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Sample records for 200-up-1 groundwater operable

  1. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume.

  2. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This work plan identifies the objectives, tasks, and schedule for conducting a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area of the Hanford Site. The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit addresses contamination identified in the aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, as determined in the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE/RL 1992b). The objectives of this work plan are to develop a program to investigate groundwater contaminants in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area that were designated for Limited Field Investigations (LFIs) and to implement Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) recommended in the 200 West Groundwater AAMSR. The purpose of an LFI is to evaluate high priority groundwater contaminants where existing data are insufficient to determine whether an IRM is warranted and collect sufficient data to justify and implement an IRM, if needed. A Qualitative Risk Assessment (QRA) will be performed as part of the LFI. The purpose of an IRM is to develop and implement activities, such as contaminant source removal and groundwater treatment, that will ameliorate some of the more severe potential risks of groundwater contaminants prior to the RI and baseline Risk Assessment (RA) to be conducted under the Final Remedy Selection (FRS) at a later date. This work plan addresses needs of a Treatability Study to support the design and implementation of an interim remedial action for the Uranium-{sup 99}{Tc}-Nitrate multi-contaminant IRM plume identified beneath U Plant.

  3. Limited field investigation for the 200-UP-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit is located in the southern portion of the 200 West Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The operable unit is located adjacent to the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit and underlies a significant part of seven source operable units: 200-RO-1, 200-RO-2, 200-RO-3, 200-RO-4, 200-SS-2, 200-UP-2, and 200-UP-3. Remedial efforts in the 100-ZP-1 Operable Unit focus on addressing volatile organic contamination in the aquifer. The focus of the 200-UP-1 limited field investigation (LFI) is on contaminated aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, with the exception of uranium and technetium-99 plumes, which are addressed by an existing 200-UP-1 interim remedial measure (IRM). The LFI approach is driven by general and specific data needs required to refine the site conceptual model and conduct a risk assessment. Activities supporting the LFI include drilling, well construction, sampling and analysis, data validation, geologic and geophysical logging, aquifer testing, measuring depth to water, and evaluating geodetic survey and existing analytical data.

  4. Fiscal year 2002 annual summary report for 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 pump-and-treat operations

    SciTech Connect

    ERB, D.B.

    2003-04-01

    This fiscal year 2002 annual progress and performance evaluation report discusses progress for the 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 Operable Units (OU) groundwater interim remedial actions in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site.

  5. Carbon Tetrachloride Partition Coefficients Measured by Aqueous Sorption to Hanford Sediments from Operable Units 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Riley, Robert G.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Parker, Kent E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.

    2007-09-30

    Kd values obtained on sediment samples from 200-UP-1 and 10-ZP-1 contribute to a larger Kd database that exists for other Hanford sediments, and contains significant desorption data for CCl4. Adsorption results presented here validate the use of a linear adsorption isotherm (Kd) to predict short contact time CCl4 adsorption to sediments in 200-UP-1 groundwater plume for a distinct ranges in CCl4 concentration. However, this does not imply that values of Kd will be constant if the groundwater chemical composition at 200-UP-1 changes with space or time. Additionally, results presented here suggest the potential significance of slower intraparticle diffusion on the long-term fate of CCl4 within the subsurface Hanford environment. Such behavior could afford prolonged desorption of CCl4 and serve as a long-term source of contaminant CCl4 to the aquifer. Further evaluation of possible bimodal sorption behavior for CCl4 and the mechanism of CCl¬4 sequestration should be the subject of future investigations to provide a thorough, mechanistic understanding of the retention and long-term fate of CCl4. Comparison of previous data with new results (e.g., from this study) will allow inferences to be made on how the 200-UP-1 Kd values for CCl4 may compare with sediments from other Hanford locations. This site-specific sorption data, when complemented by the chemical, geologic, mineralogic, hydrologic, and physical characterization data that are also being collected (see Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Monitoring Well Network, DOE 2002) can be used to develop a robust, scientifically defensible data base to allow risk predictions to be generated and to aid in future remediation decisions for the 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 operable units.

  6. Characterization of 200-UP-1 Aquifer Sediments and Results of Sorption-Desorption Tests Using Spiked Uncontaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Brown, Christopher F.; Legore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2005-11-16

    of carbonate up to a point. Then as carbonate and calcium concentrations in the groundwater reach values that exceed the solubility limit for the mineral calcite there is a slight increase in U(VI) Kd likely caused by uranium co-precipitation with the fresh calcite. If remediation of the UP-1 groundwater plume is required, such as pump and treat, it is recommended that the aquifer be treated with chemicals to increase pH and alkalinity and decrease dissolved calcium and magnesium [so that the precipitation of calcite is prevented]. Alternative methods to immobilize the uranium in place might be more effective than trying to remove the uranium by pump and treat. Unfortunately, no aquifer sediments were obtained that contained enough Hanford generated uranium to perform quantitative desorption tests germane to the UP-1 plume remediation issue. Recommended Kd values that should be used for risk predictions for the UP-1 groundwater plume traveling through the lithologies within the aquifer present at the UP-1 (and by proxy ZP-1) operable units were provided. The recommended values Kd values are chosen to include some conservatism (lower values are emphasized from the available range) as is standard risk assessment practice. In general, desorption Kd values for aged contaminated sediments can be larger than Kd values determined in short-term laboratory experiments. To accommodate the potential for desorption hysteresis and other complications, a second suite of uranium desorption Kd values were provided to be used to estimate removal of uranium by pump and treat techniques.

  7. Description of work for 200-UP-1 characterization of monitoring wells

    SciTech Connect

    Innis, B.E.; Kelty, G.G.

    1994-02-01

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the drilling, soil sampling, and construction of groundwater monitoring and dual-use wells in the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit (Tasks 2, 3, and 5 in the 200-UP-1 RI/FS Work Plan DOE/RL 1993a) and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. It will be used in conjunction with the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater operable Unit (DOE-RL 1993a, [LFI]) and Site Characterization Manual (WHC 1988a). Groundwater wells are being constructed to characterize the vertical and horizontal extent of the Uranium and {sup 99}{Tc} plumes and to define aquifer properties such as hydraulic communication between aquifers and hydrostratigraphy. Some of these wells may be utilized for extraction purposes during the IRM phase anticipated at this operable unit and are being designed with a dual use in mind. These data will be used to optimize the Interim Remedial Measures (IRM) for the cleanup of these two plumes. The data will also be used with later Limited Field Investigation (LFI) data to perform a Qualitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for the operable unit. The locations for the proposed groundwater wells are presented in Figure 1. The contaminants of concern for the project are presented ih Table 1.

  8. Technical Evaluation of Biogeochemical Transformation of Iodine at 200-UP-1, Hanford, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Cordova, E.; Brooks, S.; Moser, E.; Wells, J.; Lee, B.

    2015-12-01

    From the 1940s through the early 1990s, liquid wastes from materials used and produced at the Hanford Site were disposed to the ground through cribs, ditches, ponds, and trenches. Primary groundwater and vadose zone contaminants include carbon tetrachloride, uranium, nitrate, chromium, 129I, 99Tc, and tritium. Iodine-129 is of environmental concern due to its long half-life, mobility, and hazardous potential to humans through bioaccumulation, and is one of the primary risk drivers for the Hanford site. The 200 West area of the Hanford Site contains two separate plumes covering 1,500 acres where 129I concentrations are ~3.5 pCi/L in Hanford groundwater. Speciation analysis shows that iodate comprises 70.6% of the iodine present, and organo-iodide and iodide comprise 25.8% and 3.6% respectively. While hydraulic containment is the currently selected remedy for 129I in the groundwater, there is currently no remedy selected for controlling migration of 129I from the vadose zone to the groundwater. Research is currently underway to develop a site conceptual model for understanding the biogeochemical drivers for iodine speciation and determine the processes that drive the fate and transport of 129I through the vadose zone and into groundwater. These data will provide the information to decrease the uncertainty related to the inventory, distribution, and transport properties which will lead to appropriate treatment strategies for the 129I plume(s). Understanding the mechanisms and contributors to iodine speciation is important in order to develop bioremediation strategies for contaminated areas. The effect that microbial communities and humic acid have on iodine speciation and sorption was explored using Ringold sediment from the 200 West Area exposed to varying levels of 129I contamination in conjunction with varying growth media constituents. Several isolates obtained from these batch studies have been shown to reduce over 80% of iodate present in growth media when

  9. Calendar Year 2002 RCRA & CERCLA Groundwater Monitoring Well summary report

    SciTech Connect

    MARTINEZ, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the calendar year 2002 field activities associated with installing four new groundwater monitoring wells in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Two groundwater monitoring wells are located around waste management area (WMA) TX-TY to support the ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' (RCRA) and two groundwater monitoring wells are located in the 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 operable units (OU) to support the ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980'' (CERCLA).

  10. Characterization of 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit Aquifer Sediments and Batch Adsorption Distribution Coefficients for Contaminants of Concern--Fiscal Year 2006 Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2006-09-25

    A total of six core samples from 200-UP/ZP-1 OUs and two additional outcrop samples were characterized during FY2006 by PNNL. One sample (C4971) was identified as slough and not used, but the five other samples identified as intact core samples were used for further analyses. The C4977 sample is gravel-sandy silt and C4990 samples are fine-sandy silt from the Ringold formation. Although the sediments from these two boreholes have similar mineralogical composition, C4990 samples show higher values of Fe oxide content, clay/silt content, and surface area compared those in C4977. The measured Tc Kd values ranged 0–0.2 mg/L for both samples, while U(VI) Kd for C4990 (4.23 mg/L) is much higher than that for C4977 (0.76 mg/L). A key finding from the Kd measurements is that detailed sediment and pore water characterization is necessary to understand the variation in Kd values seen in the empirical batch tests. Without the ancillary characterization of the sediments and pore waters, one might form misleading interpretations of the mechanisms that control the Kd values. Thus, physical, geochemical, and hydrological characterization of the sediments and pore waters should be conducted to increase our understanding of the site-specific Kd measurements. More details for methods and results will be provided in the formal technical report in FY 2007.

  11. Adsorption of Carbon Tetrachloride to Sediments from the UP-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Riley, Robert G.; Parker, Kent E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.

    2006-09-01

    In 2004, Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FHI) drilled several groundwater wells within the 200-UP-1 operable unit to monitor plumes that have been the focus of past remediation activities. Thirteen cores taken from three wells (C4298, C4299, and C4300) were sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for characterization and quantification of contaminant retardation. These cores were 4-inches in diameter by 6-inches in length and were taken from depths near the unconfined aquifer surface (water table) to locations approximately 150 to 180 ft below the water table. Prior to this work, no 200-UP-1 site-specific adsorption data (i.e., values of distribution coefficient [Kd ]) were available for the sediments or key contaminants present in the 200-UP-1 operable unit groundwater plume. Site-specific sorption data for carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was obtained with the <2 mm size fractions of uncontaminated 200-UP-1 sediments taken from two of these boreholes (C4299 and C4300) and distribution coefficients determined. Each fraction exhibited bimodal CCl4 adsorption isotherms over the concentration range (15 – 2500 μg L-1) for total CCl4 in solution. Sorption of CCl4 was linear over the concentration ranges of 15 to 400 μg L-1 and 400 to 2500 μg L-1. The Kd values measured for the three 200-UP-1 sediments exhibited bimodal sorption with initial Kd values ranging from 0.0002 to 0.0005, and phase 2 values approximately 0.003 for all sediments. The measure Kd values are lower than the range calculated for CCl4 in a Hanford soil (0.016 to 0.83 L/Kg) containing an average organic carbon content of 0.2% (Truex et al., 2001). The best estimate value of Truex et al. (2001) is 0.06 L/Kg based on a 0.1% sediment organic carbon content. However, this estimate is based on an organic carbon content up to an order of magnitude greater than the organic carbon content of the sediments tested herein. Prolonged contact may increase

  12. Spatial Analysis of Contaminants in 200 West Area Groundwater in Support of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit Pre-Conceptual Remedy Design

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Bott, Yi-Ju

    2008-12-30

    This report documents a preliminary spatial and geostatistical analysis of the distribution of several contaminants of interest (COIs) in groundwater within the unconfined aquifer beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The contaminant plumes of interest extend within the 200-ZP-1 and 200-UP-1 groundwater operable units. The COIs included in the PNNL study were carbon tetrachloride (CTET), technetium-99 (Tc-99), iodine-129 (I-129), chloroform, plutonium, uranium, trichloroethylene (TCE), and nitrate. The project included three tasks. Task 1 involved the development of a database that includes all relevant depth-discrete data on the distribution of COIs in the study area. The second task involved a spatial analysis of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of data for the COIs in the study area. The main focus of the task was to determine if sufficient data are available for geostatistical mapping of the COIs in 3D. Task 3 involved the generation of numerical grids of the concentration of CTET, chloroform, and Tc-99.

  13. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work

  14. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  15. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. An Integrated Approach on Groundwater Flow and Heat/Solute Transport for Sustainable Groundwater Source Heat Pump (GWHP) System Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Joun, W.; Park, B. H.; Park, J.; Park, I.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The GWHP system uses a stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as one of the most energy-saving and cost-efficient renewable energy techniques. A GWHP facility was installed at an island located at the confluence of North Han and South Han rivers, Korea. Because of well-developed alluvium, the aquifer is suitable for application of this system, extracting and injecting a large amount of groundwater. However, the numerical experiments under various operational conditions showed that it could be vulnerable to thermal interference due to the highly permeable gravel layer, as a preferential path of thermal plume migration, and limited space for well installation. Thus, regional groundwater flow must be an important factor of consideration for the efficient operation under these conditions but was found to be not simple in this site. While the groundwater level in this site totally depends on the river stage control of Paldang dam, the direction and velocity of the regional groundwater flow, observed using the colloidal borescope, have been changed hour by hour with the combined flows of both the rivers. During the pumping and injection tests, the water discharges in Cheongpyeong dam affected their respective results. Moreover, the measured NO3-N concentrations might imply the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality along the regional flow. It is obvious that the extraction and injection of groundwater during the facility operation will affect the fate of the agricultural contaminants. Particularly, the gravel layer must also be a main path for contaminant migration. The simulations for contaminant transport during the facility operation showed that the operation strategy for only thermal efficiency could be unsafe and unstable in respect of groundwater quality. All these results concluded that the integrated approach on groundwater flow and heat/solute transport is necessary

  17. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  18. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    SciTech Connect

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-03-23

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year.

  19. Quantifying groundwater travel time near managed recharge operations using 35S as an intrinsic tracer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Urióstegui, Stephanie H.; Bibby, Richard K.; Esser, Bradley K.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2016-04-23

    By identifying groundwater retention times near managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities is a high priority for managing water quality, especially for operations that incorporate recycled wastewater. In order to protect public health, California guidelines for Groundwater Replenishment Reuse Projects require a minimum 2–6 month subsurface retention time for recycled water depending on the level of disinfection, which highlights the importance of quantifying groundwater travel times on short time scales. This study developed and evaluated a new intrinsic tracer method using the naturally occurring radioisotope sulfur-35 (35S). The 87.5 day half-life of 35S is ideal for investigating groundwater travel times onmore » the <1 year timescale of interest to MAR managers. Natural concentrations of 35S found in water as dissolved sulfate (35SO4) were measured in source waters and groundwater at the Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Los Angeles County, CA, and Orange County Groundwater Recharge Facilities in Orange County, CA. 35SO4 travel times are comparable to travel times determined by well-established deliberate tracer studies. The study also revealed that 35SO4 in MAR source water can vary seasonally and therefore careful characterization of 35SO4 is needed to accurately quantify groundwater travel time. But, more data is needed to fully assess whether or not this tracer could become a valuable tool for managers.« less

  20. Groundwater Monitoring at the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2007-04-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive summary of the distribution and trends of volatile organic compound concentrations near USDOE’s Horn Rapids Landfill (HRL). This report focuses mainly on the TCE plume monitored in the top of the unconfined aquifer near the HRL, but also addresses potential breakdown products of TCE. TCE concentrations in deep portions of the unconfined aquifer and the underlying confined aquifer are discussed to show the vertical extent of contamination. This report incorporates TCE data from offsite wells at the AREVA facility south of the Hanford Site. Discussion of TCE in groundwater in the 300 Area is included to differentiate between contaminant plumes and their sources in the 300 Area and near the HRL. Chromium monitoring results from a specific well downgradient of the 1171 Building is also included.

  1. Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08

    SciTech Connect

    M. S. Roddy

    2007-05-01

    This plan describes the groundwater sampling and water level monitoring that will be conducted to evaluate contaminations in the Snake River Plain Aquifer entering and leaving the Idaho National Laboratory. The sampling and monitoring locations were selected to meet the data quality objectives detailed in this plan. Data for the Snake River Plain Aquifer obtained under this plan will be evaluated in the Operable Unit 10-08 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study report and will be used to support the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide groundwater model.

  2. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  3. Data validation summary report: 300-FF-5 operable unit; Round 6 groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, L.C.

    1994-03-21

    Laboratory data for Sixth Round Groundwater samples collected during the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation have been reviewed and validated to ensure that they are of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding further actions to be taken at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. Table 1-1 is a summary of the validated samples. This report summarizes the results previously presented to Westinghouse Hanford in a series of Preliminary Quality Assurance Reports (PQAR) for the 300-FF-5 Sixth Round Groundwater samples. In some instances, the data qualifiers originally presented in the PQARs have been changed based upon further review of the data; these changes are highlighted in the text.

  4. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  5. Groundwater phosphorus in forage-based landscape with cow-calf operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage-based cow-calf operations may have detrimental impacts on the chemical status of groundwater and streams and consequently on the ecological and environmental status of surrounding ecosystems. Assessing and controlling phosphorus (P) inputs are thus considered the key to reducing eutrophicatio...

  6. Antibiotic-resistant E. coli in surface water and groundwater in dairy operations in Northern California.

    PubMed

    Li, Xunde; Watanabe, Naoko; Xiao, Chengling; Harter, Thomas; McCowan, Brenda; Liu, Yingjia; Atwill, Edward R

    2014-02-01

    Generic Escherichia coli was isolated from surface water and groundwater samples from two dairies in Northern California and tested for susceptibility to antibiotics. Surface samples were collected from flush water, lagoon water, and manure solids, and groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells. Although E. coli was ubiquitous in surface samples with concentrations ranging from several hundred thousand to over a million colony-forming units per 100 mL of surface water or per gram of surface solids, groundwater under the influence of these high surface microbial loadings had substantially fewer bacteria (3- to 7-log10 reduction). Among 80 isolates of E. coli tested, 34 (42.5%) were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22 (27.5%) were multi-antibiotic resistant (resistant to ≥3 antibiotics), with resistance to tetracycline, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and ampicillin being the most common. E. coli isolates from the calf hutch area exhibited the highest levels of multi-antibiotic resistance, much higher than isolates in surface soil solids from heifer and cow pens, flush alleys, manure storage lagoons, and irrigated fields. Among E. coli isolates from four groundwater samples, only one sample exhibited resistance to ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, indicating the potential of groundwater contamination with antibiotic-resistant bacteria from dairy operations. PMID:24097011

  7. Preliminary remedial action objectives for the Tank 16 groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, W.C. Jr.

    1992-10-28

    Tank 16 is a High Level Radioactive Waste tank in the H-Area Tank Farm on the Savannah River Site that was placed into service in May 1959. A leak was detected in one of the construction weld joints while the tank was being filled. Before jet evacuation of the tank waste was completed, the leak overflowed the annulus pan and an estimated 16 to 700 gallons of waste escaped to the environment (soil and groundwater) over a six hour period contaminating approximately 1,600--70,000 cubic feet of soil with up to 5000 curies of activity (principally Cs{sup 137}). The Tank 16 bottom is constructed below the groundwater table which resulted in almost immediate contamination of that medium. Low groundwater flow rates, the ion exchange property of adjacent soils, and the distance to the nearest surface water bodies (1,500 to 8,000 feet) indicates that surface water and sediment outcrop of contaminates may be expected between 44 and 530 years (Poe et al., 1974). Remedial action objectives consist of medium-specific and operable unit specific goals for protecting human health and the environment. These objectives are specific and do not limit the range of alternatives that may be developed.A range of remedial technologies, which provides for treatment, containment, and removal requirements of contaminated media remaining at the Tank 16 groundwater operable unit, is identified and developed for each general response action.

  8. Preliminary remedial action objectives for the Tank 16 groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, W.C. Jr.

    1992-10-28

    Tank 16 is a High Level Radioactive Waste tank in the H-Area Tank Farm on the Savannah River Site that was placed into service in May 1959. A leak was detected in one of the construction weld joints while the tank was being filled. Before jet evacuation of the tank waste was completed, the leak overflowed the annulus pan and an estimated 16 to 700 gallons of waste escaped to the environment (soil and groundwater) over a six hour period contaminating approximately 1,600--70,000 cubic feet of soil with up to 5000 curies of activity (principally Cs[sup 137]). The Tank 16 bottom is constructed below the groundwater table which resulted in almost immediate contamination of that medium. Low groundwater flow rates, the ion exchange property of adjacent soils, and the distance to the nearest surface water bodies (1,500 to 8,000 feet) indicates that surface water and sediment outcrop of contaminates may be expected between 44 and 530 years (Poe et al., 1974). Remedial action objectives consist of medium-specific and operable unit specific goals for protecting human health and the environment. These objectives are specific and do not limit the range of alternatives that may be developed.A range of remedial technologies, which provides for treatment, containment, and removal requirements of contaminated media remaining at the Tank 16 groundwater operable unit, is identified and developed for each general response action.

  9. Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report for Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, Howard S.

    2010-04-10

    This annual report summarizes maintenance, monitoring, and inspection activities performed to implement the selected remedy for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Results from monitoring perched water and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center are also presented.

  10. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit.

  11. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit, fifth round groundwater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-01-20

    The data from the chemical analysis of 68 samples from the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit Third Quarter 1993 Groundwater Sampling Investigation and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at the site. Sample analysis included inorganics and general chemical parameters. Fifty three samples were validated for radiochemical parameters.

  12. Saturated zone denitrification: potential for natural attenuation of nitrate contamination in shallow groundwater under dairy operations.

    PubMed

    Singleton, M J; Esser, B K; Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; McNab, W W; Harter, T

    2007-02-01

    We present results from field studies at two central California dairies that demonstrate the prevalence of saturated-zone denitrification in shallow groundwater with 3H/ 3He apparent ages of < 35 years. Concentrated animal feeding operations are suspected to be major contributors of nitrate to groundwater, but saturated zone denitrification could mitigate their impact to groundwater quality. Denitrification is identified and quantified using N and O stable isotope compositions of nitrate coupled with measurements of excess N2 and residual NO3(-) concentrations. Nitrate in dairy groundwater from this study has delta15N values (4.3-61 per thousand), and delta18O values (-4.5-24.5 per thousand) that plot with delta18O/delta15N slopes of 0.47-0.66, consistent with denitrification. Noble gas mass spectrometry is used to quantify recharge temperature and excess air content. Dissolved N2 is found at concentrations well above those expected for equilibrium with air or incorporation of excess air, consistent with reduction of nitrate to N2. Fractionation factors for nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate appear to be highly variable at a dairy site where denitrification is found in a laterally extensive anoxic zone 5 m below the water table, and at a second dairy site where denitrification occurs near the water table and is strongly influenced by localized lagoon seepage. PMID:17328180

  13. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  14. FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT FOR THE 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER OPERABLE UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES ME

    2008-07-18

    The Hanford Site, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), encompasses approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. In 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas of the Hanford Site on the 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300, 'National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan' National Contingency Plan [NCPD], Appendix B, 'National Priorities List' (NPL), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Areas NPL sites consist of the 200 West and 200 East Areas (Figure 1-1). The 200 Areas contain waste management facilities, inactive irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities, and the 200 North Area (formerly used for interim storage and staging of irradiated fuel). Several waste sites in the 600 Area, located near the 200 Areas, also are included in the 200 Areas NPL site. The 200 Areas NPL site is in a region referred to as the 'Central Plateau' and consists of approximately 700 waste sites, excluding sites assigned to the tank farm waste management areas (WMAs). The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) consists of the groundwater located under the northern portion of the 200 West Area. Waste sources that contributed to the 200-ZP-1 OU included cribs and trenches that received liquid and/or solid waste in the past from the Z Plant and T Plant aggregate areas, WMA-T, WMA-TX/TY, and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). This feasibility study (FS) for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater OU was prepared in accordance with the requirements of CERCLA decision documents. These decision documents are part of the Administrative Record for the selection of remedial actions for each waste site and present the selected remedial actions that are chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, and to the extent practicable

  15. Scoping Calculations for Potential Groundwater Impacts from Operation of the APT Facility at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Thibault, J.J.

    1999-10-07

    The purpose of this study was to determine the potential travel times and paths of the postulated activated groundwater beneath the facility and to examine the fate and transport of this activated groundwater.

  16. Groundwater phosphorus in forage-based landscape with cow-calf operation.

    PubMed

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Chase, Chad C

    2014-02-01

    Forage-based cow-calf operations may have detrimental impacts on the chemical status of groundwater and streams and consequently on the ecological and environmental status of surrounding ecosystems. Assessing and controlling phosphorus (P) inputs are, thus, considered the key to reducing eutrophication and managing ecological integrity. In this paper, we monitored and evaluated P concentrations of groundwater (GW) compared to the concentration of surface water (SW) P in forage-based landscape with managed cow-calf operations for 3 years (2007-2009). Groundwater samples were collected from three landscape locations along the slope gradient (GW1 10-30% slope, GW2 5-10% slope, and GW3 0-5% slope). Surface water samples were collected from the seepage area (SW 0% slope) located at the bottom of the landscape. Of the total P collected (averaged across year) in the landscape, 62.64% was observed from the seepage area or SW compared with 37.36% from GW (GW1 = 8.01%; GW2 = 10.92%; GW3 = 18.43%). Phosphorus in GW ranged from 0.02 to 0.20 mg L(-1) while P concentration in SW ranged from 0.25 to 0.71 mg L(-1). The 3-year average of P in GW of 0.09 mg L(-1) was lower than the recommended goal or the Florida's numeric nutrients standards (NNS) of 0.12 mg P L(-1). The 3-year average of P concentration in SW of 0.45 mg L(-1) was about fourfold higher than the Florida's NNS value. Results suggest that cow-calf operation in pasture-based landscape would contribute more P to SW than in the GW. The risk of GW contamination by P from animal agriculture production system is limited, while the solid forms of P subject to loss via soil erosion could be the major water quality risk from P. PMID:24150714

  17. Design, installation and operational methods of implementing horizontal wells for in situ groundwater and soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The design and installation of horizontal wells is the primary factor in the efficiency of the remedial actions. Often, inadequacies in the design and installation of remediation systems are not identified until remedial actions have commenced, at which time, required modifications of operational methods can be costly. The parameters required for designing a horizontal well remediation system include spatial variations in contaminant concentrations and lithology, achievable injection and/or extraction rates, area of influence from injection and/or extraction processes, and limitations of installation methods. As with vertical wells, there are several different methods for the installation of horizontal wells. This paper will summarize four installation methods for horizontal wells, including four sites where horizontal wells have been utilized for in-situ groundwater and soil remediation.

  18. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit first quarter 1994 groundwater sampling data

    SciTech Connect

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-24

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit First Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of twenty-four samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The samples were analyzed by Thermo-Analytic Laboratories (TMA) and Roy F. Weston Laboratories (WESTON) using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CLP protocols. Sample analyses included: inorganics; and general chemical parameters. Forty-two samples were validated for radiochemical parameters by TMA and Teledyne.

  19. Assessing the relationship between groundwater nitrate and animal feeding operations in Iowa (USA).

    PubMed

    Zirkle, Keith W; Nolan, Bernard T; Jones, Rena R; Weyer, Peter J; Ward, Mary H; Wheeler, David C

    2016-10-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen is a common contaminant of drinking water in many agricultural areas of the United States of America (USA). Ingested nitrate from contaminated drinking water has been linked to an increased risk of several cancers, specific birth defects, and other diseases. In this research, we assessed the relationship between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and groundwater nitrate in private wells in Iowa. We characterized AFOs by swine and total animal units and type (open, confined, or mixed), and we evaluated the number and spatial intensities of AFOs in proximity to private wells. The types of AFO indicate the extent to which a facility is enclosed by a roof. Using linear regression models, we found significant positive associations between the total number of AFOs within 2km of a well (p trend <0.001), number of open AFOs within 5km of a well (p trend <0.001), and number of mixed AFOs within 30km of a well (p trend <0.001) and the log nitrate concentration. Additionally, we found significant increases in log nitrate in the top quartiles for AFO spatial intensity, open AFO spatial intensity, and mixed AFO spatial intensity compared to the bottom quartile (0.171log(mg/L), 0.319log(mg/L), and 0.541log(mg/L), respectively; all p<0.001). We also explored the spatial distribution of nitrate-nitrogen in drinking wells and found significant spatial clustering of high-nitrate wells (>5mg/L) compared with low-nitrate (≤5mg/L) wells (p=0.001). A generalized additive model for high-nitrate status identified statistically significant areas of risk for high levels of nitrate. Adjustment for some AFO predictor variables explained a portion of the elevated nitrate risk. These results support a relationship between animal feeding operations and groundwater nitrate concentrations and differences in nitrate loss from confined AFOs vs. open or mixed types. PMID:27277210

  20. Record of Decision for Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater, Operable Unit 3-14

    SciTech Connect

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-16

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact to groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank farm soil and groundwater at INTEC. The response action selected in this ROD is necessary to protect the public health, welfare, or the environment from actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Such a release or threat of release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment. The remedial actions selected in this ROD are designed to reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment to acceptable levels. In addition, DOE-ID, EPA, and DEQ (the Agencies) have determined that no action is necessary under CERCLA to protect public health, welfare, or the environment at 16 sites located outside the tank farm boundary. The purposes of the selected remedy are to (1) contain contaminated soil as the radionuclides decay in place, (2) isolate current and future workers and biological receptors from contact with contaminated soil, and (3) restore the portion of Snake River Plain Aquifer contaminated by INTEC releases to Idaho Ground Water Quality

  1. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  2. Assessing the relationship between groundwater nitrate and animal feeding operations in Iowa (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zirkle, Keith W.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Jones, Rena R.; Weyer, Peter J.; Ward, Mary H.; Wheeler, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen is a common contaminant of drinking water in many agricultural areas of the United States of America (USA). Ingested nitrate from contaminated drinking water has been linked to an increased risk of several cancers, specific birth defects, and other diseases. In this research, we assessed the relationship between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and groundwater nitrate in private wells in Iowa. We characterized AFOs by swine and total animal units and type (open, confined, or mixed), and we evaluated the number and spatial intensities of AFOs in proximity to private wells. The types of AFO indicate the extent to which a facility is enclosed by a roof. Using linear regression models, we found significant positive associations between the total number of AFOs within 2 km of a well (p trend < 0.001), number of open AFOs within 5 km of a well (p trend < 0.001), and number of mixed AFOs within 30 km of a well (p trend < 0.001) and the log nitrate concentration. Additionally, we found significant increases in log nitrate in the top quartiles for AFO spatial intensity, open AFO spatial intensity, and mixed AFO spatial intensity compared to the bottom quartile (0.171 log(mg/L), 0.319 log(mg/L), and 0.541 log(mg/L), respectively; all p < 0.001). We also explored the spatial distribution of nitrate-nitrogen in drinking wells and found significant spatial clustering of high-nitrate wells (> 5 mg/L) compared with low-nitrate (≤ 5 mg/L) wells (p = 0.001). A generalized additive model for high-nitrate status identified statistically significant areas of risk for high levels of nitrate. Adjustment for some AFO predictor variables explained a portion of the elevated nitrate risk. These results support a relationship between animal feeding operations and groundwater nitrate concentrations and differences in nitrate loss from confined AFOs vs. open or mixed types.

  3. Data validation report for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, third round groundwater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, J.M.

    1994-03-31

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-FR-3 operable Unit Third Round Groundwater sampling investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of 51 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The report is broken down into sections for each chemical analysis and radiochemical analysis type. Each section addresses the data package completeness, holding time adherence, instrument calibration and tuning acceptability, blank results, accuracy, precision, system performance, as well as the compound identification and quantitation. In addition, each section has an overall assessment and summary for the data packages reviewed for the particular chemical/radiochemical analyses. Detailed backup information is provided to the reader by SDG No. and sample number. For each data package, a matrix of chemical analyses per sample number is presented, as well as data qualification summaries.

  4. A remotely operated, field deployable tritium analysis system for surface and groundwater measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, P.R.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Beals, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Collins, S.L.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.; Neary, M.P.; Peterson, R.

    1996-12-31

    A prototype system for the remote, in situ analysis of tritium in surface and ground waters has been developed at the Savannah River Site through the combined efforts of university, private industry, and government laboratory personnel under a project funded by the DOE/OTD. Using automated liquid scintillation counting techniques, the Field Deployable Tritium Analysis System (FDTAS) has been shown in laboratory and limited field tests to have sufficient sensitivity to measure tritium in water samples at environmental levels (10 Bq/L [{approximately}300 pCi/L] for a 100-minute count) on a near-real time basis. These limits are well below the EPA drinking water standard for tritium at 740 Bq/L (1) and lower than the normal upstream Savannah River tritium concentration of {approximately}40 Bq/L (2). The FDTAS consists of a fixed volume sampler (50 mL), an on-line water purification system, and a stop-flow liquid scintillation counter for detecting tritium in the purified sample. All operations are controlled and monitored by a remote computer using standard telephone line modem communications. The FDTAS offers a cost-effective alternative to the expensive and time-consuming methods of field sample collection and laboratory analyses for tritium in contaminated groundwater.

  5. REMOVAL OF DBCP FROM GROUNDWATER. VOLUME 2. FIELD PILOT PLANT OPERATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Static bottle-point and dynamic Freundlich adsorption isotherm determinations were performed on groundwaters containing different pesticide contaminants: 1, 2- dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), ethylenedibromide (EDB), and 1, 2- dichloropropane (DCP). Field tests were carried out u...

  6. REMOVAL OF DBCP FROM GROUNDWATER - VOLUME 2 - FIELD PILOT PLANT OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Static bottle-point and dynamic Freundlich adsorption isotherm determinations were performed on groundwaters containing different pesticide contaminants: , 2- dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), ethylenedibromide (EDB), and 1, 2-dichloropropane (DCP). ield tests were carried out unde...

  7. Unorthodox method of calculating the activation of groundwater by routine SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    A novel method for estimating the groundwater activation in the environs of the SSC collider ring tunnel is developed. This method, based on the Moyer model, may provide a simpler approach to such estimates and also a check for existing methods. One such method is compared. (LSP)

  8. Remedial investigation work plan for the Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan has been developed as part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the GWOU RI Work Plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide the ORNL GWOU RI. The Work Plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It Is important to note that the RI Work Plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. The RI will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This Work Plan outlines the overall strategy for the RI and defines tasks which are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  9. Modeling groundwater-surface water interactions in an operational setting by linking object- oriented river basin management model (RiverWare) with 3-D finite-difference groundwater model (MODFLOW).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, A.; Rajaram, H.; Zagona, E.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate representation of groundwater-surface water interactions is critical to modeling low river flow periods in riparian environments in the semi-arid southwestern United States. As an example, over-appropriation of human water use in the Middle Rio Grande region adversely impacts the habitat of the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow. Improved management practices during low flow conditions could prevent channel desiccation and habitat destruction. We present a modeling tool with significant potential for improved decision-making in stream reaches influenced by significant surface-groundwater interactions. While river basin management models typically represent operational complexities such as human elements of water demand and consumption with a high degree of sophistication, they often represent groundwater-surface water interactions semi-empirically or at coarse resolution. In contrast, distributed groundwater models, with an adequately fine grid represent groundwater-surface water interactions accurately, but seldom incorporate complex details of water rights and user demands. To best exploit the strengths of both classes of models, we have developed a link between the object-oriented river management software package RiverWare and the USGS groundwater modeling program MODFLOW. An interactive time stepping approach is used in the linked model. RiverWare and MODFLOW run in parallel exchanging data after each time-step. This linked framework incorporates several features critical to modeling groundwater-surface interactions in riparian zones, including riparian ET, localized variations in seepage rates and rule-based water allocations to users and/or environmental flows, and is expected to be an improved tool for modeling groundwater-surface water interaction in regions where groundwater storage repose to changing river conditions is rapid. The performance of the linked model is illustrated through applications on the Rio Grande in the vicinity of

  10. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, July 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. This report presents groundwater geochemical and selected CVOC data collected at Operable Unit 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey during July 9–18, 2013, in support of longterm monitoring for natural attenuation. Groundwater samples were collected from 13 wells and 9 piezometers, as well as from 10 shallow groundwater passive-diffusion sampling sites in the nearby marsh. Samples from all wells and piezometers were analyzed for oxidation-reduction (redox) sensitive constituents and dissolved gases. Samples from all piezometers and four wells also were analyzed for CVOCs, as were all samples from the passive-diffusion sampling sites. In 2013, concentrations of redox-sensitive constituents measured at all wells and piezometers were consistent with those measured in previous years, with dissolved oxygen concentrations at all except an upgradient well 0.2 milligrams per liter or less; little to no detectable nitrate; abundant dissolved manganese, iron, and methane; and commonly detected sulfide. In the upper aquifer of the northern plantation in 2013, CVOC concentrations at all piezometers were similar to those measured in previous years, and concentrations of the reductive dechlorination byproducts ethane and ethene were slightly lower or the same as concentrations measured in 2012. In the upper aquifer of the southern plantation, CVOC concentrations measured in piezometers during 2013 continued to be variable as in previous years, and often very high, and reductive dechlorination byproducts were detected in two of the three

  11. A Numerical Study for Groundwater Flow, Heat and Solute Transport Associated with Operation of Open-loop Geothermal System in Alluvial Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Lee, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    The open-loop geothermal system directly uses a relatively stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as an eco-friendly, energy-saving, and cost-efficient technique. The facility for this system was installed at a site located near Paldang-dam in Han-river, Korea. Because of the well-developed alluvium, the site might be appropriate to application of this system requiring extraction and injection of a large amount of groundwater. A simple numerical experiment assuming various hydrogeologic conditions demonstrated that regional groundwater flow direction was the most important factor for efficient operation of facility in this site having a highly permeable layer. However, a comparison of river stage data and groundwater level measurements showed that the daily and seasonal controls of water level at Paldang-dam have had a critical influence on the regional groundwater flow in the site. Moreover, nitrate concentrations measured in the monitoring wells gave indication of the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality. The facility operation, such as extraction and injection of groundwater, will obviously affect transport of the agricultural contaminant and, maybe, it will even cause serious problems in the normal operation. Particularly, the high-permeable layer in this aquifer must be a preferential path for quick spreadings of thermal and contaminant plumes. The objective of this study was to find an efficient, safe and stable operation plan of the open-loop geothermal system installed in this site having the complicated conditions of highly permeable layer, variable regional groundwater flow, and agricultural contamination. Numerical simulations for groundwater flow, heat and solute transport were carried out to analyze all the changes in groundwater level and flow, temperature, and quality according to the operation, respectively. Results showed that an operation plan for

  12. Transient Inverse Calibration of Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Model to Hanford Operational Impacts - 1943 to 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Thorne, Paul D.; Orr, Samuel; Mckinley, Mathew I.

    2001-05-31

    This report describes a new initiative to strengthen the technical defensibility of predictions made with the Hanford site-wide groundwater flow and transport model. The focus is on characterizing major uncertainties in the current model. PNNL will develop and implement a calibration approach and methodology that can be used to evaluate alternative conceptual models of the Hanford aquifer system. The calibration process will involve a three-dimensional transient inverse calibration of each numerical model to historical observations of hydraulic and water quality impacts to the unconfined aquifer system from Hanford operations since the mid-1940s.

  13. Statement of Work for Drilling Five CERCLA Groundwater Monitoring Wells During Fiscal Year 2006, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Bruce A.

    2005-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the regulators have agreed that two characterization wells along with three additional performance monitoring wells shall be installed in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit as defined in the proposed Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement [TPA]) Milestone M-24-57 and the 300-FF-5 Limited Field Investigation plan (DOE/RL-2005-47). This document contains the statement of work required to drill, characterize, and construct the proposed groundwater monitoring wells during FY 2006.

  14. Extension of the hybrid linear programming method to optimize simultaneously the design and operation of groundwater utilization systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostan, Mohamad; Hadi Afshar, Mohamad; Khadem, Majed

    2015-04-01

    This article proposes a hybrid linear programming (LP-LP) methodology for the simultaneous optimal design and operation of groundwater utilization systems. The proposed model is an extension of an earlier LP-LP model proposed by the authors for the optimal operation of a set of existing wells. The proposed model can be used to optimally determine the number, configuration and pumping rates of the operational wells out of potential wells with fixed locations to minimize the total cost of utilizing a two-dimensional confined aquifer under steady-state flow conditions. The model is able to take into account the well installation, piping and pump installation costs in addition to the operational costs, including the cost of energy and maintenance. The solution to the problem is defined by well locations and their pumping rates, minimizing the total cost while satisfying a downstream demand, lower/upper bound on the pumping rates, and lower/upper bound on the water level drawdown at the wells. A discretized version of the differential equation governing the flow is first embedded into the model formulation as a set of additional constraints. The resulting mixed-integer highly constrained nonlinear optimization problem is then decomposed into two subproblems with different sets of decision variables, one with a piezometric head and the other with the operational well locations and the corresponding pumping rates. The binary variables representing the well locations are approximated by a continuous variable leading to two LP subproblems. Having started with a random value for all decision variables, the two subproblems are solved iteratively until convergence is achieved. The performance and ability of the proposed method are tested against a hypothetical problem from the literature and the results are presented and compared with those obtained using a mixed-integer nonlinear programming method. The results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method for

  15. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.; Frans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with ongoing natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the U.S. Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The U.S. Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. This report presents groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data collected at Operable Unit 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey during June 20-22, 2011, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. In 2011, groundwater samples were collected from 13 wells and 9 piezometers. Samples from all wells and piezometers were analyzed for redox sensitive constituents and dissolved gases, and samples from 5 of 13 wells and all piezometers also were analyzed for chlorinated volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of redox sensitive constituents measured in 2011 were consistent with previous years, with dissolved oxygen concentrations all at 0.4 milligram per liter or less; little to no detectable nitrate; abundant dissolved manganese, iron, and methane; and commonly detected sulfide. The reductive declorination byproducts - methane, ethane, and ethene - were either not detected in samples collected from the upgradient wells in the landfill and the upper aquifer beneath the northern phytoremediation plantation or were detected at concentrations less than those measured in 2010. Chlorinated volatile organic compound concentrations in 2011 at most piezometers

  16. Data management implementation plan for the site characterization of the Waste Area Grouping 1 Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, T.S.; Nickle, E.B.

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization. This project is not mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); therefore, no formalized meetings for data quality objective (DQO) development were held. Internally, DQOs were generated by the project team based on the end uses of the data to be collected. The 150-acre WAG 1 is contained within the ORNL security area. It includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative facilities. The goal of the WAG 1 Groundwater Site Characterization is to provide the necessary data on the nature and extent of groundwater contamination with an acceptable level of uncertainty to support the selection of remedial alternatives and to identify additional data needs for future actions. Primary objectives for the site characterization are: (1) To identify and characterize contaminant migration pathways based on the collection of groundwater data; (2) to identify sources of groundwater contamination and evaluate remedial actions which could be implemented to control or eliminate these sources; and (3) To conduct groundwater monitoring in support of other OUs in WAG 1 and the ORNL Groundwater OU.

  17. An evaluation of the impact of recent flooding on the operation of a groundwater extraction and treatment system at a Superfund Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gavett, K.L.; Fiore, M.J.; Meyer, E.J.

    1994-12-31

    A groundwater extraction and treatment system was installed in 1987 at the Des Moines TCE Superfund Site. The purpose of the system is to prevent groundwater contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from migrating toward an infiltration gallery system which supplies drinking water to the City of Des Moines, Iowa. The extraction system was not operating for a three week period in July and August when the system was flooded by the nearby Raccoon collected as part of a monitoring program have been s the affect of flooding on the operation of the system. Records indicate that the flood did not have a long-term impact on the Performance of the system. An examination of groundwater levels show that groundwater elevations receded quickly after the flood, similar to patterns observed after other periods of heavy precipitation. In fact, data collected nine weeks after the extraction system was returned to service indicate that the system continues to meet its containment objective. Water quality records indicate that the affect of the 1993 flood was similar to trends Observed after earlier periods of heavy precipitation. Trichloroethene concentrations in the treatment system influent and in wells located in the vicinity of suspected source areas increased as a result of rising groundwater levels, and infiltration through residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Groundwater quality in areas beyond suspected source areas does not appear to have been affected by the 1993 flood.

  18. Contaminated land and groundwater management at Sellafield, a large operational site with significant legacy and contaminated land challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Phil; Eilbeck, Katherine

    2007-07-01

    Sellafield is a former Royal Ordnance Factory used since the 1940's for the production and reprocessing of fissile materials. Leaks and spills from these plants and their associated waste facilities has led to radioactive contaminated ground legacy of up to 20 million m{sup 3}. Consideration of land contamination at Sellafield began in 1976, following discovery of a major leak from a waste storage silo. Over the past three decades there has been a programme of environmental monitoring and several phases of characterization. The latest phase of characterization is a pounds 10 million contract to develop second generation conceptual and numeric models. The Site Licence Company that operates the site has been subject to structural changes due to reorganizations within the British nuclear industry. There has also been a change in emphasis to place an increased importance on accelerated decommissioning. To address these challenges a new contaminated land team and contaminated land and groundwater management plan have been established. Setting and measuring performance against challenging objectives is important. The management plan has to be cognizant of the long timescales (ca. 80 years) for final remediation. Data review, collation, acquisition, analysis, and storage is critical for success. It is equally important to seize opportunities for early environmental gains. It is possible to accelerate the development and delivery of a contaminated land and groundwater management plan by using international experts. (authors)

  19. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    SciTech Connect

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  20. Soils and groundwater cleanup at Fernald: A status update on Operable Unit No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Yerace, P.J.; Bomberger, A.K.; Brettschneider, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses a status update on the cleanup operations at FERNALD. Discussed is the regulatory framework for FERNALD cleanup; overview of the FERNALD site; description of operable unit 5;remedial investigation; pattern of contamination; feasibility studies; and tangible progress to date.

  1. Influence of operating conditions on electrochemical reduction of nitrate in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenli; Li, Miao; Zhang, Baogang; Feng, Chuanping; Lei, Xiaohui; Xu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    The influences of current density, initial pH, cation and anion concentrations, and the coexistence of Ca2+ and HCO3- on the efficiency of electrochemical nitrate reduction by a copper cathode and Ti/IrO2 anode in an undivided cell were studied. In the presence of 5 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl), the nitrate-nitrogen concentration decreased from 3.57 to 0.69 mM in 120 minutes, and no ammonia or nitrite byproducts were detected. The nitrate reduction rate increased as the current density increased. The electrochemical method performed well at an initial pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The rate of nitrate reduction increased as concentrations of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ increased. The anion of the supporting electrolyte decreased the rate of reduction in the order Cl- > HCO3(2-) = CO3(2-) > SO4(2-) at both 5 mM and 10 mM of anion. The coexistence of Ca2+ and HCO3- ions could inhibit nitrate reduction. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen in polluted groundwater decreased from 2.80 to 0.31 mM after electrolysis for 120 minutes. PMID:23581237

  2. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit.

  3. Supporting evaluation for the proposed plan for final remedial action for the groundwater operable unit at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri.

    SciTech Connect

    2003-08-06

    This report presents the technical information developed since the interim record of decision (IROD) was issued in September 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] 2000). The information was incorporated into the evaluation that was performed in selecting the preferred alternative for the Chemical Plant groundwater operable unit (GWOU) of the Weldon Spring site. The contaminants of concern (COCs) in groundwater and springs are trichloroethylene (TCE), nitrate, uranium, and nitroaromatic compounds. The preferred alternative of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) coupled with institutional controls (ICs) and contingency activities is described in the ''Proposed Plan (PP) for Final Remedial Action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri'' (DOE 2003b).

  4. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, R.L.; Dinicola, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that natural attenuation and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1), Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with ongoing natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the U.S. Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The U.S. Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated VOCs in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. This report presents groundwater geochemical and selected VOC data collected at OU 1 by the USGS during June 15-17, 2009, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. For 2009, groundwater samples were collected from 13 wells and 9 piezometers. Samples from all wells and piezometers were analyzed for redox sensitive constituents, and samples from 10 of 18 upper-aquifer wells and piezometers and 3 of 4 intermediate-aquifer wells also were analyzed for chlorinated VOCs. Concentrations of redox sensitive constituents measured in 2009 were consistent with previous years, with dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentrations ranging from less than 0.1 to 1.8 nanomolar (nM), dissolved oxygen concentrations all at 0.6 milligram per liter or less; little to no detectable nitrate; abundant dissolved manganese, iron, and methane; and commonly detected sulfide. The reductive declorination byproducts-methane, ethane, and ethene-were not detected in samples collected from the upgradient wells in the landfill or the upper aquifer beneath the northern phytoremediation plantation. Chlorinated VOC concentrations in 2009 at most piezometers were similar to or slightly less

  5. B-10 enriched boric acid, bromide, and heat as tracers of recycled groundwater flow near managed aquifer recharge operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. F.; Becker, T.; Johnson, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recycling wastewater for potable and nonpotable use by artificially recharging aquifers is a decades-old but increasingly popular practice. Natural attenuation processes in the subsurface, known as soil aquifer treatment (SAT), purify recycled water during recharge and subsequent groundwater flow. Travel time criteria are often used to regulate managed aquifer recharge (MAR) operations. California state draft regulations currently gives preference to groundwater tracers to quantify underground residence time, with a target retention time of >6 months from infiltration to drinking water extraction for surface spreading projects using tertiary treated wastewater (less time may be possible if full advanced treated water is utilized). In the past sulfur hexafluoride, a very strong greenhouse gas, has been the principle deliberate tracer for this work. However, its emission has recently become regulated in California and new tracers are needed. Here, two prospective tracers are evaluated: boron-10 (B-10), the least abundant boron isotope, and heat (with recharging water naturally warmed at the sewage treatment plants and in surface-spreading basins). An additional deliberate tracer, bromide (Br), which is a well-studied conservative tracer, was released as a control. Tracer injection occurred at the San Gabriel Spreading Grounds research test basin in Los Angeles County, CA, USA. The basin was constructed and characterized by the US Geological Survey in the mid-1990s. Recycled wastewater was piped directly to this basin at a known rate (about 1.5 m3/day). Down gradient from the test basin are nine high quality monitoring wells in a line that extends from the center of the basin to 150 m down gradient. All of the wells were equipped with temperature loggers that recorded groundwater temperatures every hour with an accuracy of one thousandth of a degree. The pre-experiment expected arrival times ranged from less than one day to six months. Arrival of Br was always

  6. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    SciTech Connect

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  7. Response of ground-water levels of flood control operations in three basins, south-eastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Three basins in southeastern Florida were investigated to determine the changes in ground-water levels and canal flows that occurred in response to operation of coastal water-control structures in each canal. All three basins are underlain by the Biscayne aquifer. They are, Snapper Creek Canal basin, where the Biscayne aquifer is of high permeability; the Snake Creek Canal basin, where the aquifer is of moderate permeability; and the Pompano-Cypress Canal basin, where the aquifer is of low permeability. In each basin, drainage is a function of permeability; thus, where the permeability of the aquifer is high, drainage is excellent. The coastal water-conrol structures are intended to afford flood protection in the three basins. In general the control operation criteria for flood control in newly developing areas in southeastern Florida do not provide adequate protection from flooding because of the time required for the aquifer to respond to changes in the controls. Adequate protection would require increasing the density of secondary drainage canals, but this could achieved only by reducing the quantity of water available for recharging those segments of the Biscayne aquifer adjacent to the canals. (Woodrad-USGS)

  8. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  9. Groundwater Contamination Due to Activities of an Intensive Hog Farming Operation Located on a Geologic Fault in East Mediterranean: A Study on COD, BOD₅ and Microbial Load.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Liodakis, Stylianos

    2016-02-01

    The application of treated animal wastewater produced in intensive fog farming operations (IHFOs) on surface soil, leads to groundwater contamination. In this study, the contamination of a Mediterranean aquifer caused by long-term application of treated wastewater, produced by an IHFO, on a plot with a geologic fault within the IHFO boundaries, was investigated. Groundwater samples were taken from monitoring wells close to the IHFO. A significant increase of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total viable count (TVC) and total coliform (TC) concentrations was found in wells, compared to control monitoring well, which were mainly affected by the subsurface flow of contaminated water, due to the presence of the geologic fault. During the winter, significant increases in concentrations of COD, BOD5, TVC and TC were noted and attributed to increased precipitation, which assisted in the accelerated transport of organic compounds and microbial load, through geologic fault, to groundwater. PMID:26290314

  10. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  11. Groundwater and Distribution Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, John E.

    Presented is a student manual designed for the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Groundwater and Distribution Training Course. This program introduces waterworks operators-in-training to basic skills and knowledge required for the operation of a groundwater distribution waterworks facility. Arranged according to the general order…

  12. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  13. Elevated levels of diesel range organic compounds in groundwater near Marcellus gas operations are derived from surface activities.

    PubMed

    Drollette, Brian D; Hoelzer, Kathrin; Warner, Nathaniel R; Darrah, Thomas H; Karatum, Osman; O'Connor, Megan P; Nelson, Robert K; Fernandez, Loretta A; Reddy, Christopher M; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L

    2015-10-27

    Hundreds of organic chemicals are used during natural gas extraction via high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). However, it is unclear whether these chemicals, injected into deep shale horizons, reach shallow groundwater aquifers and affect local water quality, either from those deep HVHF injection sites or from the surface or shallow subsurface. Here, we report detectable levels of organic compounds in shallow groundwater samples from private residential wells overlying the Marcellus Shale in northeastern Pennsylvania. Analyses of purgeable and extractable organic compounds from 64 groundwater samples revealed trace levels of volatile organic compounds, well below the Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels, and low levels of both gasoline range (0-8 ppb) and diesel range organic compounds (DRO; 0-157 ppb). A compound-specific analysis revealed the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which is a disclosed HVHF additive, that was notably absent in a representative geogenic water sample and field blanks. Pairing these analyses with (i) inorganic chemical fingerprinting of deep saline groundwater, (ii) characteristic noble gas isotopes, and (iii) spatial relationships between active shale gas extraction wells and wells with disclosed environmental health and safety violations, we differentiate between a chemical signature associated with naturally occurring saline groundwater and one associated with alternative anthropogenic routes from the surface (e.g., accidental spills or leaks). The data support a transport mechanism of DRO to groundwater via accidental release of fracturing fluid chemicals derived from the surface rather than subsurface flow of these fluids from the underlying shale formation. PMID:26460018

  14. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  15. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime`s, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  16. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODs) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regimes, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This remedial investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the feasibility study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  17. Elevated levels of diesel range organic compounds in groundwater near Marcellus gas operations are derived from surface activities

    PubMed Central

    Drollette, Brian D.; Hoelzer, Kathrin; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Karatum, Osman; O’Connor, Megan P.; Nelson, Robert K.; Fernandez, Loretta A.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L.

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of organic chemicals are used during natural gas extraction via high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). However, it is unclear whether these chemicals, injected into deep shale horizons, reach shallow groundwater aquifers and affect local water quality, either from those deep HVHF injection sites or from the surface or shallow subsurface. Here, we report detectable levels of organic compounds in shallow groundwater samples from private residential wells overlying the Marcellus Shale in northeastern Pennsylvania. Analyses of purgeable and extractable organic compounds from 64 groundwater samples revealed trace levels of volatile organic compounds, well below the Environmental Protection Agency’s maximum contaminant levels, and low levels of both gasoline range (0–8 ppb) and diesel range organic compounds (DRO; 0–157 ppb). A compound-specific analysis revealed the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which is a disclosed HVHF additive, that was notably absent in a representative geogenic water sample and field blanks. Pairing these analyses with (i) inorganic chemical fingerprinting of deep saline groundwater, (ii) characteristic noble gas isotopes, and (iii) spatial relationships between active shale gas extraction wells and wells with disclosed environmental health and safety violations, we differentiate between a chemical signature associated with naturally occurring saline groundwater and one associated with alternative anthropogenic routes from the surface (e.g., accidental spills or leaks). The data support a transport mechanism of DRO to groundwater via accidental release of fracturing fluid chemicals derived from the surface rather than subsurface flow of these fluids from the underlying shale formation. PMID:26460018

  18. Temperature and energy deficit in the ground during operation and recovery phases of closed-loop ground source heat pump system: Effect of the groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Selcuk; Francois, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    The advection/dispersion mechanism of the groundwater flow in the ground has a significant effect on a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) to enhance its thermal performance. However, the amount of energy extracted from the ground never disappears and only shifts with the magnitude of the effective thermal velocity in the infinite domain. In this work, we focus on the temperature and the energy balance of the ground in an advection/dispersion dominated heat transfer system during the operation period of a BHE and the subsequent recovery phase when the system is idle. The problem is treated with single BHE and multi-BHEs systems, for different representative geology and different groundwater flow velocity. In order to assess the thermal energy deficit due to heat extraction from the ground, we used the finite line source analytical model, developed recently (Erol et al., 2015) that provides the temperature distributions around the boreholes for discontinuous heat extraction. The model is developed based on the Green's function, which is the solution of heat conduction/advection/dispersion equation in porous media, for discontinuous heat extraction by analytically convoluting rectangular function or pulses in time domain. The results demonstrate the significant positive impact of the groundwater flow for the recovery in terms of temperature deficit at the location of the borehole. However, the total thermal energy deficit is not affected by the groundwater movement. The energy balance of the ground is the same no matter the prevailing heat transfer system, which can be only conduction or advection/dispersion. In addition, the energy balance of the ground is not based on either the duration of the production period operation or of the recovery phase, but depends on the total amount of heat that is extracted and on the bulk volumetric heat capacity of the ground.

  19. Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci and Fecal Indicators in Surface Water and Groundwater Impacted by a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Curriero, Frank C.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2007-01-01

    Background The nontherapeutic use of antibiotics in swine feed can select for antibiotic resistance in swine enteric bacteria. Leaking swine waste storage pits and the land-application of swine manure can result in the dispersion of resistant bacteria to water sources. However, there are few data comparing levels of resistant bacteria in swine manure–impacted water sources versus unaffected sources. Objectives The goal of this study was to analyze surface water and groundwater situated up and down gradient from a swine facility for antibiotic-resistant enterococci and other fecal indicators. Methods Surface water and groundwater samples (n = 28) were collected up and down gradient from a swine facility from 2002 to 2004. Fecal indicators were isolated by membrane filtration, and enterococci (n = 200) were tested for susceptibility to erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, virginiamycin, and vancomycin. Results Median concentrations of enterococci, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli were 4- to 33-fold higher in down-gradient versus up-gradient surface water and groundwater. We observed higher minimal inhibitory concentrations for four antibiotics in enterococci isolated from down-gradient versus up-gradient surface water and groundwater. Elevated percentages of erythromycin- (p = 0.02) and tetracycline-resistant (p = 0.06) enterococci were detected in down-gradient surface waters, and higher percentages of tetracycline- (p = 0.07) and clindamycin-resistant (p < 0.001) enterococci were detected in down-gradient groundwater. Conclusions We detected elevated levels of fecal indicators and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in water sources situated down gradient from a swine facility compared with up-gradient sources. These findings provide additional evidence that water contaminated with swine manure could contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:17637920

  20. Large-Scale Pumping Test Recommendations for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.

    2010-09-08

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently assessing aquifer characterization needs to optimize pump-and-treat remedial strategies (e.g., extraction well pumping rates, pumping schedule/design) in the 200-ZP-1 operable unit (OU), and in particular for the immediate area of the 241 TX-TY Tank Farm. Specifically, CHPRC is focusing on hydrologic characterization opportunities that may be available for newly constructed and planned ZP-1 extraction wells. These new extraction wells will be used to further refine the 3-dimensional subsurface contaminant distribution within this area and will be used in concert with other existing pump-and-treat wells to remediate the existing carbon tetrachloride contaminant plume. Currently, 14 extraction wells are actively used in the Interim Record of Decision ZP-1 pump-and-treat system for the purpose of remediating the existing carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater within this general area. As many as 20 new extraction wells and 17 injection wells may be installed to support final pump-and-treat operations within the OU area. It should be noted that although the report specifically refers to the 200-ZP-1 OU, the large-scale test recommendations are also applicable to the adjacent 200-UP-1 OU area. This is because of the similar hydrogeologic conditions exhibited within these two adjoining OU locations.

  1. Transient Inverse Calibration of Site-Wide Groundwater Model to Hanford Operational Impacts from 1943 to 1996--Alternative Conceptual Model Considering Interaction with Uppermost Basalt Confined Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Thorne, Paul D.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2001-08-29

    The baseline three-dimensional transient inverse model for the estimation of site-wide scale flow parameters, including their uncertainties, using data on the transient behavior of the unconfined aquifer system over the entire historical period of Hanford operations, has been modified to account for the effects of basalt intercommunication between the Hanford unconfined aquifer and the underlying upper basalt confined aquifer. Both the baseline and alternative conceptual models (ACM-1) considered only the groundwater flow component and corresponding observational data in the 3-Dl transient inverse calibration efforts. Subsequent efforts will examine both groundwater flow and transport. Comparisons of goodness of fit measures and parameter estimation results for the ACM-1 transient inverse calibrated model with those from previous site-wide groundwater modeling efforts illustrate that the new 3-D transient inverse model approach will strengthen the technical defensibility of the final model(s) and provide the ability to incorporate uncertainty in predictions related to both conceptual model and parameter uncertainty. These results, however, indicate that additional improvements are required to the conceptual model framework. An investigation was initiated at the end of this basalt inverse modeling effort to determine whether facies-based zonation would improve specific yield parameter estimation results (ACM-2). A description of the justification and methodology to develop this zonation is discussed.

  2. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June and September 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation at the site. This report presents groundwater geochemical and selected CVOC data collected at Operable Unit 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey during June 23–25 and September 4, 2014, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. Groundwater samples were collected from 13 wells and 9 piezometers, as well as from 10 shallow groundwater passive-diffusion sampling sites in the nearby marsh. Samples from all wells and piezometers were analyzed for oxidation-reduction (redox) sensitive constituents and dissolved gases. Samples from all piezometers and four wells also were analyzed for CVOCs, as were all samples from the passive-diffusion sampling sites. In 2014, concentrations of redox-sensitive constituents measured at all wells and piezometers were consistent with those measured in previous years, with dissolved oxygen concentrations all less than 1 milligram per liter; little to no detectable nitrate; abundant dissolved manganese, iron, and methane; and commonly detected sulfide. In the upper aquifer of the northern plantation in 2014, CVOC concentrations at all piezometers were similar to those measured in previous years, and concentrations of the reductive dechlorination byproducts ethane and ethene were slightly lower or the same as concentrations measured in 2013. In the upper aquifer of the southern plantation, CVOC concentrations measured in piezometers during 2014 continued to be variable as in previous years, often high, and reductive dechlorination byproducts were detected in one of the three wells and in all but two piezometers. Beneath the marsh

  3. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June and October 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. This report presents groundwater geochemical and selected chlorinated volatile organic compound data collected at Operable Unit 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey during June and October 2012, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. Groundwater samples were collected from 13 wells and 9 piezometers, as well as from 10 shallow groundwater passive-diffusion sampling sites in the nearby marsh. Samples from all wells and piezometers were analyzed for oxidation-reduction (redox) sensitive constituents and dissolved gases. Samples from all piezometers also were analyzed for chlorinated volatile organic compounds, as were all samples from the passive-diffusion sampling sites. In 2012, concentrations of redox-sensitive constituents measured at all wells and piezometers were consistent with those measured in previous years, with dissolved oxygen concentrations all at 0.4 milligram per liter or less; little to no detectable nitrate; abundant dissolved manganese, iron, and methane; and commonly detected sulfide. In the upper aquifer of the northern plantation in 2012, chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) concentrations at all piezometers were similar to those measured in previous years, and concentrations of the reductive dechlorination byproducts ethane and ethene were slightly higher or the same as concentrations measured in 2011. In the upper aquifer of the southern plantation, CVOC concentrations measured in piezometers during 2012 continued to be extremely variable as in previous years, and often very high

  4. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report - Designing a Groundwater Monitoring Network for the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Edward C.; Lindberg, Jon W.

    2002-09-30

    This document presents the results of a series of interviews held with technical, management, and regulatory staff to determine the groundwater data quality objectives (DQOs) for monitoring activities associated with the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 operable units located in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This assessment is needed to address changing contaminant plume conditions (e.g., plume migration) and to ensure that monitoring activities meet the requirements for performance monitoring as prescribed by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) past practice, and Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) regulatory requirements and orders.

  5. Biodegradation of chloroethene compounds in groundwater at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, 1999-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Flux calculations based on 2010 data indicate that 95 percent of dissolved-phase chloroethenes in the upper aquifer beneath the southern landfill were degraded before discharging to surface water. Overall, biodegradation of chloroethenes in groundwater throughout OU 1 continued through 2010, and it prevented most of the mass of dissolved-phase chloroethenes in the upper aquifer beneath the landfill from discharging to surface water.

  6. Evaluating 10B-enriched Boric Acid, Bromide, and Heat as Tracers of Recycled Groundwater Flow near MAR Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T.; Clark, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled with the unpredictability of a changing climate, the projected growth in human population over the next century requires new and innovative ways to augment already-depleted water supplies. An increasingly popular and promising development is managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a cost-effective method of intentionally storing potable water in groundwater aquifers at engineered sites worldwide. Reclaimed (or recycled) water, defined as cleaned and treated wastewater, will account for a larger portion of MAR water in future years. A crucial component for managing groundwater recharged with reclaimed water is its subsurface travel time. The California Department of Public Health (CDPH), with the most recent draft of regulations issued on November 21, 2011, requires the application of groundwater tracers to demonstrate subsurface residence time. Residence time increases the quality of reclaimed water via soil-aquifer treatment (SAT), which includes mechanisms such as sorption, biological degradation, and microbial inactivation to remove potential contaminants or pathogens. This study addresses the need for an appropriate tracer to determine groundwater residence times near MAR facilities. Standard shallow groundwater dating techniques, such as T/3He and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) methods, cannot be used because their uncertainties are typically ± 2 years, longer than the target CDPH retention time of ~6 months. These methods also cannot map preferential flow paths. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a nonreactive synthetic gas, is well-established as a deliberate tracer for determining subsurface travel time; however, SF6 is a very strong greenhouse gas and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) is regulating its emission. Other tracers, such as noble gas isotopes, that have successfully determined subsurface retention times are impractical due to their high cost. A multi-tracer experiment at the San Gabriel Spreading Grounds test basin (Montebello Forebay, Los Angeles

  7. Investigation of the influence of groundwater advection on energy extraction rates for sustainable borehole heat exchanger operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelenz, Sophie; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    A sustainable thermal exploitation of the shallow subsurface requires a precise understanding of all relevant heat transport processes. Currently, planning practice of shallow geothermal systems (especially for systems < 30 kW) focuses on conductive heat transport as the main energy source while the impact of groundwater flow as the driver for advective heat transport is neglected or strongly simplified. The presented study proves that those simplifications of complex geological and hydrogeological subsurface characteristics are insufficient for a precise evaluation of site-specific energy extraction rates. Based on synthetic model scenarios with varying subsurface conditions (groundwater flow velocity and aquifer thickness) the impact of advection on induced long term temperature changes in 5 and 10 m distance of the borehole heat exchanger is presented. Extending known investigations, this study enhances the evaluation of shallow geothermal energy extraction rates by considering conductive and advective heat transport under varying aquifer thicknesses. Further, it evaluates the impact of advection on installation lengths of the borehole heat exchanger to optimize the initial financial investment. Finally, an evaluation approach is presented that classifies relevant heat transport processes according to their Péclet number to enable a first quantitative assessment of the subsurface energy regime and recommend further investigation and planning procedures.

  8. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  9. Aquifer Testing Recommendations for Well 299-W15-225: Supporting Phase I of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Design

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2009-03-10

    Aquifer characterization needs are currently being assessed to optimize pump-and-treat remedial strategies within the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit (OU), specifically for the immediate area of the 241-TX-TY Tank Farm. Currently, 14 extraction wells are actively used in the Interim Record of Decision ZP-1 pump-and-treat system to remediate the existing groundwater contamination within this general area. Four of these wells (299-W15-40, 299-W15-43, 299-W15-44, and 299-W15-765) are targeted to remediate contamination within the immediate 241-TX-TY Tank Farm area. The major contaminant of concern (COC) for the 200-ZP-1 OU is carbon tetrachloride. Other COC’s include total chromium (trivalent [III] and hexavalent [VI], nitrate, trichloroethlyene, iodine-129, technetium-99, and tritium.

  10. Development and Operation of a Passive-Flow Treatment System for (Sup 90)Sr-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, P.S.; Taylor, P.A.

    1999-02-28

    Seep C was a free-flowing stream of groundwater that emerged in a narrow valley below the old low-level waste (LLW) disposal trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 5 (SWSA 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The flow rate of the seep water was strongly influenced by rainfall, and typically ranged from 0.5 to 8 L/min. The seep water entered Melton Branch, a small stream that joins White Oak Creek before exiting the ORNL boundary. The seep water contained high concentrations of {sup 90}Sr (10,000 to 20,000 Bq/L) and, before the full-scale treatment system was installed, contributed about 25% of all the {sup 90}Sr leaving ORNL. Seep C was identified as a primary source of off-site contaminant transport and was designated for an early removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). A passive flow treatment system was chosen as the most cost-effective method for treating the water.

  11. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    SciTech Connect

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  12. Groundwater bills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U.S. lawmakers have become concerned about groundwater problems in the United States, and thus the contamination of groundwater is rapidly becoming one of the hottest issues of 1987 and probably for many years into the future. The 100th Congress has seen a proliferation of bills relating to various problems involving groundwater: need for more data, funding of research, and development of standards for groundwater quality. Because round 50% of the nation's drinking water is obtained from groundwater, the available support is dependent not only upon the available quantity but also on the quality of that supply.Because groundwater quality in general and groundwater contamination in particular provides such complex problems, final legislation probably will emphasize more research and more data collection. At present, a bill, the National Ground Water Contamination Research Act, has been introduced in the House of Representatives by Rep. Sam Gejdenson (D-Conn.), and a companion bill has been introduced in the Senate by Sen. David Durenberger (R-Minn.). These bills renew action on a groundwater research bill that passed the House but not the Senate near the end of the 99th Congress. The bills address not only research but also promote a national program for the assessment of groundwater quality and a national clearinghouse for groundwater information.

  13. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    SciTech Connect

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  14. Groundwater Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Sean A.

    A good introductory groundwater textbook must strike a delicate balance in presenting the basics of the physical, chemical, geological, mathematical, and engineering aspects of the groundwater field without being too lengthy or overly detailed. Charles Fitts states that his motivation for writing Groundwater Science was to be able to “…teach concepts and quantitative analyses with a clear, lean, but thorough book.” He has succeeded in striking this balance of having just the right amount of information, and has met his goals of producing a concise book that can be used to teach the concepts and analyses necessary for the study of groundwater.Overall, Groundwater Science would serve well as the text for an introductory groundwater course at the college senior or first-year graduate level. The author and the publisher have made excellent use of two-color, gray and blue-scale images throughout the book. The graphics are crisp and explanatory. Data sets needed to work some of the problems in the book are available as text files from its Web site (http://www.academicpress.com/groundwater). I found these files to be complete and easy to understand. The references are up to date and point the reader to additional information across a wide range of groundwater issues, and also provide a number of examples to illustrate different points made in the book.

  15. System-Level Analysis Modeling of Impacts of Operation Schemes of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage on Deep Groundwater and Carbon Dioxide Leakage Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Lee, S.; Park, J.; Kim, J.; Kihm, J.

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to predict quantitatively groundwater and carbon dioxide flow in deep saline sandstone aquifers under various carbon dioxide injection schemes (injection rate, injection period) and to analyze integratively impacts of such carbon dioxide injection schemes on deep groundwater (brine) and carbon dioxide leakage risk through abandoned wells or faults. In order to achieve the first objective, a series of process-level prediction modeling of groundwater and carbon dioxide flow in a deep saline sandstone aquifer under several carbon dioxide injection schemes was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model TOUGH2 (Pruess et al., 1999). The prediction modeling results show that the extent of carbon dioxide plume is significantly affected by such carbon dioxide injection schemes. In order to achieve the second objective, a series of system-level analysis modeling of deep groundwater and carbon dioxide leakage risk through an abandoned well or a fault under several carbon dioxide injection schemes was then performed using a brine and carbon dioxide leakage risk analysis model CO2-LEAK (Kim, 2012). The analysis modeling results show that the rates and amounts of deep groundwater and carbon dioxide leakage through an abandoned well or a fault increase as the carbon dioxide injection rate increases. However, the rates and amounts of deep groundwater and carbon dioxide leakage through an abandoned well or a fault decrease as the carbon dioxide injection period increases. These system-level analysis modeling results for deep groundwater and carbon dioxide leakage risk can be utilized as baseline data for establishing guidelines to mitigate anticipated environmental adverse effects on shallower groundwater systems (aquifers) when deep groundwater and carbon dioxide leakage occur. This work was supported by the Geo-Advanced Innovative Action (GAIA) Program funded by the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute

  16. Groundwater-Seepage Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Harry G.; Reay, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Instrument measures seepage of groundwater into inland or coastal body of water. Positioned at depth as great as 40 meters, and measures flow at low rate and low pressure differential. Auxiliary pressure meter provides data for correlation of flow of groundwater with tides and sea states. Seepage meter operates independently for several weeks. Its sampling rate adjusted to suit hydrologic conditions; to measure more frequently when conditions changing rapidly. Used in water-quality management and for biological and geological research. Potential industrial uses include measurement of seepage of caustic and corrosive liquids.

  17. Groundwater exposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater flow meddles with hydrological, environmental and geological processes. As water scarcity issues mount for people living above ground, the vast stores of freshwater in the subsurface require research attention.

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): East Multnomah County Groundwater Contamination, Operable Unit 1, Multnomah County, OR, December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The East Multnomah County (EMC) project area refers to all areas in the EMC project area where the Troutdale Sandstone Aquifer (TSA) contains concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds at concentrations requiring remediation. The selected remedial action for the Troutdale Sandstone Aquifer (TSA) contaminant plume includes: treatment of extracted groundwater using air-stripping treatment technology; discharge of treated groundwater to Fairview Lake and the Columbia Slough directly or via Multnomah County storm water drainage ways; abandonment of six private Sand and Gravel Aquifer (SGA) water supply wells located within the area of the TSA contaminant plume and a provision to replace the abandoned wells with an alternative source of water; institutional controls to restrict groundwater use of the TSA and SGA to prevent exposure to contaminated groundwater and the spread of groundwater contamination during remediation; groundwater monitoring to assess compliance with performance criteria established for the remedy; and hydraulic containment of those areas of the TSA for which it may be technically impractical to restore to MCL cleanup levels within 20 years.

  19. Wetland survey of the X-10 Bethel Valley and Melton Valley groundwater operable units at Oak Ridge National Labortory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensteel, B.A.

    1996-03-01

    Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, (May 24, 1977) requires that federal agencies avoid, to the extent possible, adverse impacts associated with the destruction and modification of wetlands and that they avoid direct and indirect support of wetlands development when there is a practicable alternative. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations for Compliance with Floodplains and Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements (Subpart B, 10 CFR 1022.11), surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in both the Melton Valley and the Bethel Valley Groundwater Operable Units (GWOU) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. As required by the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1992, wetlands were identified using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual (Army Corps of Engineers, 1987). Wetlands were identified during field surveys that examined and documented vegetation, soils, and hydrologic evidence. Most of the wetland boundary locations and wetland sizes are approximate. Boundaries of wetlands in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and on the former proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source in the upper Melton Branch watershed were located by civil survey during previous wetland surveys; thus, the boundary locations and areal sizes in these areas are accurate. The wetlands were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin et al. (1979) for wetland and deepwater habitats of the United States. A total of 215 individual wetland areas ranging in size from 0.002 ha to 9.97 ha were identified in the Bethel Valley and Melton Valley GWOUs. The wetlands are classified as palustrine forested broad-leaved deciduous (PFO1), palustrine scrub-shrub broad-leaved deciduous (PSS1), and palustrine persistent emergent (PEM1).

  20. Groundwater monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Ames, Kenneth R.; Doesburg, James M.; Eschbach, Eugene A.; Kelley, Roy C.; Myers, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A groundwater monitoring system includes a bore, a well casing within and spaced from the bore, and a pump within the casing. A water impermeable seal between the bore and the well casing prevents surface contamination from entering the pump. Above the ground surface is a removable operating means which is connected to the pump piston by a flexible cord. A protective casing extends above ground and has a removable cover. After a groundwater sample has been taken, the cord is disconnected from the operating means. The operating means is removed for taking away, the cord is placed within the protective casing, and the cover closed and locked. The system is thus protected from contamination, as well as from damage by accident or vandalism.

  1. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-10

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation.

  2. Simulation of the effects of nearby quarrying operations on ground-water flow at the South Well Field, Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalley, Gregory M.; Haefner, Ralph J.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Columbus, Ohio, operates a municipal well field in southern Franklin County that is adjacent to a sand and gravel mining operation. Mining operations have the potential to alter ground-water flowpaths and change the sources of water to pumped wells. Previous ground-water-flow modeling of the area has shown that water pumped from the supply wells is derived from infiltration from nearby rivers and surrounding bedrock. Some of that water flows through existing quarries. Because water quality differs among these sources and is affected by the path along which water flows to the wells, five flow conditions were simulated to evaluate the influence of different mining scenarios on sources of water as related to the size and shape of contributing recharge areas (CRAs) to wells. The first simulation was based on a revision of an existing model by Schalk (1996). The second and third simulations included one in which a 20-foot layer of undisturbed aquifer material within the quarry above the bedrock is left intact, and another in which the 20-foot layer is removed. The fourth and fifth simulations included one in which the 20-foot layer of undisturbed aquifer material is left above the bedrock and the quarry is backfilled with fine- grained sand and silt (a byproduct of the mining operations), and another in which the 20-foot layer is removed before the quarry is backfilled with the fine-grained sand and silt. The results of the five model simulations indicate that the overall volumetric budgets among models change only slightly in response to changing conditions at the quarry. The most significant change is noted in the amount of water that the aquifers gained from constant head and river leakage. This change is due to the way the quarries were simulated and lower heads in the aquifers compared to those in simulations made with earlier models. Previously published model simulations showed that the 5-year CRAs did not extend into the area of the newest sand and

  3. Groundwater Screen

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-11-09

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources and release to percolation ponds. The code calculates the limiting soil concentration or effluent release concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: Contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport inmore » the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. Concentration as a function of time at a user specified receptor point and maximum concentration averaged over the exposure interval are also calculated. In addition, the code calculates transport and impacts of radioactive progeny. Input to GWSCREEN is through one, free format ASCII file. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool.« less

  4. Development of an operational index of water quality (PoS) as a versatile tool to assist groundwater resources management and strategic planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziritis, Evangelos; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Arampatzis, George

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater quality assessment and evaluation is of paramount importance in strategic planning and management at river basin scale or even larger. Depending on the available infrastructure data upon which such assessments are carried out, significant variations in terms of measured parameters and time span covered occur frequently and pose objective difficulties to environmental assessments. Still, there is a need for evaluation across such basins at regional, national or even continental scales under a common reference base. Existing methods so far focus on the comparative evaluation of a single parameter or a common set of parameters that needs to be available throughout all examined basins. Moreover, existing approaches and practices are assessing groundwater in comparison to the quality standards set for a specific use despite the fact that often these resources are covering a multitude of functions. This paper presents an index that attempts to perform a comparative assessment of groundwater quality across basins controlled by the same or different factors, subject to the same or different pressures and characterized by different availability of water quality measurements spread over the same or different time periods. It serves as an easy to implement and unbiased approach to identify water quality controlling factors. The proposed method offers on the spot assessment of groundwater quality characteristics visualized in a way that is easily conceived and comprehended.

  5. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this…

  6. Groundwater workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Interstate Conference on Water Policy has released an Executive Report of the 1989 Ground Water Information Management Workshops. The report summarizes workgroup findings and recommendations for action as identified at the four workshops conducted in the winter and spring of 1989 in Little Rock, Ark.; Sacramento, Calif.; Harrisburg, Pa.; and Omaha, Nebr. The workshops, cosponsored by ICWP and the U.S. Geological Survey, attracted over 200 participants from local, state, and federal government, academia, and the private sector.The two primary objectives of the workshop series were to provide participants with information about groundwater data management initiatives at all levels of government, and to elicit information and ideas from participants about improving data management and exchange. The report states that although the individual workshops reflected regional concerns and experiences, collectively they provide a solid foundation for developing a national perspective on groundwater information management needs.

  7. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70E + 12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and geographically dispersed community is

  9. Hanford Groundwater Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Charboneau, B.; Thompson, K. M.; Wilde, R.; Ford, B.; Gerber, M.

    2006-07-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70 E+12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and geographically dispersed community is

  10. Glycol Ethers As Groundwater Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Benjamin; Johannson, Gunnar; Foster, Gregory D.; Eckel, William P.

    1992-01-01

    Ether derivatives of dihydroxy alcohols, which are formed from ethylene or propylene, comprise an important group of groundwater contaminants known as glycol ethers. Compounds in this group are used as solvents, cleaning agents, and emulsifiers in many chemical products and manufacturing operations. Glycol ethers have been associated with a variety of toxic effects, and some compounds in the group are relatively potent teratogens. The limited information available suggests that glycol ethers are contaminants in groundwater, especially in anaerobic plumes emanating from disposal of mixed industrial and household waste. Most methods used to analyze groundwater samples cannot adequately detect μg/? (ppb) concentrations of glycol ethers, and the existing methods perform worst for the most widely used and toxic species. A new method capable of analyzing μg/? concentrations of glycol ethers was recently developed, and its use is recommended for groundwater samples where glycol ethers are likely to be present.

  11. SSCL groundwater model

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.; Bull, J.; Stapleton, G.; Baker, S.; Goss, D.; Coulson, L.

    1994-02-01

    Activation of groundwater due to accelerator operations has been a consideration since the conceptual stages of the SSC. Prior to site selection, an elementary hydrological model assuming a porous medium with a shallow well in proximity to the tunnel was used to determine the radionuclide concentrations in the water pumped from a well. The model assumed that radionuclides produced within a few feet of the tunnel would migrate to the shallow well and be diluted as the well drew water from a conically symmetric region. After the Ellis County site was selected, the compatibility of this model with the site specific geology was evaluated. The host geology at the selected site is low permeability rock, Austin chalk, shale, and marl, however, vertical fractures do exist. Since the host rock has a low permeability, groundwater in proximity to the tunnel would have to travel primarily through fractures. This hydrology is not compatible with the above mentioned model since water does not percolate uniformly from the surrounding rock into local wells. The amount of dilution of activated water will vary significantly depending on the specific relationship of the well to the activation zone. A further complication in the original model is that it assumes the high energy particles escaping from the accelerator enclosure are localized. The model does not provide for particles being lost over a large area as will happen with routine operational losses. These losses will be distributed along the accelerator over the life of the project. The SSCL groundwater model has been recast to account for the site specific hydrology and both point and distributed losses. Using the new groundwater model, the SSC accelerators are designed to limit the activation concentration in the water located one meter outside the accelerator enclosure to meet the federal drinking water standards. This technical note provides the details of this model.

  12. Groundwater ecohydrology: phreatophyte root uptake of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steward, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    An analytic solution is presented for groundwater uptake by phreatophytes. This solution is developed for individual phreatophytes with prescribed mathematical forms of groundwater uptake beneath the plant. As this function is linear, mathematical solutions may be superimposed to simulate groundwater uptake by a field of phreatophytes. A simpler representation of groundwater uptake by a field of phreatophytes is developed through aid of the Analytic Element Method. This, too, may be superimposed as the functions are linear to simulate groundwater flow associated with fields of phreatophytes. Together, this provides a computationally effective means to simulate the detailed local groundwater flow field associated with uptake by a phreatophyte within a regional groundwater flow field. Results illustrate the spatial patterns that emerge from localized groundwater extractions within fields of phreatophytes.

  13. Bethlehem landfill groundwater containment monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hasemeier, R.F.; Knight, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The groundwater containment measures at the City of Bethlehem Landfill near Bethlehem, Pennsylvania include a 13-well pumping system; capping of closed landfill areas; a new landfill liner to decrease recharge; containment of a degraded aquifer; and substantial data reporting requirements to demonstrate effectiveness of the pump and treat system. The containment system functions as a barrier to downgradient contaminant migration. Reduction of groundwater recharge creates a very dynamic abatement system requiring monitoring. Performance monitoring of portions of the groundwater containment is continuous and accomplished through a centralized computer interface. Automated system control and data management reduces the human attention required to maintain a constant hydrodynamic barrier. Abatement system operational data is combined with other site monitoring data, including well water levels, water chemistry data, tonnage reports, and operational data, to fulfill permit reporting requirements for performance.

  14. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  15. Supplemental feasibility study for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-06

    Site data evaluated indicate that after source removal, dilution and dispersion appear to be the primary processes that would further attenuate groundwater contaminant concentrations. On the basis of these attenuation processes, the calculations presented in Chapter 2 indicate that it would take several years to decades (approximately 60 to 150 and 14 years, respectively, for Zones 1 and 2) for TCE concentrations in Zones 1 and 2 to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 5 pg/L. The estimates for Zones 1 through 3, where the higher nitrate concentrations are clustered, indicate that it would likely take at least 80 years for nitrate concentrations to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 10 mg/L. Costs for implementing NINA for groundwater at the chemical plant area are primarily associated with those incurred for monitoring contaminant concentrations and the replacement costs for monitoring wells. Cost estimates are relatively high because a rather lengthy period of monitoring would be involved. Calculations performed to evaluate the feasibility of groundwater removal and subsequent treatment of the extracted water included determinations for the number of extraction wells needed, required number of pore volumes, and the number of years of implementation required to attain bench marks. The calculations were performed per zone of contamination, as discussed in Chapter 1. Several observations can be made about the results presented in Chapter 3 regarding Alternative 4. The first is that by looking at the results for Zones 1 and 2 evaluated under Alternative 4, one can also assess the feasibility of Alternative 7, because Alternative 7 addresses this particular subset of Alternative 4 (i.e., Zones 1 and 2). TCE contamination has been observed in Zones 1 and 2, but has not been reported in any of the remaining five zones. Nitrate, nitroaromatic compounds, and uranium have also been reported in Zones 1 and 2. The present-worth costs for implementing the pump and treat

  16. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF GROUNDWATER STRIPPING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the applicability of catalytic oxidation to control ground-water air stripping gaseous effluents, with special attention to system designs and case histories. The variety of contaminants and catalyst poisons encountered in stripping operations are also reviewed....

  17. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  18. INTEC Groundwater Monitoring Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Forbes S. L. Ansley M. Leecaster

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes 2006 perched water and groundwater monitoring activities at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During 2006, groundwater samples were collected from a total of 22 Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA) monitoring wells, plus six aquifer wells sampled for the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) monitoring program. In addition, perched water samples were collected from 21 perched wells and 19 suction lysimeters. Groundwater and perched water samples were analyzed for a suite of radionuclides and inorganic constituents. Laboratory results in this report are compared to drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Such comparison is for reference only and it should be noted that the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision does not require that perched water comply with drinking water standards.

  19. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is composed of the original 32-acre landfill, plus expansion areas to the north and south that added 16 and 22 acres, respectively, to the facility. The landfill is subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and currently operates under South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Domestic Waste Permit 87A. Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor the groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (formerly Aquifer Zone I/IIC[sub 2]) (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill. These wells are sampled quarterly for certain indicator parameters, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, volatile organics, and other constituents as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with the SCDHEC domestic waste permit. This report reviews the 1992 activities of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  20. Field Test Report: Preliminary Aquifer Test Characterization Results for Well 299-W15-225: Supporting Phase I of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Design

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2009-09-23

    This report examines the hydrologic test results for both local vertical profile characterization and large-scale hydrologic tests associated with a new extraction well (well 299-W15-225) that was constructed during FY2009 for inclusion within the future 200-West Area Groundwater Treatment System that is scheduled to go on-line at the end of FY2011. To facilitate the analysis of the large-scale hydrologic test performed at newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225 (C7017; also referred to as EW-1 in some planning documents), the existing 200-ZP-1 interim pump-and-treat system was completely shut-down ~1 month before the performance of the large-scale hydrologic test. Specifically, this report 1) applies recently developed methods for removing barometric pressure fluctuations from well water-level measurements to enhance the detection of hydrologic test and pump-and-treat system effects at selected monitor wells, 2) analyzes the barometric-corrected well water-level responses for a preliminary determination of large-scale hydraulic properties, and 3) provides an assessment of the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225. The hydrologic characterization approach presented in this report is expected to have universal application for meeting the characterization needs at other remedial action sites located within unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  1. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  2. Future of groundwater modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Panday, Sorab

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing need to better manage water resources, the future of groundwater modeling is bright and exciting. However, while the past can be described and the present is known, the future of groundwater modeling, just like a groundwater model result, is highly uncertain and any prediction is probably not going to be entirely representative. Thus we acknowledge this as we present our vision of where groundwater modeling may be headed.

  3. Evaluating Adult Groundwater Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerakis, Argyrios

    1998-01-01

    One-day groundwater education workshops held to educate soil conservation personnel were assessed for effect on participant knowledge using a quasiexperimental design. Participants were tested on their groundwater knowledge and attitude toward groundwater conservation before and after the training. Participant scores improved significantly in only…

  4. The impact of groundwater depletions on groundwater surface water interactions and streamflow across the contiguous US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 50 years, connections between climate change and streamflow trends have been observed in many regions of the Western US. However, much of the work to detect climate change signals in historical hydrologic records has focused on surface water changes in relatively undeveloped basins. While this is necessary to isolate any climate change signal from uncertain water management operations, it also excludes interactions with the concurrent human development that has occurred over the last 100 years. In highly utilized groundwater systems, such as the High Plains Aquifer, groundwater mining has already been linked to streamflow depletions at local to regional scales; but no prior studies have evaluated the role of groundwater declines in historical changes of groundwater surface water interactions at the continental scale. Here we isolate the influence of groundwater depletions from water management operations (e.g. irrigation and surface water diversions) to systematically evaluate how subsurface storage losses alter large-scale hydrologic interactions. Using a fully integrated groundwater surface water model of the contiguous US we simulate dynamic equilibrium conditions of a predevelopment system and a system with groundwater depletions equivalent to all of the groundwater development of the 20th century. Results illustrate the effect of persistent drawdown on streamflows, recharge and groundwater surface water exchanges across many spatial scales. In addition, we run transient simulations to evaluate the effect of these shifts on seasonal surface water variability. Simulations demonstrate the widespread trends in groundwater surface water interactions that have already resulted from ubiquitous groundwater mining in the United States and the potential for such changes to influence future response to climate variability.

  5. Transfer of European Approach to Groundwater Monitoring in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Major groundwater development in North China has been a key factor in the huge economic growth and the achievement of self sufficiency in food production. Groundwater accounts for more than 70 percent of urban water supply and provides important source of irrigation water during dry period. This has however caused continuous groundwater level decline and many associated problems: hundreds of thousands of dry wells, dry river beds, land subsidence, seawater intrusion and groundwater quality deterioration. Groundwater levels in the shallow unconfined aquifers have fallen 10m up to 50m, at an average rate of 1m/year. In the deep confined aquifers groundwater levels have commonly fallen 30m up to 90m, at an average rate of 3 to 5m/year. Furthermore, elevated nitrate concentrations have been found in shallow groundwater in large scale. Pesticides have been detected in vulnerable aquifers. Urgent actions are necessary for aquifer recovery and mitigating groundwater pollution. Groundwater quantity and quality monitoring plays a very important role in formulating cost-effective groundwater protection strategies. In 2000 European Union initiated a Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) to protect all waters in Europe. The objective is to achieve good water and ecological status by 2015 cross all member states. The Directive requires monitoring surface and groundwater in all river basins. A guidance document for monitoring was developed and published in 2003. Groundwater monitoring programs are distinguished into groundwater level monitoring and groundwater quality monitoring. Groundwater quality monitoring is further divided into surveillance monitoring and operational monitoring. The monitoring guidance specifies key principles for the design and operation of monitoring networks. A Sino-Dutch cooperation project was developed to transfer European approach to groundwater monitoring in China. The project aims at building a China Groundwater Information Centre. Case studies

  6. 1998 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-06-02

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Withdrawal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Rosemary; Giroux, Brian; Pohll, Greg; Hershey, Ronald; Russell, Charles; Howcroft, William

    2004-01-28

    Alternative uses of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) may require large amounts of water to construct and/or operate. The only abundant source of water at the NTS is groundwater. This report describes preliminary modeling to quantify the amount of groundwater available for development from three hydrographic areas at the NTS. Modeling was conducted with a three-dimensional transient numerical groundwater flow model.

  8. Groundwater sustainability strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, Tom; VanderSteen, Jonathan; Sophocleous, Marios A.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Alley, William M.; Allen, Diana M.; Zhou, Yangxiao

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater extraction has facilitated significant social development and economic growth, enhanced food security and alleviated drought in many farming regions. But groundwater development has also depressed water tables, degraded ecosystems and led to the deterioration of groundwater quality, as well as to conflict among water users. The effects are not evenly spread. In some areas of India, for example, groundwater depletion has preferentially affected the poor. Importantly, groundwater in some aquifers is renewed slowly, over decades to millennia, and coupled climate–aquifer models predict that the flux and/or timing of recharge to many aquifers will change under future climate scenarios. Here we argue that communities need to set multigenerational goals if groundwater is to be managed sustainably.

  9. Groundwater contamination field methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ivan

    Half of the drinking water in the United States comes from groundwater; 75% of the nation's cities obtain all or part of their supplies from groundwater; and the rural areas are 95% dependent upon groundwater. Therefore it is imperative that every possible precaution be taken to protect the purity of the groundwater.Because of the increasing interest in prevention of groundwater contamination and the need for nationally recognized methods for investigation of contamination, a symposium entitled “Field Methods for Groundwater Contamination Studies and Their Standardization” was held February 2-7, 1986, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. The symposium was sponsored and organized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and Committee D19 on Water. Gene Collins of the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (Bartlesville, Okla.) was symposium chair, and Ivan Johnson (A. Ivan Johnson, Inc., Consulting, Arvada, Colo.) was vice chair.

  10. Effects of wetlands creation on groundwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensel, B.R.; Miller, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in groundwater flow were observed near four Experimental Wetland Areas (EWAs) constructed along a reach of the Des Plaines River in northeastern Illinois. These changes were observed during monthly monitoring of groundwater elevation in nested piezometers and shallow observation wells before and after the wetlands were filled with water. A numerical model was calibrated with observed data and used to estimate seepage from the wetlands into the Des Plaines River. After the wetlands became operational, groundwater levels in adjacent wells increased by about 0.5m, while water levels in wells distant from the wetlands decreased. The increase in groundwater levels near the wetlands is a result of seepage from the wetlands. Numerical predictions of seepage from the wetlands are 60-150 m3 day-1 for two wetlands situated over sand and gravel and less than 1 m3 day-1 for two wetlands situated over clayey till. The difference in seepage rates is attributed to two factors. First, the hydraulic conductivity of the sand and gravel unit is greater than that of the till, and thus there is less mounding and a greater capacity for transmitting water beneath the wetlands overlying this deposit. Secondly, the wetlands located over till are groundwater flow-through ponds, whereas the wetlands over the sand and gravel are primarily groundwater recharge areas. The model was used to estimate that seepage from the wetlands will double groundwater discharge into the Des Plaines River and a tributary relative to pre-operational discharge from the study area. Overall, the wetlands have acted as a constant head boundary, stabilizing groundwater flow patterns. ?? 1991.

  11. Impact of agriculture on groundwater in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, C. R.; Burdon, D. J.; Sherwood, M.

    1983-03-01

    Ireland has large water resources. Only 5.3% of developable waters are as yet developed, to supply some 650 I/day/per capita to the population of some 3.37 million people. State of development varies in each of the seven water resources regions. Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed over the year, but the percentage infiltrating to form groundwater varies quite sharply. Some 61% of infiltration occurs in the four winter months November to February, when agricultural activities are low. Only 10% infiltrates in the four summer months, May to August, when agricultural activities are high. In all, annual groundwater amounts to some 24.8 km3, of which 50% is considered to be recoverable. Capital groundwater reserves must be large, but are unquantified. Under these conditions, the impact of agriculture on groundwater quantities is negligible. Of the annual extraction of some 170 × 106m3 of groundwater, some 66 × 106m3/year are used in different agricultural activities. Drainage operations, however, have effects on Irish groundwater. Such lands may overlie impermeable strata or pans, or may receive concealed or visible groundwater discharge. Their drainage will affect the groundwater in various ways. There has been a considerable impact of agriculture on groundwater quality. The effects on the atmosphere and on precipitation are not identifiable. Effects of diffuse infiltration are treated with respect to: (a) application of ground limestone (lime); (b) application of K.N.P. inorganic fertilizer; (c) spreading of organic slurries; (d) development of organic nitrogen in soils, mainly after ploughing of grasslands; and (e) residues from herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides. The infiltration of these substances spread on the land is closely related to the interaction between times of ground-water recharge and times of fertilizer application. Effects of concentrated infiltration are treated under seven sub-heads: (a) infiltration of polluted surface waters; (b

  12. Ground-water quality and effects of poultry confined animal feeding operations on shallow ground water, upper Shoal Creek basin, Southwest Missouri, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mugel, Douglas N.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-seven wells and 8 springs were sampled in May, October, and November 2000 in the upper Shoal Creek Basin, southwest Missouri, to determine if nutrient concentrations and fecal bacteria densities are increasing in the shallow aquifer as a result of poultry confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Most of the land use in the basin is agricultural, with cattle and hay production dominating; the number of poultry CAFOs has increased in recent years. Poultry waste (litter) is used as a source of nutrients on pasture land as much as several miles away from poultry barns.Most wells in the sample network were classified as ?P? wells, which were open only or mostly to the Springfield Plateau aquifer and where poultry litter was applied to a substantial acreage within 0.5 mile of the well both in spring 2000 and in several previous years; and ?Ag? wells, which were open only or mostly to the Springfield Plateau aquifer and which had limited or no association with poultry CAFOs. Water-quality data from wells and springs were grouped for statistical purposes as P1, Ag1, and Sp1 (May 2000 samples) and P2, Ag2, and Sp2 (October or November 2000 samples). The results of this study do not indicate that poultry CAFOs are affecting the shallow ground water in the upper Shoal Creek Basin with respect to nutrient concentrations and fecal bacteria densities. Statistical tests do not indicate that P wells sampled in spring 2000 have statistically larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate or fecal indicator bacteria densities than Ag wells sampled during the same time, at a 95-percent confidence level. Instead, the Ag wells had statistically larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate and fecal coliform bacteria densities than the P wells.The results of this study do not indicate seasonal variations from spring 2000 to fall 2000 in the concentrations of nutrients or fecal indicator bacteria densities from well samples. Statistical tests do not indicate statistically

  13. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  14. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  15. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  16. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  17. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  18. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  19. Groundwater in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Daniel L.; Penick, John E.; Dawkins, Karen R.; Van Sickle, Meta

    2007-01-01

    Although clean, potable groundwater constitutes one of our most valuable resources, few students or science educators hold complete and appropriate understandings regarding the concept. Recent studies that focus on secondary students' and preservice science teachers' understandings of groundwater found little difference between the groups'…

  20. Groundwater and organic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, H.E.

    1995-12-01

    Groundwater is a major source of drinking water for many communities. Unfortunately, organic chemicals such as dry cleaning fluids, solvent, fuels, and pesticides have contaminated groundwater in many areas, rendering the groundwater useless as a drinking water resource. In many cases, the groundwater cannot be cleaned up with current technologies, particularly if the groundwater has been contaminated with immiscible (low solubility) organic liquids. In this talk, I will describe the path I have followed from geologist to geochemist and finally to environmental engineer. As a geologist, I studied the chemistry of rock metamorphosis. As a geochemist, I explored for gold and other metals. Now as an environmental engineer, I investigate the behavior of organic liquids in the subsurface. While these fields all appear very different, in reality I have always focused on the interaction of rocks or sediments with the fluids with which they come in contact.

  1. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  2. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  3. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water...

  4. In situ groundwater aeration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Symons, B.D.; Linkenheil, R.; Pritchard, D.; Shanke, C.A.; Seep, D.

    1995-12-31

    At a former wood treating site in Minnesota, the feasibility of in situ groundwater aeration was investigated in a laboratory treatability setting, to evaluate biodegradability and optimal operation conditions of the site aquifer. After concluding that an aeration system would increase the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the groundwater enough to sustain microbial life, a field demonstration system was designed and installed. The system was operated for 1 year, during which groundwater quality at upgradient and downgradient wells was monitored to evaluate the system`s effectiveness. The groundwater aeration system successfully reduced groundwater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, especially naphthalene. Naphthalene concentrations were reduced from 1,319 {micro}g/L to below the laboratory detection limit of 0.5 {micro}g/L. Cumulative concentrations of other PAH compounds were reduced from 98 {micro}g/L to 23 {micro}g/L during the 1-year test.

  5. Isolation and identification of Trichoderma harzianum from groundwater: An effective biosorbent for defluoridation of groundwater.

    PubMed

    Koshle, Shalini; Mahesh, S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2016-01-01

    The ability of non-viable form of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from fluoride rich groundwater, was investigated as biosorbent for defluoridation of groundwater. Biosorption experiments were carried out at laboratory scale for removal of fluoride from groundwater. Significant effect of operational parameters on fluoride biosorption using Trichoderma harzianum as biosorbent was evaluated by varying operational parameters such as: initial fluoride concentration (2-8 mgl(-1)), biosorbent dose (0.4-1.6g/100ml), groundwater pH (6-10), temperature (30-50 degrees C) and biosorption time (30-120 min). The fluoride adsorption isotherms were modeled by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Our result showed that fluoride biosorption, significantly increased with increase in groundwater pH, biosorbent dose, temperature and biosorption time, whereas increase in initial fluoride concentration reduced fluoride removal. The fluoride biosorption was rapid and maximum fluoride uptake was attained with 1.6g 100ml(-1) biosorbent within 60 min. Optimal pH 10 and temperature 50 degrees C gave maximum defluoridation efficiency. Freundlich isotherm fits well for defluoridation of groundwater using Trichoderma harzianum as biosorbent which indicated that biosorbent surface sites were heterogeneous in nature and fitted into heterogeneous site binding model. PMID:26930871

  6. Groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Selected groundwater basins of the San Francisco Bay area constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  8. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  9. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.

  10. Groundwater isotope survey in the Southern Gobi Region, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayanzul, B. B.; Nemer, B.; Kaland, V.; Groen, K.; Naidan, J.; Linden, W. V. D.

    2014-12-01

    The strategically biggest mineral deposits are located in South Gobi Region, Mongolia and the Mongolian government has been adhering the policy to operate them in near short terms. Groundwater is one of the important resources since rainfall and surface water availability are limited. This survey was made for the purpose to determination to principle of originating groundwater potentials. For the purpose, groundwater age was investigated with the stable isotope, radiocarbon and tritium method. They were analyzed in the laboratory of CIO of Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (The Centre of Isotope Research), Institute of Groundwater Ecology from the Helmholtz Zentrum and the German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH) in Munich, Germany. Deep groundwater has radiocarbon ages from 13,000 to 45,000 years before present (0.4-18.4% modern C) and δ13C values from -10.0 to -4.6‰, for which it is difficult to assign absolute ages, although these values probably represent the Late Glacial period and late Pleistocene age. Shallow groundwater had tritium values of <1 to 20.8 TU, from which only 2 locations can be referred as recently infiltrated (since 1953) - or recent mixed with fossil groundwater. Groundwater aquifers were mainly found in Cretaceous sediments that have filled-up large basins in the Gobi and there is a good possibility that aquifers are interconnected via these basin sediments, although sedimentary facies changes and geological faults may form barriers to groundwater flow.

  11. Estimating groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is the entry of fresh water into the saturated portion of the subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle, the modifier "saturated" indicating that the pressure of the pore water is greater than atmospheric.

  12. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1992-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. In particular, the invention relates to remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater by the injection of nutrients to stimulate growth of pollutant-degrading microorganisms. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  13. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  14. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J. ); Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl{sub 4}, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations.

  15. In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J.; Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M.

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl{sub 4}, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations.

  16. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  17. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-20

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  18. Age Distribution of Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, U.; Daughney, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater at the discharge point comprises a mixture of water from different flow lines with different travel time and therefore has no discrete age but an age distribution. The age distribution can be assessed by measuring how a pulse shaped tracer moves through the groundwater system. Detection of the time delay and the dispersion of the peak in the groundwater compared to the tracer input reveals the mean residence time and the mixing parameter. Tritium from nuclear weapons testing in the early 1960s resulted in a peak-shaped tritium input to the whole hydrologic system on earth. Tritium is the ideal tracer for groundwater because it is an isotope of hydrogen and therefore is part of the water molecule. Tritium time series data that encompass the passage of the bomb tritium pulse through the groundwater system in all common hydrogeologic situations in New Zealand demonstrate a semi-systematic pattern between age distribution parameters and hydrologic situation. The data in general indicate high fraction of mixing, but in some cases also indicate high piston flow. We will show that still, 45 years after the peak of the bomb tritium, it is possible to assess accurately the parameters of age distributions by measuring the tail of the bomb tritium.

  19. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  20. Groundwater in times of droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attinger, Sabine; Kumar, Rohini; Musuuza, Jude; Samaniego, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are characterized as sustained and regionally extensive occurrences of below-average natural water availability. They affect all components of the water cycle: from deficits in soil moisture (agricultural droughts) through reduced groundwater recharge and groundwater levels to low streamflows or dried-up rivers (hydrological droughts). Groundwater discharge is a significant component of streamflow, with groundwater contributing as much as 90 percent of annual streamflow volume in some parts of the U.S., Canada and Europe (Beck et al., 2013). And groundwater systems strongly control the hydrological drought characteristics all over the world (van Lanen et al., 2013). Making use of large scale hydrological models van Lanen demonstrated that groundwater systems substantially affect the duration, particularly of the more extreme drought events. The responsiveness of the groundwater system is as important as climate for hydrological drought development. This urges for an improvement of subsurface modules in conceptual hydrological models to be more useful for water resources assessments. In this talk, we will discuss different subsurface modeling approaches ranging from spatially distributed groundwater models to simpler reservoir-type modeling approaches and the implications the chosen model has on modelled groundwater droughts and base flow characteristics. In particular, we discuss a standardized groundwater drought index (SGI) to characterize the groundwater deficit and the groundwater head anomalies. Based on SGI, we investigate different statistics (severity, area and duration) of individual drought events for the different model approaches. These results will be related to locally measured groundwater data.

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume One - Main Text and Appendices A and B

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    The laboratory investigation was performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing in situ chemical oxidation for remediating the secondary source of groundwater contaminants at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) Site. The study involved trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated media (groundwater, soil, and sludge) from TAN. The effectiveness of the selected oxidant, potassium permanganate (KMn0(sub4)), was evaluated at multiple oxidant and contaminant concentrations. Experiments were performed to determine the oxidant demand of each medium and the rate of TCE oxidation. The experiments were performed under highly controlled conditions (gas-tight reactors, constant 12C temperature). Multiple parameter were monitored over time including MN0(sub 4) and TCE concentrations and pH.

  2. Management of groundwater corrective actions at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Amidon, M.B.; Ebra, M.A.; Horvath, J.G.; Lewis, C.M.; Bergren, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site, SRS, has experienced groundwater contamination as a result of past operating practices. Clean-up of these groundwaters has the potential to become a very large effort requiring a significant commitment of resources. However, the contaminated groundwaters identified do not present an imminent risk to the offsite population or to onsite workers. In order to ensure a risk-based, cost-effective approach to these actions, a program plan has been developed for the management of contaminated groundwaters at the SRS. This paper will describe the strategy for contaminated groundwater management resulting from the SRS groundwater program plan. Initial corrective actions at SRS have been driven by regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, RCRA. A major groundwater corrective action has been conducted at one waste site at the SRS since 1985. Other potentially major corrective actions at the SRS have been identified. The contaminants of concern include organic solvents, radionuclides, and heavy metals, and their removal presents significant technical challenges. The strategy proposes to: evaluate the regulatory requirements, the long-term risks of the various contaminated groundwater units, the technical requirements associated with clean-up, and the availability of resources; and prioritize future corrective actions while meeting existing commitments to action.

  3. Management of groundwater corrective actions at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Amidon, M.B.; Ebra, M.A.; Horvath, J.G.; Lewis, C.M.; Bergren, C.L.

    1992-06-01

    The Savannah River Site, SRS, has experienced groundwater contamination as a result of past operating practices. Clean-up of these groundwaters has the potential to become a very large effort requiring a significant commitment of resources. However, the contaminated groundwaters identified do not present an imminent risk to the offsite population or to onsite workers. In order to ensure a risk-based, cost-effective approach to these actions, a program plan has been developed for the management of contaminated groundwaters at the SRS. This paper will describe the strategy for contaminated groundwater management resulting from the SRS groundwater program plan. Initial corrective actions at SRS have been driven by regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, RCRA. A major groundwater corrective action has been conducted at one waste site at the SRS since 1985. Other potentially major corrective actions at the SRS have been identified. The contaminants of concern include organic solvents, radionuclides, and heavy metals, and their removal presents significant technical challenges. The strategy proposes to: evaluate the regulatory requirements, the long-term risks of the various contaminated groundwater units, the technical requirements associated with clean-up, and the availability of resources; and prioritize future corrective actions while meeting existing commitments to action.

  4. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  5. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ``Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration``. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration.

  6. Groundwater source technology application for an indoor water park

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.B.; Foster, G. Jr.; Hunt, A.W.

    1998-12-31

    Many groundwater source (geothermal) systems have been installed in commercial offices, schools, and hotels. The requirements of a water park involve, not only heating and cooling, but water heating and humidity control. The use of groundwater source technology allows the reuse of heat within the building and lower maintenance costs than a conventional system. By using groundwater as a heat exchange medium, significant energy savings are realized. By controlling water loop temperatures with either heat pumps or groundwater, energy savings can be increased further, depending on system load requirements. This paper documents the installation of a system in the Atlantic City area, identifies components and operating methodology, and provides operating cost comparisons with existing conventional water parks.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

  8. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  9. Evaluation of advanced oxidation process for the treatment of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, S.B. II ); Peyton, G.R. ); Rice, L.E. . Kansas City Div.)

    1990-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide was selected for the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons, particularly trichlorethene and 1,2-dichlorethene, from groundwater underlying the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant. Since the performance of this process for the removal of organics from groundwater is not well-documented, an evaluation was initiated to determine the performance of the treatment plant, document the operation and maintenance costs experience, and evaluate contaminant removal mechanisms. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Trends in groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftis, Jim C.

    1996-02-01

    The term trend takes on a variety of meanings for groundwater quality in both a temporal and spatial context. Most commonly, trends are thought of as changes over time at either a regional or localized spatial scale. Generally water quality managers are most interested in changes associated with some form of human activity. Carefully defining what is meant by trend is a critical step in trend analysis and may be accomplished by formulating a statistical model which includes a trend component. Although there are a great many regional groundwater studies which provide a snapshot description of water quality conditions over an area at one point in time, there are relatively few which consider changes over time and fewer still which include a statistical analysis of long-term trend. This review covers both regional and localized studies of groundwater quality around the world, including a few snapshots, but focusing primarily on those studies which include an evaluation of temporal changes in groundwater quality. The studies include national assessments, agricultural case studies (the largest group, mostly regional in scope), urban case studies, and point source and hazardous waste case studies.

  11. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  12. Automated Groundwater Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard, B.

    2005-10-31

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application.

  13. Groundwater management under sustainable yield uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delottier, Hugo; Pryet, Alexandre; Dupuy, Alain

    2015-04-01

    The definition of the sustainable yield (SY) of a groundwater system consists in adjusting pumping rates so as to avoid groundwater depletion and preserve environmental flows. Once stakeholders have defined which impacts can be considered as "acceptable" for both environmental and societal aspects, hydrogeologists use groundwater models to estimate the SY. Yet, these models are based on a simplification of actual groundwater systems, whose hydraulic properties are largely unknown. As a result, the estimated SY is subject to "predictive" uncertainty. We illustrate the issue with a synthetic homogeneous aquifer system in interaction with a stream for steady state and transient conditions. Simulations are conducted with the USGS MODFLOW finite difference model with the river-package. A synthetic dataset is first generated with the numerical model that will further be considered as the "observed" state. In a second step, we conduct the calibration operation as hydrogeologists dealing with real word, unknown groundwater systems. The RMSE between simulated hydraulic heads and the synthetic "observed" values is used as objective function. But instead of simply "calibrating" model parameters, we explore the value of the objective function in the parameter space (hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient and total recharge). We highlight the occurrence of an ellipsoidal "null space", where distinct parameter sets lead to equally low values for the objective function. The optimum of the objective function is not unique, which leads to a range of possible values for the SY. With a large confidence interval for the SY, the use of modeling results for decision-making is challenging. We argue that prior to modeling operations, efforts must be invested so as to narrow the intervals of likely parameter values. Parameter space exploration is effective to estimate SY uncertainty, but not efficient because of its computational burden and is therefore inapplicable for real world

  14. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities.

  15. Migration of wood-preserving chemicals in contaminated groundwater in a sand aquifer at Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerlitz, D.F.; Troutman, D.E.; Godsy, E.M.; Franks, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Operation of a wood-preserving facility for nearly 80 years at Pensacola, FL, contaminated the near-surface groundwater with creosote and pentachlorophenol. The major source of aquifer contamination was unlined surface impoundments that were in direct hydraulic contact with the groundwater. Episodes of overtopping the impoundments and overland flow of treatment liquor and waste were also significant to the migration and contamination of the groundwater. Solutes contaminating the ground-water are mainly naphthalene and substituted phenols. Sorption did not influence retardation of solutes in transport in the groundwater. Phenol and the mono substituted methylphenols appear to be undergoing bio-transformation. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was not found in significant concentrations in the groundwater possibly because the solubility of PCP is approximately 5 mg/L at pH 6, near the average acidity for the groundwater.

  16. Effects of MIS retorting on groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, N.E.

    1983-04-01

    Occidental Petroleum Corporation has conducted field tests on the modified-in-situ (MIS) oil shale retorting technology for a number of years at its Logan Wash site near De Beque, Colorado. A total of 8 major retorts have been burned, the last three of which were commercial sized. Concurrent with process development research, a significant program was undertaken to study the effects of the MIS technology on the environment. Groundwater was examined before, during and after the major retorting experiments by means of an extensive monitoring network. This network was comprised of monitoring wells at various distances from the retorting operation. Both alluvial wells and deep bedrock wells were examined. Water quality in local seeps and springs was also monitored. Almost eighty chemical and physical parameters of the water samples have been examined. Analyses of these data have shown no contamination of the groundwaters by the MIS retorts. The quality of water exiting MIS retorts during and after the retorting period has also been followed. Data from Retorts 1 through 6 show that the species mobilized by retorting are rapidly removed, and concentrations of chemicals in ''leachate'' from the retorts quickly approach the same range of values as seen in natural groundwaters. Statistical analyses have been made of both the retort waters and the groundwaters. Based on the results of these analyses a list of key variables has been identified whose measurement is most likely to identify contamination problems.

  17. Evaluation of groundwater dynamic regime with groundwater depth evaluation indexes.

    PubMed

    Genxu, Wang; Jian, Zhou; Kubota, Jumpei; Jianping, Su

    2008-06-01

    An accurate quantitative evaluation of anthropogenic effects on regional groundwater dynamics is critical to the rational planning, management, and use of such resources and in maintaining the sustainability of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Based on groundwater dynamics, a series of groundwater depth evaluation indexes were created to quantitatively evaluate the effects of anthropogenic activities on the groundwater system. These indexes were based on mathematical relationships relating groundwater depth to surface runoff (gammat), precipitation (rhot), and extraction (deltat). The anthropogenic effects on these relationships were evaluated statistically, with respect to both temporal and spatial variation. The anthropogenic effects on groundwater dynamics within the arid Zhangye Basin, located in the middle reaches of northwest China's Heihe River, were investigated. River valley plains in the western portion of the basin excepted, anthropogenic activities have, since 1995, dramatically altered the basin's groundwater dynamics; in particular, in the mid-upper and lower portions of alluvial-diluvial fans and in localized northerly fine-soil plains regions, the relationship of groundwater to surface runoff and atmospheric precipitation has shifted. This and other changes indicate that anthropogenic effects on groundwater systems in this region show clear spatiotemporal variation. PMID:18686930

  18. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  19. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

  20. Groundwater Mounding Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Misra, D.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate understanding of groundwater mound formation is important in the proper design of stormwater infiltration basins since these basins are often required to recharge a portion of pre-development infiltration volume. Mound formation due to localized recharge may reduce the infiltration rate of the basin and the ability of the soil to filter pollutants. The goal of this research was to understand groundwater mounding and the potential for contaminant transport resulting from recharge beneath stormwater infiltration basins. A 0.10 ha infiltration basin serving a 9.4 ha residential subdivision in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin was used in this study. Subsurface conditions included sand and gravel material and a groundwater table at 2.3 m below grade. Three storm events, 4.9 cm, 2.8 cm, and 4.3 cm, between August 2006 and April 2007 were modeled using the two-dimensional numerical model HYDRUS. The calibrated model was used to evaluate hypothetical basin operation scenarios for various basin sizes, soil types, ponding depths, and water table depths. The groundwater mound intersected the basin floor in most scenarios with loamy sand and sandy loam soils, an unsaturated thickness of 1.52 m, and a ponding depth of 0.61 m. No groundwater table response was observed with ponding depths less than 0.31 m with an unsaturated zone thickness of 6.09 m. The mound height was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated zone thickness. A 7.6 cm sediment layer delayed the time to reach maximum mound height, but had a minimal effect on the magnitude of the mound. Mound heights increased as infiltration basin size increased.

  1. Remedial action selection using groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, B.I.; Parish, G.B.; Hauge, L.

    1996-12-31

    An environmental investigation uncovered petroleum contamination at a gasoline station in southern Wisconsin. The site was located in part of the ancestral Rock River valley in Rock County, Wisconsin where the valley is filled with sands and gravels. Groundwater pump tests were conducted for determination of aquifer properties needed to plan a remediation system; the results were indicative of a very high hydraulic conductivity. The site hydrogeology was modeled using the U.S. Geological Survey`s groundwater model, Modflow. The calibrated model was used to determine the number, pumping rate, and configuration of recovery wells to remediate the site. The most effective configuration was three wells pumping at 303 liters per minute (1/m) (80 gallons per minute (gpm)), producing a total pumping rate of 908 l/m (240 gpm). Treating 908 l/min (240 gpm) or 1,308,240 liters per day (345,600 gallons per day) constituted a significant volume to be treated and discharged. It was estimated that pumping for the two year remediation would cost $375,000 while the air sparging would cost $200,000. The recommended remedial system consisted of eight air sparging wells and four vapor recovery laterals. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) approved the remedial action plan in March, 1993. After 11 months of effective operation the concentrations of removed VOCs had decreased by 94 percent and groundwater sampling indicated no detectable concentrations of gasoline contaminants. Groundwater modeling was an effective technique to determine the economic feasibility of a groundwater remedial alternative.

  2. Contain contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Caputi, J.R.; Ash, R.E. IV

    1997-05-01

    Despite recent progress in innovative treatment technologies, many problems with contaminated groundwater still require the use of barrier walls, typically in combination with extraction and treatment systems. New technologies for subsurface barrier walls, mostly based on geomembranes, advancements in self-hardening slurries and permeation grouts with materials such as colloidal silica gel and montan wax emulsions, are being developed at an unprecedented pace. The paper discusses deep soil mixing, jet grouting, slurry trenches, and permeation grouting.

  3. Groundwater Under Vertisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtzman, D.; Baram, S.; Dahan, O.

    2015-12-01

    Vertisols are cracking clayey soils that: i) usually form in alluvial lowlands where normally, groundwater pools into aquifers; ii) have different types of voids (due to cracking) which make flow and transport of water and gas complex, and iii) are regarded as fertile soils in many areas. The combination of these characteristics results in the unique soil-aquifer phenomena that are highlighted and summarized in this review work. The following four vertisols-aquifer topics will be discussed: 1) Soil cracks as preferential pathways for water and contaminants - Lysimeter to basin-scale observations show the significance of cracks as preferential flow paths in vertisols that bypass matrix blocks in the unsaturated zone. Fresh recharge and groundwater contamination from these fluxes will be reviewed; 2) Soil cracks as deep evaporators and unsaturated-zone salinity - Deep soil samples under uncultivated vertisols in semiarid regions reveal a dry (immobile), saline matrix, partly due to enhanced evaporation through soil cracks. Observations of this phenomenon will be compared and the mechanism of evapoconcentration due to air flow in the cracks is discussed; 3) Impact of cultivation on flushing of the unsaturated zone and aquifer salinization - Land-use change of vertisols from native land to cropland promotes greater fluxes through the saline unsaturated-zone matrix, eventually flushing salts to the aquifer. Different degrees of salt flushing will be presented as well as aquifer salinization on different scales, and a comparison is made with aquifers under other soils; 4) Relatively little nitrate contamination in aquifers under vertisols - A number of observations show that aquifers under cultivated vertisols are somewhat resistant to groundwater contamination by nitrate (the major agriculturally related groundwater problem). Denitrification is probably the main mechanism supporting this resistance, whereas a certain degree of anion-exchange capacity may have a

  4. Ground-water resources of Kings and Queens counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Shernoff, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    From 1981 through 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the ground-water system of western Long Island, New York, including Kings and Queens counties. This report describes the structure and operation of the western part of the Long Island ground-water system, and the hydrologic effects associated with human development from 1900 to the early 1980's. Recent (early 1980's) ground-water quantity and quality characteristics are described.

  5. Development of sustainable groundwater extraction practices for a major superficial aquifer supporting a groundwater dependent ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smettem, K. R.; Froend, R.; Davies, M.; Stock, B.; Martin, M.; Robertson, C.; Eamus, D.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout Australia many groundwater dependent ecosystems have been adversely affected by unsympathetic water abstraction practices. In Western Australia, the largest single supply of drinking water for the city of Perth is a superficial aquifer known as the Gnangara Groundwater Mound, located over an area of approximately 2200 km2 within and to the north of the city on the coastal plain. The groundwater resource supplies 60% of Perth’s pubic drinking water supply and 85% of total water demand for all users. Much of the mound is overlain by phreatophytic Banksia woodland that is susceptible to drought stress and death if the root system is separated from the unconfined aquifer for prolonged periods over the hot, dry Mediterranean summer. Drought stress has been exacerbated by diminished rainfall due to a changing climate regime. The aim of this research is to develop guidelines for sustainable groundwater abstraction (timing and volume) that will maintain the long term integrity of the ecosystem and recover up to 5GL/yr from existing borefields. We seek to investigate whether a change in abstraction regime, from ‘peak demand’ summer pumping to winter pumping allows groundwater levels to recover sufficiently prior to summer, thereby maintaining a healthy vegetation system. Hydrological and plant water status parameters were monitored over two winters at research sites with an initial depth to groundwater of less than 5m. During winter and spring, groundwater abstraction at a reduced capacity resulted in a 0.75m drawdown. Operation of the bores did not adversely impact the water status of phreatophytic Banksia at the study sites relative to control sites. Analysis of plant water source partitioning indicated that plants exposed to the winter drawdown were sustained by unsaturated zone soil moisture storage replenished by winter rainfall. When pumping ceased, the water table rose rapidly and plants utilised more groundwater during late spring and summer as the

  6. Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crystalline bedrock setting and to support remedial activities at AFP6, numerous wells have been constructed that include long open-hole intervals in the crystalline bedrock. These wells can include several discontinuities that produce water, which may contain contaminants. Because of the complexity of ground-water flow and contaminant movement in the crystalline bedrock, it is important to characterize the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics of discrete intervals in these wells. The straddle packer facilitates ground-water sampling and hydraulic testing of discrete intervals, and delivery of fluids including tracer suites and remedial agents into these discontinuities. The straddle packer consists of two inflatable packers, a dual-pump system, a pressure-sensing system, and an aqueous injection system. Tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of the pressure-sensing systems, and water samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations. Pressure-transducer readings matched computed water-column height, with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.99. The straddle packer incorporates both an air-driven piston pump and a variable-frequency, electronic, submersible pump. Only slight differences were observed between VOC concentrations in samples collected using the two different types of sampling pumps during two sampling events in July and August 2005. A test conducted to assess the effect of stagnation on VOC concentrations in water trapped in the system's pump-tubing reel showed that concentrations were not affected. A comparison was conducted

  7. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; Borghese, J.V.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems.

  8. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    SciTech Connect

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  9. Arkansas Groundwater-Quality Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Jackson, Barry T.; Miller, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Arkansas is the fourth largest user of groundwater in the United States, where groundwater accounts for two-thirds of the total water use. Groundwater use in the State increased by 510 percent between 1965 and 2005 (Holland, 2007). The Arkansas Groundwater-Quality Network is a Web map interface (http://ar.water.usgs.gov/wqx) that provides rapid access to the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) databases of ambient water information. The interface enables users to perform simple graphical analysis and download selected water-quality data.

  10. Data validation summary report 300-FF-5 round 5 groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, L.C.

    1993-07-15

    Laboratory data for Fifth Round Groundwater samples collected during the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation have been reviewed and validated to ensure that they are of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding further actions to be taken at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. Table 1-1 is a summary of the validated samples. This report summarizes the results previously presented to Westinghouse Hanford in a series of Preliminary Quality Assurance Reports (PQAR) for the 300-FF-5 Fifth Round Groundwater samples. In some instances, the data qualifiers originally presented in the PQARs have been changed based upon further review of the data; these changes are highlighted in the text.

  11. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  12. Groundwater inventory and monitoring technical guide: Remote sensing of groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of remotely sensed data in conjunction with in situ data greatly enhances the ability of the USDA Forest Service to meet the demands of field staff, customers, and others for groundwater information. Generally, the use of remotely sensed data to inventory and monitor groundwater reso...

  13. The groundwater subsidy to vegetation: groundwater exchanges between landcover patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, L. I.; Gimenez, R.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gran Chaco is a hot, dry plain, that spans over 60 million hectares across Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. It supports high biodiversity in its dry forest and savannahs, but is rapidly being converted to agriculture in response to growing soy demand and technology including genetic modification and zero-till, that has made cultivation in drier landscapes more viable. Under natural conditions, the deep-rooted, native vegetation of the Chaco effectively captured all rainfall for evapotranspiration resulting in near zero groundwater recharge under the dry forest. Conversion to shallower rooted soy and corn, combined with the fallow period prior to the growing season, reduces evapotranspiration and allows some water to percolate through the root zone and recharge the groundwater system. When this groundwater recharge occurs, it creates groundwater mounding and a hydraulic gradient that drives flow to adjacent landcover patches where recharge does not occur. As the watertable rises, groundwater becomes available to the deep-rooted, dry forest vegetation. We develop a soil and groundwater flow model to simulate infiltration, percolation, evaporation, rootwater uptake, groundwater recharge and the lateral transfer of water between adjacent landcover patches to quantify this groundwater subsidy from converted agricultural lands to remnant patches of dry forest.

  14. Bioremediation Of Groundwater Contaminated Wtih Gasoline Hydrocarbons And Oxygenates Using A Membrane-Based Reactor

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to operate a novel, field-scale, aerobic bioreactor and assess its performance in the ex situ treatment of groundwater contaminated with gasoline from a leaking underground storage tank in Pascoag, RI. The groundwater contained elevated concentrat...

  15. Modeling Irrigation Pumping and Groundwater Depletion in the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Y. N.; Koirala, S.; Yamada, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Yeh, P. J.; Yoshimura, K.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater is an important source of human water use in many regions. Today, at least one-fourth of world's population rely on water drawn from underground aquifers. During the last several decades, rapid expansion of irrigated areas has led to significant increase in agricultural groundwater withdrawal. Natural dynamic equilibrium of groundwater systems (recharge = discharge) is perturbed when groundwater is artificially pumped, and if pumping exceeds recharge over large areas and prolonged period of time, progressive decrease in groundwater storage can occur which is usually termed as 'groundwater mining'. Evidence is now growing that groundwater resources have been dwindling due to excessive groundwater mining, particularly in semi-arid regions where most croplands with intensive irrigation are located. Here, we provide the first model-based study of the impact of irrigation pumping on groundwater depletion by using an integrated model HIGW-MAT developed by incorporating human impact modules (reservoir operation, irrigation, water withdrawal) and a fully dynamic groundwater representation into the state-of-the-art land surface model called MATSIRO (Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff). Total water requirements of a grid cell (domestic, industrial, and agricultural) are withdrawn from surface and/or sub-surface sources based on water availability. When the surface water sources such as river and medium-sized reservoirs deplete below a prescribed threshold, water is pumped from groundwater reservoir. The groundwater scheme is an unconfined aquifer model in which soil column is separated into continuously interacting saturated and unsaturated zones by the water table. Thus, the model simulates the flow of water taking into account anthropogenic water regulation and groundwater pumping and return flow of anthropogenic water use. Simulations are conducted at 1° × 1° (longitude and latitude) spatial resolution at the global scale. The

  16. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  17. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  18. Behavior of water balance components at sites with shallow groundwater tables: Possibilities and limitations of their simulation using different types of groundwater lysimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Ottfried; Fahle, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater lysimeters are a special type of lysimeter that can provide valuable insights into processes occurring at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Typically, water balance simulations for such sites using hydrological models are complicated by the permanently changing directions of the water fluxes due to percolation and capillary rise and the complex hydrological conditions. Problems also arise when trying to imitate such conditions correctly in a lysimeter. The biggest challenge is to realistically simulate the lower boundary condition, which has a pronounced impact on most of the hydrological variables, especially when considering time scales shorter than one day. Historically, groundwater levels in soil monoliths of groundwater lysimeters were controlled by so-called Mariotte bottles (type 1). Even nowadays, most groundwater lysimeters use such systems. From a technical standpoint, the solution is reliable and simple to operate and maintain. Nevertheless, the accuracy of Mariotte bottles (type 1) is limited when simulatingnatural shallow groundwater table conditions which are characterized by fluctuations on a short time scale. Today's lysimeters are able to simulate measured groundwater levels with higher accuracy, even for short time steps (type 2). However, conditions in the lysimeter and the place where the reference groundwater level is measured have to be consistent in order to get reliable results. Problems also arise if the behavior of the groundwater level itself is the aim of the investigation as the groundwater level has to be pre-defined, i.e. it is the control value. A new approach regulates the lower boundary condition by controlling the in- and outflows of the lysimeter (type 3). This enlarges the field of possible applications of groundwater lysimeters, especially with respect to simulations of natural site conditions and short time scales. The presentation compares the performance of different types of groundwater lysimeters with

  19. Groundwater Monitoring of Land Application with Manure, Biosolids, and other Organic Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Lawrence, C.; Atwill, E. R.; Kendall, C.

    2007-12-01

    Regulatory programs frequently require monitoring of first encountered (shallow-most) groundwater for purposes of determining whether an actual or potential, permitted or incidental waste discharge has had or will have a degrading effect on groundwater quality. Traditionally, these programs have focused on monitoring of incidental discharges from industrial sites. Increasingly, sources with an implied groundwater recharge are subject to monitoring requirements. These recharging sources include, for example, land application of municipal, food processing, or animal waste to irrigated cropland. Groundwater monitoring of a recharging source requires a different approach to groundwater monitoring than traditional (incidental source) monitoring programs. Furthermore, the shallow groundwater aquifer targeted for compliance monitoring commonly consists of highly heterogeneous unconsolidated alluvial, fluvial, lacustrine, glacial, or subaeolian sediments of late tertiary or quaternary age. Particularly in arid and semi-arid climates, groundwater is also frequently subject to significant seasonal and interannual groundwater level fluctuations that may exceed ten feet seasonally and several tens of feet within a three- to five-year period. We present a hydrodynamically rigorous approach to designing groundwater monitoring wells for recharging sources under conditions of aquifer heterogeneity and water level fluctuations and present the application of this concept to monitoring confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) with irrigated crops located on alluvial fans with highly fluctuating, deep groundwater table.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Chlorinated-Solvent Sites on Metropolitan Groundwater Resources

    PubMed Central

    Brusseau, Mark L.; Narter, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated-solvent compounds are among the most common groundwater contaminants in the U.S.A. The majority of the many sites contaminated by chlorinated-solvent compounds are located in metropolitan areas, and most such areas have one or more chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites. Thus, contamination of groundwater by chlorinated-solvent compounds may pose a potential risk to the sustainability of potable water supplies for many metropolitan areas. The impact of chlorinated-solvent sites on metropolitan water resources was assessed for Tucson, AZ, by comparing the aggregate volume of extracted groundwater for all pump-and-treat systems associated with contaminated sites in the region to the total regional groundwater withdrawal. The analysis revealed that the aggregate volume of groundwater withdrawn for the pump-and-treat systems operating in Tucson, all of which are located at chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites, was 20% of the total groundwater withdrawal in the city for the study period. The treated groundwater was used primarily for direct delivery to local water supply systems or for reinjection as part of the pump-and-treat system. The volume of the treated groundwater used for potable water represented approximately 13% of the total potable water supply sourced from groundwater, and approximately 6% of the total potable water supply. This case study illustrates the significant impact chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites can have on groundwater resources and regional potable-water supplies. PMID:24116872

  1. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period July 1, 1991 through September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and 40 CFR 265, Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, as amended (EPA 1989). Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303 (Ecology 1991). This submittal provides data obtained from groundwater monitoring activities for July 1, 1991 through September 30, 1991. This report contains groundwater monitoring data from Hanford Site groundwater projects. A RCRA network is currently being established at the 100-D Pond. Groundwater chemistry analyses have not yet been performed.

  2. Review: Optimization methods for groundwater modeling and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, William W.-G.

    2015-09-01

    Optimization methods have been used in groundwater modeling as well as for the planning and management of groundwater systems. This paper reviews and evaluates the various optimization methods that have been used for solving the inverse problem of parameter identification (estimation), experimental design, and groundwater planning and management. Various model selection criteria are discussed, as well as criteria used for model discrimination. The inverse problem of parameter identification concerns the optimal determination of model parameters using water-level observations. In general, the optimal experimental design seeks to find sampling strategies for the purpose of estimating the unknown model parameters. A typical objective of optimal conjunctive-use planning of surface water and groundwater is to minimize the operational costs of meeting water demand. The optimization methods include mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming, quadratic programming, dynamic programming, stochastic programming, nonlinear programming, and the global search algorithms such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, and tabu search. Emphasis is placed on groundwater flow problems as opposed to contaminant transport problems. A typical two-dimensional groundwater flow problem is used to explain the basic formulations and algorithms that have been used to solve the formulated optimization problems.

  3. Integrated technologies for expedited soil and groundwater remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.; Wellman, D.

    1996-12-01

    A fast-track and economic approach was necessary to meet the needs of a property transfer agreement and to minimize impact to future usage of a site in the Los Angeles Basin. Woodward-Clyde responded by implementing site investigation, remedial action plan preparation for soil and groundwater, and selection and installation of remedial alternatives in an aggressive schedule of overlapped tasks. Assessment of soil and groundwater was conducted at the site, followed by design and construction of remediation systems. This phase of activity was completed within 2 years. Soil and groundwater were found to be impacted by chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons. A vapor extraction system (2,000 scfm capacity) was installed for soil remediation, and an innovative air sparging system was installed for cost effective groundwater cleanup. A bioventing system was also applied in selected areas. The vapor extraction wellfield consists of 26 extraction and monitoring well points, with multiple screened casings. The air sparging wellfield consists of 32 sparging wells with a designed maximum flow of 400 scfm. The systems began operation in 1993, and have resulted in the estimated removal of approximately 30,000 pounds of contaminants, or about 90% of the estimated mass in place. The combined vapor extraction/air sparging system is expected to reduce the time for on-site groundwater remediation from 1/3 to 1/6 the time when compared to the conventional pump and treat method for groundwater remediation.

  4. Sustainable groundwater management in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Steven P.; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Faunt, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses data collection, modeling tools, and scientific analysis to help water managers plan for, and assess, hydrologic issues that can cause “undesirable results” associated with groundwater use. This information helps managers understand trends and investigate and predict effects of different groundwater-management strategies.

  5. Groundwater hydrology--coastal flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, Ward E.

    2010-01-01

    How groundwater flow varies when long-term external conditions change is little documented. Geochemical evidence shows that sea-level rise at the end of the last glacial period led to a shift in the flow patterns of coastal groundwater beneath Florida.

  6. Groundwater protection management program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a groundwater protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable Federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office has prepared a ``Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan`` (groundwater protection plan) of sufficient scope and detail to reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter 3, for special program planning. The groundwater protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor groundwater resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies project technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA groundwater protection management program. In addition, the groundwater protection plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA sites (long-term care at disposal sites and groundwater restoration at processing sites). This plan will be reviewed annually and updated every 3 years in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  7. Promoting local management in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Steenbergen, Frank

    2006-03-01

    There is a strong case for making greater effort to promote local groundwater management—in addition to other measures that regulate groundwater use. Though scattered, there are several examples—from India, Pakistan, Yemen and Egypt—where groundwater users effectively self-imposed restrictions on the use of groundwater. There are a number of recurrent themes in such spontaneously-developed examples of local regulation: the importance of not excluding potential users; the importance of simple, low transaction cost rules; the power of correct and accessible hydrogeological information; the possibility of making more use of demand and supply management strategies; and the important supportive role of local governments. The case is made, using examples, for actively promoting local groundwater management as an important element in balancing groundwater uses. Two programmes for promoting local groundwater management in South India are described—one focussing on participatory hydrological monitoring, and one focussing on micro-resource planning and training. In both cases the response was very positive and the conclusion is that promoting local groundwater regulation is not difficult, costly or sensitive and can reach the necessary scale quickly.

  8. SUPERFUND GROUNDWATER ISSUE - FACILITATED TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water scientists representing EPA's Regional Superfund Offices, organized to exchange up to date information related to ground-water remediation at Superfund sites. Facilitated transport is an issue identified by the ...

  9. ORGANIC CHEMICAL TRANSPORT TO GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of pesticides in the production of agricultural commodities is widespread. Since nearly one-half of the U.S. population relies on groundwater as their source for drinking water, contamination potential of groundwater, because of pesticide manufacture and use, must be unde...

  10. Groundwater: Contamination from Nitrogen Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in water pose problems for human health and the environment. Groundwater is a major source for human water supplies and for contributing to surface water bodies. Leaching of N fertilizers is a major factor for high NO3-N concentrations in groundwater. Current ...

  11. Linking climate change and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Projected global change includes groundwater systems, which are linked with changes in climate over space and time. Consequently, global change affects key aspects of subsurface hydrology (including soil water, deeper vadose zone water, and unconfined and confined aquifer waters), surface-groundwat...

  12. Issues in groundwater management

    SciTech Connect

    Smerdon, E.T.; Jordon, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that the solution to future water problems in Texas will require more effective management of the water resources. New supplies to meet future needs are not without limit; therefore, the solution to the problem will have to come from better water conservation as well as by providing new supplies. In some cases, conservation and reuse may be the only feasible answer. To accomplish what is needed will require the best efforts of all Texans. And good research programs will be required to discover ways to improve on what has been done in the past. This publication contains the proceedings of a symposium entitled ''Groundwater--Crisis or Opportunity,'' which was held in San Antonio October 29-31, 1984. It was one of several efforts related to water resources undertaken cooperatively in recent years by The University of Texas at Austin and The Texas A and M University System. The papers in this proceedings discuss the groundwater problems of the future in Texas.

  13. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOEpatents

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  14. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Ballard, Sanford

    1994-01-01

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow.

  15. Groundwater monitoring well assessment final work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (JEG) has been contracted by Environmental Management Operations (EMO) to develop and implement a Groundwater Monitoring Well Assessment Plan for Canal Creek in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG-EA). The task will be performed under the provisions of Master Agreement 071914-A-D7, Task Order 142133. The project consists of assessing the condition of existing groundwater monitoring wells in the Canal Creek Area prior to a groundwater sampling program. The following Work Plan describes the technical approach that will be used to conduct field work for the project. Integrity of some monitoring wells installed at APG-EA has come into question because of problems with well completions that were detected in wells at the O-field Study Area during a recent sampling event. Because of this, EPA and APG-DSHE officials have requested a well integrity assessment for a percentage of 168 monitoring wells installed at the Canal Creek Study Area(14 by USATHAMA, 152 by USGS). Results of the well assessment will be used to determine if these wells were completed in a fashion that minimizes the potential for either cross-contamination of aquifers or leakage of water from the surface into the well.

  16. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    DB Barnett

    2000-05-17

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  17. Groundwater: from mystery to management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2009-07-01

    Groundwater has been used for domestic and irrigation needs from time immemorial. Yet its nature and occurrence have always possessed a certain mystery because water below the land surface is invisible and relatively inaccessible. The influence of this mystery lingers in some tenets that govern groundwater law. With the birth of modern geology during the late nineteenth century, groundwater science became recognized in its own right. Over the past two centuries, groundwater has lost its shroud of mystery, and its scientific understanding has gradually grown hand-in-hand with its development for human use. Groundwater is a component of the hydrological cycle, vital for human sustenance. Its annual renewability from precipitation is limited, and its chemical quality is vulnerable to degradation by human action. In many parts of the world, groundwater extraction is known to greatly exceed its renewability. Consequently, its rational management to benefit present and future generations is a matter of deep concern for many nations. Groundwater management is a challenging venture, requiring an integration of scientific knowledge with communal will to adapt to constraints of a finite common resource. As scientists and policy makers grapple with the tasks of groundwater management, it is instructive to reflect on the evolution of groundwater knowledge from its initial phase of demystification at the beginning of the nineteenth century, through successive phases of technological conquest, scientific integration, discovery of unintended consequences and the present recognition of an imperative for judicious management. The following retrospective provides a broad context for unifying the technical contributions that make up this focus issue on groundwater resources, climate and vulnerability.

  18. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  19. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Sacramento Area Groundwater Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-03-10

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement the groundwater assessment program in cooperation with local water purveyors. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin of Sacramento suburban area, located to the north of the American River and to the east of the Sacramento River. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3

  20. Reconstruction of Groundwater Depletion Using a Global Scale Groundwater Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.; Van Beek, L. P.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is a crucial part of the global water cycle. It is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water to satisfy human water needs. During times of droughts it sustains river flows and evaporation in areas with shallow water tables. However, most global scale hydrological models do not include a lateral groundwater flow component due to a lack of consistent global-scale hydrogeological information. Such data is needed to arrive at a more realistic physical representation of the groundwater system allowing for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows including abstractions in confined and unconfined aquifers. This improved process description is indispensable to understand the effects of past and future climate variations and human dependence on global water resources. In this study we developed a high resolution (5 arc-minutes) global scale transient groundwater model presenting confined and unconfined aquifers. This model is based on MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) and coupled with the land-surface model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011) via recharge and surface water levels. The aquifer parameterization is based on available global data-sets on lithology (Hartmann and Moosdorf 2011) and permeability (Gleeson et al. 2011) and newly derived estimates of aquifer depth and thickness of confining layers from an integration of lithological and topographical information. In a sensitivity analysis the model is run with various hydrogeological parameter settings, under natural recharge only. Scenarios of past groundwater abstractions and recharge (Wada et al 2012) are evaluated. Trends and fluctuations of groundwater head and streamflow are studied in response to human groundwater use and climate variability, as well as revealing hotspots and magnitude of global groundwater depletion.

  1. Reconstruction of groundwater depletion using a global scale groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Wada, Yoshi; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater forms an integral part of the global hydrological cycle and is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water to satisfy human water needs. It buffers variable recharge rates over time, thereby effectively sustaining river flows in times of drought as well as evaporation in areas with shallow water tables. Moreover, although lateral groundwater flows are often slow, they cross topographic and administrative boundaries at appreciable rates. Despite the importance of groundwater, most global scale hydrological models do not consider surface water-groundwater interactions or include a lateral groundwater flow component. The main reason of this omission is the lack of consistent global-scale hydrogeological information needed to arrive at a more realistic representation of the groundwater system, i.e. including information on aquifer depths and the presence of confining layers. The latter holds vital information on the accessibility and quality of the global groundwater resource. In this study we developed a high resolution (5 arc-minutes) global scale transient groundwater model comprising confined and unconfined aquifers. This model is based on MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) and coupled with the land-surface model PCR GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011) via recharge and surface water levels. Aquifers properties were based on newly derived estimates of aquifer depths (de Graaf et al., 2014b) and thickness of confining layers from an integration of lithological and topographical information. They were further parameterized using available global datasets on lithology (Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2011) and permeability (Gleeson et al., 2014). In a sensitivity analysis the model was run with various hydrogeological parameter settings, under natural recharge only. Scenarios of past groundwater abstractions and corresponding recharge (Wada et al., 2012, de Graaf et al. 2014a) were evaluated. The resulting estimates of groundwater depletion are lower than

  2. Basic elements of ground-water hydrology with reference to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, Ralph Carr

    1980-01-01

    This report was prepared as an aid to developing a better understanding of the groundwater resources of North Carolina. It consists of 46 essays grouped into five parts. The topics covered by these essays range from the most basic aspects of ground-water hydrology to the identification and correction of problems that affect the operation of supply wells. The essays were designed both for self study and for use in workshops on ground-water hydrology and the development and operation of ground-water supplies. From the standpoint of self study, it is assumed that the reader does not have any prior knowledge of geology or ground-water hydrology. Those readers with such knowledge can simply skip those topics with which they are already familar. (USGS)

  3. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.

    1999-03-18

    The SRS Interim Sanitary Landfill opened in Mid-1992 and operated until 1998 under Domestic Waste Permit No. 025500-1120. Several contaminants have been detected in the groundwater beneath the unit.The well sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Procedure 3Q5, Hydrogeologic Data Collection.

  4. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

  5. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  6. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  7. Kauai Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume IV – Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.

  8. Global scale groundwater flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Ludovicus; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus supports ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, while its large natural storage provides a buffer against water shortages. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component that is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and allows the simulation of groundwater head dynamics. In this study we present a steady-state MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model on the global scale at 5 arc-minutes resolution. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological model (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorff, in press). We force the groundwtaer model with the output from the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated calculated groundwater heads and depths with available head observations, from different regions, including the North and South America and Western Europe. Our results show that it is feasible to build a relatively simple global scale groundwater model using existing information, and estimate water table depths within acceptable accuracy in many parts of the world.

  9. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource and also a dynamic component of the water cycle. Unconfined aquifer storage is less responsive to short term weather conditions than the near surface terrestrial water storage (TWS) components (soil moisture, surface water, and snow). However, save for the permanently frozen regions, it typically exhibits a larger range of variability over multi-annual periods than the other components. Groundwater is poorly monitored at the global scale, but terrestrial water storage (TWS) change data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are a reasonable proxy for unconfined groundwater at climatic scales.

  10. Mining's impact on groundwater assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detailed studies have indicated that groundwater is contaminated in the immediate vicinity of many mines in the eastern United States. However, no underground mines and very few refuse disposal areas have monitoring systems that can provide adequate warning of impending threats to groundwater quality.This was one of the conclusions of a 3-year study by Geraghty & Miller, Inc., a firm of consulting groundwater geologists and hydrologists based in Syosset, New York. The study focused on mines east of the 100th meridian. These mines will produce an estimated 1.1 billion tons of coal and 200 million tons of waste by 1985.

  11. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate.

  12. 40 CFR 265.73 - Operating record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL... ground-water monitoring and cleanup, and response action plans for surface impoundments, waste piles,...

  13. Estimating global groundwater withdrawal and depletion using an integrated hydrological model, GRACE, and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Y. N.; Koirala, S.; Hanasaki, N.; Yeh, P. J.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2012-12-01

    In the past several decades extensive use of groundwater, particularly for irrigation, has led to rapid groundwater depletion in many regions. This has not only affected the terrestrial water cycle but also resulted in global sea level rise because a large portion of unsustainably pumped groundwater eventually ends up in the ocean. Therefore, monitoring groundwater resources and their use has become increasingly important. While in situ observations are invaluable for assessing and monitoring groundwater availability, global models and satellite-based observations provide further insights into groundwater dynamics in regions where observations are scarce. In this study, we highlight the major hotspots of global groundwater depletion and the consequent sea level change by using an integrated modeling framework. The model was developed by incorporating a dynamic groundwater scheme and a pumping scheme into a global land surface model (MATSIRO: Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff) which also accounts for the effects of major human activities (e.g., reservoir operation, irrigation, and water withdrawal) on the terrestrial water cycle. All components of the model are fully coupled and the model tracks the flow of water taking into account the withdrawals of water for agricultural, domestic, and industrial uses from various sources such as river networks, medium-sized reservoirs, and groundwater reservoir. Using model results, GRACE measurement, and ground-based observations by the United States Geological Survey, we demonstrate that groundwater has been declining in many regions with a particular focus on the major aquifers in the United States. In the region overlying the High Plains aquifer, which is extensively irrigated mainly by using groundwater, the simulated groundwater withdrawal of ~23 km3/yr agrees well with the observational record of ~24 km3/yr for circa 2000. Moreover, corresponding closely with the USGS water level observations

  14. Microbial Community in High Arsenic Shallow Groundwater Aquifers in Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Zhou; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wang, Yanxin; Dong, Hailiang

    2015-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater) and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes) in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12–267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO42-, SO42-/total sulfur ratio, and Fe2+ were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia. PMID:25970606

  15. Elucidating hydraulic fracturing impacts on groundwater quality using a regional geospatial statistical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Burton, Taylour G; Rifai, Hanadi S; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing operations have been viewed as the cause of certain environmental issues including groundwater contamination. The potential for hydraulic fracturing to induce contaminant pathways in groundwater is not well understood since gas wells are completed while isolating the water table and the gas-bearing reservoirs lay thousands of feet below the water table. Recent studies have attributed ground water contamination to poor well construction and leaks in the wellbore annulus due to ruptured wellbore casings. In this paper, a geospatial model of the Barnett Shale region was created using ArcGIS. The model was used for spatial analysis of groundwater quality data in order to determine if regional variations in groundwater quality, as indicated by various groundwater constituent concentrations, may be associated with the presence of hydraulically fractured gas wells in the region. The Barnett Shale reservoir pressure, completions data, and fracture treatment data were evaluated as predictors of groundwater quality change. Results indicated that elevated concentrations of certain groundwater constituents are likely related to natural gas production in the study area and that beryllium, in this formation, could be used as an indicator variable for evaluating fracturing impacts on regional groundwater quality. Results also indicated that gas well density and formation pressures correlate to change in regional water quality whereas proximity to gas wells, by itself, does not. The results also provided indirect evidence supporting the possibility that micro annular fissures serve as a pathway transporting fluids and chemicals from the fractured wellbore to the overlying groundwater aquifers. PMID:26745299

  16. First and second quarters 1999 -- TNX Area groundwater and effectiveness monitoring strategy data only report

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-17

    This report presents data of groundwater monitoring conducted during the first and second quarters of 1999 in support of the Interim Remedial Action. The data is from groundwater monitoring wells described in this report as the primary, secondary, and recovery wells of the initial operation of the Effectiveness Monitoring Strategy (EMS) as stipulated in Revision 1.3 (WSRC, 1996), the proposed wells for the full operation of the EMS as described in Revision 1.5 (WSRC, 1999), and general wells pertinent to the report. Also included are data from SRTC projects in the TNX Area that are deemed useful for groundwater characterization.

  17. Continued utilization of ground-water storage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1957-01-01

    Doubtless most of you are more familiar with surface reservoirs, their capabilities and limitations, than you are with ground-water reservoirs. I believe that this is true of people in general, even the experts. And because of our inadequate knowledge of ground-water reservoirs, our use of them creates problems that are rarely if ever encountered in the operation of surface reservoirs. Nevertheless there are many similarities between these two basic forms of water storage, and I should like to point out some of these similarities, was well as some important contrasts.

  18. Groundwater protection for the NuMI project

    SciTech Connect

    Wehmann, A.; Smart, W.; Menary, S.; Hylen, J.; Childress, S.

    1997-10-01

    The physics requirements for the long base line neutrino oscillation experiment MINOS dictate that the NuMI beamline be located in the aquifer at Fermilab. A methodology is described for calculating the level of radioactivation of groundwater caused by operation of this beamline. A conceptual shielding design for the 750 meter long decay pipe is investigated which would reduce radioactivation of the groundwater to below government standards. More economical shielding designs to meet these requirements are being explored. Also, information on local geology, hydrogeology, government standards, and a glossary have been included.

  19. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2006-02-28

    This report is one of the major products and deliverables of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessment Projects detailed work plan for FY 2006, and reflects the requirements of The Groundwater Performance Assessment Project Quality Assurance Plan (PNNL-15014). This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2005 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the west-central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas. Technetium-99 and uranium plumes exceeding standards are present in the 200 Areas. A uranium plume underlies the 300 Area. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99/uranium plumes. Resource Conservation and

  20. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  1. Irrigation and groundwater in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Iftikhar Kazmi, Syed

    2010-05-01

    Introduction of large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in late nineteenth century without a drainage system resulted in water table rise consequently giving rise to water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem government initiated salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in 1960. Initially 10,000 tube wells were installed in different areas, which not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the full irrigation motivated framers to install private tube wells. Present estimate of private tube wells in Punjab alone is around 0.6 million and 48 billion cubic meter of groundwater is used for irrigation, contributing is 1.3 billion to the economy. The Punjab meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tubewells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. As the importance of groundwater in sustaining human life and ecology is evident so are the threats to its sustainability due to overexploitation, but sufficient information for its sustainable management especially in developing countries is still required. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. Groundwater recharge is broadly defined as water that reaches the aquifer from any direction (Lerner 1997). Sustainability and proper management of groundwater resource requires reliable quantification of the resource. In order to protect the resource from contamination and over exploitation, identification of recharge sources and their contribution to resource is a basic requirement. Physiochemical properties of some pesticides and their behavior in soil and water can make them potential tracers of subsurface moisture movement. Pesticides are intensively used in the area to

  2. Audit of groundwater remediation plans at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-11

    The Department of Energy was required to reduce groundwater contamination that represented a risk to human health or the environment. To achieve this goal, the Savannah River Operations Office (Savannah River) entered into several formal agreements with Federal and State regulators. The agreements described how Savannah River would reduce the level of contamination until the risks to human health and the environment were lowered to an acceptable level. The agreements called for decreasing groundwater contamination to levels that would comply with South Carolina groundwater regulations, which would allow a hypothetical future resident to someday live above the F and H Areas and drink the groundwater. We believe basing the agreements on drinking water standards was unreasonable because no one will likely live above these areas or drink the groundwater. The more stringent drinking water standards were included in the planning process because Savannah River had not developed a Land Use Plan that would permit rational decision making for the entire site. Lacking a Land Use Plan, the environmental regulators assumed, and Savannah River acceded to, the most stringent usage scenario, that the groundwater under the F and H Areas might one day be used as a source of drinking water. It will take more than one hundred years for the subterranean groundwater to become safe enough for drinking water purposes. Consequently, Savannah River may continue to pursue expensive remediation projects for longer than would be necessary to protect human health and the environment. However, the cost impact of unnecessary clean-up activities is indeterminable because acceptable contamination limits would still have to be negotiated with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control.

  3. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  4. Groundwater Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed E. Hassan

    2006-01-24

    Models have an inherent uncertainty. The difficulty in fully characterizing the subsurface environment makes uncertainty an integral component of groundwater flow and transport models, which dictates the need for continuous monitoring and improvement. Building and sustaining confidence in closure decisions and monitoring networks based on models of subsurface conditions require developing confidence in the models through an iterative process. The definition of model validation is postulated as a confidence building and long-term iterative process (Hassan, 2004a). Model validation should be viewed as a process not an end result. Following Hassan (2004b), an approach is proposed for the validation process of stochastic groundwater models. The approach is briefly summarized herein and detailed analyses of acceptance criteria for stochastic realizations and of using validation data to reduce input parameter uncertainty are presented and applied to two case studies. During the validation process for stochastic models, a question arises as to the sufficiency of the number of acceptable model realizations (in terms of conformity with validation data). Using a hierarchical approach to make this determination is proposed. This approach is based on computing five measures or metrics and following a decision tree to determine if a sufficient number of realizations attain satisfactory scores regarding how they represent the field data used for calibration (old) and used for validation (new). The first two of these measures are applied to hypothetical scenarios using the first case study and assuming field data consistent with the model or significantly different from the model results. In both cases it is shown how the two measures would lead to the appropriate decision about the model performance. Standard statistical tests are used to evaluate these measures with the results indicating they are appropriate measures for evaluating model realizations. The use of validation

  5. Groundwater contamination from stormwater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, R.; Clark, S.; Parmer, K.

    1995-10-01

    The research summarized here was conducted during the first year of a 3-yr cooperative agreement (CR819573) to identify and control stormwater toxicants, especially those adversely affecting groundwater. The purpose of this research effort was to review the groundwater contamination literature as it relates to stormwater. Prior to urbanization groundwater is recharged by rainfall-runoff and snowmelt infiltrating through pervious surfaces including grasslands and woods. This infiltrating water is relatively uncontaminated. Urbanization, however, reduces the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration occurs. This results in much less groundwater recharge and greatly increased surface runoff. In addition the waters available for recharge carry increased quantities of pollutants. With urbanization, waters having elevated contaminant concentrations also recharge groundwater including effluent from domestic septic tanks, wastewater from percolation basins and industrial waste injection wells, infiltrating stormwater, and infiltrating water from agricultural irrigation. The areas of main concern that are covered by this paper are: the source of the pollutants, stormwater constituents having a high potential to contaminate groundwater, and the treatment necessary for stormwater.

  6. Groundwater pumping by heterogeneous users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saak, Alexander E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.

    2012-08-01

    Farm size is a significant determinant of both groundwater-irrigated farm acreage and groundwater-irrigation-application rates per unit land area. This paper analyzes the patterns of groundwater exploitation when resource users in the area overlying a common aquifer are heterogeneous. In the presence of user heterogeneity, the common resource problem consists of inefficient dynamic and spatial allocation of groundwater because it impacts income distribution not only across periods but also across farmers. Under competitive allocation, smaller farmers pump groundwater faster if farmers have a constant marginal periodic utility of income. However, it is possible that larger farmers pump faster if the Arrow-Pratt coefficient of relative risk-aversion is sufficiently decreasing in income. A greater farm-size inequality may either moderate or amplify income inequality among farmers. Its effect on welfare depends on the curvature properties of the agricultural output function and the farmer utility of income. Also, it is shown that a flat-rate quota policy that limits the quantity of groundwater extraction per unit land area may have unintended consequences for the income distribution among farmers.

  7. Characterization of shallow groundwater at TNX

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located on 300 square miles along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina, is owned by the Department of Energy and operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The site`s mission is to support the national security through the production of nuclear weapons material. With the recent reduction of the nation`s nuclear stockpile and the stronger focus on the cleanup of sites where nuclear operations activities have left behind soil and groundwater contamination, identifying and remediating all inactive wastes has become a primary goal.The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the western portion of SRS (Figure 1). The area is a pilot-scale test facility for the Savannah River Technology Center. Pilot-scale testing and evaluation of chemical processes at TNX have included support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Separations Area, and fuel and target manufacturing areas. Wastewater generated during tests was discharged to unlined basins through a network of underground process sewers.A discussion of waste disposal activities for the TNX Area is included in this report to identify the major sources of contaminants that have impacted the groundwater.

  8. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Annual report, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is composed of the original 32-acre landfill, plus expansion areas to the north and south that added 16 and 22 acres, respectively, to the facility. The landfill is subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and currently operates under South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Domestic Waste Permit 87A. Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor the groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (formerly Aquifer Zone I/IIC{sub 2}) (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill. These wells are sampled quarterly for certain indicator parameters, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, volatile organics, and other constituents as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with the SCDHEC domestic waste permit. This report reviews the 1992 activities of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  9. Kinetics of in situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, R.S.; Cote, S.M.; Truex, M.J.; Petersen, J.N.

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and may require the remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl{sub 4}, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on-going effort to quantify the biological and chemical reactions that would occur during in situ bioremediation.

  10. Kinetics of in situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, R.S.; Cote, S.M.; Truex, M.J. ); Petersen, J.N. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-04-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl[sub 4]), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and may require the remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl[sub 4], nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on-going effort to quantify the biological and chemical reactions that would occur during in situ bioremediation.

  11. Record of Decision Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact of groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank far soil and groundwater at INTEC.

  12. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    . The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2009 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3; sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4; and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information.

  13. Saline Groundwater from Coastal Aquifers As a Source for Desalination.

    PubMed

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yoseph; Rahav, Eyal; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2016-02-16

    Reverse osmosis (RO) seawater desalination is currently a widespread means of closing the gap between supply and demand for potable water in arid regions. Currently, one of the main setbacks of RO operation is fouling, which hinders membrane performance and induces pressure loss, thereby reducing system efficiency. An alternative water source is saline groundwater with salinity close to seawater, pumped from beach wells in coastal aquifers which penetrate beneath the freshwater-seawater interface. In this research, we studied the potential use of saline groundwater of the coastal aquifer as feedwater for desalination in comparison to seawater using fieldwork and laboratory approaches. The chemistry, microbiology and physical properties of saline groundwater were characterized and compared with seawater. Additionally, reverse osmosis desalination experiments in a cross-flow system were performed, evaluating the permeate flux, salt rejection and fouling propensities of the different water types. Our results indicated that saline groundwater was significantly favored over seawater as a feed source in terms of chemical composition, microorganism content, silt density, and fouling potential, and exhibited better desalination performance with less flux decline. Saline groundwater may be a better water source for desalination by RO due to lower fouling potential, and reduced pretreatment costs. PMID:26810309

  14. Costs of groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, W.B.; Raucher, R.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Two factors determine the cost of groundwater contamination: (1) the ways in which water was being used or was expected to be used in the future and (2) the physical characteristics of the setting that constrain the responses available to regain lost uses or to prevent related damages to human health and the environment. Most contamination incidents can be managed at a low enough cost that uses will not be foreclosed. It is important to take into account the following when considering costs: (1) natural cleansing through recharge and dilution can take many years; (2) it is difficult and costly to identify the exact area and expected path of a contamination plume; and (3) treatment or replacement of contaminated water often may represent the cost-effective strategy for managing the event. The costs of contamination include adverse health effects, containment and remediation, treatment and replacement costs. In comparing the costs and benefits of prevention programs with those of remediation, replacement or treatment, it is essential to adjust the cost/benefit numbers by the probability of their actual occurrence. Better forecasts of water demand are needed to predict more accurately the scarcity of new supply and the associated cost of replacement. This research should include estimates of the price elasticity of water demand and the possible effect on demand of more rational cost-based pricing structures. Research and development of techniques for in situ remediation should be encouraged.

  15. Incorporating groundwater-surface water interaction into river management models.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Allison; Rajaram, Harihar; Zagona, Edith

    2010-01-01

    Accurate representation of groundwater-surface water interactions is critical to modeling low river flows in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Although a number of groundwater-surface water models exist, they are seldom integrated with river operation/management models. A link between the object-oriented river and reservoir operations model, RiverWare, and the groundwater model, MODFLOW, was developed to incorporate groundwater-surface water interaction processes, such as river seepage/gains, riparian evapotranspiration, and irrigation return flows, into a rule-based water allocations model. An explicit approach is used in which the two models run in tandem, exchanging data once in each computational time step. Because the MODFLOW grid is typically at a finer resolution than RiverWare objects, the linked model employs spatial interpolation and summation for compatible communication of exchanged variables. The performance of the linked model is illustrated through two applications in the Middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico where overappropriation impacts endangered species habitats. In one application, the linked model results are compared with historical data; the other illustrates use of the linked model for determining management strategies needed to attain an in-stream flow target. The flows predicted by the linked model at gauge locations are reasonably accurate except during a few very low flow periods when discrepancies may be attributable to stream gaging uncertainties or inaccurate documentation of diversions. The linked model accounted for complex diversions, releases, groundwater pumpage, irrigation return flows, and seepage between the groundwater system and canals/drains to achieve a schedule of releases that satisfied the in-stream target flow. PMID:20412319

  16. A Real-Time Groundwater Management Model Using Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.; Putti, M.; Kendall, D.; Yeh, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    This study develops a groundwater management model for real time operation of an aquifer system. A groundwater flow model is allied with a nudging data assimilation algorithm that reduces the forecast error, minimizes the risk of system failure, and improves management strategies. The nudging algorithm treats the unknown private pumping as an additional sink term in the groundwater flow equations and provides a consistently physical interpretation for pumping rates identification. The response of the groundwater simulation model due to pumping/injection is represented by a response matrix which is generated by the influence coefficient method. The response matrix with a much smaller dimension (referred to as the reduced simulation model) is directly embedded in the management model as a part of the constraint set. Additionally, the influence coefficient method is utilized to include the nudging effect as additional terms in the reduced simulation model. The management model optimizes monthly operational policy for 12 months into the future with given initial condition and system constraints. We apply the developed management model to the Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) project of the Las Posas Groundwater Basin in southern California. We consider both the injection and pumping scenarios. In the case studies, six unknown pumping rates from private wells are estimated using measured heads from four observation wells. The management model determines the optimal operational strategies using the information provided by nudging and is updated at the beginning of each month when new head observations become available. We also discuss the utility, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed management model for real time operation.

  17. Introduction on groundwater monitoring system in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Wang, A.; Wang, G.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater is a reliable source of water for human development, it is also an important element for ecosystem. Following with the rapid economic development, population growth and climate changes, China experiences the pressure on water shortage and related environmental problems in many regions. Especially, due to the increasing reliance on groundwater in semi-arid and arid areas and expected increased groundwater depletion and quality deterioration, it is crucial to assess the groundwater on both quantity and quality dynamics. A nation wide groundwater monitoring system has been setup in the past decades. However, it has limited capacities in a number of areas, including in areas of groundwater depletion. Chinese government pay great attention to groundwater issues and proposed a state groundwater monitoring system, expecting to build up a nation wide monitoring system for the purpose of sustainable water development. Both the current groundwater monitoring system and proposed system are introduced, and problems and expectations are discussed.

  18. Urban groundwater age modeling under unconfined condition - Impact of underground structures on groundwater age: Evidence of a piston effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, underground structures are shown to have a major influence on the groundwater mean age distribution described as a dispersive piston effect. Urban underground development does not occur without impacts on subsoil resources. In particular, groundwater resources can be vulnerable and generate disturbances when this space is exploited. Groundwater age spatial distribution data are fundamental for resource management as it can provide operational sustainability indicators. However, the application of groundwater age modeling is neglected regarding the potential effect of underground structures in urban areas. A three dimensional modeling approach was conducted to quantify the impact of two underground structures: (1) an impervious structure and (2) a draining structure. Both structures are shown to cause significant mixing processes occurring between shallow and deeper aquifers. The design technique used for draining structures is shown to have the greatest impact, generating a decrease in mean age of more than 80% under the structure. Groundwater age modeling is shown to be relevant for highlighting the role played by underground structures in advective-dispersive flows in urban areas.

  19. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  20. Review: groundwater in Alaska (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callegary, J.B.; Kikuchi, C.P.; Koch, J.C.; Lilly, M.R.; Leake, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the US state of Alaska is critical to both humans and ecosystems. Interactions among physiography, ecology, geology, and current and past climate have largely determined the location and properties of aquifers as well as the timing and magnitude of fluxes to, from, and within the groundwater system. The climate ranges from maritime in the southern portion of the state to continental in the Interior, and arctic on the North Slope. During the Quaternary period, topography and rock type have combined with glacial and periglacial processes to develop the unconsolidated alluvial aquifers of Alaska and have resulted in highly heterogeneous hydrofacies. In addition, the long persistence of frozen ground, whether seasonal or permanent, greatly affects the distribution of aquifer recharge and discharge. Because of high runoff, a high proportion of groundwater use, and highly variable permeability controlled in part by permafrost and seasonally frozen ground, understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions and the effects of climate change is critical for understanding groundwater availability and the movement of natural and anthropogenic contaminants.

  1. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  2. IMPACTS OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS ON LOCAL GROUND-WATER SYSTEMS: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative techniques for simulating the impacts of a coal-fired power plant on the ground-water system of a river flood-plain wetland were developed and tested. Effects related to the construction and operation of the cooling lake and ashpit had the greatest impact. Ground-wat...

  3. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period October 1 through December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and {open_quotes}Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities{close_quotes} (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 265), as amended. Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. The location of each facility is shown. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Performing project management, preparing groundwater monitoring plans, well network design and installation, specifying groundwater data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, data management, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services and provides groundwater sampling services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between October and December 1994, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the October through December quarter, but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  4. Quantitative assessment of the groundwater-sewer network interaction in Bucharest city (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhemacha, M. A.; Diaconescu, A.; Bica, I.; Gogu, C. R.; Gaitanaru, D.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater management in urban area must take account of every possible and relevant phenomena arising from the complex interaction between subsurface water, surface water, and urban infrastructure. In Bucharest, the need of the sewer system rehabilitation initiated a study of the interaction between groundwater and the sewer network. Recent conclusions show that the sewer network acts mainly like a drainage system for the groundwater. However, it could be easily proven that several sewer segments located mainly in the unsaturated zone contaminate the groundwater by leakage. The groundwater infiltration in the sewer conduits can cause the decrease of the groundwater level leading to structures instability problems as well as to the increase flow-rates of the sewer system. The last one affects seriously the wastewater treatment plants efficiency. The sewer network leakage cause groundwater pollution and locally could increase the groundwater level triggering buildings instability or other urban operational problems. The current study focuses on the consequences of sealing a part of the sewer system and so disturbing the existing groundwater behavior which may lead to serious consequences. In this framework, the analysis results of a groundwater flow model used to quantify the interaction between the groundwater and the sewer network are presented. The two-layers groundwater flow model simulating the Colentina and Mostistea overlaid sedimentary aquifers covers about 75 km2. Its conceptual model relies on a 3D geological model made by using 23 accurate geological cross-sections of the studied domain. The model set-up and its calibration are done using pumping tests data, groundwater hydraulic heads, and water levels of the sewer system. Infiltration rates into sewers are modeled by applying a modified form of Darcy's law that uses the notion of infiltration factor. This last encompasses the hydraulic conductivity of the clogging layer, the infiltration area and the

  5. 100-FR-3 groundwater/soil gas supplemental limited field investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In 1993, a Limited Field Investigation (LFI) was conducted for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit which identified trichloroethylene (TCE) as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) (DOE-RL 1994). In groundwater samples collected for the LFI, TCE was detected in well 199-177-1 at a concentration exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (5 {mu}g/L) and Washington State groundwater criteria (3 {mu}g/L). With the concurrence of the EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), a supplemental LFI was conducted to determine the extent and potential source of TCE groundwater contamination associated with the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. This report summarizes the activities and results of the groundwater/soil gas supplemental LFI for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. The primary objective of this investigation was to assess the lateral distribution of TCE in shallow (3 to 5 ft below the water table) groundwater associated with the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit. The second objective was to assess soil gas (3 to 5 concentrations in the study area in an attempt to identify potential sources of TCE and develop a correlation between soil gas and groundwater concentrations). Finally, the third objective of the investigation was to refine the site conceptual model.

  6. Groundwater Treatment at the Fernald Preserve: Status and Path Forward for the Water Treatment Facility - 12320

    SciTech Connect

    Powel, J.; Hertel, B.; Glassmeyer, C.; Broberg, K.

    2012-07-01

    Operating a water treatment facility at the Fernald Preserve in Cincinnati, Ohio-to support groundwater remediation and other wastewater treatment needs-has become increasingly unnecessary. The Fernald Preserve became a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) site in November 2006, once most of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental remediation and site restoration had been completed. Groundwater remediation is anticipated to continue beyond 2020. A portion of the wastewater treatment facility that operated during the CERCLA cleanup continued to operate after the site was transferred to LM, to support the remaining groundwater remediation effort. The treatment facility handles the site's remaining water treatment needs (for groundwater, storm water, and wastewater) as necessary, to ensure that uranium discharge limits specified in the Operable Unit 5 Record of Decision are met. As anticipated, the need to treat groundwater to meet uranium discharge limits has greatly diminished over the last several years. Data indicate that the groundwater treatment facility is no longer needed to support the ongoing aquifer remediation effort. (authors)

  7. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  8. REVISED NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    Revised North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, unpublished map: North Carolina State University, as modified by the NC Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Division of Water Quality (DWQ) Groundwater Section, (polygons)

  9. Groundwater: How much and how old?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ying

    2016-02-01

    A global picture of the age structure and flow path of groundwater is lacking. Tritium concentrations and numerical modelling shed light on both the most recently replenished and the longest stored groundwater within Earth's continents.

  10. Complexed iron removal from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Munter, R.; Ojaste, H.; Sutt, J.

    2005-07-01

    The paper demonstrates an intensive work carried out and results obtained on the pilot plant of the City of Kogalym Water Treatment Station (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) to elaborate on a contemporary nonreagent treatment technology for the local iron-rich groundwater. Several filter materials (Birm, Pyrolox, hydroanthracite, Everzit, granulated activated carbon) and chemical oxidants (ozone, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and potassium permanganate) were tested to solve the problem with complexed iron removal from groundwater. The final elaborated technology consists of raw water intensive aeration in the gas-degas treatment unit followed by sequential filtration through hydroanthracite and the special anthracite Everzit.

  11. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  12. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the accuracy of the

  13. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  14. Geospatial Data Management Platform for Urban Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitanaru, D.; Priceputu, A.; Gogu, C. R.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the large amount of civil work projects and research studies, large quantities of geo-data are produced for the urban environments. These data are usually redundant as well as they are spread in different institutions or private companies. Time consuming operations like data processing and information harmonisation represents the main reason to systematically avoid the re-use of data. The urban groundwater data shows the same complex situation. The underground structures (subway lines, deep foundations, underground parkings, and others), the urban facility networks (sewer systems, water supply networks, heating conduits, etc), the drainage systems, the surface water works and many others modify continuously. As consequence, their influence on groundwater changes systematically. However, these activities provide a large quantity of data, aquifers modelling and then behaviour prediction can be done using monitored quantitative and qualitative parameters. Due to the rapid evolution of technology in the past few years, transferring large amounts of information through internet has now become a feasible solution for sharing geoscience data. Furthermore, standard platform-independent means to do this have been developed (specific mark-up languages like: GML, GeoSciML, WaterML, GWML, CityML). They allow easily large geospatial databases updating and sharing through internet, even between different companies or between research centres that do not necessarily use the same database structures. For Bucharest City (Romania) an integrated platform for groundwater geospatial data management is developed under the framework of a national research project - "Sedimentary media modeling platform for groundwater management in urban areas" (SIMPA) financed by the National Authority for Scientific Research of Romania. The platform architecture is based on three components: a geospatial database, a desktop application (a complex set of hydrogeological and geological analysis

  15. The CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-03

    The scope of the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC) Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory staff to provide technical and integration support to CHPRC. This work includes conducting investigations at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and other groundwater operable units, and providing strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. The projects under this Master Project will be defined and included within the Master Project throughout the fiscal year, and will be incorporated into the Master Project Plan. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) and all releases associated with the CHPRC Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  16. NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

  17. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUNDWATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    More are than lOO million Americans depend on groundwater as a source of drinking water. hree quarters of U.S. cities get their water supplies totally or in part from groundwater and one-third of the largest cities rely on groundwater for at least part of their potable water supp...

  18. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  19. Groundwater: Illinois' Buried Treasure. Education Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Association of Illinois, Chicago.

    Groundwater is an extremely valuable resource that many feel has been too long neglected and taken for granted. There is growing recognition in Illinois and throughout the United States that comprehensive groundwater protection measures are vital. Illinois embarked on a course in protecting groundwater resources with the passage of the Illinois…

  20. Calibration of models using groundwater age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.

    2011-01-01

    There have been substantial efforts recently by geochemists to determine the age of groundwater (time since water entered the system) and its uncertainty, and by hydrologists to use these data to help calibrate groundwater models. This essay discusses the calibration of models using groundwater age, with conclusions that emphasize what is practical given current limitations rather than theoretical possibilities.

  1. Geophysical and geochemical characterization of the groundwater system and the role of Chatham Fault in groundwater movement at the Coles Hill uranium deposit, Virginia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, John P.; Burbey, Thomas J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Aylor, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    The largest undeveloped uranium deposit in the United States, at Coles Hill, is located in the Piedmont region of Pittsylvania County, south-central Virginia, and is hosted in crystalline rocks that are adjacent to and immediately west of Chatham Fault, which separates these crystalline rocks from the metasedimentary rocks of the Danville Triassic Basin (in the east). Groundwater at the site flows through a complex network of interconnected fractures controlled by the geology and structural setting. The role of Chatham Fault in near-surface (<≈200 m) groundwater flow is examined using electrical resistivity profiling, borehole logging, a pumping test, groundwater age dating and water chemistry to determine if the fault represents a permeability barrier or conduit for groundwater flow. The volumetric flow per unit width flowing eastward across the fault is estimated at 0.069-0.17 m2/day. Geochemical data indicate that groundwater in the granitic crystalline rocks represents a mixture of modern and old water, while the Triassic basin contains a possible deeper and older source of water. In regions with shallow water tables, mine dewatering during operation presents significant mining costs. The study's results yield important information concerning the effect that Chatham Fault would have on groundwater flow during Coles Hill mining operations.

  2. Calendar Year 1999 Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Groundwater Protection Program, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-01

    This report contains the calendar year (CY) 1999 groundwater and surface water quality monitoring data that were obtained at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in accordance with the applicable requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring for the purposes of DOE Order 5400.1, as defined in the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1996), includes site surveillance monitoring and exit pathway/perimeter monitoring. Site surveillance monitoring is intended to provide data regarding groundwater/surface water quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by operations at the Y-12 Plant. Exit pathway/perimeter monitoring is intended to provide data regarding groundwater and surface water quality where contaminants from the Y-12 Plant are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR).

  3. Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Fernando and San Gabriel groundwater basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  4. Accelerated in situ bioremediation of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, M.J.; Hooker, B.S.; Anderson, D.B.

    1996-07-01

    In situ bioremediation, as applied in this project, is based on the principal of biostimulation: supplying nutrients to indigenous microbes to stimulate their metabolic activity and subsequent degradation of contaminants. Typically, a network of injection and extraction wells are used to recirculate groundwater into which amendments are added and distributed within the aquifer. The objective of the in situ process is to create in the aquifer a microbially active zone that maximizes contaminant destruction while controlling the distribution of microbial growth. It is important to control microbial growth to avoid plugging the aquifer near the injection well and to establish and sustain maximum treatment zones for each injection well. Figure I illustrates this concept for in situ bioremediation. The technology described herein is innovative in its use of the computer-based Accelerated Bioremediation Design Tool (ABDT) to aid in selecting appropriate system designs and to determine optimal operating strategies. In addition, numerical simulations within the design tool proved to be valuable during remediation operations to determine appropriate changes in the` operating strategy as the bioremediation process progressed. This is particularly important because in situ bioremediation is not a steady- state process, and corrective actions to operating parameters are typically needed to maintain both rapid destruction rates and hydraulic containment.

  5. CO2 Storage related Groundwater Impacts and Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Knopf, Stefan; May, Franz; Rebscher, Dorothee

    2016-03-01

    Injection of CO2 into the deep subsurface will affect physical and chemical conditions in the storage environment. Hence, geological CO2 storage can have potential impacts on groundwater resources. Shallow freshwater can only be affected if leakage pathways facilitate the ascent of CO2 or saline formation water. Leakage associated with CO2 storage cannot be excluded, but potential environmental impacts could be reduced by selecting suitable storage locations. In the framework of risk assessment, testing of models and scenarios against operational data has to be performed repeatedly in order to predict the long-term fate of CO2. Monitoring of a storage site should reveal any deviations from expected storage performance, so that corrective measures can be taken. Comprehensive R & D activities and experience from several storage projects will enhance the state of knowledge on geological CO2 storage, thus enabling safe storage operations at well-characterised and carefully selected storage sites while meeting the requirements of groundwater protection.

  6. The Management of Groundwater Supplies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    The manager of a groundwater supply system must be involved in many different disciplines if he or she is to manage the system effectively. In areas in which specialized expertise is necessary, it can be obtained from consultants or government agencies. (BB)

  7. Modeling groundwater flow on MPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1993-10-01

    The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media is examined. To enable detailed modeling of large contaminated sites, preconditioned iterative methods and massively parallel computing power are combined in a simulator called PARFLOW. After describing this portable and modular code, some numerical results are given, including one that demonstrates the code`s scalability.

  8. Distribution of Groundwater Contaminants at the RCA Taoyuan Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, I.; Wang, Y.; Chia, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The RCA Taoyuan plant is the first announced remediation site due to groundwater contamination in Taiwan in 2004. From 1970 through 1992, Radio Corporation of America (RCA) Taoyuan Plant in Taiwan operated as a television assembly plant producing related electronic equipment. In 1987, the soil and the groundwater of the site area were discovered with contamination of chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The primary contaminants are tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1, 1, 1- trichloroethane (1, 1, 1-TCA). The source of the contamination may be caused by improper dumping or leakage of the chemical solvents. The remediation of soil were finished in 1998 and qualified with Republic of China Environmental Protection Administration (ROCEPA) soil pollution control standards. On the other hand, after more detailed site investigations and many pilot tests, the remediation of groundwater has been started since 2005 and is still in progress. Because the chlorinated VOCs are Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs), they are hardly dissolved in groundwater and couldn't be cleaned up by extraction and treatment. In addition, the densities of DNAPLs are higher than water, so they would keep moving downward till aquitards or interval mud layers between aquifers. The movement was controlled by many complex factors, including the gravity, hydraulic gradient, capillary pressure, etc. Then DNAPLs would move along the surface of layers horizontally leaving slight remains on the paths. The remains would keep slowly dissolving in groundwater to become long-term contamination sources. The Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) method has been conducted to remediate the groundwater in site area with successful effects, but some of the monitoring wells in off-site area are still detected with high concentrations of VOCs, exceeding the pollution standards. Furthermore, the concentration of primary contaminants was lowered by the remediation, but some secondary

  9. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2004-04-12

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2003 (October 2002 through September 2003) on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium, nitrate, and some other contaminants continued to exceed drinking water standards in groundwater discharging to the river in some locations. However, contaminant concentrations in river water remained low and were far below standards. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. Uranium exceeds standards in the 300 Area in the south part of the Hanford Site. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act'' is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99

  10. Improving coupling of surface and groundwater for high resolution water cycle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, N.; Bulygina, N.; Butler, A. P.; Jackson, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    The JULES land surface model is widely used for global and regional scale water cycle modelling, and its hydrological component has been proposed as a potentially suitable for water resources and water quality modelling purposes. Current research is exploring the applicability of JULES at high resolution (e.g. 1km2) in terms of suitability of process representation, data needs and parameter estimation challenges. Our work on process representation research is focussing on improved coupling of groundwater models with JULES. Current operational versions of JULES include semi-empirical representations of saturated areas, using the probability distributed moisture (PDM) model and TOPMODEL. However these models do not attempt to provide realistic groundwater-unsaturated zone interactions or lateral movement of groundwater, and the empirical nature of these groundwater models also requires parameter calibration. All these limitations may become more relevant as model spatial resolutions become higher. We have coupled alternative groundwater models with JULES and tested the integrated models on the Kennet catchment, a mainly permeable subcatchment of the Thames basin in southern England. One of the integrated models uses a modification of the existing TOPMODEL that aims to provide an improved representation of the deep unsaturated zone; and the second uses the physics-based ZOOMQ3D groundwater model that aims to provide a realistic regional groundwater surface, groundwater level dynamics and lateral movement of groundwater. All are applied at the 1 x 1 km scale. Results for the Kennet for these coupled JULES-groundwater models are presented and performance is assessed relative to observations in terms of soil mositure and river flows. The models are critically discussed in terms of performance and potential range of applicability.

  11. Review of present groundwater monitoring programs at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hershey, R.L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is conducted to detect the presence of radionuclides produced by underground nuclear testing and to verify the quality and safety of groundwater supplies as required by the State of Nevada and federal regulations, and by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. Groundwater is monitored at water-supply wells and at other boreholes and wells not specifically designed or located for traditional groundwater monitoring objectives. Different groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS are conducted by several DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) contractors. Presently, these individual groundwater monitoring programs have not been assessed or administered under a comprehensive planning approach. Redundancy exists among the programs in both the sampling locations and the constituents analyzed. Also, sampling for certain radionuclides is conducted more frequently than required. The purpose of this report is to review the existing NTS groundwater monitoring programs and make recommendations for modifying the programs so a coordinated, streamlined, and comprehensive monitoring effort may be achieved by DOE/NV. This review will be accomplished in several steps. These include: summarizing the present knowledge of the hydrogeology of the NTS and the potential radionuclide source areas for groundwater contamination; reviewing the existing groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS; examining the rationale for monitoring and the constituents analyzed; reviewing the analytical methods used to quantify tritium activity; discussing monitoring network design criteria; and synthesizing the information presented and making recommendations based on the synthesis. This scope of work was requested by the DOE/NV Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and satisfies the 1993 (fiscal year) HRMP Groundwater Monitoring Program Review task.

  12. Characterizing Field Biodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater with Active Reclaimed Water Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCraven, S.; Zhou, Q.; Garcia, J.; Gasca, M.; Johnson, T.

    2007-12-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging contaminant in groundwater, because of its aqueous miscibility, exceptional animal toxicity, and human carcinogenicity. NDMA detections in groundwater have been tracked to either decomposition of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) used in rocket fuel facilities or chlorine disinfection in wastewater reclamation plants. Laboratory experiments on both unsaturated and saturated soil samples have demonstrated that NDMA can be biodegraded by microbial activity, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, very limited direct evidence for its biodegradation has been found from the field in saturated groundwater. Our research aimed to evaluate photolysis and biodegradation of NDMA occurring along the full travel path - from wastewater reclamation plant effluent, through rivers and spreading grounds, to groundwater. For this evaluation, we established an extensive monitoring network to characterize NDMA concentrations at effluent discharge points, surface water stations, and groundwater monitoring and production wells, during the operation of the Montebello Forebay Groundwater Recharge facilities in Los Angeles County, California. Field monitoring for NDMA has been conducted for more than six years, including 32 months of relatively lower NDMA concentrations in effluent, 43 months of elevated NDMA effluent concentrations, and 7 months with significantly reduced NDMA effluent concentrations. The NDMA effluent concentration increase and significant concentration decrease were caused by changes in treatment processes. The NDMA sampling data imply that significant biodegradation occurred in groundwater, accounting for a 90% mass reduction of NDMA over the six-year monitoring period. In addition, the occurrence of a discrete well monitored effluent release during the study period allowed critical analysis of the fate of NDMA in a well- characterized, localized groundwater flow subsystem. The data indicate that 80% of the

  13. Global Groundwater related Risk Indicators: quantifying groundwater stress and groundwater table decline (1990-2010) at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneca Sanchez, Marta; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Kuijper, Marijn; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is an invisible but indispensable resource for the economic development of many countries. Due to the need for this resource, in many cases it is exploited under severe pressure and the exploitation can become not sustainable. The non-sustainable exploitation of water is a well-known problem on both regional and global scales. However, most currently-available assessments on water stress still mostly focus on surface water and on water balances. In this work, we presented two global maps of groundwater risk indicators: an updated version of the groundwater stress (Gleeson et al., 2011, DOI: 10.1038/nature11295) and an indicator on groundwater table decline for the period 1990-2010. To calculate both indicators, we used the updated PCR-GLOBWB model output at 5 arcmin resolution (about 10 km at the equator), that is extended with an offline coupling to a global groundwater MODFLOW model. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily river discharge and groundwater recharge, as well as surface water and groundwater abstraction rates. The latter are estimated internally within the model based on the simulation of their availabilities and water demands for irrigation and other sectors. The daily output of PCR-GLOBWB would then be aggregated to the monthly resolution and used to force the MODFLOW groundwater model resolving spatio-temporal groundwater table dynamics, incorporating the simulated groundwater abstraction of PCR-GLOBWB. Using the PCR-GLOBWB and MODFLOW simulation results from the period 1990-2010, we then quantified groundwater stress and assessed the groundwater table decline. Results are presented on four different spatial scales: 5 arcmin pixel, drainage/sub-catchment unit, state level, and major aquifer unit. The maps clearly show where groundwater is under stress, where there is a trend in the drop of the groundwater table, the slope of the drop and the significance of it.

  14. Groundwater resources development in the eastern Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, John William

    1990-11-01

    Aspects of the regional hydrogeology of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer system in the Sudan, Egypt and eastern Libya and the associated Tertiary aquifers of the Sirte Basin, Libya are described. It is concluded that major groundwater resources are present that can be developed by abstraction adjacent to the River Nile, by groundwater mining or by abstraction from throughflow. Examples of aquifer control parameters and potential resources development are given. The problems of in situ groundwater development in the harsh desert environment are discussed and it is indicated that such development is not constrained by groundwater resources potential but by socioeconomic factors. The solution of groundwater conveyance adopted in Libya is detailed.

  15. Updated Conceptual Model for the 300 Area Uranium Groundwater Plume

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Last, George V.; Peterson, Robert E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2012-11-01

    The 300 Area uranium groundwater plume in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit is residual from past discharge of nuclear fuel fabrication wastes to a number of liquid (and solid) disposal sites. The source zones in the disposal sites were remediated by excavation and backfilled to grade, but sorbed uranium remains in deeper, unexcavated vadose zone sediments. In spite of source term removal, the groundwater plume has shown remarkable persistence, with concentrations exceeding the drinking water standard over an area of approximately 1 km2. The plume resides within a coupled vadose zone, groundwater, river zone system of immense complexity and scale. Interactions between geologic structure, the hydrologic system driven by the Columbia River, groundwater-river exchange points, and the geochemistry of uranium contribute to persistence of the plume. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) to document characterization of the 300 Area uranium plume and plan for beginning to implement proposed remedial actions. As part of the RI/FS document, a conceptual model was developed that integrates knowledge of the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties of the 300 Area and controlling processes to yield an understanding of how the system behaves and the variables that control it. Recent results from the Hanford Integrated Field Research Challenge site and the Subsurface Biogeochemistry Scientific Focus Area Project funded by the DOE Office of Science were used to update the conceptual model and provide an assessment of key factors controlling plume persistence.

  16. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    JW Lindberg; CJ Chou

    2000-12-14

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes.

  17. GWVis: A Tool for Comparative Ground-Water Data Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Best, Daniel M.; Lewis, Robert R.

    2010-11-01

    The Ground-Water Visualization application (GWVis) presents ground-water data visually in order to educate the public on ground-water issues. It is also intended for presentations to government and other funding agencies. Current three dimensional models of ground-water are overly complex, while the two dimensional representations (i.e., on paper) are neither comprehensive, nor engaging. At present, GWVis operates on water head elevation data over a given time span, together with a matching (fixed) underlying geography. Two elevation scenarios are compared with each other, typically a control data set (actual field data) and a simulation. Scenario comparison can be animated for the time span provided. We developed GWVis using the Python programming language, associated libraries, and pyOpenGL extension packages to improve performance and control of attributes of the mode (such as color, positioning, scale, and interpolation). GWVis bridges the gap between two dimensional and dynamic three dimensional research visualizations by providing an intuitive, interactive design that allows participants to view the model from different perspectives and to infer information about scenarios. By incorporating scientific data in an environment that can be easily understood, GWVis allows the information to be presented to a large audience base.

  18. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  19. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min-Hui; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE-based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions.

  20. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Reager, John T.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human‐dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE‐based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions. PMID:26900185

  1. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2007 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3; sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4; and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. The monitoring frequency and selection criteria for each sampling location is in Appendix C. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix D. If issued, addenda to this plan will be inserted in Appendix E, and Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued) will be inserted in Appendix F. Guidance for managing purged groundwater is provided in Appendix G.

  2. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2006-01-01

    this report provide details regarding the CY 2006 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3; sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4; and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. The monitoring frequency and selection criteria for each sampling location is in Appendix C. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix D. If issued, addenda to this plan will be inserted in Appendix E, and Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued) will be inserted in Appendix F. Guidance for managing purged groundwater is provided in Appendix G.

  3. A real-time groundwater management model using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei-Chen; Putti, Mario; Kendall, Donald R.; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2011-06-01

    This study develops a groundwater management model for real-time operation of an aquifer system. A groundwater flow model is allied with a nudging data assimilation algorithm that reduces the forecast error, minimizes the risk of system failure, and improves management strategies. The nudging algorithm treats the unknown private pumping as an additional sink term in the groundwater flow equation and provides a consistently physical interpretation for the identification of pumping rates. The system response due to pumping and injection is represented by a response matrix that is generated by the influence coefficient method. The response matrix (with a much smaller dimension) is used as a reduced model and is embedded directly in the management model as a part of the constraint set. Additionally, the influence coefficient method is utilized to include the nudging effect in the reduced model. The management model optimizes the monthly operation for 12 months into the future and determines the optimal strategy using the information provided by nudging. The management model is updated at the beginning of each month when new head observations and pumping data become available. We also discuss the utility, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed management model for real-time operation.

  4. Contribution of groundwater modeling to planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The consideration of groundwater in water-resource planning frequently has been neglected because many planners believed that groundwater could not be adequately evaluated in terms of availability, quality, cost of development, or effect of development on the surface-water supply. The development of predictive groundwater models now provides the water planner with tools to evaluate these problems. Highly sophisticated digital models can be used in planning the development of groundwater and the conjunctive use of ground- and surface water. About 250 digital models have been used to evaluate groundwater problems: The models are powerful tools for predicting the response of groundwater systems to stresses. They can also clarify the cause and progress of past stresses. With these developments it is now possible to integrate the utilization of groundwater into water-resource planning with a high degree of confidence. ?? 1979.

  5. In Situ Sequestration of Arsenic in Groundwater: Manipulating Geochemical Conditions to Remediate Sites (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deflaun, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Dealing with arsenic in groundwater can be a challenge because of its geochemical nature as a metalloid and the fact that arsenic can be present in groundwater from natural sources (e.g., rocks and minerals) or from past or current uses of arsenic-containing compounds (e.g., pesticides, wood-treating compounds). Both recent publicity regarding naturally occurring arsenic in Asian groundwater and regulatory pressure have stimulated the development of cost-effective methods to mitigate arsenic in groundwater. Because of potentially lower capital and operating costs, in situ methods can be attractive alternatives to costly pump-and-treat systems for smaller-scale operations. Design of appropriate in situ remediation methods should consider the source of the arsenic. Releases of arsenic from arsenic minerals can result from changes in oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) or pH changes. Displacement of arsenic sorbed onto iron oxides can occur through either reductive dissolution of the oxide or through competitive sorption of another ionic species, such as phosphate or carbonate. In situ methods for remediation of arsenic in groundwater include natural attenuation, ORP adjustment, and pH adjustment. The appropriate in situ approach for a site can depend on the source of the arsenic, background groundwater chemistry, site mineralogy, and other factors. The behavior of arsenic in groundwater is described in terms of ORP, pH, and sorption to iron oxides. Data from several sites are used to illustrate the conditions discussed, and case studies showing the use of ORP adjustment, pH adjustment, and natural attenuation to remediate arsenic in groundwater are presented. These case studies include projects ranging from bench-scale testing, to pilot scale demonstrations and full-scale remedial operations.

  6. Impact of Water Resorts Development along Laguna de Bay on Groundwater Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jago-on, K. A. B.; Reyes, Y. K.; Siringan, F. P.; Lloren, R. B.; Balangue, M. I. R. D.; Pena, M. A. Z.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urbanization and land use changes in areas along Laguna de Bay, one of the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia, have resulted in increased economic activities and demand for groundwater resources from households, commerce and industries. One significant activity that can affect groundwater is the development of the water resorts industry, which includes hot springs spas. This study aims to determine the impact of the proliferation of these water resorts in Calamba and Los Banos, urban areas located at the southern coast of the lake on the groundwater as a resource. Calamba, being the "Hot Spring Capital of the Philippines", presently has more than 300 resorts, while Los Banos has at least 38 resorts. Results from an initial survey of resorts show that the swimming pools are drained/ changed on an average of 2-3 times a week or even daily during peak periods of tourist arrivals. This indicates a large demand on the groundwater. Monitoring of actual groundwater extraction is a challenge however, as most of these resorts operate without water use permits. The unrestrained exploitation of groundwater has resulted to drying up of older wells and decrease in hot spring water temperature. It is necessary to strengthen implementation of laws and policies, and enhance partnerships among government, private sector groups, civil society and communities to promote groundwater sustainability.

  7. GWM-2005 - A Groundwater-Management Process for MODFLOW-2005 with Local Grid Refinement (LGR) Capability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Baker, Kristine M.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the Groundwater-Management (GWM) Process for MODFLOW-2005, the 2005 version of the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional groundwater model. GWM can solve a broad range of groundwater-management problems by combined use of simulation- and optimization-modeling techniques. These problems include limiting groundwater-level declines or streamflow depletions, managing groundwater withdrawals, and conjunctively using groundwater and surface-water resources. GWM was initially released for the 2000 version of MODFLOW. Several modifications and enhancements have been made to GWM since its initial release to increase the scope of the program's capabilities and to improve its operation and reporting of results. The new code, which is called GWM-2005, also was designed to support the local grid refinement capability of MODFLOW-2005. Local grid refinement allows for the simulation of one or more higher resolution local grids (referred to as child models) within a coarser grid parent model. Local grid refinement is often needed to improve simulation accuracy in regions where hydraulic gradients change substantially over short distances or in areas requiring detailed representation of aquifer heterogeneity. GWM-2005 can be used to formulate and solve groundwater-management problems that include components in both parent and child models. Although local grid refinement increases simulation accuracy, it can also substantially increase simulation run times.

  8. Groundwater modeling in integrated water resources management--visions for 2020.

    PubMed

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Møller, Ingelise; Hansen, Martin; Søndergaard, Verner

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater modeling is undergoing a change from traditional stand-alone studies toward being an integrated part of holistic water resources management procedures. This is illustrated by the development in Denmark, where comprehensive national databases for geologic borehole data, groundwater-related geophysical data, geologic models, as well as a national groundwater-surface water model have been established and integrated to support water management. This has enhanced the benefits of using groundwater models. Based on insight gained from this Danish experience, a scientifically realistic scenario for the use of groundwater modeling in 2020 has been developed, in which groundwater models will be a part of sophisticated databases and modeling systems. The databases and numerical models will be seamlessly integrated, and the tasks of monitoring and modeling will be merged. Numerical models for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater processes will be coupled in one integrated modeling system that can operate at a wide range of spatial scales. Furthermore, the management systems will be constructed with a focus on building credibility of model and data use among all stakeholders and on facilitating a learning process whereby data and models, as well as stakeholders' understanding of the system, are updated to currently available information. The key scientific challenges for achieving this are (1) developing new methodologies for integration of statistical and qualitative uncertainty; (2) mapping geological heterogeneity and developing scaling methodologies; (3) developing coupled model codes; and (4) developing integrated information systems, including quality assurance and uncertainty information that facilitate active stakeholder involvement and learning. PMID:19788560

  9. In-situ groundwater aeration as an effective technique for remediation of petroleum-contaminated aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.W.; Hoffman, G.D. ); Gan, D.R. )

    1994-08-01

    Petroleum contamination of groundwater is a widespread occurrence and is traditionally remediated using groundwater extraction with surface treatment. This remediation scheme is ineffective due to irregular groundwater flow paths, and the low solubility and high soil sorption tendencies of petroleum products in the subsurface. In-situ groundwater aeration, sometimes referred to as air sparging, provides a more effective approach. In-situ groundwater aeration technology takes advantage of the high volatility and biodegradability of many health concerned petroleum constituents. By injecting air into the subsurface, volatile organic compounds readily partition into the vapor phase and are subsequently transported to the vadose zone for collection by a soil vapor extraction system. The system also provides sufficient amounts of oxygen to the groundwater to promote biodegradation of petroleum contaminants. Development of an in-situ groundwater aeration system for petroleum releases within a regulatory framework includes several steps. First, site specific fate and transport mechanisms relevant to petroleum releases must be evaluated. Next, key design parameters, such as injection well construction, well locations, and air injection rates are discussed. Approximate capital, operation, and maintenance costs are given along with typical system remedial time frames. A case history involving a gasoline release from an underground storage tank is presented to illustrate the development and success of an in-situ aeration system.

  10. Understanding and quantifying focused, indirect groundwater recharge from ephemeral streams using water table fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Acworth, R. I.; Andersen, M. S.; Larsen, J. R.; McCallum, A. M.; Rau, G. C.; Tellam, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding and managing groundwater resources in drylands is a challenging task, but one that is globally important. The dominant process for dryland groundwater recharge is thought to be as focused, indirect recharge from ephemeral stream losses. However, there is a global paucity of data for understanding and quantifying this process and transferable techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge in such contexts are lacking. Here we develop a generalized conceptual model for understanding water table and groundwater head fluctuations due to recharge from episodic events within ephemeral streams. By accounting for the recession characteristics of a groundwater hydrograph, we present a simple but powerful new water table fluctuation approach to quantify focused, indirect recharge over both long term and event time scales. The technique is demonstrated using a new, and globally unparalleled, set of groundwater observations from an ephemeral stream catchment located in NSW, Australia. We find that, following episodic streamflow events down a predominantly dry channel system, groundwater head fluctuations are controlled by pressure redistribution operating at three time scales from vertical flow (days to weeks), transverse flow perpendicular to the stream (weeks to months), and longitudinal flow parallel to the stream (years to decades). In relative terms, indirect recharge decreases almost linearly away from the mountain front, both in discrete monitored events as well as in the long-term average. In absolute terms, the estimated indirect recharge varies from 80 to 30 mm/a with the main uncertainty in these values stemming from uncertainty in the catchment-scale hydraulic properties.

  11. Evaluation of Monensin Transport to Shallow Groundwater after Irrigation with Dairy Lagoon Water.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Sarah C; Harter, Thomas; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2016-03-01

    Animal waste products from concentrated animal feeding operations are a significant source of antibiotics to the environment. Monensin, an ionophore antibiotic commonly used to increase feed efficiency in livestock, is known to have varied toxicological effects on nontarget species. The current study builds on prior studies evaluating the impact of dairy management on groundwater quality by examining the transport of monensin in an agricultural field with coarse-textured soils during irrigation with lagoon wastewater. The dairy is located in California's San Joaquin Valley, where groundwater can be encountered <5 m below the surface. Groundwater samples were collected from a network of monitoring wells installed throughout the dairy and adjacent to irrigated fields before and after an irrigation event, which allowed for measurement of monensin potentially reaching the shallow groundwater as a direct result of irrigation with lagoon water. Monensin was extracted from water samples via hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction and quantified with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Irrigation water was found to contain up to 1.6 μg L monensin, but monensin was only detected in monitoring wells surrounding the waste storage lagoon. Water chemistry changes in the wells bordering the irrigated field suggest that up to 7% of irrigation water reached groundwater within days of irrigation. The study suggests that contamination of groundwater with monensin can occur primarily by compromised waste storage systems and that rapid transport of monensin to groundwater is not likely to occur from a single irrigation event. PMID:27065394

  12. Groundwater Impact Assessment of Tailings Storage Facility, Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peksezer-Sayit, A.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A tailings storage facility (TSF) is a fundamental part of the mining process and should be carefully designed and managed to prevent any adverse environmental effects. TSF is site-specific and its design criteria are determined by regulations. The new mine waste regulation for the deposition of hazardous waste in a tailings storage facility in Turkey enforces, from bottom to top, 0.5 m thick compacted clay layer with K less than or equal to 1X10-9 m/s , 2 mm thick HDPE geomembrane, and a protective natural material or geotextile. Although these criteria seem to be enough to prevent leakage from the base, in practice, manufacturing and application errors may cause leakage and subsequent contamination of groundwater. The purpose of this study is to assess potential impacts of leakage from the base of TSF on groundwater quality both in operational and post-closure period of a mine site in western Turkey. For this purpose, analytical and 2-D and 3-D numerical models are used together. The potential leakage rate of sulphate-bearing solution from the base of TSF is determined from analytical model. 2-D finite element models (SEEP/W and CTRAN/W) are used to simulate unsaturated flow conditions and advective-dispersive contaminant transport below the TSF under steady-state and transient conditions for the operating period. The long-term impacts of leakage from the base of TSF on groundwater resources are evaluated by 3-D numerical groundwater flow (MODFLOW) and contaminant transport models (MT3DMS). The model results suggest that sulphate-bearing solution leaking from the base of TSF can reach water table in about 290 years. Hence, during the operational period (i.e. 21 years), no interaction is expected between the solution and groundwater. Moreover, long-term simulation results show that about 500 years later, the sulphate concentration in groundwater will be below the maximum allowable limits (i.e. 250 mg/L).

  13. Summary of Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2006-03-01

    This is a summary booklet of the main report: Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2005. It is the summary section of the main report with a CD of the entire report included. The main report is one of the major products and deliverables of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessment Projects detailed work plan for FY 2006, and reflects the requirements of The Groundwater Performance Assessment Project Quality Assurance Plan (PNNL-15014). This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2005 on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the west-central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas. Technetium-99 and uranium plumes exceeding standards are present in the 200 Areas. A uranium plume underlies the 300 Area. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the

  14. Determinants of Shallow Groundwater As Variability in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, K. A.; Zheng, Y.; Stute, M.; Rahman, M.; Mihajlov, I.; Siu, H.; Huq, M.; Choudhury, I.; Ahmed, K.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Manually operated tube wells that tap into shallow aquifers remain a critical source of untreated drinking water in south Asia and an estimated 37 million people are still exposed to elevated levels of As in Bangladesh(1). This field effort sought to address two questions. What mechanisms control the partitioning of As between groundwater and sediment? How does groundwater transport affect the spatial variability of dissolved As? Understanding the source of groundwater variability is essential for understanding how [As] will change with time, especially as Bangladesh and its water demands develop. Arsenic mobility and transport within the shallow aquifer was investigated at a 0.5 km2 site where [As] increases from <5 to 600 μg/L over 300 m as the aquifer becomes increasingly reducing. Aquifer recharge occurs in the raised, sandy village, where low [As] and elevated [SO4] are found. Until a few years ago, the net groundwater flow extended from the village, beneath a thickening silty layer covered by agricultural fields, towards a small stream. The sediments, however, were a homogenous, highly reduced sand throughout the site. Arsenic adsorption along this transect was investigated by two different approaches. Despite the geochemical gradients along the transect, adsorption of As under anaerobic conditions measured by spiking freshly collected sediment was remarkably uniform: Kd = 1.5 ± 0.5 L/kg, at 14 of 15 locations. Push- pull tests were used to alter groundwater [As] surrounding a well, without disturbing the sediment. The aquifer responded to the imposed dis-equilibrium by either adsorbing or desorbing As within a few days. These results provide further evidence that groundwater [As] is controlled by As sorption reactions with the sediment that reach equilibrium rapidly compared to the time scale of groundwater flow. A simple reactive-transport model for the site based on the measured partitioning coefficient, Kd, however, supports the notion that the [As

  15. Work plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory groundwater program: Continuous groundwater collection

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The continuous collection of groundwater data is a basic and necessary part of Lockeheed Martin Energy Systems` ORNL Environmental Restoration Area-Wide Groundwater Program. Continuous groundwater data consist primarily of continually recorded groundwater levels, and in some instances, specific conductivity, pH, and/or temperature measurements. These data will be collected throughout the ORNL site. This Work Plan (WP) addresses technical objectives, equipment requirements, procedures, documentation requirements, and technical instructions for the acquisition of the continuous groundwater data. Intent of this WP is to provide an approved document that meets all the necessary requirements while retaining the flexibility necessary to effectively address ORNL`s groundwater problems.

  16. Multi-scale groundwater modelling for the assessment of sustainable borehole yields under drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, Kirsty; Butler, Adrian; Jackson, Chris; Jones, Mike

    2014-05-01

    A new multi-scale groundwater modelling methodology is presented for simulating abstraction boreholes in regional groundwater models. This provides a robust tool for assessing the sustainable yield of supply boreholes, thus improving our understanding of groundwater availability during droughts. The yield of an abstraction well is dependent on a number of factors. These include antecedent recharge and groundwater conditions; the properties of a regional aquifer system; requirements on a groundwater system to maintain river flows or sites of ecological significance; the properties of an individual abstraction borehole; small-scale aquifer heterogeneity around a borehole; the rate of abstraction; and the way in which neighboring abstraction boreholes interact. These factors can all be represented in the multi-scale model, which couples a small-scale radial flow model of an abstraction borehole with a regional-scale groundwater model. The regional groundwater model, ZOOMQ3D, represents the large-scale groundwater system, including lateral and vertical aquifer heterogeneity, rivers, and spatially varying recharge. The 3D radial flow model, SPIDERR, represents linear and non-linear flow to a borehole, local vertical heterogeneity, well storage and pump location. The multi-scale model is applied to a supply borehole (operated by Thames Water) located in the Chalk aquifer within the catchment of the River Thames in southern England. Groundwater abstraction from the Chalk aquifer accounts for 40-70% of the total public water supply in this region. Drought is a recurring feature of the UK climate, and in particular the south and east of England. Since 1850, nine major groundwater droughts have occurred, all of which lasted longer than one year. The most recent occurred in 2010-2012, during which seven water supply companies introduced water usage restrictions, affecting over 20 million people. The radial flow model is initially calibrated against pumping test data from the

  17. 220Rn as a method for identifying point sources of groundwater discharge: Expanding the dissolved gas tool kit in groundwater stream water interactions. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, P.

    2013-12-01

    The most commonly used dissolved gas environmental tracer technique for estimating groundwater discharge to streams is 222Rn. 222Rn has very low background in surface water and has a relatively long retention time in stream water, providing a high sensitivity for detecting groundwater discharge. Given the gas exchange velocity and half-life of 222Rn groundwater input signal can persist for over 5 km, making identification of point source discharge difficult. 220Rn (Thoron), is produced in the subsurface along with 222Rn, but has a half-life of 55.6s and decays away rapidly once it enters stream water. Thus, 220Rn is an ideal tracer for identifying point locations of groundwater discharge. 220 can be measured in conjunction with 222Rn providing a convenient methodology for identifying diffuse and point discharges of groundwater. The conditions required for measuring 220Rn, methodology for measuring 220Rn and characteristics of 222Rn and 220Rn signals in groundwater-stream water applications will be discussed. Initial results from a field investigation utilizing these tracers in the Jemez River in Northern New Mexico will be presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Global estimates of fresh submarine groundwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luijendijk, Elco; Gleeson, Tom; Moosdorf, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Fresh submarine groundwater discharge, the flow of fresh groundwater to oceans, may be a significant contributor to the water and chemical budgets of the world's oceans. We present new estimates of the flux of fresh groundwater to the world's oceans. We couple density-dependent numerical simulations of generic models of coastal basins with geospatial databases of hydrogeological parameters and topography to resolve the rate of terrestrially-derived submarine groundwater discharge globally. We compare the model results to a new global compilation of submarine groundwater discharge observations. The results show that terrestrially-derived SGD is highly sensitive to permeability. In most watersheds only a small fraction of groundwater recharge contributes to submarine groundwater discharge, with most recharge instead contributing to terrestrial discharge in the form of baseflow or evapotranspiration. Fresh submarine groundwater discharge is only significant in watersheds that contain highly permeable sediments, such as coarse-grained siliciclastic sediments, karstic carbonates or volcanic deposits. Our estimates of global submarine groundwater discharge are much lower than most previous estimates. However, many tropical and volcanic islands are hotspots of submarine groundwater discharge and solute fluxes towards the oceans. The comparison of model results and data highlights the spatial variability of SGD and the difficulty of scaling up observations.

  19. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping. PMID:23243867

  20. Groundwater flow and transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.; Mercer, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Deterministic, distributed-parameter, numerical simulation models for analyzing groundwater flow and transport problems have come to be used almost routinely during the past decade. A review of the theoretical basis and practical use of groundwater flow and solute transport models is used to illustrate the state-of-the-art. Because of errors and uncertainty in defining model parameters, models must be calibrated to obtain a best estimate of the parameters. For flow modeling, data generally are sufficient to allow calibration. For solute-transport modeling, lack of data not only limits calibration, but also causes uncertainty in process description. Where data are available, model reliability should be assessed on the basis of sensitivity tests and measures of goodness-of-fit. Some of these concepts are demonstrated by using two case histories. ?? 1988.

  1. A Martian global groundwater model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Alan D.

    1991-01-01

    A global groundwater flow model was constructed for Mars to study hydrologic response under a variety of scenarios, improving and extending earlier simple cross sectional models. The model is capable of treating both steady state and transient flow as well as permeability that is anisotropic in the horizontal dimensions. A single near surface confining layer may be included (representing in these simulations a coherent permafrost layer). Furthermore, in unconfined flow, locations of complete saturation and seepage are determined. The flow model assumes that groundwater gradients are sufficiently low that DuPuit conditions are satisfied and the flow component perpendicular to the ground surface is negligible. The flow equations were solved using a finite difference method employing 10 deg spacing of latitude and longitude.

  2. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water. It plays a vital role in satisfying needs for drinking water, agriculture and industrial activities. During times of drought groundwater sustains baseflow to rivers and wetlands, thereby supporting ecosystems. Most global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, mainly due to lack of geohydrological data at the global scale. For the simulation of lateral flow and groundwater head dynamics a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system is needed, especially for GHMs that run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global scale groundwater model (run at 6' as dynamic steady state) using MODFLOW to construct an equilibrium water table at its natural state as the result of long-term climatic forcing. The aquifer schematization and properties were based on available global datasets of lithology and transmissivities combined with estimated aquifer thickness of an upper unconfined aquifer. The model is forced with outputs from the land-surface model PCR-GLOBWB, specifically with net recharge and surface water levels. A sensitivity analysis, in which the model was run with various parameter settings, showed variation in saturated conductivity causes most of the groundwater level variations. Simulated groundwater heads were validated against reported piezometer observations. The validation showed that groundwater depths are reasonably well simulated for many regions of the world, especially for sediment basins (R2 = 0.95). The simulated regional scale groundwater patterns and flowpaths confirm the relevance of taking lateral groundwater flow into account in GHMs. Flowpaths show inter-basin groundwater flow that can be a significant part of a basins water budget and helps to sustain river baseflow, explicitly during times of droughts. Also important aquifer systems are recharged by inter-basin groundwater flows that positively affect water

  3. Alpine Groundwater - Pristine Aquifers Under Threat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, P.; Lange, A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier and permafrost retreat are prominent climate change indicators. However, the characteristics of climate and hydrology in mountain areas remain poorly understood relative to lowland areas. Specifically, not much is known about alpine groundwater, its recharge and water quality variations, as these remote reservoirs are rarely monitored. As global temperatures rise, glaciers and permafrost will continue to retreat forming new sediment deposits and changing infiltration conditions in high alpine terrain. Climate change impacts the hydro-chemical composition of alpine waters, accelerates weathering processes, and potentially triggers mobilization of pollutants. Accordingly, we monitored groundwater quantity and quality parameters of an alpine porous aquifer near the Tiefenbach glacier in the Gotthard Massif in Switzerland. The goal of this research was to assess quality and seasonal storage dynamics of groundwater above the timberline (2000 m). To translate hydrological science into an ecosystem service context, we focused on four attributes: Water quantity: observations of groundwater level fluctuations combined with analysis of contributing water sources based on stable isotope analysis to give a quantitative understanding of origin and amount of water, Water quality: groundwater level, groundwater temperature and electrical conductivity were used as proxies for sampling of hydro-chemical parameters with automated water samplers during primary groundwater recharge periods (snowmelt and rainfall events), Location: Alpine terrain above the timberline, especially recharge into/out of an alpine porous aquifer at a pro-glacial floodplain and Date of annual melt (albedo effect) and timing of flow (snow- and icemelt from May to September) and groundwater recharge during the growing season. The study found that the summer groundwater temperatures depend on the date of annual melt and are more sensitive to climate forcing than lowland groundwater temperatures

  4. Computers bail out groundwater cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Harte, R.

    1997-01-01

    Using computers to automate groundwater remediation systems can increase efficiency and improve record keeping. This article uses an example of leakage of petroleum products from a petroleum storage facility which is mitigated within a 17 acre area. The Mistic computer center is a stand-alone processing unit that receives status inputs from each piece of equipment, interprets the condition of the system and then instructs the equipment how to respond. 1 fig.

  5. Quarterly report of RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976) groundwater monitoring data for period July 1, 1990 through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and 40CFR265, Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, as amended (EPA 1988b). This submittal provides data obtained from groundwater monitoring activities for July 1, 1990 through September 30, 1990. 26 refs., 21 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Results of phase 1 groundwater quality assessment for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a Phase 1 (or first determination) groundwater quality assessment for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY has impacted groundwater quality. This report will document the evidence demonstrating that the WMA has impacted groundwater quality.

  7. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    the CY 2012 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3. Sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4, and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding a data summary table presented in Section 4) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued throughout CY 2012) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix F.

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2007-09-01

    analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2008 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3; sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4; and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E. The updated sampling frequency for each monitoring well is in Appendix F, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix G.

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-09-01

    . The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2010 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3. Sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4, and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued throughout CY 2010) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix F.

  10. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2010-12-01

    . The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2011 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities. Section 2 describes the monitoring locations in each regime and the processes used to select the sampling locations. A description of the field measurements and laboratory analytes is provided in Section 3. Sample collection methods and procedures are described in Section 4, and Section 5 lists the documents cited for more detailed operational and technical information. The narrative sections of the report reference several appendices. Figures (maps and diagrams) and tables (excluding data summary tables presented in the narrative sections) are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. Groundwater Monitoring Schedules (when issued throughout CY 2011) will be inserted in Appendix C, and addenda to this plan (if issued) will be inserted in Appendix D. Laboratory requirements (bottle lists, holding times, etc.) are provided in Appendix E, and an approved Waste Management Plan is provided in Appendix F.

  11. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  12. AFBC Roadbed Project groundwater data

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, W.

    1992-08-21

    TVA permitted the use of AFBC material in a section of roadbed at Paducah, Kentucky, for the purpose of demonstrating its usability as a roadbed base. To determine if the material would leach and contaminate groundwater, four wells and seven lysimeters were installed beside and in the roadbed base material. In August 1991, TVA Field Engineering visited the AFBC Roadbed Project to collect samples and water quality data. The goal was to collect samples and data from four wells and seven lysimeters. All attempts to collect samples from the lysimeters failed with one exemption. All attempts to collect samples from the groundwater wells were successful. The analytical data from the four wells and one lysimeter are also attached. The well data is typical of groundwater in the Paducah, Kentucky area indicating that it was not affected by the AFBC roadbed material. The analysis of the lysimeter shows concentrations for iron and manganese above normal background levels, however, the data do not reflect significant concentrations of these heavy metals. Also, the difficulty in obtaining the lysimeter samples and the fact that the samples had to be composited to obtain sufficient quantity to analyze would make a qualitative evaluation of the data questionable.

  13. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    McNab, Jr., Walt W.; Ruiz, Roberto; Pico, Tristan M.

    2001-01-01

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  14. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  15. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  16. Groundwater maps of the Hanford Site Separations Area, January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, G.L.; Schatz, A.L.

    1989-03-01

    The groundwater maps of the Hanford Site Separations Area, dated January 1989, are prepared by the Environmental Engineering and Technology Function, Environmental Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company. The groundwater maps are updated on a semiannual basis and are complementary to the Hanford Site water table map prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The Separations Area consists of the 200 East and 200 West areas and the surrounding vicinity on the Hanford Site. Chemical processing operations are carried out in the Separations Area by Westinghouse Hanford for the US Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office. This set of groundwater maps consists of: (1) Separations Area depth-to-water map, (2) Separations Area water table map, and (3) a map comparing the potentiometric surface of the Rattlesnake Ridge confined aquifer with the water table of the unconfined aquifer. The field measurements for these maps were collected during the period January 19 to February 8, 1989, and are listed in Table 1. For clarity, the locating prefixes have been omitted from all well numbers shown on the maps. Wells in the 200 Areas have the prefix 299, and the wells outside of these areas have the prefix 699.

  17. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  18. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  19. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  20. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  1. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  2. Groundwater intrusion into leaky sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, H; Aksoy, H

    2010-01-01

    Vast volumes of groundwater are drained by urban sewer systems. This unwanted flow component intrudes into sewer systems through leaky joints or connected house drains. However, unlike urban storm drainage, it has a high seasonal variation corresponding to groundwater storage and long slow recessions similar to baseflow in rivers also fed by shallow groundwater exfiltrating into the surface waters. By applying the nonlinear reservoir algorithm as used for baseflow separation from total flow in a river, groundwater flow is separated from daily measured influents to treatment plants in Lower Saxony and Baden-Württemberg, Germany and in the Terkos Lake watershed near Istanbul, Turkey. While waste water flows vary only moderately within a year, separated intruded groundwater flows show recessions and seasonal variations correlated to baseflow in neighbouring rivers. It is possible to conclude that recession characteristics of treatment plant influents allow quantification and prediction of groundwater intrusion into sewer systems. PMID:20595758

  3. Identifying Groundwater Recharge in Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recharge epodicity in arid regions provides a method to estimate annual groundwater recharge given a relationship expressed as the recharge to precipitation ratio. Traditionally, in-situ observations are required to identify aquifer recharge events, while more advanced approaches such as the water-table fluctuation method or the episodic master recession method are necessary to delineate the recharge event. Our study uses the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations to estimate monthly changes in groundwater storage which are attributed to the combination of groundwater abstraction and episodic recharge in the arid southwestern United States. Our results illustrate the ability of remote sensing technologies to identify episodic groundwater recharge in arid regions which can be used within sustainable groundwater management frameworks to effectively manage groundwater resources.

  4. Monitoring groundwater drought with GRACE data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Getirana, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater drought is a distinct class of drought, not a sub-class of meteorological, agricultural and hydrological drought and has profound impacts on natural environments and societies. Due to a deficiency of in situ measurements, we developed a groundwater drought indicator using groundwater change estimates derived by assimilating GRACE derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomalies into the NASA Catchment land surface model. Data assimilation enables spatial and temporal downscaling of coarse GRACE TWS observations (monthly and ~150,000 km2 effective spatial resolution) and extrapolation to near-real time. In this talk, we will present our latest progress on using GRACE satellite data for groundwater drought monitoring in the U.S. and globally. Characteristics of this groundwater drought indicator will be discussed, including its relationship with other types of drought and how they are influenced by model physics and climate conditions. Results are evaluated using in situ groundwater observations.

  5. Groundwater Forecasting Optimization Pertain to Dam Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L.; Berthelote, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    There is increasing interest in removing dams due to changing ecological and societal values. Groundwater recharge rate is closely connected to reservoir presence or absence. With the removal of dams and their associated reservoirs, reductions in groundwater levels are likely to impact water supplies for domestic, industrial and agricultural use. Therefore accessible economic and time effective tools to forecast groundwater level declines with acceptable uncertainty following dam removals are critical for public welfare and healthy regional economies. These tools are also vital to project planning and provide beneficial information for restoration and remediation managements. The standard tool for groundwater forecasting is 3D Numerical modeling. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) may be an alternative tool for groundwater forecasting pertain to dam removal. This project compared these two tools throughout the Milltown Dam removal in Western Montana over a five year period. It was determined that ANN modeling had equal or greater accuracy for groundwater forecasting with far less effort and cost involved.

  6. Groundwater and climate change: mitigating the global groundwater crisis and adapting to climate change model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the effects of climate change on global groundwater resources, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Programme (IHP) initiated the GRAPHIC (Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Cl...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A BATTERY-OPERATED PORTABLE SYNCHRONOUS LUMINESCENCE SPECTROFLUOROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A battery-operated synchronous luminescence spectrofluorometer was developed for on-site analysis of groundwater or hazardous waste sites. he instrument is suited for emission, excitation, or synchronous fluorescence measurements. he instrument is suited for trace analysis of imp...

  8. Bioremediation: A natural solution. [Decontamination of soils and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B.N.; Caplan, J.A. )

    1993-01-15

    Bioremediation is an attractive remediation alternative because most full-scale bioremediation projects involve cost-effective contaminant treatment on-site. Recently, large scale bioremediation projects have included cleanups of ocean tanker spills, land-based chemical spills, and leaking chemical and petroleum storage tanks. Contaminated matrices have included beaches, soils, groundwater, surface waters (i.e., pits, ponds, lagoons), process waste streams and grease traps. Bioremediation is especially cost-effective when both soil and groundwater matrices are impacted because one remediation treatment system can be design to treat both media simultaneously in place. The primary advantages of in situ bioremediation include: on-site destruction of contaminants; accelerated cleanup time; minimal disruption to operations; lower remediation costs; and reduction of future liability.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  10. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The basins north of San Francisco constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  11. Geochemistry of Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, F. H.

    2003-12-01

    Differentiation of terrestrial planets includes separation of a metallic core and possible later fractionation of mineral phases within either a solid or molten mantle (Figure 1). Lithophile and siderophile elements can be used to understand these two different physical processes, and ascertain whether they operated in the early Earth. The distribution of elements in planets can be understood by measuring the partition coefficient, D (ratio of concentrations of an element in different phases (minerals, metals, or melts)). (14K)Figure 1. Schematic cross-section through the Earth, showing: (a) an early magma ocean stage and (b) a later cool and differentiated stage. The siderophile elements (iron-loving) encompass over 30 elements and are defined as those elements for which D(metal/silicate)>1, and are useful for deciphering the details of core formation. This group of elements is commonly broken up into several subclasses, including the slightly siderophile elements (1104). Because these three groups encompass a wide range of partition coefficient values, they can be very useful in trying to determine the conditions under which metal may have equilibrated with the mantle (or a magma ocean). Because metal and silicate may equilibrate by several different mechanisms, such as at the base of a deep magma ocean, or as metal droplets descend through a molten mantle, partition coefficients can potentially shed light on which mechanism may be most important, thus linking the physics and chemistry of core formation. In this chapter, we summarize metal/silicate partitioning of siderophile elements and show how they may be used to understand planetary core formation.Once a planet is differentiated into core and mantle, a mantle will cool during convection, and can start in either a molten or solid state, depending upon the initial thermal conditions. If hot enough, minerals will

  12. NMR Methods, Applications and Trends for Groundwater Evaluation and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, D. O.; Grunewald, E. D.

    2011-12-01

    Energy have produced an NMR logging tool that is much smaller and less costly than comparable oilfield NMR logging tools. This system is specifically designed for near surface groundwater investigations, incorporates small diameter probes (as small as 1.67 inches diameter) and man-portable surface stations, and provides NMR data and information content on par with oilfield NMR logging tools. A direct-push variant of this logging tool has also been developed. Key challenges associated with small diameter tools include inherently lower SNR and logging speeds, the desire to extend the sensitive zone as far as possible into unconsolidated formations, and simultaneously maintaining high power and signal fidelity. Our ongoing research in groundwater NMR aims to integrating surface and borehole measurements for regional-scale permeability mapping, and to develop in-place NMR sensors for long term monitoring of contaminant and remediation processes. In addition to groundwater resource characterization, promising new applications of NMR include assessing water content in ice and permafrost, management of groundwater in mining operations, and evaluation and management of groundwater in civil engineering applications.

  13. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.

    1999-03-24

    wells; they are believed to represent natural components of groundwater. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 groundwater monitoring continued at 25 waste management areas during FY 1998: 17 under detection programs and data indicate that they are not adversely affecting groundwater, 6 under interim-status groundwater-quality-assessment programs to assess possible contamination, and 2 under final-status corrective-action programs. Groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued to reduce the amount of strontium-90 (100-N) and chromium (100-K, D, and H) reaching the Columbia River. Two systems in the 200-West Area operated to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetide uranium plumes. Groundwater monitoring continued at these sites and at other sites where there is no active remediation. A three-dimensional, numerical groundwater model was applied to simulate radionuclide movement from sources in the 200 Areas following site closure in 2050. Contaminants will continue to move toward the southeast and north (through Gable Gap), but the areas with levels exceeding drinking water standards will diminish.

  14. Groundwater environmental capacity and its evaluation index.

    PubMed

    Xing, Li Ting; Wu, Qiang; Ye, Chun He; Ye, Nan

    2010-10-01

    To date, no unified and acknowledged definition or well-developed evaluation index system of groundwater environment capacity can be found in the academia at home or abroad. The article explores the meaning of water environment capacity, and analyzes the environmental effects caused by the exploitation of groundwater resources. This research defines groundwater environmental capacity as a critical value in terms of time and space, according to which the groundwater system responds to the external influences within certain goal constraint. On the basis of observing the principles of being scientific, dominant, measurable, and applicable, six level 1 evaluation indexes and 11 constraint factors are established. Taking Jinan spring region for a case study, this research will adopt groundwater level and spring flow as constraint factors, and the allowable groundwater yield as the critical value of groundwater environmental capacity, prove the dynamic changeability and its indicating function of groundwater environmental capacity through calculation, and finally point out the development trends of researches on groundwater environmental capacity. PMID:19763854

  15. Groundwater pollution by perfluorinated surfactants in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Kuroda, Keisuke; Sato, Nobuyuki; Fukushi, Tetsuo; Takizawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-05-15

    Perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in groundwater were analyzed to reveal their distribution and sources. Sixteen groundwater and spring samples were collected from the Tokyo metropolitan area, and nine PFSs, including perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A column test using artificial street runoff was also performed to study their behavior. PFSs were detected in all groundwater samples, some at concentrations comparable to those in wastewater and street runoff, suggesting widespread contamination of groundwater by PFSs. In particular, PFOS -was more abundant in groundwater than in rivers, wastewater, and street runoff. This was attributed to its production from the degradation of its precursors, as supported by the column test. The occurrence of short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in groundwater was also consistent with the results of the column test, showing that limited amounts of short-chain PFCAs were removed by soil, as the efficiency of removal increased with the chain length. We evaluated the contributions of PFCAs from wastewater and surface runoff to groundwater by using two indicators, the long/(short + long) ratio and the even(even + odd) ratio. Both ratios showed good agreement in their calculated contributions in heavily contaminated groundwater where breakthroughs likely occurred. Wastewater and surface runoff contributed to 54-86% and 16-46% of PFCAs, respectively, in groundwater. PMID:19544843

  16. Compendium of ordinances for groundwater protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    Groundwater is an extremely important resource in the Tennessee Valley. Nearly two-thirds of the Tennessee Valley's residents rely, at least in part, on groundwater supplies for drinking water. In rural areas, approximately ninety-five percent of residents rely on groundwater for domestic supplies. Population growth and economic development increase the volume and kinds of wastes requiring disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal which can lead to groundwater contamination. In addition to disposal problems associated with increases in conventional wastewater and solid waste, technological advancements in recent decades have resulted in new chemicals and increased usage in agriculture, industry, and the home. Unfortunately, there has not been comparable progress in identifying the potential long-term effects of these chemicals, in managing them to prevent contamination of groundwater, or in developing treatment technologies for removing them from water once contamination has occurred. The challenge facing residence of the Tennessee Valley is to manage growth and economic and technological development in ways that will avoid polluting the groundwater resource. Once groundwater has been contaminated, cleanup is almost always very costly and is sometimes impractical or technically infeasible. Therefore, prevention of contamination -- not remedial treatment--is the key to continued availability of usable groundwater. This document discusses regulations to aid in this prevention.

  17. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  18. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Newcomer, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Webber, W.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Raymond, R.G.; Opitz, B.E.

    1993-06-01

    Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals present in ground water as a result of Hanford Site operations and, whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. A total of 720 wells were sampled during 1992 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project prepared water-table maps of DOE`s Hanford Site for June 1992 from water-level elevations measured in 287 wells across the Hanford Site and outlying areas. These maps are used to infer ground-water flow directions and gradients for the interpretation of contaminant transport. Water levels beneath the 200 Areas decreased as much as 0.75 m (2.5 ft) between December 1991 and December 1992. Water levels in the Cold Creek Valley decreased approximately 0.5 m in that same period. The water table adjacent to the Columbia River along the Hanford Reach continues to respond significantly to fluctuations in river stage. These responses were observed in the 100 and 300 areas. The elevation of the ground-water mound beneath B Pond did not change significantly between December 1991 and December 1992. However, water levels from one well located at the center of the mound indicate a water-level rise of approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) during the last quarter of 1992. Water levels measured from unconfined aquifer wells north and east of the Columbia River in 1992 indicate that the primary source of recharge is from irrigation practices.

  19. Environmental impacts of open loop geothermal system on groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Koo-Sang; Park, Youngyun; Yun, Sang Woong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Application of renewable energies such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat has gradually increased to reduce emission of CO2 which is supplied from combustion of fossil fuel. The geothermal energy of various renewable energies has benefit to be used to cooling and heating systems and has good energy efficiency compared with other renewable energies. However, open loop system of geothermal heat pump system has possibility that various environmental problems are induced because the system directly uses groundwater to exchange heat. This study was performed to collect data from many documents such as papers and reports and to summarize environmental impacts for application of open loop system. The environmental impacts are classified into change of hydrogeological factors such as water temperature, redox condition, EC, change of microbial species, well contamination and depletion of groundwater. The change of hydrogeological factors can induce new geological processes such as dissolution and precipitation of some minerals. For examples, increase of water temperature can change pH and Eh. These variations can change saturation index of some minerals. Therefore, dissolution and precipitation of some minerals such as quartz and carbonate species and compounds including Fe and Mn can induce a collapse and a clogging of well. The well contamination and depletion of groundwater can reduce available groundwater resources. These environmental impacts will be different in each region because hydrogeological properties and scale, operation period and kind of the system. Therefore, appropriate responses will be considered for each environmental impact. Also, sufficient study will be conducted to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve geothermal energy efficiency during the period that a open loop system is operated. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning

  20. Uncertainty in global groundwater storage estimates in a Total Groundwater Stress framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S.; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Groundwater is a finite resource under continuous external pressures. Current unsustainable groundwater use threatens the resilience of aquifer systems and their ability to provide a long-term water source. Groundwater storage is considered to be a factor of groundwater resilience, although the extent to which resilience can be maintained has yet to be explored in depth. In this study, we assess the limit of groundwater resilience in the world's largest groundwater systems with remote sensing observations. The Total Groundwater Stress (TGS) ratio, defined as the ratio of total storage to the groundwater depletion rate, is used to explore the timescales to depletion in the world's largest aquifer systems and associated groundwater buffer capacity. We find that the current state of knowledge of large-scale groundwater storage has uncertainty ranges across orders of magnitude that severely limit the characterization of resilience in the study aquifers. Additionally, we show that groundwater availability, traditionally defined as recharge and redefined in this study as total storage, can alter the systems that are considered to be stressed versus unstressed. We find that remote sensing observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment can assist in providing such information at the scale of a whole aquifer. For example, we demonstrate that a groundwater depletion rate in the Northwest Sahara Aquifer System of 2.69 ± 0.8 km3/yr would result in the aquifer being depleted to 90% of its total storage in as few as 50 years given an initial storage estimate of 70 km3.

  1. Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    R. P. Wells

    2007-05-09

    This report provides a status of the progress made in Fiscal Year 2006 on tasks identified in the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan. Major accomplishments include: (1) groundwater sampling and review of the groundwater monitoring data, (2) installation of a Sitewide groundwater-level monitoring network, (3) update of the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan of Operable Unit 10-08, (4) re-evaluation of the risk at Site TSF-08, (5) progress on the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model.

  2. Groundwater Availability Within the Salton Sea Basin Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A; Demir, Z; Moran, J; Mason, D; Wagoner, J; Kollet, S; Mansoor, K; McKereghan, P

    2008-01-11

    in the Salton Sea Basin is the subject of the project described in this report. Much of the project work was done in cooperation with the US Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region Office ('Reclamation'), which manages the Salton Sea Restoration project for the US Department of the Interior, and complements other recent assessment efforts (e.g., Imperial County, 1995). In this context, the notion of groundwater availability is defined by four separate, but interrelated concepts or components: (1) Volume and Capacity--This refers to the volume of groundwater available in storage in (or the related storage capacity of) the sediments and geologic media that comprise a groundwater basin. The volume of groundwater in a basin will vary in time as a function of recharge, well production, and land subsidence. (2) Producibility--This refers to the ease or difficulty of extracting groundwater in a basin from wells. Groundwater producibility will be affected by well depth and the formation permeability surrounding the open intervals in wells. (3) Quality--This refers to the extent that water produced from wells is potable or otherwise suitable for domestic or other uses. It may also refer to the chemical compositions of groundwater that are unrelated to potability or suitability issues. Groundwater quality will be affected by its residence time and flow pathway in the formation and will also be influenced by the quality of its original source before entering the groundwater regime. (4) Renewability and Recharge--This refers to the extent that groundwater is recharged to the basin as part of the natural hydrologic cycle or other artificial means. Groundwater renewability is normally a function of recharge derived from precipitation (and thus a function of regional climate), but may also be affected in local areas by irrigation, leaking canals, aquifer storage and recovery operations, and so forth. Along with the other factors, renewability will strongly affect how much

  3. Groundwater circulation in deep carbonate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szönyi-Mádl, Judit; Tóth, Ádám

    2016-04-01

    The operation of the subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle is hardly understood on basin scale due to the limitation in validated knowledge. Therefore the water balance approach is used with simplified numerical approaches during solving water related problems. The understanding of hierarchical nature of gravity-driven groundwater flow in near-surface and other driving forces in the deeper part of the lithosphere are often neglected. In this context thick and deep carbonate regions are especially less understood because the applicability of the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow (GDRGF) concept for such ranges formerly was debated. This is because karst studies are focused rather on the understanding of heterogeneity of karst systems. In contrary, this study found, on the basis of REV concept, that at regional scale not the local permeability values but its regional distribution is decisive. Firstly, according to the hydraulic diffusivity values it was stated that hydraulic connectivity is more effective in basinal carbonates compared to siliciclastics. Consequently, the efficient hydraulic responses for hydraulic head changes (due to water production or injection) in a carbonate system can give an indirect clue regarding hydraulic connectivity of the system rather than understanding the detailed permeability distribution. The concerns of the applicability of the GDRGF concept, therefore could be resolved. Subsequently, the concept of GDRGF can be used as a working hypothesis for understanding basinal hydraulics and geologic agency of flowing groundwater in thick carbonate ranges (Mádl-Szonyi and Tóth 2015). The hydrogeologically complex thick carbonate system of the Transdanubian Range (TR) Hungary was used as a study area to reveal the role of GDRGF at basin scale. Water level changes in the system, due to long-term mine dewatering exemplify the hydraulic continuity and compartmentalization of the system. Clustering of spring data, numerical flow and

  4. A GIS-Enabled, Michigan-Specific, Hierarchical Groundwater Modeling and Visualization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; Mandle, R.; Simard, A.; Fisher, B.; Brown, E.; Ross, S.

    2005-12-01

    Efficient management of groundwater resources relies on a comprehensive database that represents the characteristics of the natural groundwater system as well as analysis and modeling tools to describe the impacts of decision alternatives. Many agencies in Michigan have spent several years compiling expensive and comprehensive surface water and groundwater inventories and other related spatial data that describe their respective areas of responsibility. However, most often this wealth of descriptive data has only been utilized for basic mapping purposes. The benefits from analyzing these data, using GIS analysis functions or externally developed analysis models or programs, has yet to be systematically realized. In this talk, we present a comprehensive software environment that allows Michigan groundwater resources managers and frontline professionals to make more effective use of the available data and improve their ability to manage and protect groundwater resources, address potential conflicts, design cleanup schemes, and prioritize investigation activities. In particular, we take advantage of the Interactive Ground Water (IGW) modeling system and convert it to a customized software environment specifically for analyzing, modeling, and visualizing the Michigan statewide groundwater database. The resulting Michigan IGW modeling system (IGW-M) is completely window-based, fully interactive, and seamlessly integrated with a GIS mapping engine. The system operates in real-time (on the fly) providing dynamic, hierarchical mapping, modeling, spatial analysis, and visualization. Specifically, IGW-M allows water resources and environmental professionals in Michigan to: * Access and utilize the extensive data from the statewide groundwater database, interactively manipulate GIS objects, and display and query the associated data and attributes; * Analyze and model the statewide groundwater database, interactively convert GIS objects into numerical model features

  5. Mapping Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems in California

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Jeanette; Merrifield, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Background Most groundwater conservation and management efforts focus on protecting groundwater for drinking water and for other human uses with little understanding or focus on the ecosystems that depend on groundwater. However, groundwater plays an integral role in sustaining certain types of aquatic, terrestrial and coastal ecosystems, and their associated landscapes. Our aim was to illuminate the connection between groundwater and surface ecosystems by identifying and mapping the distribution of groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs) in California. Methodology/Principal Findings To locate where groundwater flow sustains ecosystems we identified and mapped groundwater dependent ecosystems using a GIS. We developed an index of groundwater dependency by analyzing geospatial data for three ecosystem types that depend on groundwater: (1) springs and seeps; (2) wetlands and associated vegetation alliances; and (3) stream discharge from groundwater sources (baseflow index). Each variable was summarized at the scale of a small watershed (Hydrologic Unit Code-12; mean size = 9,570 ha; n = 4,621), and then stratified and summarized to 10 regions of relative homogeneity in terms of hydrologic, ecologic and climatic conditions. We found that groundwater dependent ecosystems are widely, although unevenly, distributed across California. Although different types of GDEs are clustered more densely in certain areas of the state, watersheds with multiple types of GDEs are found in both humid (e.g. coastal) and more arid regions. Springs are most densely concentrated in the North Coast and North Lahontan, whereas groundwater dependent wetlands and associated vegetation alliances are concentrated in the North and South Lahontan and Sacramento River hydrologic regions. The percentage of land area where stream discharge is most dependent on groundwater is found in the North Coast, Sacramento River and Tulare Lake regions. GDE clusters are located at the highest percentage

  6. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  7. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Van Beek, L. P.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and also supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, the large natural groundwater storage provides a buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a transient global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013) combined with information about e.g. aquifer thickness and presence of less permeable, impermeable, and semi-impermeable layers. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated simulated groundwater heads with observations, from North America and Australia, resulting in a coefficient of determination of 0.8 and 0.7 respectively. This shows that it is feasible to build a global groundwater model using best available

  8. A worldwide view of groundwater depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, L. P.; Wada, Y.; van Kempen, C.; Reckman, J. W.; Vasak, S.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    During the last decades, global water demand has increased two-fold due to increasing population, expanding irrigated area and economic development. Globally such demand can be met by surface water availability (i.e., water in rivers, lakes and reservoirs) but regional variations are large and the absence of sufficient rainfall and run-off increasingly encourages the use of groundwater resources, particularly in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Excessive abstraction for irrigation frequently leads to overexploitation, i.e. if groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge over extensive areas and prolonged times, persistent groundwater depletion may occur. Observations and various regional studies have revealed that groundwater depletion is a substantial issue in regions such as Northwest India, Northeast Pakistan, Central USA, Northeast China and Iran. Here we provide a global overview of groundwater depletion from the year 1960 to 2000 at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree by assessing groundwater recharge with the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and subtracting estimates of groundwater abstraction obtained from IGRAC-GGIS database. PCR-GLOBWB was forced by the CRU climate dataset downscaled to daily time steps using ERA40 re-analysis data. PCR-GLOBWB simulates daily global groundwater recharge (0.5 degree) while considering sub-grid variability of each grid cell (e.g., short and tall vegetation, different soil types, fraction of saturated soil). Country statistics of groundwater abstraction were downscaled to 0.5 degree by using water demand (i.e., agriculture, industry and domestic) as a proxy. To limit problems related to increased capture of discharge and increased recharge due to groundwater pumping, we restricted our analysis to sub-humid to arid areas. The uncertainty in the resulting estimates was assessed by a Monte Carlo analysis of 100 realizations of groundwater recharge and 100 realizations of groundwater abstraction

  9. Development of a regional groundwater flow model for the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.M.; Arnett, R.C.; Neupauer, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report documents a study conducted to develop a regional groundwater flow model for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was developed to support Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-04 groundwater flow and transport studies. The products of this study are this report and a set of computational tools designed to numerically model the regional groundwater flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The objective of developing the current model was to create a tool for defining the regional groundwater flow at the INEL. The model was developed to (a) support future transport modeling for WAG 10-04 by providing the regional groundwater flow information needed for the WAG 10-04 risk assessment, (b) define the regional groundwater flow setting for modeling groundwater contaminant transport at the scale of the individual WAGs, (c) provide a tool for improving the understanding of the groundwater flow system below the INEL, and (d) consolidate the existing regional groundwater modeling information into one usable model. The current model is appropriate for defining the regional flow setting for flow submodels as well as hypothesis testing to better understand the regional groundwater flow in the area of the INEL. The scale of the submodels must be chosen based on accuracy required for the study.

  10. Aquifer-Circulating Water Curtain Cultivation System To Recover Groundwater Level And Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Ko, K.; Chon, C.; Oh, S.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater temperature, which generally ranges 14 to 16 degree of Celsius all year long, can be said to be 'constant' compared to the amplitude of daily variation of air temperature or surface water. Water curtain cultivating method utilizes this 'constant' groundwater temperature to warm up the inside of greenhouse during winter night by splash groundwater on the roof of inner greenhouse. The area of water curtain cultivation system have increased up to 107.5 square kilometers as of 2006 since when it is first introduced to South Korea in 1984. Groundwater shortage problem became a great issue in a concentrated water curtain cultivation area because the pumped and splashed groundwater is abandoned to nearby stream and natural recharge rate is reduced by greenhouses. The amount of groundwater use for water curtain cultivation system in South Korea is calculated to be 587 million cubic meters which is 35% of national agricultural use of groundwater. A new water curtain cultivation system coupled with aquifer circulating of the splashed groundwater and greenhouse roof-top rainwater harvesting is developed and applied to field site in Nonsan-si, Chungnam province to minimize groundwater shortage problem and recover groundwater level. The aquifer circulating water curtain cultivation system is consist of a pumping well and a injection well of 80 m deep, groundwater transfer and splashing system, recovery tank and rainwater collecting waterway. The distance between injection and pumping well is 15 m and an observation well is installed in the middle of the wells. To characterize hydrogeological properties of this site, hydraulic test such as pumping tests and tracer tests with dye tracer, thermal tracer and ion tracer. Once the integrated system is constructed in this site, hydraulic head in all the wells and temperature of air, recovery tank and groundwater in all the wells are monitored during the operation for 3months in winter season. Hydraulic test and tracer

  11. Identification of manganese as a toxicant in a groundwater treatment system: Addressing naturally occurring toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W. Jr.; Sohn, V.; Richey, M.; Yost, J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent from a groundwater remediation system at a bulk oil storage and distribution terminal has been chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The remediation system was designed in response to a hydrocarbon plume in the area of the terminal. The remediation system consists of a series of groundwater recovery wells and groundwater intercept trench systems with groundwater treatment and phased-separated hydrocarbon recovery systems. The groundwater treatment and petroleum recovery systems consist of oil/water separators, product recovery tanks, air strippers, filters, and carbon adsorption units. The characteristics of this effluent are low total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and hardness concentrations as well as meeting stringent NPDES permit requirements for lead, copper, zinc, mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX. Additional priority pollutant evaluations revealed no compounds of concern. Performance of a Toxicity identification Evaluation (TIE) indicated that manganese was the principle toxicant in the effluent. Manganese is a naturally occurring constituent in this groundwater source and is not added to the treatment system. This paper will present the results of the TIE with a discussion of treatability/control options for manganese control at this facility. Recommendations for addressing naturally occurring toxicants that are not a result of the facility`s operations will also be presented.

  12. Quarterly report of RCRA groundwater monitoring data for period October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jungers, D.K.

    1994-04-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, as amended (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 265). Compliance with the 40 CFR 265 regulations is required by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303. This report contains data from Hanford Site groundwater monitoring projects. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) manages the RCRA groundwater monitoring projects for federal facilities on the Hanford Site. Project management, specifying data needs, performing quality control (QC) oversight, managing data, and preparing project sampling schedules are all parts of this responsibility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) administers the contract for analytical services and provides groundwater sampling services to WHC for the RCRA groundwater monitoring program. This quarterly report contains data received between November 20 and February 25, 1994, which are the cutoff dates for this reporting period. This report may contain not only data from the October through December quarter but also data from earlier sampling events that were not previously reported.

  13. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  14. Hydrochemical characteristics and the effects of irrigation on groundwater quality in Harran Plain, GAP Project, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilnacar, M. Irfan; Gulluoglu, M. Said

    2008-03-01

    Improper design, faulty planning, mismanagement and incorrect operation of irrigation schemes are the principle reasons for the deterioration of groundwater quality in a large number of countries, in particular in semi-arid and arid regions. The aim of this study is to determine the dimensions of groundwater quality after surface irrigation was begun in the semi-arid Harran Plain. Physical and chemical parameters of the groundwater including pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, total phosphorus, total organic carbon and turbidity were determined monthly during the 2006 water year. The quality of the groundwater in the study area was assessed hydrochemically in order to determine its suitability for human consumption and agricultural purposes. In the general plain, the EC values measured were considerably above the guide level of 650 μS/cm, while nitrate in particular was found in almost all groundwater samples to be significantly above the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l for the quality of water intended for human consumption as per the international and national standards. Total hardness reveals that a majority of the groundwater samples fall in the very hard water category. Interpretation of analytical data shows that Ca HCO3 and Ca SO4 are the dominant hydrochemical facies in the study area.

  15. GROUNDWATER QUALITY PROTECTION: THE ISSUE IN PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of protecting groundwater resources cannot be overstated, and many people throughout the world seem anxious to physically and financially support a rational program to this end. Public complacency regarding the quality of groundwater was destroyed with headline-gra...

  16. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  17. Stygofauna enhance prokaryotic transport in groundwater ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Renee J.; Paterson, James S.; Launer, Elise; Tobe, Shanan S.; Morello, Eliesa; Leijs, Remko; Marri, Shashikanth; Mitchell, James G.

    2016-01-01

    More than 97% of the world’s freshwater reserves are found in aquifers, making groundwater one of the most important resources on the planet. Prokaryotic communities in groundwater underpin the turnover of energy and matter while also maintaining groundwater purity. Thus, knowledge of microbial transport in the subsurface is crucial for maintaining groundwater health. Here, we describe for the first time the importance of stygofauna as vectors for prokaryotes. The “hitch-hiking” prokaryotes associated with stygofauna may be up to 5 orders of magnitude higher in abundance and transported up to 34× faster than bulk groundwater flow. We also demonstrate that prokaryotic diversity associated with stygofauna may be higher than that of the surrounding groundwater. Stygofauna are a newly recognized prokaryotic niche in groundwater ecosystems that have the potential to transport remediating, water purifying and pathogenic prokaryotes. Therefore, stygofauna may influence ecosystem dynamics and health at a microbial level, and at a larger scale could be a new source of prokaryotic diversity in groundwater ecosystems. PMID:27597322

  18. Technical approach to groundwater restoration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures.

  19. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME III

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume is the third of a three-volume report documenting the results of an evaluation of ground-water extraction remedies at hazardous waste sites. It consists of a collection of 112 data base reports presenting general information on sites where ground-water extraction sys...

  20. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

  1. Groundwater issues in the Potomac River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Jay

    Great strides have been made by the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, along with the Commonwealth of Virginia and the District of Columbia, in protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Since these entities joined forces in a renewed effort to protect water quality in the Chesapeake Bay area, a number of useful programs have been established and public awareness has been raised.The Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers and several regional co-sponsors presented Ground Water Issues and Solutions in the Potomac River Basin/Chesapeake Bay Region Conference March 14 at George Washington University, Washington, D.C., to provide insight into groundwater-related issues. Attendance at the conference included 150 groundwater professionals from state, county and private agencies, along with a significant number of students from area universities. More than 30 papers were presented dealing with research projects and field studies. Topics included geohydrologic relationships, groundwater quality impacts, impact of industrial processes on groundwater quality, saltwater intrusion, groundwater protection in the Chesapeake Bay area, land-use impacts on groundwater quality, groundwater modeling, groundwater withdrawals, and policy issues. In addition to the technical sessions, a debate of “How clean is clean?” was held.

  2. COMPILATION OF GROUND-WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water modeling is a computer-based methodology for mathematical analysis of the mechanisms and controls of ground-water systems for the evaluation of policies, action, and designs that may affect such systems. n addition to satisfying scientific interest in the workings of...

  3. Factors determining the economic value of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, M. Ejaz; Reeson, Andrew; Reinelt, Peter; Brozović, Nicholas; Whitten, Stuart

    2012-08-01

    Increasing groundwater extraction threatens aquifer sustainability for future generations. Making the best use of limited groundwater resources requires knowledge of its alternative extractive and non-extractive values, as well as the cost of extraction and the hydrological interlinkages between alternative uses. Groundwater value is driven by a number of factors including its supply and demand and institutional and policy factors. These factors and how they affect value of groundwater are described. Also described are the various components relevant to the economic valuation of groundwater and there is discussion on the potential difficulties in their practical estimation. It is argued that groundwater management is essential when there are large potential spatial and temporal externalities related to groundwater pumping. Maintaining non-extractive and option values is likely to require trade-offs with current extractive uses. Well-informed management will be required to allocate groundwater efficiently between different users such as agriculture, industry and the environment, while also balancing the needs of current and future generations.

  4. Calibrating northern Texas High Plains groundwater model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Northern High Plains of Texas, irrigated crop production accounts for a major portion of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer. The concern is that diminishing groundwater supplies will severely reduce regional crop and animal production, which in turn would impact the regional ec...

  5. Groundwater management and protection Madison County, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.H.; Strunk, J.W.

    1990-07-01

    Groundwater is extremely important to Madison County as it provides nearly three quarters of the county's drinking water. In recent years, Madison County has increasingly recognized the need to protect its groundwater resource. A supply of usable groundwater is one element of a high quality environment, which can help spur economic development and provide for the needs of a growing population. Without planning protection and understanding of possible consequences, however, economic development and population pressures can cause a gradual degradation of groundwater. In April 1987, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) convened a local groundwater steering group in Madison County. At the first meeting the ground agreed upon these goals: (1) to seek incorporate groundwater protection into the planning and development process for Madison County, (2) to support efforts by Madison County to obtain authority to adopt zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, and (3) to develop a groundwater management plan for the county. This report provides essential information needed in developing a plan and is based on the following assumptions: the citizens of Madison County value the environment in which they live and wish to protect it from pollution; continued economic development is necessary for a healthy local economy; and a healthy economy can be sustained and nurtured, without degradation of the groundwater resource, through countywide planning, education, and participation.

  6. Groundwater Site Characterization: A Systems Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Frederick

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater remedial actions are highly complex projects. During the past 10 years, many remedial actions have begun, but very few have been successfully completed. This paper describes the complexity of groundwater remediation and offers an alternative management approach involving systems movement successfully utilized at a site in the…

  7. Stygofauna enhance prokaryotic transport in groundwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Smith, Renee J; Paterson, James S; Launer, Elise; Tobe, Shanan S; Morello, Eliesa; Leijs, Remko; Marri, Shashikanth; Mitchell, James G

    2016-01-01

    More than 97% of the world's freshwater reserves are found in aquifers, making groundwater one of the most important resources on the planet. Prokaryotic communities in groundwater underpin the turnover of energy and matter while also maintaining groundwater purity. Thus, knowledge of microbial transport in the subsurface is crucial for maintaining groundwater health. Here, we describe for the first time the importance of stygofauna as vectors for prokaryotes. The "hitch-hiking" prokaryotes associated with stygofauna may be up to 5 orders of magnitude higher in abundance and transported up to 34× faster than bulk groundwater flow. We also demonstrate that prokaryotic diversity associated with stygofauna may be higher than that of the surrounding groundwater. Stygofauna are a newly recognized prokaryotic niche in groundwater ecosystems that have the potential to transport remediating, water purifying and pathogenic prokaryotes. Therefore, stygofauna may influence ecosystem dynamics and health at a microbial level, and at a larger scale could be a new source of prokaryotic diversity in groundwater ecosystems. PMID:27597322

  8. Groundwater Field Station for Geoscience Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudak, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    Details how to create a low-cost groundwater field station for a college hydrogeology course. Discusses how students use the station to collect and interpret data from wells and to study spatial hydraulic-head measurements to comprehend groundwater flow. Explains why hands-on activities are a valuable addition to the course. (DSK)

  9. EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION ON GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater has been examined in a laboratory study. The study was directed at Fruitland Formation subbituminous coal of the San Juan Basin and at the groundwater found in this coal seam. Two wells were drilled into the coa...

  10. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.R.; Curtis, A.H.; Houlberg, L.M.; Purucker, S.T.; Singer, M.L.; Tardiff, M.F.; Wolf, D.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year.

  11. Estimation of the pore pressure distribution from three dimensional groundwater flow model at mine sites in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sangsoo; Jang, Myounghwan; Kim, Gyoungman; Kim, Donghui; Kim, Daehoon; Baek, Hwanjo

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities continually change the groundwater flow and associated pore pressure distributions within the rockmass around the mine openings or the open-pit bench during the operational periods. As the pore pressure distributions may substantially affect the mechanical behaviour or stability of the rockmass, it is important to monitor the variation of pore pressure incurred by mining operation. The pore pressure distributions within the rockmass can be derived using a two- or three-dimensional finite element groundwater flow model, adopted to simulate the groundwater flow. While the groundwater inflow at mines has generally been dealt with respect to the working environment, detailed case studies on the distribution of pore water pressure related to the stability analysis of mine openings have been relatively rare in Korea. Recently, however, as the health and safety problems are emerged for sustainable mining practice, these issues are of the major concerns for the mining industries. This study aims to establish a three dimensional groundwater flow model to estimate the pore pressure distributions in order to employ as an input parameter for numerical codes such as the FLAC 3D. Also, the groundwater flow simulated can be used for de-watering design at a mine site. The MINEDW code, a groundwater flow model code specifically developed to simulate the complicated hydro-geologic conditions related to mining, has mainly been used in this study. Based on the data collected from field surveys and literature reviews, a conceptual model was established and sensitivity analysis was performed.

  12. Analysis of Aquifer Response, Groundwater Flow, and PlumeEvolution at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston D.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Su, Grace W.

    2005-02-24

    This report presents a continuation from Oldenburg et al. (2002) of analysis of the hydrogeology, In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) results, aquifer response, and changes in the trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County. Fuels and solvents were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) during airport fire suppression training between 1962 and 1985. This activity resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in the unconfined A-aquifer. In the late 1980's, soil excavation and bioremediation were successful in remediating soil contamination at the site. Shortly thereafter, a groundwater pump, treat, and recharge system commenced operation. This system has been largely successful at remediating groundwater contamination at the head of the groundwater plume. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In the analyses presented here, we augment our prior work (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with new information including treatment-system totalizer data, recent water-level and chemistry data, and data collected from new wells to discern trends in contaminant migration and groundwater flow that may be useful for ongoing remediation efforts. Some conclusions from the prior study have been modified based on these new analyses, and these are pointed out clearly in this report.

  13. Monitoring Groundwater Variations Using a Portable Absolute Gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yoichi; Nishijima, Jun; Hasegawa, Takashi; Sofyan, Yayan; Taniguchi, Makoto; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Delinom, Robert M.

    2010-05-01

    In urbanized areas, one of the urgent problems is to monitor the groundwater variations especially connected with land subsidence. Although the groundwater variations are usually measured by water level meters, gravity measurements can provide us additional information about the water mass movements which should be beneficial for the analyses of groundwater flow and the managements of water resources as well. Therefore, in order to establish a new technique to monitor the groundwater variations by means of the gravity measurements, we investigated the applicability of a portable type absolute gravimeter (Micro-G LaCoste Inc. A10-017). We will report the results of some test measurements in Japan, and the outline of the surveys in Jakarta, Indonesia. As for the absolute gravity measurements, FG-5 of MGL would be more popular. FG-5 is a high precision absolute gravimeter with a 2ugal-accuracy for laboratory use, while the nominal accuracy of A-10 is 10ugal (measurement precision: ±5ugal). In spite of the disadvantage, A-10 is well suited for the field surveys because it is much smaller than FG-5 and can be operated with 12VDC power. The repeated measurements using A10-017 in Kyushu University show good correlations between the measured gravity values and the groundwater levels in nearby observation wells. In a geothermal plant of Takigami, we also observed the gravity changes associated with the cycle of the geothermal fluid. All these test measurements have proved that the gravimeter can achieve a 10ugal (10nm/s2) or better accuracy in the field surveys. In Jakarta, Indonesia, excess groundwater pumping is going on and it causes land subsidence. To reveal the associated gravity changes, we conducted the first gravity survey in August 2008 and the second survey in July 2009. Mainly due to the instrumental troubles during the 2008 surveys, we have not obtained enough reliable data yet. Nevertheless the result obtained so far suggested the gravity increases in the

  14. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Groundwater Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillesheim, M. B.; Beauheim, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    The development of a groundwater monitoring program is an integral part of any radioactive waste disposal facility. Monitoring improves our understanding of the geologic and hydrologic framework, which improves conceptual models and the quality of groundwater models that provide data input for performance assessment. The purpose of a groundwater monitoring program is to provide objective evidence that the hydrologic system is behaving as expected (i.e., performance confirmation). Monitoring should not be limited to near-field observations but should include the larger natural system in which the repository is situated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs, can serve as a model for other radioactive waste disposal facilities. WIPP has a long-established groundwater monitoring program that is geared towards meeting compliance certification requirements set forth by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary task of the program is to measure various water parameters (e.g.., water level, pressure head, chemical and physical properties) using a groundwater monitoring network that currently consists of 85 wells in the vicinity of the WIPP site. Wells are completed to a number of water-bearing horizons and are monitored on a monthly basis. In many instances, they are also instrumented with programmable pressure transducers that take high-frequency measurements that supplement the monthly measurements. Results from higher frequency measurements indicate that the hydrologic system in the WIPP vicinity is in a transient state, responding to both natural and anthropogenic stresses. The insights gathered from the monitoring, as well as from hydrologic testing activities, provide valuable information that contributes to groundwater modeling efforts and performance assessment. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by

  15. Patterns in groundwater chemistry resulting from groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    Groundwater flow influences hydrochemical patterns because flow reduces mixing by diffusion, carries the chemical imprints of biological and anthropogenic changes in the recharge area, and leaches the aquifer system. Global patterns are mainly dictated by differences in the flux of meteoric water passing through the subsoil. Within individual hydrosomes (water bodies with a specific origin), the following prograde evolution lines (facies sequence) normally develop in the direction of groundwater flow: from strong to no fluctuations in water quality, from polluted to unpolluted, from acidic to basic, from oxic to anoxic-methanogenic, from no to significant base exchange, and from fresh to brackish. This is demonstrated for fresh coastal-dune groundwater in the Netherlands. In this hydrosome, the leaching of calcium carbonate as much as 15m and of adsorbed marine cations (Na+, K+, and Mg2+) as much as 2500m in the flow direction is shown to correspond with about 5000yr of flushing since the beach barrier with dunes developed. Recharge focus areas in the dunes are evidenced by groundwater displaying a lower prograde quality evolution than the surrounding dune groundwater. Artificially recharged Rhine River water in the dunes provides distinct hydrochemical patterns, which display groundwater flow, mixing, and groundwater ages. Résumé Les écoulements souterrains influencent les différents types hydrochimiques, parce que l'écoulement réduit le mélange par diffusion, porte les marques chimiques de changements biologiques et anthropiques dans la zone d'alimentation et lessive le système aquifère. Ces types dans leur ensemble sont surtout déterminés par des différences dans le flux d'eau météorique traversant le sous-sol. Dans les "hydrosomes" (masses d'eau d'origine déterminée), les lignes marquant une évolution prograde (séquence de faciès) se développent normalement dans la direction de l'écoulement souterrain : depuis des fluctuations fortes de la

  16. Geomorphic aspects of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFleur, Robert G.

    The many roles that groundwater plays in landscape evolution are becoming more widely appreciated. In this overview, three major categories of groundwater processes and resulting landforms are considered: (1) Dissolution creates various karst geometries, mainly in carbonate rocks, in response to conditions of recharge, geologic setting, lithology, and groundwater circulation. Denudation and cave formation rates can be estimated from kinetic and hydraulic parameters. (2) Groundwater weathering generates regoliths of residual alteration products at weathering fronts, and subsequent exhumation exposes corestones, flared slopes, balanced rocks, domed inselbergs, and etchplains of regional importance. Groundwater relocation of dissolved salts creates duricrusts of various compositions, which become landforms. (3) Soil and rock erosion by groundwater processes include piping, seepage erosion, and sapping, important agents in slope retreat and headward gully migration. Thresholds and limits are important in many chemical and mechanical groundwater actions. A quantitative, morphometric approach to groundwater landforms and processes is exemplified by selected studies in carbonate and clastic terrains of ancient and recent origins. Résumé Les rôles variés joués par les eaux souterraines dans l'évolution des paysages deviennent nettement mieux connus. La revue faite ici prend en considération trois grandes catégories de processus liés aux eaux souterraines et les formes associées: (1) La dissolution crée des formes karstiques variées, surtout dans les roches carbonatées, en fonction des conditions d'alimentation, du cadre géologique, de la lithologie et de la circulation des eaux souterraines. Les taux d'érosion et de formation des grottes peuvent être estimés à partir de paramètres cinétiques et hydrauliques. (2) L'érosion par les eaux souterraines donne naissance à des régolites, résidus d'altération sur des fronts d'altération, et l'exhumation r

  17. Geomorphic aspects of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFleur, Robert G.

    The many roles that groundwater plays in landscape evolution are becoming more widely appreciated. In this overview, three major categories of groundwater processes and resulting landforms are considered: (1) Dissolution creates various karst geometries, mainly in carbonate rocks, in response to conditions of recharge, geologic setting, lithology, and groundwater circulation. Denudation and cave formation rates can be estimated from kinetic and hydraulic parameters. (2) Groundwater weathering generates regoliths of residual alteration products at weathering fronts, and subsequent exhumation exposes corestones, flared slopes, balanced rocks, domed inselbergs, and etchplains of regional importance. Groundwater relocation of dissolved salts creates duricrusts of various compositions, which become landforms. (3) Soil and rock erosion by groundwater processes include piping, seepage erosion, and sapping, important agents in slope retreat and headward gully migration. Thresholds and limits are important in many chemical and mechanical groundwater actions. A quantitative, morphometric approach to groundwater landforms and processes is exemplified by selected studies in carbonate and clastic terrains of ancient and recent origins. Résumé Les rôles variés joués par les eaux souterraines dans l'évolution des paysages deviennent nettement mieux connus. La revue faite ici prend en considération trois grandes catégories de processus liés aux eaux souterraines et les formes associées: (1) La dissolution crée des formes karstiques variées, surtout dans les roches carbonatées, en fonction des conditions d'alimentation, du cadre géologique, de la lithologie et de la circulation des eaux souterraines. Les taux d'érosion et de formation des grottes peuvent être estimés à partir de paramètres cinétiques et hydrauliques. (2) L'érosion par les eaux souterraines donne naissance à des régolites, résidus d'altération sur des fronts d'altération, et l'exhumation r

  18. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater storage provides a large natural buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). With this global groundwater model we eventually intend to simulate the changes in the groundwater system over time that result from variations in recharge and abstraction. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013), combined with our estimate of aquifer thickness for sedimentary basins. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. Based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run the model with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observed that most variance in groundwater

  19. CFC concentrations in fresh groundwater in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikše, J.; DÄ`liĆa, A.; Babre, A.; RetiÄ·e, I.; Raga, B.; PÄ`rkone, E.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main issues in groundwater studies is groundwater age, also known as residence time. This is important for investigating the groundwater filtration rate and to solve variety issues of groundwater use, management and protection. Groundwater age studies in Latvia have been rare, and the latest study, which defined the new results of age of groundwater using CFC dating method, was during years 2002 - 2006 and it was carried out by Denmark and Greenland Geological Survey (GEUS) and the Latvian State Geological Survey as a joint study on the impact of agriculture on groundwater quality in Latvia. Within the project "Interdisciplinary research groups and model system for groundwater studies" (PUMA) the studies of groundwater age by CFCs and 3H methods is continued. The concentration of tritium will be determined in about 60 samples, but the CFC concentration is now analyzed in 39 samples because previous studies have shown that Latvian CFC method is appropriate for aquifers to an average depth of 30-50 m. CFCs concentrations were analyzed in the laboratory at GEUS after Busenberg and Plummer described method by gas chromatography equipped with an EDC detector. Interpretation of the results was carried out by laboratory expert Troels Laier. Samples are taken on both from the unconfined aquifer and the first confined aquifer, the sampling interval varies from 5-10 m up to 120-130 m for tritium analysis and up to 80 m depth for most CFC analysis except one sample that comes from 128 m depth. It is stated that most of determined groundwater from both - confined and unconfined aquifer - has residence time of 35-55 years. So far, the results suggest that groundwater movement is fairly rapid in places where fractured dolomite forms the aquifer as the water residence time at 60-70 m depth is only 35-55 years. On the other hand, the composition of overlying Quaternary deposits (clay, glacial till loam or sand, sand - gravel sediments) has great importance on variations

  20. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

    2007-11-01

    Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3

  1. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

    2008-05-01

    Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3

  2. Using the conceptual site model approach to characterize groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.; Glucksberg, N.; Walter, N.

    2007-07-01

    purpose from operations management may be to address radionuclides in groundwater, the same steps are used to assess other potential contaminates of concern. Based on past experiences, each agency (and in turn the public interest groups) appreciate the initiative of an integrated approach. Use and coordination of the file search and investigative effort to understand potential impacts from all environmental impacts (radiological and chemical) will introduce cost savings and reduce the overall schedule for future projects. Be proactive and combine the initial programs to analyze samples for all appropriate chemical and radiological constituents. Because of the differences between the agencies, it is critical that there are ongoing discussions with all of the regulators. By developing a cohesive CSM, working together, sharing data, and being transparent during each step of the CSM development, there will be more trust, more public support and an easier and more efficient closure process if contaminated media are identified. The benefits of this approach include: - Trust with the regulators and the public. - EPA, state and NRC accepted base line evaluation. - Representative groundwater monitoring network. - Reduced number of points needed for long term monitoring. This paper discusses the process of using the CSM approach for groundwater contamination with examples from a variety of NRC licensed sites. (authors)

  3. Groundwater pollution by nitrates from livestock wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, V M

    1989-01-01

    Utilization of wastes from livestock complexes for irrigation involves the danger of groundwater pollution by nitrates. In order to prevent and minimize pollution, it is necessary to apply geological-hydrogeological evidence and concepts to the situation of wastewater irrigation for the purposes of studying natural groundwater protectiveness and predicting changes in groundwater quality as a result of infiltrating wastes. The procedure of protectiveness evaluation and quality prediction is described. With groundwater pollution by nitrate nitrogen, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen noticeably increases. One of the reasons for this change is the process of denitrification due to changes in the hydrogeochemical conditions in a layer. At representative field sites, it is necessary to collect systematic stationary observations of the concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in groundwater and changes in redox conditions and temperature. PMID:2620669

  4. Trend Analysis for Groundwater Quality at Different Depths for National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hyeonsil; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soo Jae; Yoon, Heesung; Kim, Rak-Hyeon

    2015-04-01

    Continuous groundwater monitoring is necessary to investigate the changes of groundwater quality with time, and trend analysis using a statistical method can be used to evaluate if the changes are significant. While groundwater quality is typically monitored and evaluated at one depth, in many cases groundwater quality can be different with depths; thus it is required that monitoring and assessment of trends of groundwater quality should be performed at different depths. In this study, we carried out trend analysis for groundwater quality data of National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network of Korea to investigate the changes of groundwater quality between 2007 and 2013. The monitoring network has wells with different depths at each site, of which screens are located at about 10 m, 30 m, and 80 m. We analyzed three of the groundwater quality parameters that have sufficient time series data: pH, nitrate-nitrogen, and chloride ion. Sen's test, a non-parametric statistical method for trend analysis, was used to determine the linear trend of groundwater quality data. The trend analyses were conducted at different confidence levels (i.e., at 70, 80, 90, 95, and 99 % confidence levels). The results of groundwater monitoring and trend analysis at each location were compared with groundwater quality management standards and were classified to establish a new groundwater quality management framework of Korea. The results were further plotted in a regional scale to identify whether the trends, if any, can be grouped regionally. The results showed that wells with significant increasing or decreasing trends are far less than wells with no trends, and chloride ion has more wells with significant trends compared to pH and nitrate-nitrogen. The trends were more or less affected by local characteristics rather than reflecting a regional trend. The number of wells with trends decreased as the confidence level increased as expected, indicating that it is necessary to set an

  5. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  6. 1999 Annual Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Correction - Action Report (Volumes I, II, and III)

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    2000-06-14

    This Corrective Action Report (CAR) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is being prepared to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit Number SC1 890 008 989, dated October 31, 1999. This CAR compiles and presents all groundwater sampling and monitoring activities that are conducted at the MWMF. As set forth in previous agreements with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), all groundwater associated with the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) (comprised of the MWMF, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, and Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground) will be addressed under this RCRA Permit. This CAR is the first to be written for the MWMF and presents monitoring activities and results as an outcome of Interim Status and limited Permitted Status activities. All 1999 groundwater monitoring activities were conducted while the MWMF was operated during Interim Status. Changes to the groundwater monitoring program were made upon receipt of the RCRA Permit, where feasible. During 1999, 152 single-screened and six multi-screened groundwater monitoring wells at the BGC monitored groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer as required by the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR), settlement agreements 87-52-SW and 91-51-SW, and RCRA Permit SC1 890 008 989. However, overall compliance with the recently issued RCRA Permit could not be implemented until the year 2000 due to the effective date of the RCRA Permit and scheduling of groundwater monitoring activities. Changes have been made to the groundwater monitoring network to meet Permit requirements for all 2000 sampling events.

  7. Using Multimodel to Assess Model Structure Uncertainty in Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F. T.

    2009-12-01

    This study discusses model structure uncertainty in groundwater management decisions. A robust optimized policy should take into account model parameter uncertainty as well as uncertainty in imprecise model structure. Due to a limited amount of groundwater head data and hydraulic conductivity data, multiple simulation models with different head boundary conditions and semivariograms of hydraulic conductivity are tested. Instead of selecting the best simulation model for saltwater intrusion prediction, this study introduces a variance-window-based Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method to the management model that utilizes all candidate models to predict chloride concentration. The spatially correlated hydraulic conductivity is estimated by the generalized parameterization (GP) method by combining the Voronoi zones and ordinary kriging estimates. The model weights are estimated by the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and the variance window in the maximum likelihood estimation. Then all simulation models are weighted to predict chloride concentrations in the constraints of the groundwater management model. The methodology is implemented to the saltwater intrusion management problem in the “1,500-foot” sand aquifer in the Baton Rouge area, Louisiana. The management model aims to obtain the optimal joint operation of the hydraulic barrier system and the saltwater extraction system to mitigate the saltwater intrusion. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used to obtain the optimal injection and extraction policies. Using the BMA predictions, higher injection rates and pumping rates are needed to cover more constraint violations, which do not occur if a single best model is used.

  8. Review of Optimization Methods in Groundwater Modeling and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, W. W.

    2001-12-01

    This paper surveys nonlinear optimization methods developed for groundwater modeling and management. The first part reviews algorithms used for model calibration, that is, the inverse problem of parameter estimation. In recent years, groundwater models are combined with optimization models to identify the best management alternatives. Once the objectives and constraints are specified, most problems lend themselves to solution techniques developed in operations research, optimal control, and combinatorial optimization. The second part reviews methods developed for groundwater management. Algorithms and methods reviewed include quadratic programming, differential dynamic programming, nonlinear programming, mixed integer programming, stochastic programming, and non-gradient-based search algorithms. Advantages and drawbacks associated with each approach are discussed. A recent tendency has been toward combining the gradient-based algorithms with the non-gradient-based search algorithms, in that, a non-gradient-based search algorithm is used to identify a near optimum solution and a gradient-based algorithm uses the near optimum solution as its initial estimate for rapid convergence.

  9. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.

    1997-05-01

    Groundwater monitoring at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins is regulated under Washington Administrative Code 173-303-645. Proposed in this plan is the first phase of a final-status, corrective action monitoring program for the site. The monitoring network consists of four existing wells: 199-H4-3, 199-H4-7, 199-H4-12A, and 199-H4-12C. Well 199-H4-12C is completed at the base of the unconfined aquifer; the other wells are screened at the water table. Wells 199-H4-7 and 199-H4-12A are groundwater extraction wells used in a pump-and-treat system. Groundwater samples will be collected from each well annually. Samples will be analyzed for the following: (1) constituents of concern (i.e., chromium, nitrate, technetium-99, and uranium) and fluoride; (2) additional constituents to aid data interpretation (e.g., alkalinity, anions, and metals); and (3) field parameters routinely acquired at the wellhead (e.g., pH, specific conductance, temperature, and turbidity). The objective of monitoring during operation of the pump-and-treat system is to determine whether concentrations of the contaminants of concern are decreasing.

  10. A statistical processor for analyzing simulations made using the Modular Finite-Difference Ground-water Flow Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Many hydrologic studies of ground-water systems are conducted using a digital computer model as an aid to understanding the flow system. One of the most commonly used ground-water modeling programs is the Modular Three-Dimensional Ground-water Flow Model (Modular Model) by McDonald and Harbaugh. This report presents a computer program to summarize the data input to and output from the Modular Model. The program is named the Modular Model Statistical Processor and is designed to be run following the Modular Model. The Modular Model Statistical Processor provides ground-water modelers with the capabilities to easily read data input to and output from the Modular Model, calculate descriptive statistics, generate histograms, perform logical tests using relational operators, calculate data arrays using arithmetic operators, and calculate flow vectors for use in a graphical-display program.

  11. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell waste management area B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    SM Narbutovskih

    2000-03-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a first determination groundwater quality assessment at the Hanford Site. This work was performed for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement during the time period 1996--1998. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY had entered the groundwater at levels above the drinking water standards (DWS). The resulting assessment report documented evidence demonstrating that waste from the WMA has, most likely, impacted groundwater quality. Based on 40 CFR 265.93 [d] paragraph (7), the owner-operator must continue to make the minimum required determinations of contaminant level and of rate/extent of migrations on a quarterly basis until final facility closure. These continued determinations are required because the groundwater quality assessment was implemented prior to final closure of the facility.

  13. Application of Dempster-Shafer theory, spatial analysis and remote sensing for groundwater potentiality and nitrate pollution analysis in the semi-arid region of Khuzestan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Omid; Melesse, Assefa M

    2016-10-15

    Effective management and sustainable development of groundwater resources of arid and semi-arid environments require monitoring of groundwater quality and quantity. The aim of this paper is to develop a reasonable methodological framework for producing the suitability map for drinking water through the geographic information system, remote sensing and field surveys of the Andimeshk-Dezful, Khozestan province, Iran as a semi-arid region. This study investigated the delineation of groundwater potential zone based on Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory of evidence and evaluate its applicability for groundwater potentiality mapping. The study also analyzed the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate concentration; and produced the suitability map for drinking water. The study has been carried out with the following steps: i) creation of maps of groundwater conditioning factors; ii) assessment of groundwater occurrence characteristics; iii) creation of groundwater potentiality map (GPM) and model validation; iv) collection and chemical analysis of water samples; v) assessment of groundwater nitrate pollution; and vi) creation of groundwater potentiality and quality map. The performance of the DS was also evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method and pumping test data to ensure its generalization ability, which eventually, the GPM showed 87.76% accuracy. The detailed analysis of groundwater potentiality and quality revealed that the 'non acceptable' areas covers an area of about 1479km(2) (60%). The study will provide significant information for groundwater management and exploitation in areas where groundwater is a major source of water and its exploration is critical to support drinking water need. PMID:27358196

  14. Development of a Groundwater Transport Simulation Tool for Remedial Process Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Tonkin, M.; Miller, Charles W.; Baker, S.

    2015-01-14

    The groundwater remedy for hexavalent chromium at the Hanford Site includes operation of five large pump-and-treat systems along the Columbia River. The systems at the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units treat a total of about 9,840 liters per minute (2,600 gallons per minute) of groundwater to remove hexavalent chromium, and cover an area of nearly 26 square kilometers (10 square miles). The pump-and-treat systems result in large scale manipulation of groundwater flow direction, velocities, and most importantly, the contaminant plumes. Tracking of the plumes and predicting needed system modifications is part of the remedial process optimization, and is a continual process with the goal of reducing costs and shortening the timeframe to achieve the cleanup goals. While most of the initial system evaluations are conducted by assessing performance (e.g., reduction in contaminant concentration in groundwater and changes in inferred plume size), changes to the well field are often recommended. To determine the placement for new wells, well realignments, and modifications to pumping rates, it is important to be able to predict resultant plume changes. In smaller systems, it may be effective to make small scale changes periodically and adjust modifications based on groundwater monitoring results. Due to the expansive nature of the remediation systems at Hanford, however, additional tools were needed to predict the plume reactions to system changes. A computer simulation tool was developed to support pumping rate recommendations for optimization of large pump-and-treat groundwater remedy systems. This tool, called the Pumping Optimization Model, or POM, is based on a 1-layer derivation of a multi-layer contaminant transport model using MODFLOW and MT3D.

  15. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-06

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  16. Methodology of determining soil structure in important groundwater areas: case studies in Kauvonkangas, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupila, Juho

    2016-04-01

    Finland is fully self-sufficient in clean groundwater and even has a capacity of exportation. There are approx. 6000 groundwater areas with a total yield of 5.4 million m3/day. Currently only 10% of this groundwater resource is in use. For the efficient and safe exploitation of these areas in the future, detailed modeling of soil structure is an important method in groundwater surveys. 3D -models improve the general knowledge of linkage between land use planning and groundwater protection. Results can be used as a base information in water supply service development and when performing the measures needed in case of environmental accidents. Also, when creating the groundwater flow models the collected information is utilized and is usually the main data source. Geological Survey of Finland has carried out soil structure studies in co-operation with authorities, municipalities and the local water suppliers. The main objectives of these projects are to determine the geological structure of groundwater area for estimating the validity of the present exclusion area, the quantity of ground water volume and recharge capability and possible risks to the groundwater. Research areas are usually under an active water supply service. Kauvonkangas groundwater area is located in the municipality of Tervola, in Southern part of Finnish Lapland. Extent of the area is 7.9 km2 and it is an important water source for the local and nearby population centers. There are two active water supply companies in the area. Field studies in the project will include general geological and hydrological mapping, soil drilling with observation pipe installation, test pumping and water sampling. Geophysical measures will play a key-role, including ground penetrating radar (GPR) and gravimetric measurements. Studies will be carried out in spring and summer 2016. The main results will be the models of the bedrock and groundwater level and main characteristics of the soil layers in the area. Results

  17. Characterization of saline groundwater across the coastal aquifer of Israel as resource for desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yospeh; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2015-04-01

    In arid countries with access to marine water seawater desalination is becoming an important water source in order to deal with the water scarcity and population growth. Seawater reverse osmosis (RO) facilities use open seawater intake, which requires pretreatment processes to remove particles in order to avoid fouling of the RO membrane. In small and medium size desalination facilities, an alternative water source can be saline groundwater in coastal aquifers. Using saline groundwater from boreholes near the shore as feed water may have the advantage of natural filtration and low organic content. It will also reduce operation costs of pretreatment. Another advantage of using groundwater is its availability in highly populated areas, where planning of large RO desalination plants is difficult and expensive due to real-estate prices. Pumping saline groundwater underneath the freshwater-seawater interface (FSI) might shift the interface towards the sea, thus rehabilitating the fresh water reservoirs in the aquifer. In this research, we tested the potential use of saline groundwater in the coastal aquifer of Israel as feed water for desalination using field work and desalination experiments. Specifically, we sampled the groundwater from a pumping well 100 m from the shore of Tel-Aviv and sea water from the desalination plant in Ashqelon, Israel. We used an RO cross flow system in a pilot plant in order to compare between the two water types in terms of permeate flux, permeate flux decline, salt rejection of the membrane and the fouling on the membrane. The feed, brine and fresh desalinated water from the outlet of the desalination system were chemically analyzed and compared. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and salinity were also conducted in situ. Additionally, SDI (silt density index), which is an important index for desalination, and total organic carbon that has a key role in organic fouling and development of biofouling, were measured and

  18. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  19. An initial inverse calibration of the ground-water flow model for the Hanford unconfined aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, E.A. . Desert Research Inst.); Freshly, M.D. )

    1990-03-01

    Large volumes of process cooling water are discharged to the ground form U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear fuel processing operations in the central portion of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Over the years, these large volumes of waste water have recharged the unconfined aquifer at the Site. This artificial recharge has affected ground-water levels and contaminant movement in the unconfined aquifer. Ground-water flow and contaminant transport models have been applied to assess the impacts of site operations on the rate and direction of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site. The inverse calibration method developed by Neuman and modified by Jacobson was applied to improve calibration of a ground-water flow model of the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site. All information about estimates of hydraulic properties of the aquifer, hydraulic heads, boundary conditions, and discharges to and withdrawals form the aquifer is included in the inverse method to obtain an initial calibration of the ground-water flow model. The purpose of this report is to provide a description of the inverse method, its initial application to the unconfined aquifer at Hanford, and to present results of the initial inverse calibration. 28 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Using discriminant analysis to determine sources of salinity in shallow groundwater prior to hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Lautz, Laura K; Hoke, Gregory D; Lu, Zunli; Siegel, Donald I; Christian, Kayla; Kessler, John Daniel; Teale, Natalie G

    2014-08-19

    High-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) gas-drilling operations in the Marcellus Play have raised environmental concerns, including the risk of groundwater contamination. Fingerprinting water impacted by gas-drilling operations is not trivial given other potential sources of contamination. We present a multivariate statistical modeling framework for developing a quantitative, geochemical fingerprinting tool to distinguish sources of high salinity in shallow groundwater. The model was developed using new geochemical data for 204 wells in New York State (NYS), which has a HVHF moratorium and published data for additional wells in NYS and several salinity sources (Appalachian Basin brines, road salt, septic effluent, and animal waste). The model incorporates a stochastic simulation to predict the geochemistry of high salinity (>20 mg/L Cl) groundwater impacted by different salinity sources and then employs linear discriminant analysis to classify samples from different populations. Model results indicate Appalachian Basin brines are the primary source of salinity in 35% of sampled NYS groundwater wells with >20 mg/L Cl. The model provides an effective means for differentiating groundwater impacted by basin brines versus other contaminants. Using this framework, similar discriminatory tools can be derived for other regions from background water quality data. PMID:25062431

  1. Dual-Screened Vertical Circulation Wells for Groundwater Lowering in Unconfined Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yulan; Holzbecher, Ekkehard; Sauter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A new type of vertical circulation well (VCW) is used for groundwater dewatering at construction sites. This type of VCW consists of an abstraction screen in the upper part and an injection screen in the lower part of a borehole, whereby drawdown is achieved without net withdrawal of groundwater from the aquifer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the operation of such wells including the identification of relevant factors and parameters based on field data of a test site and comprehensive numerical simulations. The numerical model is able to delineate the drawdown of groundwater table, defined as free-surface, by coupling the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian algorithm with the groundwater flow equation. Model validation is achieved by comparing the field observations with the model results. Eventually, the influences of selected well operation and aquifer parameters on drawdown and on the groundwater flow field are investigated by means of parameter sensitivity analysis. The results show that the drawdown is proportional to the flow rate, inversely proportional to the aquifer conductivity, and almost independent of the aquifer anisotropy in the direct vicinity of the well. The position of the abstraction screen has a stronger effect on drawdown than the position of the injection screen. The streamline pattern depends strongly on the separation length of the screens and on the aquifer anisotropy, but not on the flow rate and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity. PMID:25801278

  2. Large scale groundwater modeling using globally available datasets: A test for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin H.; de Jong, Steven; van Geer, Frans C.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater resources are vulnerable to global climate change and population growth. Therefore, monitoring and predicting groundwater change over large areas is imperative. However, large-scale groundwater models, especially those involve aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare due to a lack of hydro-geological data. Such data may be widely available in developed countries but are seldom available in other parts of the world. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we choose the combined Rhine-Meuse basin (total area: ± 220000 km2) that contains ample data (e.g. groundwater head data) that can be used to verify the model output. However, while constructing the model, we use only globally available datasets such as the global GLCC land cover map [http://edc2.usgs.gov/glcc/glcc.php], global FAO soil map [1995], global lithological map of Dürr et al [2005], HydroSHEDS digital elevation map [Lehner et al, 2008], and global climatological datasets (e.g. the global CRU datasets [Mitchell and Jones, 2005 and New et al, 2002], ERA40 re-analysis data [Uppala et al, 2005], and ECMWF operational archive data [http://www.ecmwf.int/products/data/operational_system]). We started by building a distributed land surface model (1×1 km) to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Then, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. We run the models for the period 1970-2008. The current results are promising. The simulated river discharges compare well to the discharge observation as indicated by the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (68% for Rhine and 50% for Meuse). Moreover, the MODFLOW model can converge with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities and storage coefficients) and can produce reasonable groundwater head

  3. Groundwater-abstraction induced land subsidence and groundwater regulation in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Wang, L.; Cheng, G.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence can be induced when various factors such as geological, and hydrogeological conditions and intensive groundwater abstraction combine. The development and utilization of groundwater in the North China Plain (NCP) bring great benefits, and at the same time have led to a series of environmental and geological problems accompanying groundwater-level declines and land subsidence. Subsidence occurs commonly in the NCP and analyses show that multi-layer aquifer systems with deep confined aquifers and thick compressible clay layers are the key geological and hydrogeological conditions responsible for its development in this region. Groundwater overdraft results in aquifer-system compaction, resulting in subsidence. A calibrated, transient groundwater-flow numerical model of the Beijing plain portion of the NCP was developed using MODFLOW. According to available water supply and demand in Beijing plain, several groundwater regulation scenarios were designed. These different regulation scenarios were simulated with the groundwater model, and assessed using a multi-criteria fuzzy pattern recognition model. This approach is proven to be very useful for scientific analysis of sustainable development and utilization of groundwater resources. The evaluation results show that sustainable development of groundwater resources may be achieved in Beijing plain when various measures such as control of groundwater abstraction and increase of artificial recharge combine favourably.

  4. Design and Cost of Solar Photocatalytic Systems for Groundwater Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C. S.; Mehos, M. S.; Link, H. F.

    1992-05-01

    Laboratory and small-scale field experiments have shown that sunlight in conjunction with a simple catalyst can be used to detoxify water contaminated with a variety of hazardous chemicals. This study builds on previous analyses and recent field test data to predict the cost and performance of a representative commercial water detoxification system. Three different solar operating configurations are explored for the treatment of 100,000 gal/day of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene. Current costs for solar water detoxification systems are projected to be comparable to those for conventional treatment technologies such as carbon adsorption and electric lamp-powered, ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide systems.

  5. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Industrial Waste Permit IWP-217 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1995, no constituents were reported above final Primary Drinking Water Standards or Savannah River Site flagging criteria. In the past, tritium has been detected sporadically in the ZBG wells at levels similar to those detected before Z Area began radioactive operations.

  6. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  7. Impact of a grout curtain on groundwater regime in karst: the example of the Ðale reservoir (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacci, Ognjen; Roje-Bonacci, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Construction of grout curtains in karst terrains is primarily connected with dams and reservoirs. Their role is to increase watertightness and prevent progressive erosion. In this presentation hourly continuous measurement of groundwater level in two deep piezometers near the Đale reservoir is analysed. The Đale reservoir in the Cetina River began operation in 1989. The total length of the grout curtain is 3.9 km. It spreads 120 m bellow the Đale dam. First analysed piezometer A is drilled in the interior part of the system, between the reservoir and the grout curtain, while the second one B is located in its external part. Distance between them is 200 m. In natural conditions, prior the grout curtain construction, groundwater level fluctuation in both of them was similar (practically the same). Construction of the grout curtain extremely changed groundwater behaviour in each of them. During the six month of continuous monitoring, differences between groundwater levels in them range between +19.86 m (groundwater in B is lower than in A) and -12.77 m (groundwater in A is lower than in B). During the 77% of analysed period the groundwater level in interior piezometer A is higher than the groundwater level in external piezometer B. In other 23% of analysed period the groundwater level in outside piezometer B is higher than in inside A. The construction of the grout curtain caused unnaturally high hydrostatic gradients, which can accelerate the dissolutional expansion of karst fractures. As a result, unbearable leakage of the reservoir Đale can occur over its lifetime. Careful analyses of groundwater level behaviour discover some other very important characteristics of karst underground morphology.

  8. Informing Groundwater Policy In The Indus Basin In Pakistan Using A Physically-Based Groundwater Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, H. F.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Wi, S.; Ringler, C.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid expansion in groundwater abstraction in the past few decades in Pakistan is credited with the huge increases in crop production bringing about significant economic gains and ensuring food security for millions. Most of the groundwater usage in Pakistan takes place in Punjab province. This exponential increase in groundwater usage is however, also responsible for the significant groundwater table decline in many parts of the province. There is an urgent need for policy measures to better manage groundwater use. A better understanding of the underground water balance is necessary to make groundwater management policies. This study develops the first physically-based groundwater model for the entire Punjab province. Using the calibrated province-wide model, we perform various simulations to evaluate groundwater dynamics in the future under different scenarios. These scenarios comprise of groundwater conservation efforts, increasing efficiency of the canal irrigation system and changing volume of precipitation. We also make a preliminary attempt to characterize the impact of transboundary groundwater abstractions in Indian Punjab on groundwater levels in Pakistan. We investigate the impact of the future scenarios on major urban centers across Punjab. Our results show that seepage from the canal supply system into the aquifer forms the biggest component of the groundwater flux, while the effect of changing precipitation is negligible. Farmers in central and north-western Punjab are projected to have the highest pumping costs in the future. Areas in southern Punjab are shown to be most vulnerable to waterlogging in the future. The results of this study can help guide policy-makers in developing a thorough groundwater management plan for Punjab.

  9. Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

  10. Ground-water contamination at an inactive coal and oil gasification plant site, Gas Works Park, Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turney, G.L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located on the site of a coal and oil gasification plant that ceased operation in 1956. During operation, many types of wastes, including coal, tar, and oil, accumulated on site. The park soil is presently (1986) contaminated with compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and cyanide. Analyses of water samples from a network of observation wells in the park indicate that these compounds are also present in the groundwater. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were identified in groundwater samples in concentrations as large as 200 mg/L. Concentrations of organic compounds were largest where groundwater was in contact with a nonaqueous phase liquid in the soil. Concentrations in groundwater were much smaller where no nonaqueous phase liquid was present, even if the groundwater was in contact with contaminated soils. This condition is attributed to weathering processes at the site, such as dissolution, volatilization, and biodegradation. Soluble, volatile, low-molecular-weight organic compounds are preferentially dissolved from the nonaqueous phase liquid into the groundwater. Where no nonaqueous phase liquid is present, only stained soils containing relatively insoluble, high-molecular-weight compounds remain; therefore, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater are much smaller. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the soils may still remain large. Values of specific conductance were as large as 5,280 microsiemens/cm, well above a background of 242 microsiemens/cm, suggesting large concentrations of minerals in the groundwater. Trace metal concentrations, however , were generally < 0.010 mg/L, and below limits of US EPA drinking water standards. Cyanide was present in groundwater samples from throughout the park, ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 8.6 mg/L. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry in shales

    SciTech Connect

    Von Damm, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The chemistry of groundwaters is one of the most important parameters in determining the mobility of species within a rock formation. A three pronged approach was used to determine the composition of, and geochemical controls, on groundwaters specifically within shale formations: (1) available data were collected from the literature, the US Geological Survey WATSTORE data base, and field sampling, (2) the geochemical modeling code EQ3/6 was used to simulate interaction of various shales and groundwaters, and (3) several types of shale were reacted with synthetic groundwaters in the laboratory. The comparison of model results to field and laboratory data provide a means of validating the models, as well as a means of deconvoluting complex field interactions. Results suggest that groundwaters in shales have a wide range in composition and are primarily of the Na-Cl-HCO/sub 3/- type. The constancy of the Na:Cl (molar) ratio at 1:1 and the Ca:Mg ratio from 3:1 to 1:1 suggests the importance of halite and carbonates in controlling groundwater compositions. In agreement with the reaction path modeling, most of the groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline at low temperatures. Model and experimental results suggest that reaction (1) at elevated temperatures, or (2) in the presence of oxygen will lead to more acidic conditions. Some acetate was found to be produced in the experiments; depending on the constraints applied, large amounts of acetate were produced in the model results. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Groundwater nitrate contamination: Factors and indicators

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Katharina; Heumesser, Christine; Schmid, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Identifying significant determinants of groundwater nitrate contamination is critical in order to define sensible agri-environmental indicators that support the design, enforcement, and monitoring of regulatory policies. We use data from approximately 1200 Austrian municipalities to provide a detailed statistical analysis of (1) the factors influencing groundwater nitrate contamination and (2) the predictive capacity of the Gross Nitrogen Balance, one of the most commonly used agri-environmental indicators. We find that the percentage of cropland in a given region correlates positively with nitrate concentration in groundwater. Additionally, environmental characteristics such as temperature and precipitation are important co-factors. Higher average temperatures result in lower nitrate contamination of groundwater, possibly due to increased evapotranspiration. Higher average precipitation dilutes nitrates in the soil, further reducing groundwater nitrate concentration. Finally, we assess whether the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a valid predictor of groundwater nitrate contamination. Our regression analysis reveals that the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a statistically significant predictor for nitrate contamination. We also show that its predictive power can be improved if we account for average regional precipitation. The Gross Nitrogen Balance predicts nitrate contamination in groundwater more precisely in regions with higher average precipitation. PMID:22906701

  13. Geochemical evolution of Mexicali Valley groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, R.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Sanchez R., J.

    1982-08-10

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of Mexicali Valley groundwaters vary widely. Observed variations reflect different water origins, mineral-water reactions, lateral variations of delta facies as well as evaporation. Regional treatment of the groundwater data shows that northern and central regions are a mixture of old and new Colorado River water. Variations in water chemistry result from different groundwaters origins and the effects of lateral delta facies changes. Dissolution of gypsum and precipitation of carbonates, silicates, and phosphates are suggested. The eastern Mesa de San Luis and southern region water originates primarily from the Gila River catchment area. This water is undersaturated with respect to gypsum and carbonates and is oversaturated with respect to silicates. Most of the western groundwaters are a mixture of Colorado River and geothermal waters in the proximity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Recharge to the geothermal aquifer is from the west as well as the north and east. Calcite is being precipitated out as the groundwater temperatures rise in response to the geothermal anomaly. Other western groundwaters reflect a dominant mixture of Colorado River water and evaporated lake water. Some Western groundwater samples suggest dilution by local rainwater and/or irrigation water.

  14. Ecosystem services in sustainable groundwater management.

    PubMed

    Tuinstra, Jaap; van Wensem, Joke

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem services concept seems to get foothold in environmental policy and management in Europe and, for instance, The Netherlands. With respect to groundwater management there is a challenge to incorporate this concept in such a way that it contributes to the sustainability of decisions. Groundwater is of vital importance to societies, which is reflected in the presented overview of groundwater related ecosystem services. Classifications of these services vary depending on the purpose of the listing (valuation, protection, mapping et cetera). Though the scientific basis is developing, the knowledge-availability still can be a critical factor in decision making based upon ecosystem services. The examples in this article illustrate that awareness of the value of groundwater can result in balanced decisions with respect to the use of ecosystem services. The ecosystem services concept contributes to this awareness and enhances the visibility of the groundwater functions in the decision making process. The success of the ecosystem services concept and its contribution to sustainable groundwater management will, however, largely depend on other aspects than the concept itself. Local and actual circumstances, policy ambitions and knowledge availability will play an important role. Solutions can be considered more sustainable when more of the key elements for sustainable groundwater management, as defined in this article, are fully used and the presented guidelines for long term use of ecosystem services are respected. PMID:24739892

  15. Influence of perched groundwater on base flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niswonger, R.G.; Fogg, G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis with a three-dimensional variably saturated groundwater flow model provides a basic understanding of the interplay between streams and perched groundwater. A simplified, layered model of heterogeneity was used to explore these relationships. Base flow contribution from perched groundwater was evaluated with regard to varying hydrogeologic conditions, including the size and location of the fine-sediment unit and the hydraulic conductivity of the fine-sediment unit and surrounding coarser sediment. Simulated base flow was sustained by perched groundwater with a maximum monthly discharge in excess of 15 L/s (0.6 feet3/s) over the length of the 2000-m stream reach. Generally, the rate of perched-groundwater discharge to the stream was proportional to the hydraulic conductivity of sediment surrounding the stream, whereas the duration of discharge was proportional to the hydraulic conductivity of the fine-sediment unit. Other aspects of the perched aquifer affected base flow, such as the depth of stream penetration and the size of the fine-sediment unit. Greater stream penetration decreased the maximum base flow contribution but increased the duration of contribution. Perched groundwater provided water for riparian vegetation at the demand rate but reduced the duration of perched-groundwater discharge nearly 75%. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 7, Groundwater protection

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.

    1994-08-10

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) uses large quantities of groundwater for drinking, processing, and non-contact cooling. Continued industrial and residential growth along with additional agricultural irrigation in areas adjacent to SRS will increase the demand for groundwater. This increasing demand will require a comprehensive management system to ensure the needed quality and quantity of groundwater is available for all users. The Groundwater Protection Program and the Waste Management Program establish the overall framework for protecting this resource. Ground water under SRS is monitored extensively for radiological, hazardous, and water quality constituents. Groundwater quality is known to have been affected at 33 onsite locations, but none of the contaminant plumes have migrated offsite. Onsite and offsite drinking water supplies are monitored to ensure they are not impacted. The site has more than 1800 monitoring wells from which groundwater samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological constituents. SRS is complying with all applicable regulations related to groundwater protection, waste treatment, and waste disposal. The existing waste storage facilities are permitted or are being permitted. Existing hazardous- and mixed-waste storage facilities are being included in the site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit. Part B permitting has been initiated for many of the planned hazardous- and mixed-waste treatment and disposal facilities.

  17. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  18. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  19. EVALUATION OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA TO PRECIPITATE MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several regions in the Republic of Kazakhstan are contaminated with mercury as a result of releases from industrial plants. Operations at an old chemical plant, "Khimprom", which produced chlorine and alkali in the 1970s - 1990s, resulted in significant pollution of groundwater ...

  20. GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITY RANKING OF POTENTIAL POLLUTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the development of a preliminary priority ranking of potential pollution sources with respect to groundwater quality and the associated pollutants for oil shale operations such as proposed for Federal Prototype Leases U-a and U-b in Eastern Utah. The methodol...

  1. GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: MONITORING PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the development of a preliminary design of a groundwater quality monitoring program for oil shale operations, such as proposed for Federal Prototype Lease Tracts U-a and U-b in eastern Utah. A preliminary decision framework for monitoring design for this type...

  2. Innovative methods to stabilize liquid membranes for removal of radionuclides from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Membrane Technology Research, Inc., is developing a stable liquid membrane for extracting uranium and other radionuclides from groundwater. The improved membrane can also be applied to separation of other metal ions from aqueous streams in industrial operations.

  3. Discrete Sampling Test Plan for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Mark D.

    2010-02-04

    The Discrete Groundwater Sampling Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on behalf of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company. The project is focused on delivering groundwater samples from proscribed horizons within select groundwater wells residing in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit (200-BP-5 OU) on the Hanford Site. This document provides the scope, schedule, methodology, and other details of the PNNL discrete sampling effort.

  4. Groundwater Optimal Management Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatzas, George P.

    One of the latest developments dealing with noisy or incomplete data in mathemat- ical programming is the robust optimization approach. This approach is based on a scenario-based description of the data and yields a solution that is less sensitive to realizations of the data of the different scenarios. The objective function considers the violations of the constraints under each scenario and incorporates that into the formu- lation by using a kind of penalty `weights'. In the area of groundwater management the robust optimization approach has been used to incorporate uncertainty into the model by considering a multiple scenario description of the hydraulic conductivity field. The focus of the present study is to determine an effective methodology for selecting the scenarios as well as the `weights' in the most effective manner.

  5. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  6. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  7. East Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for East Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  8. Are we thinking straight about groundwater recession?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    By exploring what governs the form of groundwater head recession in idealised and real aquifers, it will be shown that the analysis of groundwater recessions is a powerful but underused way of gaining insight into the hydrologic functioning of an aquifer from local to regional scales. It is commonly assumed that groundwater head recession in aquifers will take exponential form. However, here it is demonstrated that ideal regional aquifers should, given enough time between recharge events, actually develop through three distinct phases of recession: (1) in early times the groundwater recession should take an almost straight line form with a rate approximately equal to the long term recharge rate divided by the specific yield. The length of this phase can be estimated from a new analytical expression, which depends on the aquifer diffusivity, length scale and the position of the monitoring point, (2) a transitional phase then leads to, (3) an exponential phase after some critical time which is described by an existing analytical expression which is independent of the position of the monitoring point. Further analysis reveals that major aquifers in a state of periodic quasi-steady state are expected to have rates of net groundwater drainage which deviate little from the average rate of groundwater recharge. To back up these theoretical considerations, a range of real groundwater hydrographs will be presented which demonstrate the characteristic behaviour and interactions of groundwater flow systems interacting at local to regional scales. Where groundwater declines are observed in nature to have a quasi-exponential form, this may be diagnostic of particular types of aquifer properties and/or boundary effects such as: storage changes due to pumping, proximity to drainage boundaries, variations in transmissivity with hydraulic head, and variations in specific yield with depth. Furthermore, 'non-equilibrium' flow at a range of spatial and temporal scales helps explain

  9. Revised conceptualization of the North China Basin groundwater flow system: Groundwater age, heat and flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The

  10. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  11. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  12. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  13. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  14. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  15. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  16. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number...

  17. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  18. Groundwater Quality Protection in Oakland County: A Sourcebook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Michigan Environmental Action Council, Troy.

    This sourcebook consists of background information and activities related to groundwater protection. The first section focuses on the characteristics of groundwater, the water cycle, stormwater runoff, and uses of groundwater. The second section addresses household hazardous materials--both from a safety standpoint and a groundwater standpoint.…

  19. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 257.22... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of a sufficient number of...

  20. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground-water monitoring systems. 258.51... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51 Ground-water monitoring systems. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be installed that consists of...

  1. RAPID REMOVAL OF A GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT PLUME.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefkoff, L. Jeff; Gorelick, Steven M.

    1985-01-01

    A groundwater management model is used to design an aquifer restoration system that removes a contaminant plume from a hypothetical aquifer in four years. The design model utilizes groundwater flow simulation and mathematical optimization. Optimal pumping and injection strategies achieve rapid restoration for a minimum total pumping cost. Rapid restoration is accomplished by maintaining specified groundwater velocities around the plume perimeter towards a group of pumping wells located near the plume center. The model does not account for hydrodynamic dispersion. Results show that pumping costs are particularly sensitive to injection capacity. An 8 percent decrease in the maximum allowable injection rate may lead to a 29 percent increase in total pumping costs.

  2. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 280 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1976 to 1977. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. The program of groundwater observation is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and the city of Cheyenne. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Environmental monitoring final report: groundwater chemical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of groundwater qualtiy at the SRC-I Demonstration Plant site in Newman, Kentucky. Samples were obtained from a network of 23 groundwater observation wells installed during previous studies. The groundwater was well within US EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards for trace metals, radioactivity, and pesticides, but exceeded the standard for coliform bacteria. Several US EPA Secondary Drinking Water Standards were exceeded, namely, manganese, color, iron, and total dissolved solids. Based on the results, Dames and Moore recommend that all wells should be sterilized and those wells built in 1980 should be redeveloped. 1 figure, 6 tables.

  4. Nevada Test Site Groundwater Well Rehabilitation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson

    2006-12-01

    This plan describes actions to improve the utility and credibility of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) interim groundwater monitoring program. The two principal actions are: (1) well maintenance/rehabilitation activities and (2) the deployment of dedicated low-cost and reliable jack-pumps for groundwater sampling from deep monitoring wells. The scope of this proposal is to perform these actions on some number of nine selected wells (Figure 1) to evaluate whether these actions are achievable, practical, cost effective, and result in improved groundwater data quality.

  5. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, Jonathan L.; Hall, Kevin A.

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  6. Groundwater Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, Paul D.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Williams, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2006-01-31

    This report presents data and interpreted information that supports the groundwater module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) used in Hanford Assessments. The objective of the groundwater module is to predict movement of radioactive and chemical contaminants through the aquifer to the Columbia River or other potential discharge locations. This data package is being revised as part of the deliverables under the Characterization of Systems Project (#49139) aimed at providing documentation for assessments being conducted under the Hanford Assessments Project (#47042). Both of these projects are components of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessments Projects, managed by the Management and Integration Project (#47043).

  7. Demonstration of various ion exchange sorbents for the removal of cesium and strontium from tan groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Garn, T.G.; Brewer, K.N.; Tillotson, R.D.; Todd, T.A.

    1997-08-01

    Groundwater remediation efforts are currently ongoing at the Test Area North (TAN) located at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These efforts are primarily directed towards the Technical Support Facility-05 (TSF-05) for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC`s). The Groundwater Treatment Facility (GWTF), positioned near the TSF-05 injection well at TAN, was installed in 1994 to pump and treat the injection well groundwater. The GWTF was designed to be operated continuously at 50 gpm. Presently the GWTF operates in batch mode attributed to {sup 137}`Cs found at higher concentrations than expected. This presence of {sup 137}Cs, along with the higher than expected concentration of suspended solids revealed a need for further testing and evaluation of the GWTF process. Two independent experiments were conducted at the GWTF with actual groundwater pumped from TSF-25 and TSF-05 injection wells. One experiment used the 3M Company`s web technology to remove Cs from the actual groundwater, while the second experiment contained a duplicate set of ion exchange columns in series. Each set having two columns, one to remove Cs, the other to remove Sr from the actual groundwater. A total of 5 Cs or Sr specific sorbents were tested in the column setups. A total of eight batches of water were processed through the GWTF with the experimental setups in place, six from TSF-25 and two from TSF-05. Downtime occasionally occurred when high differential pressures prompted the high pressure shutoff switches to shut down the 3M experiment feed pump. A pre-filter change out was initiated when this occurred. Also, experimental setups were shut down for GWTF backwash and discharge operations.

  8. Using Groundwater Age and Other Isotopic Signatures to Delineate Groundwater Flow and Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B

    2005-08-31

    Isotopic tracers, such as stable isotopes of the water molecule and tritium, have been used in investigations of groundwater flow and transport and recharge water source for several decades. While these data can place hard constraints on groundwater flow rates, the degree of vertical flow between aquifers and across aquitards, and recharge source area(s), they are rarely used, even for validation, in conceptual or numerical models of groundwater flow. The Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program, sponsored by the California State Water Resources Control Board, and carried out in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, has provided the means to gather an unprecedented number of tritium-helium groundwater ages in the basins of California. As the examples below illustrate, a collection of groundwater ages in a basin allows delineation of recharge areas (youngest ages), bulk flow rates and flowpaths, as well as a means of assessing susceptibility to anthropogenic contaminants.

  9. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  10. Uncertainty in global groundwater storage estimates in a Total Groundwater Stress framework

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is a finite resource under continuous external pressures. Current unsustainable groundwater use threatens the resilience of aquifer systems and their ability to provide a long‐term water source. Groundwater storage is considered to be a factor of groundwater resilience, although the extent to which resilience can be maintained has yet to be explored in depth. In this study, we assess the limit of groundwater resilience in the world's largest groundwater systems with remote sensing observations. The Total Groundwater Stress (TGS) ratio, defined as the ratio of total storage to the groundwater depletion rate, is used to explore the timescales to depletion in the world's largest aquifer systems and associated groundwater buffer capacity. We find that the current state of knowledge of large‐scale groundwater storage has uncertainty ranges across orders of magnitude that severely limit the characterization of resilience in the study aquifers. Additionally, we show that groundwater availability, traditionally defined as recharge and redefined in this study as total storage, can alter the systems that are considered to be stressed versus unstressed. We find that remote sensing observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment can assist in providing such information at the scale of a whole aquifer. For example, we demonstrate that a groundwater depletion rate in the Northwest Sahara Aquifer System of 2.69 ± 0.8 km3/yr would result in the aquifer being depleted to 90% of its total storage in as few as 50 years given an initial storage estimate of 70 km3. PMID:26900184

  11. A case study of the natural attenuation of gas condensate hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Barker, G W; Raterman, K T; Fisher, J B; Corgan, J M; Trent, G L; Brown, D R; Kemp, N; Sublette, K L

    1996-01-01

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate end point to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways, including aerobic oxidation, Fe(III) reduction, and sulfate reduction. PMID:8669918

  12. Groundwater and stream E. coli concentrations in coastal plain watersheds served by onsite wastewater and a municipal sewer treatment system.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Charles; Finley, Algernon; O'Driscoll, Michael; Manda, Alex; Iverson, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWS) were influencing groundwater and surface water Escherichia coli concentrations in a coastal plain watershed. Piezometers for groundwater monitoring were installed at four residences served by OWS and five residences served by a municipal wastewater treatment system (MWS). The residences were located in two different, but nearby (<3 km), watersheds. Effluent from the four septic tanks, groundwater from piezometers, and the streams draining the OWS and MWS watersheds were sampled on five dates between September 2011 and May 2012. Groundwater E. coli concentrations and specific conductivity were elevated within the flow path of the OWS and near the stream, relative to other groundwater sampling locations in the two watersheds. Groundwater discharge in the OWS watershed could be a contributor of E. coli to the stream because E. coli concentrations in groundwater at the stream bank and in the stream were similar. Stream E. coli concentrations were higher for the OWS in relation to MWS watersheds on each sampling date. Water quality could be improved by ensuring OWS are installed and operated to maintain adequate separation distances to water resources. PMID:26540548

  13. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.; Freshley, M.D.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than {approximately}1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network.

  14. Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide hydrologists, geologists, and others who have the necessary background in hydrogeology with the basic information needed to apply the most useful borehole-geophysical-logging techniques to the solution of problems in ground-water hydrology. Geophysical logs can provide information on the construction of wells and on the character of the rocks and fluids penetrated by those wells, as well as on changes in the character of these factors over time. The response of well logs is caused by petrophysical factors, by the quality, temperature, and pressure of interstitial fluids, and by ground-water flow. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of analog records and computer analysis of digitized logs are used to derive geohydrologic information. This information can then be extrapolated vertically within a well and laterally to other wells using logs. The physical principles by which the mechanical and electronic components of a logging system measure properties of rocks, fluids, and wells, as well as the principles of measurement, must be understood if geophysical logs are to be interpreted correctly. Plating a logging operation involves selecting the equipment and the logs most likely to provide the needed information. Information on well construction and geohydrology is needed to guide this selection. Quality control of logs is an important responsibility of both the equipment operator and the log analyst and requires both calibration and well-site standardization of equipment. Logging techniques that are widely used in ground-water hydrology or that have significant potential for application to this field include spontaneous potential, resistance, resistivity, gamma, gamma spectrometry, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic velocity, acoustic televiewer, caliper, and fluid temperature, conductivity, and flow. The following topics are discussed for each of these techniques: principles and instrumentation, calibration and standardization

  15. How does the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme support statistical consistent nitrate trend analyses in groundwater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Thorling, Lærke; Sørensen, Brian; Dalgaard, Tommy; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of performing nitrate trend analyses in oxic groundwater is to document the effect of regulation of Danish agriculture on N pollution. The design of the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme is presented and discussed in relation to performance of statistical consistence nitrate trend analyses. Three types of data are crucial. Firstly, long and continuous time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 from Denmark Statistics is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge age determination are performed in order to allow linking of the first two dataset. Recent results published in Hansen et al. (2011 & 2012) will be presented. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg/l. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N

  16. Analysis of space-time non-stationary patterns of rainfall-groundwater interactions by integrating empirical orthogonal function and cross wavelet transform methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Lin, Yuan-Chien

    2015-06-01

    Rainfall-groundwater interactions are complex and can depend upon a variety of hydro-geological and geographical conditions and can commonly present high nonlinearity. This study proposed an integration of cross wavelet transform and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to analyze the space-time nonlinear relationships between the precipitation and groundwater changes. The proposed method was applied to investigating the non-stationary and nonlinear precipitation-groundwater relationships in Pingtung Plain aquifer during 2005-2010. We analyzed daily groundwater and rainfall observations at 47 wells and 27 stations across the study area operated by Taiwan Water Resources Agency and Central Weather Bureau respectively. Results show that EOF method revealed three major space-time patterns of the groundwater levels. The cross wavelet transform further identified the lagged effects between precipitation and groundwater changes. The temporal lags can vary not only with respect to the temporal scales of groundwater processes, but also the different identified groundwater regions, which can associate with distinct physical mechanisms. In general, the lagged periods between high frequency signals of precipitation and groundwater can range from 0 to 18 days, showing how rainfall events perturbed the groundwater levels across space. The long-term lags for the three identified underlying groundwater processes were 3.71, 56.6, and 72.07 days, respectively, showing seasonal recharge patterns can depend upon the geographical and geological conditions. Our results distinguished the space-time recharge processes in different frequencies, which present nonlinear and non-stationary rainfall-recharge interactions of a groundwater system, which can be spatially and frequency dependent.

  17. GRACE Sees Groundwater Losses Around the World

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has measured significant groundwater depletion around the world in recent years. These animations show trends in total water storage from Jan....

  18. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program's activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  19. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  20. Groundwater Dating with Atmospheric Halogenated Compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haase, Karl B.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2014-01-01

    "Atmospheric environmental releases refer to the emission of stable, long-lived compounds of solely anthropogenic origin into the atmosphere and the use of the compounds to estimate dates of their incorporation into groundwater."

  1. Disruption of groundwater systems by earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xin; Wang, Chi-Yuen; Liu, Chun-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Earthquakes are known to enhance permeability at great distances, and this phenomenon may also disrupt groundwater systems by breaching the barrier between different reservoirs. Here we analyze the tidal response of water level in a deep (~4 km) well before and after the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake to show that the earthquake not only changed the permeability but also altered the poroelastic properties of the groundwater system. Based on lithologic well logs and experimental data for rock properties, we interpret the change to reflect a coseismic breaching of aquitards bounding the aquifer, due perhaps to clearing of preexisting cracks and creation of new cracks, to depths of several kilometers. This may cause mixing of groundwater from previously isolated reservoirs and impact the safety of groundwater supplies and underground waste repositories. The method demonstrated here may hold promise for monitoring aquitard breaching by both natural and anthropogenic processes.

  2. Groundwater Depletion in India Revealed by GRACE

    NASA Video Gallery

    Scientists using data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have found that the groundwater beneath Northern India has been receding by as much as one foot per year over the p...

  3. Arsenic Speciation in Groundwater: Role of Thioanions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behavior of arsenic in groundwater environments is fundamentally linked to its speciation. Understanding arsenic speciation is important because chemical speciation impacts reactivity, bioavailability, toxicity, and transport and fate processes. In aerobic environments arsen...

  4. Michigan Citizens' Knowledge and Perceptions about Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvedi, Murari; Krueger, David; Shrestha, Anil; Bettinghouse, Dixie

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the knowledge and perceptions of Michigan residents about groundwater in order to develop a comprehensive educational program and provide baseline information to document the program's impact over time. (Author/CCM)

  5. Potential Health Effects from Groundwater Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyer, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the growing awareness of potential toxicological effects of synthetic organic chemicals contaminating groundwater. Problems concerning pesticides, chlorination, epidemiologic studies, cancer, nephrotoxicity, and considerations of risk are addressed. Additional research in this area is advocated. (DH)

  6. Nevada National Security Site Groundwater Program

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-10-28

    From 1951 to 1992, the Unites States government conducted 828 underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site. About one-third of these tests occurred near, below or within the water table - the very top portion of the groundwater layer where rock and soil are completely saturated with water. As a result, some groundwater was contaminated. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began exploring the effects of groundwater contamination in the 1970s. Though contamination from underground testing has never been detected on public land, the DOE was committed to developing an advanced, reliable monitoring network that ensures the long-term protection of the public. An intensive groundwater investigation program was launched in 1989.

  7. Analysing Groundwater Using the 13C Isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Sadek

    The stable isotope of the carbon atom (13C) give information about the type of the mineralisation of the groundwater existing during the water seepage and about the recharge conditions of the groundwater. The concentration of the CO2(aq.) dissolved during the infiltration of the water through the soil's layers has an effect on the mineralisation of this water. The type of the photosynthesis's cycle (C-3 or C-4 carbon cycle) can have a very important role to determine the conditions (closed or open system) of the mineralisation of groundwater. The isotope 13C of the dissolved CO2 in water give us a certain information about the origin and the area of pollution of water. The proportion of the biogenic carbon and its percentage in the mineralisation of groundwater is determined by using the isotope 13C.

  8. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on groundwater using stable OH isotopes: perspectives and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrel, Philippe; Ollivier, Patrick; Flehoc, Christine; Hube, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    leakage of Cl-rich liquor with a δD values up to 400oȦfter technical operations to improve sealing of the liquid storage tanks, no evidence of δD enrichment can be shown in present day groundwater. All values are along the global meteoric water line even for wells previously H-enriched, reflecting the absence of new leakage from tanks or during the manufacturing process over the site. Therefore our study shows that the stable isotopes of the water molecule can also be successfully used in an innovative way to trace pollutant plumes in groundwater.

  10. Modeling the time-varying interaction between surface water and groundwater bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliege, Steffen; Steidl, Jörg; Lischeid, Gunnar; Merz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The countless kettle holes (small lakes) in the Late Pleistocene landscapes of Northern Europe have important ecological and hydrological functions. On the one hand they act as depressions in which water and solutes of mainly agriculturally used catchments accumulate. On the other hand they operate as biochemical reactors with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, and as major sinks for nutrients and contaminants. Even small kettle holes often are hydraulically connected to the uppermost groundwater system: Groundwater discharges into the kettle hole on one side, and the aquifer is recharged from the kettle hole water body on the other side. Thus kettle hole biogeochemical processes are both affected by groundwater and vice versa. Groundwater flow direction and velocity into and out of the kettle hole often is not stable over time. Groundwater flow direction might reverse at the downstream part, resulting in repeated recycling of groundwater and corresponding solute turnover within the kettle holes. A sound understanding of this intricate interplay is a necessary prerequisite for better understanding of the biogeochemistry of this terrestrial-aquatic interface. A numerical experiment was used to quantify the lateral solute exchange between a kettle hole and the surrounding groundwater. A vertical cross section through the real existing catchment of a kettle hole was chosen. Glacial till represents the lower boundary. The heterogeneity of the subsurface was reproduced by various parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties as well as varying the thickness of the unconfined aquifer or the lateral boundary conditions. In total 24 different parameterizations were implemented in the modeling software HydroGeoSphere (HGS). HGS is suitable to calculate the fluid exchange between surface and subsurface simultaneously and in a physically based way. The simulation runs were done for the period from November 1994 to October 2014. All results were

  11. Building groundwater modeling capacity in Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Anderson, Mark T.; Davis, Kyle W.; Haynes, Michelle A.; Dorjsuren Dechinlhundev

    2016-01-01

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia (fig. 1), is dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. The population of Mongolia is about 3 million people, with about one-half the population residing in or near Ulaanbaatar (World Population Review, 2016). Groundwater is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence indicates that current water use may not be sustainable from existing water sources, especially when factoring the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population (Ministry of Environment and Green Development, 2013). In response, the Government of Mongolia Ministry of Environment, Green Development, and Tourism (MEGDT) and the Freshwater Institute, Mongolia, requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS and USACE provided two workshops in 2015 to Mongolian hydrology experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using the USGS groundwater modeling program MODFLOW-2005 (Harbaugh, 2005). The purpose of the workshops was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling.A preliminary steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed as part of the workshops to demonstrate groundwater modeling techniques to simulate groundwater conditions in alluvial deposits along the Tuul River in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar. ModelMuse (Winston, 2009) was used as the graphical user interface for MODFLOW for training purposes during the workshops. Basic and advanced groundwater modeling concepts included in the workshops were groundwater principles; estimating hydraulic properties; developing model grids, data sets, and MODFLOW input files; and viewing and evaluating MODFLOW output files. A key to success was

  12. Groundwater Governance in the United States: Common Priorities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Megdal, Sharon B; Gerlak, Andrea K; Varady, Robert G; Huang, Ling-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical component of the water supply for agriculture, urban areas, industry, and ecosystems, but managing it is a challenge because groundwater is difficult to map, quantify, and evaluate. Until recently, study and assessment of governance of this water resource has been largely neglected. A survey was developed to query state agency officials about the extent and scope of groundwater use, groundwater laws and regulations, and groundwater tools and strategies. Survey responses revealed key findings: states' legal frameworks for groundwater differ widely in recognizing the hydrologic connection between surface water and groundwater, the needs of groundwater-dependent ecosystems, and the protection of groundwater quality; states reported a range in capacity to enforce groundwater responsibilities; and states have also experienced substantial changes in groundwater governance in the past few decades. Overall, groundwater governance across the United States is fragmented. States nevertheless identified three common priorities for groundwater governance: water quality and contamination, conflicts between users, and declining groundwater levels. This survey represents an initial step in a broader, continuing effort to characterize groundwater governance practices in the United States. PMID:25406503

  13. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  14. Remote Sensing of Urban Groundwater Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, S.; Bayer, P.; Olesen, F. S.; Goettsche, F. M.; Blum, P.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settlements temperatures are typically elevated compared to their rural surrounding. This so-called urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon exists in all diverse layers of modern cities such as surface and subsurface. While both are typically investigated individually, the coupling of these zones is not sufficiently understood. Using satellite derived land surface temperatures (LST) and interpolated groundwater temperature (GWT) measurements we compare the spatial properties of both heat islands in four German cities and analyze their dissimilarities in order to understand the interaction between the urban surface and subsurface. The best correlation of more than 80% is found in old, mature cities such as Cologne and Berlin. However, local groundwater hotspots under the city center and industrial areas are not revealed in satellite derived land surface temperatures. Overall groundwater temperatures are higher than land surface temperatures in 95% of the analyzed area due to the influence of below ground anthropogenic heat sources such as elevated basement temperatures. Thus, an estimation method is proposed that relates groundwater temperatures to mean annual land surface temperatures, building density and elevated basement temperatures. Using this method regional groundwater temperatures can be accurately estimated with a mean absolute error of 0.9 K. Since land surface temperatures and building densities are available from remote sensing, this method has the potential for a large scale estimations of urban groundwater temperatures. Thus, it is feasible to detect subsurface urban heat islands (SUHI) on a global level. Furthermore, geothermal potentials and groundwater quality issues such as thermal stress to groundwater ecosystems can now be investigated using satellite derived data.

  15. Groundwater hydrogeochemical characteristics in rehabilitated coalmine spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomo, M.; Masemola, E.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation aims to identify and describe hydrogeochemical processes controlling the evolution of groundwater chemistry in rehabilitated coalmine spoils and their overall influence on groundwater quality at a study area located in the Karoo basin of South Africa. A good understanding of the processes that controls the evolution of the mine water quality is vital for the planning, application and management of post-mining remedial actions. The study utilises scatter plots, statistical analysis, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical modelling, stoichiometric reaction ratios analysis, and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to interpret the groundwater chemistry data collected from monitoring boreholes from 1995 to 2014. Measured pH ranging between 6-8 and arithmetic mean of 7.32 shows that the groundwater system is characterised by circumneutral hydrogeochemical conditions period. Comparison of measured groundwater ion concentrations to theoretical reaction stoichiometry identifies Dolomite-Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) neutralisation as the main hydrogeochemical process controlling the evolution of the groundwater chemistry. Hydrogeochemical modelling shows that, the groundwater has temporal variations of calcite and dolomite saturation indices characterised by alternating cycles of over-saturation and under-saturation that is driven by the release of sulphate, calcium and magnesium ions from the carbonate-AMD neutralization process. Arithmetic mean concentrations of sulphate, calcium and magnesium are in the order of 762 mg/L, 141 mg/L and 108 mg/L. Calcium and magnesium ions contribute to very hard groundwater quality conditions. Classification based on total dissolved solids (TDS), shows the circumneutral water is of poor to unacceptable quality for drinking purposes. Despite its ability to prevent AMD formation and leaching of metals, the dolomite-AMD neutralisation process can still lead to problems of elevated TDS and hardness which mines should be aware of

  16. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 260 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1975 to 1976. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Selective sorption of technetium from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop an anion exchange resin that will selectively remove the radionuclide technetium, in the form of the pertechnetate anion TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, from groundwater, leaving behind other interfering anions. A resin bed of this material will be used either as part of a coupled treatment-recirculation system for the in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated with technetium or in a once-through treatment scheme.

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1998-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1997, eleven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  19. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  20. Impact of oil on groundwater chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakorenko, N. N.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the paper is to characterize the chemical composition of groundwater samples from the monitoring wells drilled in the petrol station areas within the vicinity of Tomsk. The level of contamination has increased since many macro - and microcomponent concentrations (such as petroleum products, chlorine, sulphates, carbon dioxide and lead, etc.) in groundwater samples of the present study is higher than that in previous period samples.