple organ receival and exchange program of Ontario), Organ Donation Team (critical care physicians, nurses, organ donation coordinators, social workers and chaplains) in HSC, and volunteers play the important role to help the family and to make the organ transplantation successful. In Canada, pediatric brain death and organ donation are widely accepted, but there remains an imbalance between the demand for transplantation and the number of organs available. PMID:10793535

  9. Mrst '96: Current Ideas in Theoretical Physics - Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Montréal-Rochester-Syracuse-Toronto Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Patrick J.; Smith, Brian Hendee

    1996-11-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Roberto Mendel, An Appreciaton * The Infamous Coulomb Gauge * Renormalized Path Integral in Quantum Mechanics * New Analysis of the Divergence of Perturbation Theory * The Last of the Soluble Two Dimensional Field Theories? * Rb and Heavy Quark Mixing * Rb Problem: Loop Contributions and Supersymmetry * QCD Radiative Effects in Inclusive Hadronic B Decays * CP-Violating Dipole Moments of Quarks in the Kobayashi-Maskawa Model * Hints of Dynamical Symmetry Breaking? * Pi Pi Scattering in an Effective Chiral Lagrangian * Pion-Resonance Parameters from QCD Sum Rules * Higgs Theorem, Effective Action, and its Gauge Invariance * SUSY and the Decay H_2^0 to gg * Effective Higgs-to-Light Quark Coupling Induced by Heavy Quark Loops * Heavy Charged Lepton Production in Superstring Inspired E6 Models * The Elastic Properties of a Flat Crystalline Membrane * Gauge Dependence of Topological Observables in Chern-Simons Theory * Entanglement Entropy From Edge States * A Simple General Treatment of Flavor Oscillations * From Schrödinger to Maupertuis: Least Action Principles from Quantum Mechanics * The Matrix Method for Multi-Loop Feynman Integrals * Simplification in QCD and Electroweak Calculations * Programme * List of Participants

  10. Protecting the Water Quality of Carroll Cave and Toronto Springs, Missouri, Through Groundwater Recharge Area Delineation of Groundwater Recharge Areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a karst area the relationship between activities occurring on the surface and the overall health of the subsurface environment are highly interconnected. However the complex nature of karst flow systems can often make identification of these connections difficult. Carroll Cave a large stream cave...

  11. American Council on Consumer Interests Annual Conference (38th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, March 25-28, 1992). Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldeman, Virginia A., Ed.

    These proceedings contain 70 papers and summaries of panel discussions and workshops. Selected titles are as follows: "Consumer Access to Health Care" (Jones); "Credit Education for the Disadvantaged Consumer" (Schuchardt et al.); "The Jouranl of Consumer Affairs" (Herrmann et al.); "The Consumer's Role in a Changing Marketplace" (Edwards);…

  12. A Forty-Year Retrospective 1950-1990: The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority's Conservation Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Allen Terry

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the growth of Conservation Authorities in Ontario from the first partnerships between schools and conservation in the 1950s, to the opening of a pioneer village, flood control dam, nature trails, and residential conservation education centers through the 1960s and 1970s. Increased public environmental concern sparked more growth in the…

  13. 1988 International Conference on Computer Processing of Chinese and Oriental Languages, Toronto, Canada, Aug. 29-Sept. 1, 1988, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Papers on the technologies and applications in computer processing of Chinese and East Asian languages are presented, including papers on character recognition, input and output, natural language, and speech recognition and intelligent systems. Specific topics include a Chinese expert system tool for meteorological forecasting, keyboard designs for Chinese character entry, fuzzy recognition of characters, methods for on-line handwritten character recognition, Chinese word processing programs, electronic dictionaries, Japanese and Chinese text generation, and methods for Mandarin syllable and consonant recognition. Additional topics include classification of Chinese characters by radicals, Japanese document readers, character recognition by stroke order codes, clustering of machine-printed characters, Chinese language indexing systems, a neural network approach for Chinese information retrieval, writing tools for Japanese documents on a PC, speech recognition of Cantonese, and a data base retrieval system for technical periodicals.

  14. Continuity and Change: The Many Factors in Special Education Policy Development in Toronto Public Schools, 1945 to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jason; Axelrod, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: It is frequently assumed that changes in special education policies since 1945 have come mostly from "landmark research" or actions of a few "pioneers." We argue in this article that there have been many different sources of change, including legislation, court rulings, activism, and even shifts in socially…

  15. Co-Creating a Psychiatric Resident Program with Ethiopians, for Ethiopians, in Ethiopia: The Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alem, Atalay; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Hodges, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Globalization in medical education often means a "brain drain" of desperately needed health professionals from low- to high-income countries. Despite the best intentions, partnerships that simply transport students to Western medical schools for training have shockingly low return rates. Ethiopia, for example, has sent hundreds of…

  16. ICCM/2; Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Composite Materials, Toronto, Canada, April 16-20, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noton, B. R. (Editor); Signorelli, R. A.; Street, K. N.; Phillips, L. N.

    1978-01-01

    Composite materials are discussed with reference to their mechanical and physical properties, fatigue and fracture testing and analysis, nondestructive evaluation, fabrication, and commercial applications. Particular papers are presented on such topics as analysis of mechanical strength data from hybrid laminates of glass and graphite fibers, graphite-aluminum composites, the mechanical behavior of molybdenum-reinforced metal composites, and composite laminate application in magnetic fusion energy superconducting magnet systems.

  17. The management of heat stress for the firefighter: a review of work conducted on behalf of the Toronto Fire Service.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Selkirk, Glen A

    2006-07-01

    This report provides a summary of research conducted through a grant provided by the Workplace Safety Insurance Board of Ontario. The research was divided into two phases; first, to define safe work limits for firefighters wearing their protective clothing and working in warm environments; and, the second, to examine strategies to reduce the thermal burden and extend the operational effectiveness of the firefighter. For the first phase, subjects wore their protective ensemble and carried their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and performed very light, light, moderate or heavy work at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C. Thermal and evaporative resistance coefficients were obtained from thermal manikin testing that allowed the human physiological responses to be compared with modeled data. Predicted continuous work times were then generated using a heat strain model that established limits for increases in body temperature to 38.0 degrees C, 38.5 degrees C and 39.0 degrees C. Three experiments were conducted for the second phase of the project. The first study revealed that replacing the duty uniform pants that are worn under the bunker pants with shorts reduced the thermal strain for activities that lasted longer than 60 min. The second study examined the importance of fluid replacement. The data revealed that fluid replacement equivalent to at least 65% of the sweat lost increased exposure time by 15% compared with no fluid replacement. The last experiment compared active and passive cooling. Both the use of a mister or forearm and hand submersion in cool water significantly increased exposure time compared with passive cooling that involved only removing most of the protective clothing. Forearm and hand submersion proved to be most effective and produced dramatic increases in exposure time that approximated 65% compared with the passive cooling procedure. When the condition of no fluid replacement and passive cooling was compared with fluid replacement and forearm and hand submersion, exposure times were effectively doubled with the latter condition. The heat stress wheel that was generated can be used by Commanders to determine safe work limits for their firefighters during activities that involve wearing their protective clothing and carrying their SCBA. PMID:16922185

  18. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  19. Sub-optimal parenting is associated with schizotypic and anxiety personality traits in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Giakoumaki, S G; Roussos, P; Zouraraki, C; Spanoudakis, E; Mavrikaki, M; Tsapakis, E M; Bitsios, P

    2013-05-01

    Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" compared with the Optimal Parenting group (high care/low overprotection). These results further validate sub-optimal parenting as an important environmental exposure and extend our understanding on the mechanisms by which it increases risk for psychiatric morbidity. PMID:23062835

  20. Association between Childhood Physical and Emotional Abuse and Disordered Eating Behaviors in Female Undergraduates: An Investigation of the Mediating Role of Alexithymia and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Although disordered eating behaviors are relatively common among college women, many questions about their etiology remain. In the present study, structural equation modeling was used to investigate potential mediating associations among variables previously found to be associated with the continuum of disordered eating behaviors in a large sample…

  1. Education and Work. Proceedings of the International Conference Linking Research and Practice (Toronto, Ontario, March 4-6, 1993). Volumes 1-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, David, Ed.; Lawton, Stephen B., Ed.

    These two volumes comprise the proceedings of a conference on links between education and work and the power relationships in the wider culture and in its social order. Each volume begins with a "Foreword" (Ronald C. Morrison), "Preface" (Arthur Kruger), "Introduction" (David Corson), and author notes. Volume I contains seven papers: "Beyond…

  2. From Education to Work: Cross-National Perspectives. Revisitations of Papers Delivered at the Conference at the University of Toronto (April 18-20, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Walter R., Ed.

    This volume is composed of 13 comparable longitudinal studies that draw on survey data and case studies of young people in Canada, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. "Introduction: Transitions to Employment in a Cross-National Perspective" (Walter R. Heinz) provides a context and an overview. Part I has four chapters that discuss the…

  3. Absolute measurements of the electronic transition moments of seven band systems of the C2 molecule. Ph.D. Thesis - York Univ., Toronto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Electronic transition moments of seven C2 singlet and triplet band systems in the 0.2-1.2 micron spectral region were measured. The measurements were made in emission behind incident shock waves in C2H2-argon mixtures. Narrow bandpass radiometers were used to obtain absolute measurements of shock-excited C2 radiation from which absolute electronic transition moments are derived by a synthetic spectrum analysis. New results are reported for the Ballik-Ramsay, Phillips, Swan, Deslandres-d'Azambuja, Fox-Herzberg, Mulliken, and Freymark systems.

  4. A faculty perspective on the adoption of on-line learning technology in the MHSc Program at the University of Toronto: barriers and enablers.

    PubMed

    Leonard, K J; Smith, T

    2001-01-01

    In the summer of 1997, the Department of Health Administration decided to incorporate on-line learning into its professional graduate program. This paper describes this two-year process from original discussion through to full implementation across the entire first year course curriculum by the summer of 1999, with an emphasis on faculty experience and evaluation, the existence of barriers, and critical success factors for implementation. PMID:17380647

  5. The Early Development Instrument as an Evaluation and Improvement Tool for School-Based, Integrated Services for Young Children and Parents: The Toronto First Duty Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corter, Carl; Patel, Sejal; Pelletier, Janette; Bertrand, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Integrated services for young children and families are part of the new policy landscape in early childhood, but there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of these programs and how they develop on the ground. This study examined the use of the Early Development Instrument (EDI) as both a summative program evaluation tool…

  6. Governments and Higher Education--the Legitimacy of Intervention. Papers Presented at the Conference on Higher Education (2nd, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 23-24, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto. Higher Education Group.

    The following invited addresses and research papers are provided: "The Question of Legitimacy" (Harry W. Arthurs); "The Historical Perspective" (H. Blair Neatby); "Politics and Its Limits on Government, Intermediaries and Universities" (Lee Southern); "State Control of Degree Granting: The Establishment of a Public Monopoly in Canada" (Michael L.…

  7. International Perspectives on Adapted Physical Activity. Selected Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity (5th, Toronto, Canada, October 1-4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Mavis E., Ed.; Ward, Graham R., Ed.

    The 36 papers in this book were presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity. Presentations document some of the research findings and new ideas in physical education and recreation programs designed to improve the quality of life for special populations. The collection represents the breadth of the field, from the…

  8. Am I "That Jew"? North African Jewish Experiences in the Toronto Jewish Day School System and the Establishment of or Haemet Sephardic School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Kelly Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the North African Jewish community's establishment of Or Haemet Sephardic School as a response to the forced "Ashkenazification" of Sephardic students in the Orthodox Jewish day school system. The establishment of the school signifies the North African Jewish community's refusal and resistance to an essentialist Jewish…

  9. The Development of a Prototype Infant, Preschool and Child Day Care Center in Metropolitan Toronto. Year I Progress Report: Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William; And Others

    The project reported on is designed to develop a model program of infant and child day care in a municipal setting. The development of the program is discussed under the following topics: (1) physical caregiving routines; (2) guided learning through play; (3) supervising children in free play; (4) staff guidance and communication: inservice…

  10. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 23-26, 1970). Final Report and Working Papers, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Susan Shattuck; Bresie, Mayellen

    Volume 1 of the 15th Seminar on Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials contains: (1) Summary Reports for Sessions 1 through 6; (2) Program of the 15th Seminar; (3) Resolutions of the 15th Seminar; (4) Participants in the 15th Seminar; (5) Seminar Committees, 1970-1971; (6) List of Working Papers; (7) Working paper number one -- Progress…

  11. Effectiveness and Student Success: Transforming Community Colleges for the 1990's. Proceedings from the Conference. (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 24-26, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walleri, Dan, Ed.; And Others

    The 27 papers included in this proceedings report focus on various aspects of institutional effectiveness and student outcomes. The papers are: (1) "Assessment Update: Ends, Means and Results" (Banta); (2) "The Top Ten Issues Facing America's Community Colleges" (Lorenzo and Banach); (3) "Assessing Institutional Effectiveness in Continuing…

  12. International Meeting To Discuss Audio Technology as Applied to Library Services for Blind Individuals (3rd, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, April 20-22, 1995). Volumes 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This three-day conference on the subject of audio technology for the production of materials for the blind, takes the court reporter approach to recording the speeches and discussions of the meeting. The result is a three volume set of complete transcripts, one volume for each day of the meeting, but continuous in form. The highlights of each…

  13. WebNet 97 World Conference of the WWW, Internet & Intranet Proceedings (2nd, Toronto, Canada, November 1-5, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobodzinski, Suave, Ed.; Tomek, Ivan, Ed.

    The 1997 WebNet conference addressed research, new developments, and experiences related to the Internet and intranets. The 257 contributions of WebNet 97 contained in this proceedings comprise the full and short papers accepted for presentation at the conference. Included are positions papers by leading experts in the field; descriptions of ideas…

  14. A Social Ecological Approach to Understanding Correlates of Lifetime Sexual Assault among Sexual Minority Women in Toronto, Canada: Results from a Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logie, C. H.; Alaggia, R.; Rwigema, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health…

  15. ICC '86; Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications, Toronto, Canada, June 22-25, 1986, Conference Record. Volumes 1, 2, & 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papers are presented on ISDN, mobile radio systems and techniques for digital connectivity, centralized and distributed algorithms in computer networks, communications networks, quality assurance and impact on cost, adaptive filters in communications, the spread spectrum, signal processing, video communication techniques, and digital satellite services. Topics discussed include performance evaluation issues for integrated protocols, packet network operations, the computer network theory and multiple-access, microwave single sideband systems, switching architectures, fiber optic systems, wireless local communications, modulation, coding, and synchronization, remote switching, software quality, transmission, and expert systems in network operations. Consideration is given to wide area networks, image and speech processing, office communications application protocols, multimedia systems, customer-controlled network operations, digital radio systems, channel modeling and signal processing in digital communications, earth station/on-board modems, computer communications system performance evaluation, source encoding, compression, and quantization, and adaptive communications systems.

  16. Indigenous Languages across the Community. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11-14, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara Jane, Ed.; Reyhner, Jon Allan, Ed.

    Conference papers examine efforts by Indigenous communities, particularly Native American communities, to maintain and revitalize their languages. The 27 papers are: "Ko te reo te mauri o te mana Maori: The Language Is the Life Essence of Maori Existence" (Te Tuhi Robust); "The Preservation and Use of Our Languages: Respecting the Natural Order of…

  17. Proceedings of the Anniversary Meeting (25th, Toronto, December 28-29, 1972). Industrial Relations Research Association Series. Index of IRRA Publications 1966-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Gerald G., Ed.

    Papers presented at the 25th meeting of the Industrial Relations Research Association (IRAA) covered issues that are central to industrial relations in North America. Papers and discussions dealt with these major issues: (1) Prices and Income Policy: Comparative Aspects, (2) Dispute Settlement in the Public Sector, (3) Manpower Policies in Canada…

  18. Test Review: March, J. S. (2013), "Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children-2nd Edition." Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Stelnicki, Andrea M.; Nordstokke, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders among school-age children and can lead to impaired academic and social functioning (Keeley & Storch, 2009). Unfortunately, anxiety disorders in this population are often undetected (Herzig-Anderson, Colognori, Fox, Stewart, & Warner, 2012). The availability of psychometrically…

  19. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 23-26, 1970). Final Report and Working Papers, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Susan Shattuck: Bresie, Mayellen

    Volume 2 contains 13 working papers from the 15th Seminar on Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials. The papers are: (1) A Report on Bibliographic Activities; (2) Microfilm Projects Newsletter; (3) Role of Latin American Legal Material in the Social Science Research Library; (4) A description of sources for Legal and Social Science…

  20. The reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS-J)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) was developed to assess five levels of emotional awareness: bodily sensations, action tendencies, single emotions, blends of emotion, and combinations of blends. It is a paper and pencil performance questionnaire that presents 20 emotion-evoking scenes. We developed a Japanese version of the LEAS (LEAS-J), and its reliability and validity were examined. Methods The LEAS-J level was independently assessed by two researchers who scored each response according to the LEAS scoring manual. High inter-rater reliability and internal consistency were obtained for the LEAS-J. Measures were socioeconomic status, LEAS-J, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). TAS-20, IRI and NEO-FFI were the measures used to explore the construct validity of LEAS-J, as it was predicted that higher scores on the LEAS-J would be related to fewer alexithymic features, greater empathetic ability, and a greater sense of cooperation with others. Questionnaires were completed by 344 university students. Results The criterion-referenced validity was determined: a significant negative relationship was found with the externally-oriented thinking scores of TAS-20, and positive relationships were found with fantasy, perspective taking, and empathic concern on IRI and with extraversion, openness to experience, and agreeableness on NEO-FFI. Conclusions Consistent with our expectations, the findings provide evidence that the LEAS-J has good reliability and validity. In addition, women had significantly higher scores than men on LEAS-J, showing that the gender difference identified in the original LEAS was cross-culturally consistent. PMID:21281491

  1. Effect of coping on endocrinoimmune functions in different stress situations.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Choe, Euiheon; Song, Jung Eun; Lee, Eun Ha

    2006-08-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of coping strategies on the endocrine and immune functions in different stress situations. Thirty-eight medical students were enrolled in this study. Cell-mediated immune function was measured using the lymphocyte proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production during the nonexamination period and during the preexamination period. Endocrine functions were assessed by measuring the plasma levels of norepinephrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol. The Global Assessment of Recent Stress (GARS) scale, the Stress Response Inventory, the anxiety, depression, and somatization subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90-revised, the Way of Coping-revised, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Anger Expression Scale were used as psychometric measures. The subjects with higher levels of total GARS scores showed significantly higher IL-2 production during the nonexam period than those with lower levels of total GARS scores. During the same period, IL-2 production in the less positive reappraisal group was significantly higher than in the more positive reappraisal group. Lymphocyte proliferation in the group seeking less social support was also significantly higher than in the group seeking more social support. However, no significant association was found between the coping strategies and each of the hormone levels. These results suggest that positive reappraisal and seeking social support can be associated with the alteration of immune function during a chronic stress period. In particular, positive reappraisal is likely to reverse the stress-induced immune responses. This study did not find that neuroendocrine function such as the sympathetic-adrenal medullary axis or the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is playing a mediating role in the relationship between coping and immunity. PMID:16831469

  2. (Networking + Integrating) * (Systems + Society). Proceedings of the Annual Canadian Conference of Information Science (12th, Toronto, Ontario, May 14-16, 1984) = (Reseaux + Integration) * (Systemes + Societe). Comptes rendus de la conference annuelle Canadienne des sciences de l'information (12th, Toronto, Ontario, 14-16 mai, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association for Information Science, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Seventeen papers from the 1984 annual conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science (CAIS) are presented in four broad topic areas. The first group, which focuses on changing roles in information access, includes the keynote address by Charles Meadow, "Integrating Access to Information Utilities: Promises, Problems, and Profiles…

  3. Emotional Self-Awareness, Eating Disorders, and Racial Identity Attitudes in African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Britta Davis; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Certain racial identity attitudes may involve diminished internal emotional awareness, features of a syndrome known as "alexithymia," which has been observed in survivors of extreme trauma. This study found that levels of alexithymia, but not eating disorders, were related to attitudes characteristic of early stages of racial identity development…

  4. Social cognitive and neurocognitive deficits in inpatients with unilateral thalamic lesions – pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wilkos, Ewelina; Brown, Timothy JB; Slawinska, Ksenia; Kucharska, Katarzyna A

    2015-01-01

    Background The essential role of the thalamus in neurocognitive processes has been well documented. In contrast, relatively little is known about its involvement in social cognitive processes such as recognition of emotion, mentalizing, or empathy. The aim of the study This study was designed to compare the performance of eight patients (five males, three females, mean age ± SD: 63.7±7.9 years) at early stage of unilateral thalamic lesions and eleven healthy controls (six males, five females, 49.6±12.2 years) in neurocognitive tests (CogState Battery: Groton Maze Learning Test, GML; Groton Maze Learning Test-Delayed Recall, GML-DR; Detection Task, DT; Identification Task, IT; One Card Learning Task, OCLT; One Back Task, OBT; Two Back Task, TBT; Set-Shifting Task, S-ST) and other well-known tests (Benton Visual Retention Test, BVRT; California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT; The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCF; Trail Making Test, TMT part A and B; Color – Word Stroop Task, CWST; Verbal Fluency Test, VFT), and social cognitive tasks (The Penn Emotion Recognition Test, ER40; Penn Emotion Discrimination Task, EmoDiff40; The Penn Emotional Acuity Test, PEAT40; Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version II; Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20). Methods Thalamic-damaged subjects were included if they experienced a single-episode ischemic stroke localized in right or left thalamus. The patients were examined at 3 weeks after the stroke onset. All were right handed. In addition, the following clinical scales were used: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II). An inclusion criteria was a minimum score of 23/30 in MMSE. Results Compared with the healthy controls, patients revealed significantly lower scores in CVLT, GML-DR, and VFT. Furthermore, compared to healthy controls, patients showed significantly delayed recognition of “happiness” in EmoDiff40 and significantly

  5. 5-MW Toronto HALT (Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature) pilot plant testing: Appendices: Part 1-B. [Hydrate addition at low temperture for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Forsythe, R.; Lee, K.; Herbert, R.; Kanary, D.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' or HALT is a dry calcium-based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulate. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection location by spraying the gas with a stream of finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray mist by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The waste product from this process is the dry disposable solids which differ considerably from the wet cake solids obtained from a wet FGD process. This report contains appendices of pilot plant testing in the following areas: (a) figures (data as collected at 10 minute intervals), and inlet SO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and gas temperature variations, (b) raw data (sample), (c) solids analysis (hydrate, baghouse solids, and ESP Solids), (d) selected analytical methods on (1) microtrac procedure, (2) BET surface area measurement, (3) DuPont photometric SO/sub 2/ analyzer, and (e) corrosion test data.

  6. 5-MW Toronto HALT (Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature) pilot plant testing: Test results: Part 1-A. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Forsythe, R.; Kerivan, D.; Lee, K.; Herbert, R.; Kanary, D.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' of HALT is a dry calcium- based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulate. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection location by spraying the gas with a stream finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray mist by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The spray nozzles are specially designed. A 5MW pilot HALT was designed, constructed and operated to demonstrate the viability of the HALT process. The unit was designed to use a baghouse for particulate removal. A rented ESP was used for a pre-scheduled test period for comparison with the baghouse. Tests were conducted to cover all of the following variables: humidification, stoichiometric ratio, approach temperature, flue gas velocity, inlet flue gas SO/sub 2/ concentration, and inlet flue gas temperature. Solids samples of hydrates disposal and ESP waste solids were chemically analyzed and are reported. Hydrate samples were analyzed for particle size distribution and surface area. A two month long duration test operating 24 hours/day was successfully concluded. EPA leachate tests were conducted on the solids waste. Corrosion tests were conducted on coupons installed in the baghouse. 79 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 8-12, 1993). Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 18 papers: "Human DNA Fingerprinting by Polymerase Chain Reaction" (M. V.…

  8. Conference on Non-linear Phenomena in Mathematical Physics: Dedicated to Cathleen Synge Morawetz on her 85th Birthday. The Fields Institute, Toronto, Canada September 18-20, 2008. Sponsors: Association for Women in Mathematics, Inc. and The Fields Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Jennifer

    2012-10-15

    This scientific meeting focused on the legacy of Cathleen S. Morawetz and the impact that her scientific work on transonic flow and the non-linear wave equation has had in recent progress on different aspects of analysis for non-linear wave, kinetic and quantum transport problems associated to mathematical physics. These are areas where the elements of continuum, statistical and stochastic mechanics, and their interplay, have counterparts in the theory of existence, uniqueness and stability of the associated systems of equations and geometric constraints. It was a central event for the applied and computational analysis community focusing on Partial Differential Equations. The goal of the proposal was to honor Cathleen Morawetz, a highly successful woman in mathematics, while encouraging beginning researchers. The conference was successful in show casing the work of successful women, enhancing the visibility of women in the profession and providing role models for those just beginning their careers. The two-day conference included seven 45-minute lectures and one day of six 45-minute lectures, and a poster session for junior participants. The conference program included 19 distinguished speakers, 10 poster presentations, about 70 junior and senior participants and, of course, the participation of Cathleen Synge Morawetz. The conference celebrated Morawetz's paramount contributions to the theory of non-linear equations in gas dynamics and their impact in the current trends of nonlinear phenomena in mathematical physics, but also served as an awareness session of current women's contribution to mathematics.

  9. La reconnaissance des acquis et l'evaluation des programmes (Recognition of Learner Achievements and the Assessment of Literacy Programs). Roundtable (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 17-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    Presented is the transcript (translated into English) of a round-table discussion on student assessment and program evaluation in French-language literacy education in Canada. Panelists are government officials and specialists in Canadian francophone literacy education from several provinces (Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick). Each briefly outlines…

  10. School Boards and the Political Fact. A Report on Ontario Institute for Studies in Education/Ontario School Trustees' Council Conference, "The Politics of Education: Some Main Themes and Issues" (Toronto, Ontario, May 28-30, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cistone, Peter J., Ed.

    This monograph presents papers by ten experts on such problems as the dynamic tension between the Province and local school districts, the size and inflexibility of the circle of elites who influence policymaking in education, and whether or not participation in policymaking should be broadened. The papers included are (1) Peter J. Cistone, "The…

  11. Enhancing Continuing Education through Partnerships: The Importance of Cooperation and Collaboration. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Continuing Higher Education (56th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 22-25, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Donna J., Ed.

    The following addresses or abstracts of addresses are included: "Partnerships: Definitions, Key Ingredients, and Behaviors" (Sujansky); "A Different Mirror: Multicultural Partnerships in Continuing Higher Education" (Takaki); "Mediating Multicultural Crisis in Continuing Higher Education: Partnerships for the Department of Justice and the Academy"…

  12. Financing Canadian Universities: For Whom and By Whom? Papers and Perspectives from a Conference Sponsored by the Institute for Policy Analysis and the Canadian Association of University Teachers (Toronto, Ontario, March 3, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowlan, David M., Ed.; Bellaire, Richard, Ed.

    The conference in which these papers and perspectives were presented addressed Canadian federal-provincial fiscal issues and relationships. An introduction provides some background on the present funding situation. A sample of papers includes: "Federal Funding of University Education" (Paul Davenport); "A Troubled Future? University Enrolments in…

  13. Adult Education and the Contested Terrain of Public Policy. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education (21st, Toronto, Ontario May 30-31 and June 1, 2002). = L'Education des Adultes et le Domaine Controverse des Affaires Publiques. Actes Annuel de L'Association Canadienne pour L'Etude de L'Education des Adultes (21eme, Toronto, Ontario, 30-31 Mai et 1 Juin, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojab, Shahrzad, Ed.; McQueen, William, Ed.

    This document contains the texts of 57 papers, 10 roundtables, and 7 symposia from a Canadian conference on adult education and public policy. The following are among the papers included: "Childhood, Schooling Family and Community" (Margarida Aguiar); "Voices Inside" (Irene C. Baird); "Beyond Personal Agency" (Rose Barg); "Participatory Research,…

  14. It's in the mix: psychological distress differs between combinations of alexithymic facets

    PubMed Central

    Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Crayen, Claudia; Heuser, Isabella; Eid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in identifying, describing, and communicating one's emotions. The aim of the present study is to examine the usefulness of a typological approach considering the interaction between distinct alexithymic features within a population of high-alexithymic German adults (N = 217). Latent profile analysis (LPA) was employed to test for possible underlying profiles. A 3-profile solution showed the best fit: The profiles can be described as (1) “low”: lower load on all facets of alexithymia, (2) “mixed”: specific problems on identifying emotions, and (3) “high”: higher load on all facets of alexithymia. Moreover, this study tested how these profiles differed in psychological distress. “Mixed” profile, with specific problems on identifying emotions showed the highest levels of psychological distress. The present study suggests the importance of a specific combination of alexithymic features, rather than total alexithymia scores, as a risk factor for psychological distress. PMID:25429275

  15. Theory of mind is not theory of emotion: A cautionary note on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Beth F M; Brewer, Rebecca; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    The ability to represent mental states (theory of mind [ToM]) is crucial in understanding individual differences in social ability and social impairments evident in conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is a popular measure of ToM ability, validated in part by the poor performance of those with ASD. However, the RMET requires recognition of facial emotion, which is impaired in those with alexithymia, which frequently co-occurs with ASD. Thus, it is unclear whether the RMET indexes emotion recognition, associated with alexithymia, or ToM, associated with ASD. We therefore investigated the independent contributions of ASD and alexithymia to performance on the RMET. ASD and alexithymia-matched control participants did not differ on RMET performance, whereas ASD participants demonstrated impaired performance on an alternative test of ToM, the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). Furthermore, alexithymia, but not ASD diagnosis, significantly influenced RMET performance but did not affect MASC performance. These results suggest that the RMET measures emotion recognition rather than ToM ability and support the alexithymia hypothesis of emotion-related deficits in ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505409

  16. Parental emotional competence and parenting in low-income families with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy; Borre, Alicia; Wright, Anna W; Jäggi, Lena; Drazdowski, Tess; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2016-02-01

    Ample research has demonstrated that alexithymia, which is characterized by difficulty processing emotions, is associated with disruptions in parenting infants and toddlers. Individuals suffering from alexithymia have among other negative outcomes difficulty building and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Research on emotional expression and recognition has documented the importance of these competencies for the quality of the parent-child relationship and for skills critical for parents of adolescents, such as effective monitoring. However, literature linking parental alexithymia to parenting behaviors and related constructs during adolescents is lacking. The present study closes this gap by examining how mothers' (M age = 39.42 years, SD = 7.62; Range = 23-67) alexithymia affects parent-reported behaviors of solicitation and control, as well as youths' (53.6% female; M age = 12.13 years, SD = 1.62; Range = 9-16) reported disclosure and felt acceptance by their mothers among a sample of 358 primarily urban, African American families. Structural equation models (SEM) revealed that mothers' alexithymia was prospectively related to less parental solicitation 2 years later for both males and females, and to lower levels of felt acceptance for males. Multiple group analyses revealed that these models fits equally well for younger and older youth. Contrary to hypotheses, alexithymia was not related to control or to disclosure. Taken together, these findings indicate that parents' difficulty in processing emotions contributes to parenting beyond early childhood. PMID:26376429

  17. Development of alexithymic personality features

    PubMed Central

    Karukivi, Max; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the development of alexithymic personality features. Modern brain imaging technologies provide interesting data on the associations of alexithymia with different aberrations in brain function related to emotion regulation; however, the development of these deviations is poorly understood. A notable amount of research covers the relation of alexithymia to different environmental factors. Many of these associations, for example, with low socio-economic status and general psychopathology in childhood, are well established. However, the retrospective and cross-sectional designs commonly used in these studies, as well as the use of self-report measures, hinder the ability to firmly establish causality. Certain individual developmental factors, such as lagging speech development and congenital cardiac malformations in childhood, have been associated with the development of alexithymia. Regarding the stability of alexithymia, a systematic review of the literature was conducted for this paper. In addition to being characterized as a personality feature in the general population, alexithymia also clearly has a state-like dimension that results in increases and decreases in alexithymic features in conjunction with mental disorder symptoms. An essential question is whether the alexithymic features in adulthood are, in fact, infantile features of a restricted ability to identify and describe emotions that simply persist in individuals through adolescence to adulthood. To firmly establish the roots of alexithymia development, longitudinal studies, particularly in younger populations, are needed. Furthermore, multifaceted study settings are encouraged. PMID:25540724

  18. Theory of Mind Is Not Theory of Emotion: A Cautionary Note on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ability to represent mental states (theory of mind [ToM]) is crucial in understanding individual differences in social ability and social impairments evident in conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is a popular measure of ToM ability, validated in part by the poor performance of those with ASD. However, the RMET requires recognition of facial emotion, which is impaired in those with alexithymia, which frequently co-occurs with ASD. Thus, it is unclear whether the RMET indexes emotion recognition, associated with alexithymia, or ToM, associated with ASD. We therefore investigated the independent contributions of ASD and alexithymia to performance on the RMET. ASD and alexithymia-matched control participants did not differ on RMET performance, whereas ASD participants demonstrated impaired performance on an alternative test of ToM, the Movie for Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). Furthermore, alexithymia, but not ASD diagnosis, significantly influenced RMET performance but did not affect MASC performance. These results suggest that the RMET measures emotion recognition rather than ToM ability and support the alexithymia hypothesis of emotion-related deficits in ASD. PMID:27505409

  19. Cognitive Preferences in Biology of Students Participating in a Secondary Science Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunetta, Vincent N.; Tamir, Pinchas

    Cognitive preferences of 177 able, science-oriented high school students who participated in a secondary science training program at the University of Iowa in the summer were studied. A Biology Cognitive Preference Test (BCPT) was administered, in which 20 items required ranking and 20 items required rating on a four-point scale. The items were…

  20. American College Student Values: Their Relationship to Selected Personal and Academic Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Carolyn E.

    A 20-item chi-square test of independence was administered to a selected sample of college students that was stratified 50% male and 50% female. Male and female responses showed a significant difference on 18 of the 20 items. The 2 items on which attitudes of both sexes were the same were the role of government in business and a solution to the…

  1. Internal structure of a measure of self-efficacy in physical activity among high school students.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J J; Allison, K R; Makin, S

    1998-05-01

    The preliminary development of a measure of self-efficacy to participate in vigorous physical activity when confronted with specific perceived barriers to physical activity is described. Measures used in previous research ([Hofstetter, C.R., Hovell, M.F., Sallis, J.F., 1990a. Social learning correlates of exercise self-efficacy: Early experiences with physical activity, Social Science and Medicine, 31, 1169-1176.]; [Hofstetter, C.R., Sallis, J.F., Hovell, M.F., 1990b. Some health dimensions of self-efficacy: Analysis of theoretical specificity, Social Science and Medicine, 31, 1051-1056.]; [Reynolds, K.D., Killen, J.D., Bryson, M.S., Maron, D.J., Taylor, C.B., Maccoby, N., Farquhar, J.W., 1990. Psychosocial predictors of physical activity in adolescents, Preventive Medicine, 19, 541-551.]; [Sallis, J.F., Pinski, R.B., Grossman, R.M., Patterson, T.L., Nader, P.R., 1988. The development of self-efficacy scales for health-related diet and exercise behaviors, Health Education Research, 3, 283-292.]) were adapted and original items were developed. The 20-item measure has a 5-point Likert format ranging from not at all confident (1) to very confident (5). An earlier pilot study of 200 secondary school students showed that the measure was free of social desirability. The data were derived from a survey of 1041 secondary school students from a Metropolitan Toronto board of education. Principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation of the data yielded two factors: self-efficacy to overcome external barriers and self-efficacy to overcome internal barriers. The 12-item external barriers subscale had a coefficient alpha of 0.88 and the 8-item internal barriers subscale had a coefficient alpha of 0.87. The subscales significantly correlated with the frequency of participation in vigorous physical activity. In summary, the results provide some support for the internal consistency reliability, construct validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity of the

  2. Potential interaction and potential investigation of science center exhibits and visitors' interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busque, Laurier

    This research consisted of studying the characteristics of interaction and investigation potential present in museum or science center exhibits. Categories (strong and weak) for the characteristics of interaction potential and investigation potential were established. Fifteen exhibits were chosen from the Museum of Science (Ottawa) and from two science centers (Sudbury and Toronto); these were representative of the established characteristics and categories. A test was constructed that measured the interest in an exhibit in a museum or a science center. The final analysis of the test (20 items) reflects a coefficient of homogeneity (Cronbach alpha) of 0.97 (n = 278). In terms of the characteristics of interaction potential and investigation potential, a significant difference among the ranks of interest was not found once they were regrouped under the categories of strong and weak. The hypothesis of a relationship between the interaction potential and visitors' interest in an exhibit in a museum or science center and the hypothesis of a relationship between the investigation potential and the interest aroused were both rejected. In regards to the interaction potential, median ranks of interest in exhibits of 8.6 for the strong category and of 7.5 for the weak category were observed. In terms of the investigation potential, median ranks of interest of 7.0 for the strong category and of 9.1 for the weak category were observed. In the case of investigation potential, even if the difference is not significant, there is an indication that the strong investigation potential seems to have the effect of creating disinterest in the presentation of an exhibit in a museum or in a science center. In the context of new museum and science centers, the view of developing exhibits which are primarily objects which stimulate interest must be maintained. If this is done with exhibits that arc interactive and have an investigative approach, it is necessary for those in charge of

  3. Modeling the cognitive mechanisms linking autism symptoms and anxiety in adults.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Max E; Stephenson, Kevin G; South, Mikle; Rodgers, Jacqui; Freeston, Mark H; Gaigg, Sebastian B

    2016-07-01

    Emotional acceptance, alexithymia, and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) contribute to anxiety disorders in neurotypical populations. Their association with anxiety in people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been studied. We aimed to model the contributions of these constructs on the relationship between dimensional measures of autism and anxiety. Participants were 151 adults recruited from 2 sites, including those diagnosed with ASD (n = 76) and a matched comparison group (n = 75). All participants completed a battery of questionnaires measuring core autism symptoms, anxiety, emotional acceptance, alexithymia, and intolerance of uncertainty. Structural equation modeling with mediation was used to examine directional relationships among these variables. Autism symptoms directly predicted less emotional acceptance and increased alexithymia and IU. Alexithymia and acceptance were shown to explain 64% of the effect between autism symptom severity and anxiety level. This suggests that people with ASD experience increased levels of anxiety because they are more likely to react aversively to their emotional experiences, while lacking the ability to identify and understand their emotions. Developing and implementing mindfulness-based interventions aimed at assuaging alexithymia and IU, while increasing emotional acceptance, may be especially helpful in treating anxiety in ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27196436

  4. An externally oriented style of thinking as a moderator of responses to affective films in women.

    PubMed

    Davydov, Dmitry M; Luminet, Olivier; Zech, Emmanuelle

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in alexithymia would moderate coupling in physiological and subjective-experiential responses to two affective films, which were shown to induce a common negative (sad) feeling, but to provoke different hyper- or hypo-arousal physiological responses (e.g., heart rate acceleration or deceleration) associated with antipathic or empathic context, respectively (Davydov et al., 2011). Only women were studied as persons showing more reactivity to sad films than men. Reactivity was evaluated for facial behavior, physiological arousal, and subjective experience. Some other affective and cognitive disposition factors (e.g., depression and defensiveness) were considered for evaluating their probable mediation of the alexithymia's effects. While subjective experience was not affected by alexithymia, high scorers on the externally-oriented thinking factor showed reduced physiological reactivity in both film conditions. These effects were mediated through different disposition factors: either low affectivity (low depressed mood), which mediated alexithymia's effect on hyper-arousal responses (e.g., decrease of heart rate acceleration), or impression management (other-deception), which mediated alexithymia's effect on hypo-arousal responses (e.g., decrease of heart rate deceleration). PMID:23266659

  5. How emotional abilities modulate the influence of early life stress on hippocampal functioning.

    PubMed

    Aust, Sabine; Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Koelsch, Stefan; Heekeren, Hauke R; Heuser, Isabella; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-07-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known to have considerable influence on brain development, mental health and affective functioning. Previous investigations have shown that alexithymia, a prevalent personality trait associated with difficulties experiencing and verbalizing emotions, is particularly related to ELS. The aim of the present study was to investigate how neural correlates of emotional experiences in alexithymia are altered in the presence and absence of ELS. Therefore, 50 healthy individuals with different levels of alexithymia were matched regarding ELS and investigated with respect to neural correlates of audio-visually induced emotional experiences via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The main finding was that ELS modulated hippocampal responses to pleasant (>neutral) stimuli in high-alexithymic individuals, whereas there was no such modulation in low-alexithymic individuals matched for ELS. Behavioral and psychophysiological results followed a similar pattern. When considered independent of ELS, alexithymia was associated with decreased responses in insula (pleasant > neutral) and temporal pole (unpleasant > neutral). Our results show that the influence of ELS on emotional brain responses seems to be modulated by an individual's degree of alexithymia. Potentially, protective and adverse effects of emotional abilities on brain responses to emotional experiences are discussed. PMID:23685776

  6. Interrelationships Among Three Avoidant Coping Styles and Their Relationship to Trauma, Peritraumatic Distress, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D; Meads, Christina L

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests the existence of distinct avoidant coping mechanisms after trauma: peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, and experiential avoidance. Within the Emotional Processing Model (Foa and Kozak, Psychol Bull. 99:20-35, 1986), research suggests that each of these avoidant coping mechanisms comes into play at a different phase of traumatic stress development. The present study sought to confirm if these three avoidant coping mechanisms are different constructs and how they relate to each other and the experience of trauma, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A total of 227 participants with a trauma history completed measures on trauma experience, peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, experiential avoidance, and PTSD. Structural equation modeling confirmed that peritraumatic dissociation, secondary alexithymia, and experiential avoidance influence different phases of the development of traumatic stress problems. These results also confirm that the Emotional Process Model provides a good context for understanding the interrelationships among the avoidant coping mechanisms. PMID:26606284

  7. Dissecting empathy: high levels of psychopathic and autistic traits are characterized by difficulties in different social information processing domains

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Patricia L.; Bird, Geoffrey; Bridge, Madeleine; Viding, Essi

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with psychopathy or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can behave in ways that suggest lack of empathy towards others. However, many different cognitive and affective processes may lead to unempathic behavior and the social processing profiles of individuals with high psychopathic vs. ASD traits are likely different. Whilst psychopathy appears characterized by problems with resonating with others’ emotions, ASD appears characterized by problems with cognitive perspective-taking. In addition, alexithymia has previously been associated with both disorders, but the contribution of alexithymia needs further exploration. In a community sample (N = 110) we show for the first time that although affective resonance and cognitive perspective-taking are related, high psychopathic traits relate to problems with resonating with others’ emotions, but not cognitive perspective taking. Conversely, high ASD traits relate to problems with cognitive perspective-taking but not resonating with others’ emotions. Alexithymia was associated with problems with affective resonance independently of psychopathic traits, suggesting that different component processes (reduced tendency to feel what others feel and reduced ability to identify and describe feelings) comprise affective resonance. Alexithymia was not associated with the reduced cognitive perspective-taking in high ASD traits. Our data suggest that (1) elevated psychopathic and ASD traits are characterized by difficulties in different social information processing domains and (2) reduced affective resonance in individuals with elevated psychopathic traits and the reduced cognitive perspective taking in individuals with elevated ASD traits are not explained by co-occurring alexithymia. (3) Alexithymia is independently associated with reduced affective resonance. Consequently, our data point to different component processes within the construct of empathy that are suggestive of partially separable cognitive and neural

  8. [French validation study of the levels of emotional awareness scale].

    PubMed

    Bydlowski, S; Corcos, M; Paterniti, S; Guilbaud, O; Jeammet, P; Consoli, S M

    2002-01-01

    -evaluation (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HAD, and Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS). The face validity appears correct: the questionnaire was well accepted and seemed easy to complete. A principal components analysis of the correlation matrix of the set of items was used as the method of extraction of the various factors and made it possible to confirm the unidimensionality of the instrument. The number of factors to be retained was given according to Kaiser and Cattell criteria. The internal consistency was evaluated through computation of the Cronbach coefficient, whose value is 0.75 for the scale's global score. The confidence interval of the margin of error of LEAS scores was also measured; for the global score it is IC=[m 6.1]. The measure given by this rating scale may therefore be considered sufficiently accurate, since this interval is weak. A study of the frequency of quotation of each item of the instrument was carried out, in order to check the homogeneity and the uniformity of quotations, as well as a diagram of distribution of the score, showing that it follows a law which is close to a normal law. The concurrent validity could only be studied via the similar concept of alexithymia, measured with the TAS, for there is not other instrument validated in French evaluating the levels of emotional awareness, and these two instruments seem to measure different notions, because none of the correlations between the scores of these two questionnaires are significant. Concerning discriminant validity, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the global score for the LEAS, the BDI score and the HAD sub-scores for depression and anxiety were measured; it is clear that the level of emotional awareness is independent from negative affects. Furthermore, the study of the reliability made it possible to highlight excellent intra-class correlation coefficients (r=0.993). The French version of the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale thus

  9. Another Paper Landscape?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radlak, Ted

    2001-01-01

    Describes the University of Toronto's extensive central campus revitalization plan to create lush landscapes that add to the school's image and attractiveness. Drawings and photographs are included. (GR)

  10. Seductive Ambiguity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Architect, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes renovations to the building housing the University of Toronto's school of architecture; the changes addressed both operational and symbolic issues. Includes design drawings and photographs. (EV)

  11. How Secondary Pupils See the Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, J. Daryll

    1977-01-01

    Describes the development and administration of a 20 item questionnaire designed to measure students' attitudes and values toward science. Results of administration to 438 students aged 13-14 are provided. (CP)

  12. REMARK checklist elaborated to improve tumor prognostician

    Cancer.gov

    Experts have elaborated on a previously published checklist of 20 items -- including descriptions of design, methods, and analysis -- that researchers should address when publishing studies of prognostic markers. These markers are indicators that enable d

  13. Are You Ready for TQM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Leo H.

    1993-01-01

    A 20-item quiz to help school boards understand Total Quality Management (TQM) and whether they agree philosophically with TQM's tenets such as quality, continuous improvement, and employee empowerment. (MLF)

  14. Literacy in Industrialized Countries: A Focus on Practice = L'Alphabetisation en pays industrialises: Point de Mire sur la Pratique. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Literacy in Industrialized Countries (Toronto, Ontario, October 13-15, 1987). Convergence, Volume 20, Nos. 3-4, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayfer, Margaret, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The following papers are included: "Seminar's Focus on Practice Puts Action on the Human Level" (Margaret Gayfer); "Literacy: What Do Definitions Tell Us?" (Carman Hunter); "The Practice of Literacy in the Netherlands" (Ella Bohnenn); "The Approach of Popular Literacy Groups in Quebec" (Louise Miller); "Perspectives and Lessons from the Adult…

  15. Love, Fear, and Health: How Our Attachments to Others Shape Health and Health Care Maunder Robert and Hunter Jonathan Love, Fear, and Health: How Our Attachments to Others Shape Health and Health Care 344pp £17.99 University of Toronto Press 9781442615601 1442615605 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2016-02-24

    This book by two psychiatrists examines how the ways we relate to others can seriously affect our health. A practical, clinically-focused introduction to the influence of our close relationships on disease and risk, it explains how understanding attachment - the means by which people seek security in their close relationships - can transform patient outcomes. PMID:26907133

  16. Emotional awareness among eating-disordered patients: the role of narcissistic traits.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Rachel; Waller, Glenn; Sines, Jennie; Meyer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The narcissistic defences and a lack of emotional awareness (alexithymia) are both salient features of eating disorder pathology, as well as being linked to each other. As each of these characteristics impacts independently on treatment, it is important to understand how they interact within an eating-disordered population. The present study assessed the associations between the three core elements of alexithymia and the core and defensive elements of narcissism in this clinical group. Seventy eating-disordered patients completed standardised measures of alexithymia and narcissism, and multiple regression analyses were conducted in order to examine the relationship between these variables. Core narcissism (e.g. grandiosity, entitlement) was associated with difficulties in describing feelings to others, whereas the narcissistic defences were associated with difficulties in identifying feelings and distinguishing them from somatic experiences. These patterns of association suggest that different aspects of alexithymia are associated with different aspects of narcissism. Clinical suggestions are made for how these characteristics might require modifications of standard treatment approaches for the eating disorders. PMID:17955567

  17. Difficulty Identifying Feelings, Distress Tolerance and Compulsive Buying: Analyzing the Associations to Inform Therapeutic Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Paul; Segrist, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty identifying feelings (a component of alexithymia) and distress tolerance both appear to play a role in impulse-control problems. The goal of the present study was to build upon past research by developing a model of the relations between these constructs and compulsive buying. Participants from the United States and Canada completed a…

  18. The Link between Emotion Identification Skills and Socio-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Supavadeeprasit, Sunila

    2008-01-01

    Amongst adults, low emotion identification skill (EIS) relates to poor emotion regulation strategies, higher rates of anxiety and depression, and higher rates of somatic illness and disease [Taylor, G. J., & Bagby, R. M. (2004). New trends in alexithymia research. "Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics", 73, 68-77]. Little research has examined EIS in…

  19. Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Kyle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

  20. Maternal alexithymic traits, prenatal stress, and infant temperament.

    PubMed

    Kantonen, T; Karlsson, L; Nolvi, S; Karukivi, M; Tolvanen, M; Karlsson, H

    2015-11-01

    We aimed at investigating, whether maternal alexithymia or prenatal anxiety influences infant temperament (Infant Temperament Questionnaire, IBQ) at six months. Maternal alexithymic trait of "Difficulty in Identifying Feelings" predicted higher infant "Duration of Orienting". "Fear of Bearing a Handicapped Child" predicted lower infant "Activity Level". PMID:26263082

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Social Support, and Psychological Outcomes: A Loss Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the study were: (a) to develop a scale to assess CSA-related loss among a college sample of CSA survivors (CSALM), (b) to examine the measure's convergent validity through associations among depression, alexithymia, coping, and social support, and (c) to test whether social support moderates the relation between…

  2. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  3. Everyday Electrical Engineering: A One-Week Summer Academy Course for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrizi-Sani, A.

    2012-01-01

    A summer academy is held for grade 9-12 high school students at the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, every year. The academy, dubbed the Da Vinci Engineering Enrichment Program (DEEP), is a diverse program that aims to attract domestic and international high school students to engineering and sciences (and possibly recruit them). DEEP…

  4. God and Mammon. Universities as Publishers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanneret, Marsh

    This book by the director of the University of Toronto Press, reviews the last 50 years in the history of university publishing (with emphasis on Toronto) and expresses concern about the accelerating trend by university presses to offset the cost of producing learned books and journals by profits from a simultaneous program of commercial…

  5. Youth and the New Economy=Les jeunes et la nouvelle economie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspective Series document includes statements about young people in the new economy of Toronto made by three participants in the October 2000 annual general meeting of the Toronto Training Board. "A Hitchhiker's Guide to the New Economy" (Olivia Chow) suggests that training programs available to young people are fragmented and…

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of a Community Illness: Primary Prevention of Racism in Ethnically Heterogenous Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Suzanne

    This paper summarizes research in which the public health models of epidemiological assessment and primary prevention were used to (1) determine the prevalence of ethnic social segregation among school children in Toronto, Canada; and (2) alter ethnically segregated friendship patterns in Toronto schools. A preliminary study of children aged 12 to…

  7. Are You Listening to Me? Space, Context and Perspective in the Regulation of Mp3 Players and Cell Phones in Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domitrek, Julie; Raby, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there has been much media coverage about cell phone and personal music player usage in schools, including in the Toronto and Whitton regions. However, there is little literature on how students and teachers view rules on the use of such electronic devices. Using data gathered from focus groups with students in Toronto and Whitton and…

  8. E6: Academic Evaluation. A Report on SEF Open Plan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Toronto School Board (Ontario). Study of Educational Facilities.

    This study attempts to evaluate Toronto-area schools built using the Study of Educational Facilities (SEF) building system from the standpoint of the teachers and students who use the schools. While the SEF building system did not dictate an open-space plan, all local school boards in the Toronto area designed their SEF schools with varying…

  9. Portuguese in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jon

    This report addresses itself to questions asked by Toronto teachers of Portuguese New Canadians. It aims at a comprehensive understanding of the socio-historical development of Portuguese people as related to present urbanization problems faced by the Portuguese immigrants in Toronto. The introduction establishes the cultural and historical…

  10. Students Tackle Academics in Practical Context at Skateboard Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    High school student Nick Robertson came to Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF) from a suburban Toronto district. He was surfing the web when he spotted a reference to Oasis Skateboard Factory, an alternative program in the Toronto District School Board. He says his first reaction was "Skateboards in school? It didn't seem possible." He applied, was…

  11. Finding Home: A Walk, a Meditation, a Memoir, a Collage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The author loves Toronto, where she has lived for more than three decades. Two of those she has resided in an apartment on the west side of town--close to the University of Toronto and the Ontario College of Art and Design (OCAD), to the parks and pathways that connect her living and working sites with those institutions and her other haunts. What…

  12. Implant Rehabilitation in Advanced Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rasaeipour, Sasan; Siadat, Hakimeh; Rasouli, Amiralireza; Sajedinejadd, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants have provided exceptional rehabilitative options for edentulous and partially edentulous patients. However, as more implants come into play, the more the clinicians come across problems where specific considerations must be taken into account to meet expectations. The Toronto Bridge is a treatment modality proposed for restoring several teeth lost in patients with increased crown height (interarch) space. Herein, we applied the Toronto Bridge to rehabilitate a patient with generalized aggressive periodontitis; this article suggests that an implant-supported Toronto Bridge can be a reliable and acceptable treatment modality for patients suffering from tooth loss and vertical bone loss as the result of generalized aggressive periodontal disease. PMID:27123022

  13. Theory of Mind and Executive Control Deficits in Typically Developing Adults and Adolescents with High Levels of Autism Traits.

    PubMed

    Gökçen, Elif; Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K V

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by profound difficulties in empathic processing and executive control. Whilst the links between these processes have been frequently investigated in populations with autism, few studies have examined them at the subclinical level. In addition, the contribution of alexithymia, a trait characterised by impaired interoceptive awareness and empathy, and elevated in those with ASD, is currently unclear. The present two-part study employed a comprehensive battery of tasks to examine these processes. Findings support the notion that executive function and theory of mind are related abilities. They also suggest that individuals with elevated levels of autism-like traits experience a partially similar pattern of social and executive function difficulties to those diagnosed with ASD, and that these impairments are not explained by co-occurring alexithymia. PMID:26886468

  14. Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Andrew; Foote, Jeffrey; Cleland, Charles; Magura, Stephen; Mahmood, Daneyal; Kosanke, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Patient treatment matching hypotheses were tested for substance users randomly assigned to a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; n= 114) or a group motivational intervention (GMI; n= 116). Treatment was scheduled twice weekly for 10 weeks. Using a patient attribute by treatment interaction design with a 15-week follow-up, the study predicted that alexithymia, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and network support for alcohol and drug use would be associated with less substance use for CBT subjects and that hostility and lower treatment motivation would be associated with less substance use for GMI subjects. Three of the hypothesized moderators were empirically supported: alexithymia, network support for alcohol, and ASPD. Results indicate the use of assessing specific patient attributes to better inform treatment recommendations. PMID:15768570

  15. The class of 2005: Germany. Tracking pollutants.

    PubMed

    Forde, Anne

    2005-10-21

    Next year, German environmental chemist Martin Elsner will move from Toronto to the GSF National Research Centre for Environment and Health near Munich to take up his first tenure-track position as a Helmholtz Young Investigator. PMID:16239486

  16. 76 FR 67178 - Riverbank Hydro No. 15 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ..., as directed by the Corps. Applicant Contact: Mr. Kuo-Bao Tong, Riverbank Power Corporation, Royal Bank Plaza, South Tower, P.O. Box 166, 200 Bay Street, Suite 3230, Toronto, ON, Canada M5J2J4....

  17. Teaching the Tao of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David

    1979-01-01

    Describes a course offered at the University of Toronto. The course deals with the new world view of the nature of reality and the parallels of the concepts with modern physics and Eastern mysticism. (Author/SA)

  18. Species identification of airborne molds and its significance for the detection of indoor pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Fradkin, A.; Tobin, R.S.; Tario, S.M.; Tucic-Porretta, M.; Malloch, D.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate species composition and prevalence of culturable particles of airborne fungi in 27 homes in Toronto, Canada. Its major objective is to examine the significance of species identification for the detection of indoor pollution.

  19. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  20. Two-Pronged Chemo Helps Some with Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dr. Linus Chuang. He is a professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive science with the Icahn School ... Center, Toronto; Linus Chuang, M.D., professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive science, Icahn School of Medicine ...