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Sample records for 2004-5 southern brazil

  1. Methodology of the Pelotas birth cohort study from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods employed in the longitudinal and follow-up studies of children born in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. METHODS: The cohort began with a perinatal health survey that included all 6,011 children born in maternity wards in Pelotas in 1982. The 5,914 children born alive in the city were included in the follow-up studies. By 2004-5, we had conducted eight follow-ups, which consisted of the administration of questionnaires to mothers and/or cohort members, depending on age, in addition to anthropometric and clinical examination. Cohort subjects are described in terms of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables collected during early follow-up studies, which are used as exposure variables. RESULTS: The majority of subjects in the cohort were followed for 23 years and on multiple occasions. The most successful follow-ups were those preceded by a city census. Using this method, we were able to locate 87.2% of subjects in 1984 (mean age 19 months), 84.1% in 1986 (mean age 43 months), and 77.4% in 2004-5, and 77.4% in 2004-5 (mean age 23 years). CONCLUSIONS: Birth cohort studies can be carried out successfully in developing countries, and the methods employed in this life-cycle study have allowed us to investigate the influence of early exposures in determining disease outcomes in adult life. PMID:19142340

  2. Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. RESULTS Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth’s age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. CONCLUSIONS There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health. PMID:19142344

  3. Determinants of early sexual initiation in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Helen; Béhague, Dominique P; Gigante, Denise P; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze social determinants of early sexual initiation among young adults from a birth cohort. METHODS Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297) were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexual initiation (≤13 years of age) was the outcome. Descriptive and stratified analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adult’s level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5). Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of early sexual initiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexual initiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to influence early sexual initiation among men and women with lower level of education and income. CONCLUSIONS Results found re-established the economic factor as a determinant of behavior or uses of sexuality for both sexes. To focus on political efforts that help the economically disadvantaged to have opportunities and egalitarian future perspectives is an important strategy for health outcomes. PMID:19142343

  4. Pattern of health services utilization by adults of the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal S; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the pattern of health services utilization by young adults. METHODS Longitudinal study in Pelotas (Southern Brazil), in which the individuals were identified at birth in 1982 and followed up until 23 years of age. The outcome was defined by information collected about visits to health professionals that were attended in the year before the interview, between 2004 and 2005. The places where the visits occurred were categorized as public, private or belonging to health plan systems. Descriptive analyses were carried out for utilization and type of health service. Poisson Regression was employed in the adjusted analysis. RESULTS Of the interviewees, 72.0% visited health professionals in the year before the interview; 86.2% (95% CI 84.7;87.7) of the women and 59.3% (95% CI 57.3;61.3) of the men. Even when gynecological visits were excluded, the women still attended more visits than the men, 68.4% (95% CI 66.4;70.4). Health services utilization was more frequent among interviewees of better socioeconomic level. A difference of lower use in relation to non-white skin color was observed only among male youths. There were differences regarding the type of professional visited by men and women and also according to family income. Men and women used more frequently the public system, the health plan system and, in a smaller proportion, the private system. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic situation influenced the utilization and the type of health service, with men and women classified as “poor at the moment”, which indicates lower utilization of services. Such socioeconomic differences may indicate difficulties in the access to the health system. PMID:19142345

  5. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  6. Plastic ingestion by Procellariiformes in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda I; Barquete, Viviane; Domingues, Beatriz S; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2009-01-01

    The Procellariiformes are the birds most affected by plastic pollution. Plastic fragments and pellets were the most frequent items found in the digestive tract of eight species of Procellariiformes incidentally caught by longline fisheries as well as beached birds in Southern Brazil. Plastic objects were found in 62% of the petrels and 12% of the albatrosses. The Great shearwater, Manx shearwater, Cory's shearwater and Antarctic fulmar were found to have greater quantities and frequencies of occurrence of plastic. There was no significant difference in the number of plastics between the birds from longline fisheries and beached birds. No correlation was found between the number of prey and number of plastics in the digestive tract of the birds analyzed, but this does not discard the hypothesis that, in some cases, the presence of plastic in the digestive tract has a negative effect on the feeding efficiency of these birds. PMID:18840384

  7. 32 CFR 2004.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 2004.5 Section 2004.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Implementation and Oversight § 2004.5 Definitions. (a)...

  8. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry. PMID:27026233

  9. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15. PMID:24699606

  10. 32 CFR 2004.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Oversight § 2004.5 Definitions. (a) “Cognizant Security Agencies (CSAs)” means the Executive Branch departments and agencies authorized in EO 12829, as amended, to establish industrial security programs: The... Commission; and the Central Intelligence Agency. (b) “Cognizant Security Office (CSO)” means...

  11. 32 CFR 2004.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Oversight § 2004.5 Definitions. (a) “Cognizant Security Agencies (CSAs)” means the Executive Branch... Department of Defense, designated as the Executive Agent; the Department of Energy; the Nuclear Regulatory... States. (e) “Proscribed information” means Top Secret; Communications Security, except classified...

  12. 32 CFR 2004.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Oversight § 2004.5 Definitions. (a) “Cognizant Security Agencies (CSAs)” means the Executive Branch... Department of Defense, designated as the Executive Agent; the Department of Energy; the Nuclear Regulatory... States. (e) “Proscribed information” means Top Secret; Communications Security, except classified...

  13. 32 CFR 2004.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Oversight § 2004.5 Definitions. (a) “Cognizant Security Agencies (CSAs)” means the Executive Branch... Department of Defense, designated as the Executive Agent; the Department of Energy; the Nuclear Regulatory... States. (e) “Proscribed information” means Top Secret; Communications Security, except classified...

  14. Serum antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Éverton F; Seyffert, Núbia; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Leihs, Karl P.; Athanazio, Daniel A.; Valente, Ana L. S.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Brod, Claudiomar S.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we observed the presence of antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles of two urban lakes of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Forty animals (29 Trachemys dorbigny and 11 Phrynops hilarii) were captured and studied. Attempts to isolate leptospires from blood and urine samples were unsuccessful. Serum samples (titer > 100) reactive to pathogenic strains were observed in 11 animals. These data encourage surveys of pet turtles to evaluate the risk of transmission of pathogenic leptospires to humans. PMID:24031348

  15. Net Exchange Ecossistem in Subtropical Agriculture Area in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, D. R.; Diaz, M.; Webler, G.; Fiorin, J.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Teichrieb, C.; Amado, T.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Brazil contribute to 38% of Brazilian grain production. In contrast with the rest of the country, the south has a wet, subtropical climate that permits two annual harvests (double cropping system). The soybean and/or maize (summer) and black oat and/or wheat (winter) succession is widely used by farmers in plateau areas. In river natural lowlands, the cultivation of flooded irrigated rice is common. Changes in the land use affect the carbon, water and energy balance, and crop management practices, such as fertilization, water management, harvest and crop residues have influence in carbon exchange between the crop field and the atmosphere. This study quantifies the net exchange ecosystem (NEE) between the atmosphere and the crop cultivations in this wide region of Brazil from 2010 to 2014. We use data from two micrometeorological sites: Cruz Alta, with crop rotation and Cachoeira do Sul, with rice paddy. The carbon flux was analyzed using the eddy covariance method and gap filling procedures. The annual integration of data carbon demonstrates that the agroecosystems in southern Brazil is a acting as an light atmospheric CO2 sink. However, the NEE emissions that occurred in the fallow periods contributed negatively for such annual accumulation. To reduce this loss of CO2, farmers could cultivate plants in fallow periods, because there are favorable weather conditions for growing plants year round. Additionally, other management practices can increase the influx of C, including the production of more dry matter with cover crops by improving management and the immediate harvesting of crop after physiological maturity to reduce the period between maturation and harvest.

  16. Future drying of the southern Amazon and central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Cook, B.

    2008-12-01

    Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit considerable dieback under future climate change, a prediction that has raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. First, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the southern Amazon lengthens the dry season and reduces soil moisture, despite of an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to the nonlinear response in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season precipitation: (1) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient; (2) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure. Secondly, evaporation will increase due to the general warming, thus also reducing soil moisture. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of vegetation by 20%, and enhanced fire carbon flux by 10-15% in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence, the double pressure of deforestation and climate change may subject the region to dramatic changes in the 21st century.

  17. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) poisoning of cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, M B; Kommers, G D; Dantas, A F; de Barros, C L

    1997-04-01

    Two outbreaks of Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) poisoning occurring in cattle in southern Brazil in late summer and early autumn are described. In both instances too many cattle were held in small paddocks heavily invaded by A retroflexus in its seeding stage. In 1 herd 8/28 heifers and in the other 15/45 adult cows died. Clinical courses ranged from 3 to 7 d. Clinical signs included depression, loss of weight, mild serous nasal discharge, foul smelling liquid feces tinged with blood, subcutaneous dependent edema, and laborious and incoordinated walking. Main necropsy findings were subcutaneous, cavitary and perirenal edemas, renal subcapsular hematomas, and ulcerative lesions in the alimentary tract. The kidneys were swollen and pale. Histopathological findings were in the kidneys and consisted of tubular degeneration, necrosis and regeneration with interstitial fibrosis and tubular proteinosis. PMID:9080636

  18. Molecular characterization of encephalitic bovine listeriosis from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn A; Fritzen, Juliana T T; Queiroz, Gustavo R; Oliveira, Rodrigo A M; Alfieri, Alice F; Di Santis, Giovana W; Lisbôa, Júlio A N; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2014-01-01

    Reports of bovine listeriosis in Brazil are uncommon, being restricted to citations within retrospective studies, resulting in scarce documented information of this important disease of cattle. This manuscript describes the molecular findings associated with spontaneous encephalitic listeriosis in two steers from distinct herds within the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Both animals demonstrated altered consciousness suggestive of brain stem dysfunctions and died a few days after the initial onset of disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were designed to target specific genes of infectious neurological agents of cattle. These included bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5), ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), Listeria monocytogenes, and Histophilus somni. Rabies virus was discarded in evaluations done at the official state diagnostic laboratory. Gross alterations were insignificant; histopathology demonstrated rhombencephalitis associated with macrophage-predominant, multifocal to coalescing microabscesses and extensive perivascular cuffings in both steers. The L. monocytogenes PCR assay amplified the 172-bp amplicon of the listeriolysin gene from the brain stem of both animals and from the telencephalon, thalamus, and cerebellum of one of them. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the strains derived from this study clustered with known strains of L. monocytogenes lineage I. The BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, OvHV-2, and H. somni PCR assays were negative. These results confirm the participation of L. monocytogenes lineage I in the etiopathogenesis of the neurological disease herein described and represent the first complete description of encephalitic listeriosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23832703

  19. Vitamin A status of young children in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favaro, R M; de Souza, N V; Batistal, S M; Ferriani, M G; Desai, I D; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1986-05-01

    A comprehensive survey was carried out to assess the vitamin A status of preschool children of poor migrant families in the periurban population of Ribeirao Preto, a typical agricultural town in the sugarcane and coffee region of the State of Sao Paulo in Southern Brazil. The intake of vitamin A and carotenoids from the rice and bean based diet of these children is considered low and appears to influence blood concentrations and liver reserves of this vitamin. With respect to plasma vitamin A, 1.8% of the children had a deficient level (less than 10 micrograms%), whereas 48.8% of the children had a low level (less than 20 micrograms%). Most children with inadequate plasma vitamin A (less than 20 micrograms%) responded positively to a massive dose of 200,000 IU vitamin A, suggesting that these children may be at risk of having low liver stores of vitamin A. Rose Bengal staining test and rapid dark adaptation time did not indicate definite signs of conjunctival xerosis and night blindness among these children. No ocular evidence of hypovitaminosis A was found in the children studied, but marginal or inadequate vitamin A status appears to be a common public health problem among young children in this region of Brazil. PMID:3706193

  20. Histophilus somni-induced infections in cattle from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn A; Oliveira, Victor H S; Figueira, Gustavo F; Bronkhorst, Dalton E; Alfieri, Alice F; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2013-10-01

    The sudden death of three calves, one diarrheic calf, and one aborted fetus from four farms in southern Brazil was investigated. Two Histophilus somni-associated syndromes were identified: systemic histophilosis (n = 4) and abortion (n = 1). The principal pathological findings included vasculitis, meningoencephalitis with thrombosis, necrotizing myocarditis, renal infarctions, hepatic abscesses, and bronchopneumonia. PCR assays were used to amplify specific amplicons of the ovine herpesvirus 2, bovine herpesvirus 1 and -5, Listeria monocytogenes, H. somni, and pestivirus; bovine group A rotavirus (BoRV-A) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) were investigated in calves with diarrhea. H. somni DNA was amplified in tissues from all calves and the brain of the aborted fetus with pathological alterations consistent with histophilosis. All other PCR assays were negative; BoRV-A and BCoV were not identified. These findings confirm the participation of H. somni in the pathological alterations observed in this study and represent the first description of histophilosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23526124

  1. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. PMID:23898973

  2. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  3. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon-Jr, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

    2014-01-01

    The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria. PMID:25383009

  4. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon-Jr, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria. PMID:25383009

  5. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of marine needlefishes (Beloniformes) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Roger Raupp; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; da Silva Cortinhas, Maria Cristina; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-08-01

    Cytogenetic studies have assisted in the taxonomic classification of organisms, especially those involving species with highly similar morphologic characteristics, or so-called cryptic species. Strongylura marina and Strongylura timucu collected from Paranaguá Bay, Paraná Coast in Southern Brazil are considered cryptic species, and the identification of interspecific variations based on the number and/or morphology of its chromosomes may serve as differentiating cytotaxonomic markers. Chromosomes of the two species were subjected to different banding and staining methods (C-, Ag-, and DAPI-CMA3), as well as chromosomal mapping of major rDNA (45S), revealed with an 18S probe by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The pattern of distribution of constitutive heterochromatin showed distinct features involving the pericentromeric and telomeric bands in both species. In S. marina, chromosome 1 represents the main species-specific marker, appearing almost entirely heterochromatic. In both species, the 45S rDNA is located at terminal region of the short arm of the chromosome 6, as detected by silver nitrate staining and FISH. Despite the apparent conserved diploid number of 48 chromosomes, data on the karyotype microstructure characterize the cytogenetic profile of the genus and may allow the establishment of cytotaxonomic and evolutionary inferences for these fishes. PMID:25388873

  6. Chronic low back pain among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo D; Fassa, Anaclaudia G; Faria, Neice M X; Fiori, Nadia S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite tobacco farming involving intensive manual labor, chronic low back pain (CLBP) prevalence and associated factors are unknown among this occupational group. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in southern Brazil. A random sample of tobacco farmers was interviewed. Socioeconomic and individual characteristics, occupational tasks, workloads, and comorbidities were investigated. Chronic low back pain prevalence was described in relation to independent variables, and associations were examined with Poisson regression. Results: Chronic low back pain prevalence was 8·4%. Increasing age, rearing two or more species of livestock (PR 1·65), exposure to tasks that require heavy physical exertion (PR 2·00), working in awkward postures (PR 1·36), green tobacco sickness (GTS) (PR 1·63), pesticide poisoning (PR 2·37), and minor psychiatric disorders (PR 2·55) were associated with CLBP. Conclusions: This study found that CLBP is a relevant health problem among tobacco farmers and highlights understudied risk factors such as pesticide poisoning and GTS. Policies to minimize exposure to physiological and chemical workloads in tobacco planting to prevent CLBP are needed. Health professionals should be trained to diagnose and prevent acute low back pain episodes and thus prevent/minimize limitations and disabilities due to CLBP. PMID:25633930

  7. Genotoxic Potential and Physicochemical Parameters of Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Scalon, Madalena C. S.; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Siebel, Anna Maria; Kayser, Michele L.; Rodrigues, Manoela T.; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical parameters and the genotoxic potential of water samples collected in the upper, middle, and lower courses of the Sinos River, southern Brazil. The comet assay was performed in the peripheral blood of fish Hyphessobrycon luetkenii exposed under laboratory conditions to water samples collected in summer and winter in three sampling sites of Sinos River. Water quality analysis demonstrated values above those described in Brazilian legislation in Parobé and Sapucaia do Sul sites, located in the middle and in the lower courses of the Sinos River, respectively. The Caraá site, located in the upper river reach, presented all the physicochemical parameters in accordance with the allowed limits in both sampling periods. Comet assay in fish revealed genotoxicity in water samples collected in the middle course site in summer and in the three sites in winter when compared to control group. Thus, the physicochemical parameters indicated that the water quality of the upper course complies with the limits set by the national guidelines, and the ecotoxicological assessment, however, indicated the presence of genotoxic agents. The present study highlights the importance of combining water physicochemical analysis and bioassays to river monitoring. PMID:24285934

  8. Dental wear in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loch, Carolina; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C

    2013-02-01

    (1) Dental wear is a common phenomenon in mammals. Its occurrence is influenced by tooth anatomy, animal physiology, biomechanics and behaviour. So far, investigations of dental wear in cetaceans have been scanty and superficial. We compare the frequencies of occurrence, location and intensity of dental wear in some species of dolphins from southern Brazil, South Atlantic Ocean. (2) Teeth of ten species were evaluated using a stereoscopic microscope to identify wear facets, which were classified according to location, anatomical position and wear intensity. (3) Frequencies of dental wear were high for all species with exception of Delphinus capensis, with less than 50% of teeth worn. Simultaneous wear facets in the apex and lateral of teeth were more common than facets restricted to the apex or lateral faces. Wear on the dental crown was more common, but some species showed less frequent wear down to the cingulum or root level. Superficial wear seems to be the general trend for dolphins, but Stenella coeruleoalba and Pseudorca crassidens showed a higher frequency of severe wear. Only for Tursiops truncatus the frequencies of wear were significantly different between males and females. When considering the ontogeny of dental wear, only for T. truncatus and Stenella frontalis indexes of dental wear were correlated with body length. (4) Whether dental wear has implications or not in fitness and feeding behaviour, severely worn teeth may expose the pulp cavity and increase the susceptibility to local infections. PMID:22939372

  9. Biophysical parameters in a wheat producer region in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; Cruz, Caroline R.

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the second most produced cereal in the world, and has major importance in the global agricultural economy. Brazil is a large producer of wheat, especially the Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the south of the country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the estimation of biophysical parameters - evapotranspiration (ET), biomass (BIO) and water productivity (WP) - from satellite images of the municipalities with large areas planted with wheat in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The evapotranspiration rate was obtained using the SAFER Model (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images taken in the agricultural year 2012. In order to obtain biomass and water productivity rates we applied the Monteith model and the ratio between BIO and ET. In the beginning of the cycle (the planting period) we observed low values for ET, BIO and WP. During the development period, we observed an increase in the values of the parameters and decline at the end of the cycle, for the period of the wheat harvest. The SAFER model proved effective for estimating the biophysical parameters evapotranspiration, biomass production and water productivity in areas planted with wheat in Brazilian Southern. The methodology can be used for monitoring the crops' water conditions and biomass using satellite images, assisting in estimates of productivity and crop yield. The results may assist the understanding of biophysical properties of important agro-ecosystems, like wheat crop, and are important to improve the rational use of water resources.

  10. Mathematical Modeling Applied to Prediction of Landslides in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Lúcia; Araújo, João; Braga, Beatriz; Fernandes, Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Mass movements are natural phenomena that occur on the slopes and are important agents working in landscape development. These movements have caused serious damage to infrastructure and properties. In addition to the mass movements occurring in natural slopes, there is also a large number of accidents induced by human action in the landscape. The change of use and land cover for the introduction of agriculture is a good example that have affected the stability of slopes. Land use and/or land cover changes have direct and indirect effects on slope stability and frequently represent a major factor controlling the occurrence of man-induced mass movements. In Brazil, especially in the southern and southeastern regions, areas of original natural rain forest have been continuously replaced by agriculture during the last decades, leading to important modifications in soil mechanical properties and to major changes in hillslope hydrology. In these regions, such effects are amplified due to the steep hilly topography, intense summer rainfall events and dense urbanization. In November 2008, a major landslide event took place in a rural area with intensive agriculture in the state of Santa Catarina (Morro do Baú) where many catastrophic landslides were triggered after a long rainy period. In this area, the natural forest has been replaced by huge banana and pine plantations. The state of Santa Catarina in recent decades has been the scene of several incidents of mass movements such as this catastrophic event. In this study, based on field mapping and modeling, we characterize the role played by geomorphological and geological factors in controlling the spatial distribution of landslides in the Morro do Baú area. In order to attain such objective, a digital elevation model of the basin was generated with a 10m grid in which the topographic parameters were obtained. The spatial distribution of the scars from this major event was mapped from another image, obtained immediately

  11. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  12. Studies on diversity and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza-Chies, Tatiana T; Kaltchuk Dos Santos, Eliane; Eggers, Lilian; Flores, Alice Mainieri; Alves, Eudes M Stiehl; Fachinetto, Juliana; Lustosa, Juliana; Corrêa, Lauís Brisolara; Tacuatiá, Luana Olinda; Piccoli, Paula; Miz, Rogéria Beatriz

    2012-12-01

    Plants of the family Iridaceae are well represented in the grassland vegetation of southern Brazil, occurring in the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. Nevertheless, little is known about the taxonomy and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil. The main goal of this review is to compile published information about South American Iridaceae, and to discuss the evolution and genetic diversity of the family presenting our own research data in the light of the published literature. The main focus is on the genera Calydorea, Cypella, Herbertia, and Sisyrinchium. Aspects of reproductive system and of pollinator attraction are also discussed. PMID:23412701

  13. New species and records of frog-biting midges from southern Brazil (Diptera: Corethrellidae).

    PubMed

    Amaral, André P; Pinho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Corethrella borkenti sp. n. is described, based on female and male adults, pupae and larvae, collected from tank bromeliads in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The larva and pupa of C. alticola Lane, 1939 are described for the first time. New distributional records for C. alticola and C. vittata Lane, 1939 extend their distributions to the southern Atlantic Forest. A key to pupae of peruviana group is given. PMID:25947691

  14. Copper Sprays and Windbreaks for Control of Citrus Canker on Young Orange Trees in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefit of windbreaks and copper sprays for control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was investigated in a commercial citrus orchard located in a citrus canker endemic area in southern Brazil. Control of canker was evaluated as incidence and severity of lesions on foli...

  15. Assessment of MODIS LAI retrievals over soybean crop in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper examines the magnitude of the Collection 4 MODIS leaf area index (LAI) product for the soybean crop for two crop seasons, 2001/2002 to 2004/2005, in Southern Brazil. The data indicated that there were a large proportion of digical counts were at a maximum level suggesting that the LAI was...

  16. New species of Rhagoletotrypeta (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the Dominican Republic and southern Brazil and Paraguay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhagoletotrypeta chapecensis Norrbom & Savaris, new species, and R. gelabertae Norrbom & Savaris, new species, are described and illustrated from specimens from southern Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina) and Paraguay, and from the Dominican Republic, respectively. The larvae of R. chapecensis develop ...

  17. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  18. Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in Southern Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from Southern Brazil, the Kauffman-White-LeMinor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequ...

  19. New species of Rhagoletotrypeta (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the Dominican Republic and southern Brazil and Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Savaris, Marcoandre; Marinoni, Luciane

    2016-01-01

    Rhagoletotrypeta chapecensis Norrbom & Savaris, new species, and R. gelabertae Norrbom & Savaris, new species, are described and illustrated from specimens from southern Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina) and Paraguay, and from the Dominican Republic, respectively. The larvae of R. chapecensis develop in fruits of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. (Ulmaceae). A key to the species of the xanthogastra species group is provided. PMID:27394357

  20. Construction of a remotely sensed area sampling frame for Southern Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fecso, R.; Gardner, W.; Hale, B.; Johnson, V.; Pavlasek, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A remotely sensed area sampling frame was constructed for selected areas in Southern Brazil. The sampling unit information was stored in digital form in a latitudinal/longitudinal characterized population. Computerized sampling procedures were developed which allow for flexibility in sample unit specifications and sampling designs.

  1. Hydrologic evaluation for a small watershed in southern Brazil with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Southern Brazil, native forests have been replaced by tobacco crops. These changes are negatively impacting the region’s water balance and resource quality. Understanding hydrologic processes is essential to accurately depicting water and contaminant transport dynamics. The Soil and Water Assessm...

  2. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R.; Morato, Sergio A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  3. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luiz F; Bornschein, Marcos R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R; Morato, Sergio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  4. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Central Plateau, Southeastern, and Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreli, Marcos L.; de Sousa, Ricardo L.M.; Borges, Alessandra A.; de Figueiredo, Glauciane G.; Machado, Alex M.; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K.; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E.; de Souza, Renato P.; de Souza, Luiza T.M.; Braconi, Carla T.; Harsi, Charlotte M.; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo M.

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription–PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732

  5. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, central plateau, southeastern, and southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luiz T M; Moreli, Marcos L; de-Sousa, Ricardo L M; Borges, Alessandra A; de-Figueiredo, Glauciane G; Machado, Alex M; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E; de-Souza, Renato P; de-Souza, Luiza T M; Braconi, Carla T; Harsi, Charlotte M; de-Andrade-Zanotto, Paolo M

    2009-04-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732

  6. A new species of Dendrocerus (Hymenoptera, Megaspilidae) from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pezzini, Cleder; Zilch, Kássia Cristina Freire; Köhler, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the megaspiline genus Dendrocerus Ratzeburg is described and figured. Dendrocerus riograndensis sp. n., is known from a series of males from the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and were captured with Malaise traps from an agricultural tobacco field. PMID:25147448

  7. A new species of Dendrocerus (Hymenoptera, Megaspilidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pezzini, Cleder; Zilch, Kássia Cristina Freire; Köhler, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the megaspiline genus Dendrocerus Ratzeburg is described and figured. Dendrocerus riograndensis sp. n., is known from a series of males from the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and were captured with Malaise traps from an agricultural tobacco field. PMID:25147448

  8. 15 CFR 2004.5 - Accessing records without request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures § 2004.5 Accessing records without request. (a) Public reading room. USTR maintains and makes.... 552(a)(2), as amended. Most records in USTR's public reading room comprise responses to Federal Register notices that USTR has issued. USTR's public reading room is located at 1724 F Street,...

  9. Verification of concentration time formulae accuracy in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    The time of concentration (TC) of an urban catchment is a fundamental watershed parameter used to compute the peak discharge and/or in the hydrological simulation of sewer systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimative, several empirical formulae are used, however, almost none of them have been verified in Brazil leading to large uncertainties in the correct value. In this light, were tested several formulae such as the proposed by Kirpich (and a modifications of this equation proposed by the National Transport Bureau of Brazil (DNIT)), U.S. Corps. Of Engineers, Pasini, Dooge , Johnstone , Ventura and Ven T Chow as they are used in Brazil. The verification was accomplished against measured data in 5 sub-basins situated in the Dilúvio basin, a semi urbanized watershed that contains the most developed area of the city of Porto Alegre. All the rainfall stations were active in the period from late 1970's until early 1980's due to the existence of Projeto Dilúvio but today, however, only two of them are still in operation. Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul with a population of approximately 1.6 million inhabitants, the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area, with almost 4,5 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). The city is situated in a humid subtropical climate with high and regular precipitation throughout the year. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and an occasional tropical storm, hurricane or cyclone. The results showed an error of around 70% for half of the formulas, with a tendency to underestimate TC values. Among the tested methods, Johnstone had the best overall result, with an average error of 25%, well far from the second, Dooge, with 43% of average error. The best results were obtained in only one basin, Dilúvio, the largest one, with an area of 25km², with an error of just 3% for Modified Kirpich, and

  10. Millennial-scale precipitation changes in southern Brazil over the past 90,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Auler, Augusto S.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, Hai; Ito, Emi; Wang, Yongjin; Kong, Xinggong; Solheid, Maniko

    2007-12-01

    A U-Th dated 90,000 year-long speleothem oxygen isotope record from southern Brazil anti-correlates remarkably with the cave calcite records from eastern China, but positively correlates with the speleothem record from northeastern Brazil, suggesting an interhemispheric anti-phasing of rainfall on both millennial and orbital timescales, likely related to displacement in the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and associated asymmetry in Hadley circulation. The phase relationships among these records are consistent with the hypothesis that abrupt climate events during the last glacial period are triggered by oceanic circulation changes in the high latitudes and enhanced by tropical feedbacks.

  11. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G

    2016-02-01

    Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area. PMID:26871745

  12. Astronomy and Cosmology of the Guarani of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, Flávia Cristina

    The Guarani Indians in South Brazil have a sophisticated system of thought about the cosmos. Presented here are some elements of their cosmology and cosmogony and the influences of the heavenly bodies in this people's everyday life, which have been collected in ethnographic research in the first decade of the 21st century. The main themes of cosmology and the origin of the Sun, Moon, and Earth are described, approximating this anthropological research to ethnoastronomy and cultural anthropology discussions. This research seeks to analyze comparatively this cosmological concept with other indigenous cosmological systems and to compare them with the Western cosmological system, thus including it in studies of cultural astronomy.

  13. First Evaluation of an Outbreak of Bovine Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis in Southern Brazil Using Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Canever, Mariana Feltrin; Vieira, Luisa Lemos; Reck, Carolina; Richter, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of tick-borne disease cases in Santa Catarina, Brazil are known, but the presence of the pathogen DNA has never been determined. In this study, the first survey of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis DNA on blood samples of 33 cattle from an outbreak in Ponte Alta Municipality, Santa Catarina, Brazil, has been carried out. A multiplex PCR detected 54.5% of animals were co-infected with 2 or 3 parasites, while 24.2% were infected with only 1 species. The most prevalent agent was B. bigemina (63.6%) followed by A. marginale (60.6%). This is the first report of tick-borne disease pathogens obtained by DNA analysis in Southern Brazil. PMID:25352699

  14. Elevated Toxoplasma gondii Infection Rates for Retinas from Eye Banks, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Commodaro, Alessandra G.; Chiasson, Melissa; Sundar, Natarajan; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Belfort, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    We found significantly higher incidence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in eye bank specimens from Joinville in southern Brazil (13/15, 87%) than in São Paulo (3/42, 7%; p = 2.1 × 10E–8). PCR DNA sequence analysis was more sensitive at locus NTS2 than at locus B1; a high frequency of mixed co-infections was detected. PMID:26982526

  15. Elevated Toxoplasma gondii Infection Rates for Retinas from Eye Banks, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Commodaro, Alessandra G; Chiasson, Melissa; Sundar, Natarajan; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Belfort, Rubens; Grigg, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    We found significantly higher incidence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in eye bank specimens from Joinville in southern Brazil (13/15, 87%) than in São Paulo (3/42, 7%; p = 2.1 × 10E-8). PCR DNA sequence analysis was more sensitive at locus NTS2 than at locus B1; a high frequency of mixed co-infections was detected. PMID:26982526

  16. Metal contamination of vineyard soils in wet subtropics (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari; Chies, Jaqueline O

    2007-09-01

    The vine-growing areas in Brazil are the dampest in the world. Copper maximum value registered in this study was as much as 3200 mg kg(-1), which is several times higher than reported for vineyard soils in temperate climates. Other pesticide-derived metals accumulate in the topsoil layer, surpassing in the old vineyards the background value several times for Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Copper is transported to deeper soils' horizons and can potentially contaminate groundwater. The soils from basaltic volcanic rocks reveal the highest values of Cu extracted with CaCl(2), demonstrating a high capacity of copper transference into plants. When evaluating the risks of copper's toxic effects in subtropics, the soils from rhyolitic volcanic rocks are more worrisome, as the Cu extracted with ammonium acetate 1M surpasses the toxic threshold as much as 4-6 times. PMID:17321651

  17. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

  18. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time. PMID:27276374

  19. Maternal care influence on children's caries prevalence in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Gabriela Dos Santos; Hartwig, Andréia Drawanz; Elias, Raquel; Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Correa, Marcos Britto; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2016-05-31

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of specific maternal-factors on caries prevalence in offspring. This cross sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil nested in a cohort of adolescent mothers with children aged 24-42 months. A questionnaire was administered to collect information in relationship to socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral maternal variables. The outcome (children's dental caries prevalence - dmfs > 0) was collected from clinical examinations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. A total of 538 mother/child dyads were evaluated and 15.1% of the children exhibited caries. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed children from mothers living without partners (p < 0.027) had more caries than those living with partners. Maternal perception of a child's oral health was associated to occurrence of caries, particularly when mothers classified their child as poor and these children had a higher level of caries. In addition, mothers accurately evaluated their child's teeth when associated with caries occurrence. Maternal oral health care practices were associated with children's caries prevalence. Our results demonstrated mothers accurately evaluated the oral health of their offspring. PMID:27253143

  20. How Will Climate Change Impact Water Consumption for Rice Irrigation in Southern Brazil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, T. V.; Twine, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, agricultural water use accounts for most of the water that is withdrawn from surface water and groundwater. Rice, one of the world's leading food crops, requires that fields be continuously flooded to obtain optimal yields. High air temperature and consecutive rainless days in rice-growing areas can significantly reduce rice yields, leading to food scarcity. Climate change is expected to affect water demand for rice via changes in rainfall regime, soil water balance, and evapotranspiration. Higher temperatures and increased variability of precipitation are predicted to increase water demand and could potentially require more irrigation in lowland rice-growing areas. In this study we present the first results from model simulations in which we integrated a rice model into the Agro-IBIS dynamic ecosystem model. We predict the impact of climate change on the water use requirement of rice production in southern Brazil and evaluate changes in irrigation needed to meet minimum water demand to sustain current yields. Brazil is the 9th top rice producer in the world, and southern Brazil accounts for about 80% of the national production. The Agro-IBIS model was driven with historic weather data provided by CRU (1961-90) and with two future climate scenarios from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for 2015-2100 - Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP45) and 8.5 (RCP85). On an hourly time step, Agro-IBIS accounts for gains (precipitation) and losses (evaporation, transpiration, infiltration and runoff) of water in each grid cell, and uses rules to irrigate in order to maintain a specific height of standing water on the field. Simulated historic and future amounts of irrigated water needed to maintain this water height will be evaluated to predict future water demand for rice production in southern Brazil.

  1. Leprosy in a University Hospital in Southern Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Adma Silva; Pinto, Karin Cristine; Bona, Míryan Priscilla Santos; de Mattos, Suelen Mayara Lopes; Hoffmann, Marina Portiolli; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Ottoboni, Vanessa Cristhine Dallolmo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leprosy is an infectious disease that may lead to irreversible nerve damage, compromising patient's quality of life and leading to loss of working years. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients followed at a University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective observational study, based on a review of medical records. We studied the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with leprosy monitored at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Paraná between January 2005 and January 2010. RESULTS The mean age was 47.51, while 35.94% of patients were aged 41-60. The male:female rate was 1.8:1. The most prevalent occupations were: retired, students or rural workers. Patients came mainly from Curitiba or nearby areas, but there were also patients from the countryside. The mean diagnostic delay was 24.57 months. Multibacillary forms prevailed, with the lepromatous variety being the most common, closely followed by the borderline type. Neural enlargement was found in more than 50% of the patients and 48.44% of them developed reactional states. Hemolysis was the most commonly detected drug side effect. Initial functional evaluation was possible in 70% of patients, 55% of whom had disabilities upon diagnosis. The most prevalent associated disease was hypertension. CONCLUSIONS This study showed an important diagnostic delay and a high rate of sequelae in this specific population. Brazil is one of the few remaining countries that has not yet eradicated leprosy and it is important to improve health policies in order to prevent sequelae and achieve eradication. PMID:26560210

  2. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in the southern part of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro

    1957-01-01

    During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.

  3. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tacuatiá, Luana Olinda; Eggers, Lilian; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum. PMID:22481881

  4. Increase of chronic low back pain prevalence in a medium-sized city of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly disabling morbidity with high social, economic and individual effects. Demographic, occupational and behavioral changes that took place in Brazil over the last decade are related with an increasing burden of chronic conditions. Despite these changes, comparison studies on CLBP prevalence and associated factors, over time are scarce in the literature in general, and unknown in Brazil. The present study compared the CLBP prevalence in a medium sized city in Brazil between the years 2002 and 2010 and examined factors associated with prevalence in 2010. Methods Two cross-sectional studies with similar methodology were conducted in a medium-sized city in southern Brazil, in 2002 and 2010. 3182 individuals were interviewed in the first study and 2732 in the second one, all adults aged twenty years or more. Those who reported pain for seven weeks or more in the last three months in the lumbar region where considered cases of CLBP. Results The CLBP prevalence increased from 4.2% to 9.6% in 8 years. In most of the studied subgroups the CLBP prevalence has at least doubled and the increase was even larger among younger individuals with more years of education and higher economic status. Conclusions Increase in CLBP prevalence is worrisome because it is a condition responsible for substantial social impact, besides being an important source of demand for health services. PMID:23634830

  5. Footprints of large theropod dinosaurs and implications on the age of Triassic biotas from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Rafael Costa; Barboni, Ronaldo; Dutra, Tânia; Godoy, Michel Marques; Binotto, Raquel Barros

    2012-11-01

    Dinosaur footprints found in an outcrop of the Caturrita Formation (Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil), associated with a diverse and well preserved record of fauna and flora, reopen the debate about its exclusive Triassic age. The studied footprints were identified as Eubrontes isp. and are interpreted as having been produced by large theropod dinosaurs. The morphological characteristics and dimensions of the footprints are more derived than those commonly found in the Carnian-Norian, and are more consistent with those found during the Rhaetian-Jurassic. The trackmaker does not correspond to any type of dinosaur yet known from Triassic rocks of Brazil. Recent studies with the paleofloristic content of this unit also support a more advanced Rhaetian or even Jurassic age for this unit.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponini) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rogelio R; Arias, Maria C; Moretto, Geraldo

    2009-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Brazilian endemic stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier ranges from Rio Grande do Sul to Minas Gerais states. The objective of the present study was to verify mtDNA polymorphisms among samples of M. q. quadrifasciata collected in southern Brazil. Twenty nine colonies from three localities (Blumenau and Mafra/SC and Prudentópolis/ PR) were sampled. Seven mtDNA regions were amplified and further digested with 15 restriction enzymes (PCR-RFLP). Five composite haplotypes were identified, with two unique to samples from Prudentópolis and the remaining three to samples from Mafra and/or Blumenau. PMID:19488509

  7. Density-dependent changes in the feeding behaviour of Macrodon atricauda of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L G; Haimovici, M

    2016-07-01

    Long-term density-dependent changes in the population dynamics of the king weakfish Macrodon atricauda of southern Brazil between 1976 and 2013 may be related to a change in diet and an increase in feeding intensity. The importance of the small crustacean, Artemesia longinaris, increased in the diet of adults, whereas the importance of teleosts decreased and the frequency of full stomachs increased. Macrodon atricauda currently benefits from a high availability of A. longinaris, which results in a higher energy intake per individual, which, in turn, induces faster body growth and an earlier onset of sexual maturation. PMID:27095149

  8. Epistylis smalli (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) a new peritrich from Guaiba Lake, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Utz, Laura R P; Dos Santos, Mariana Silva; De Araujo, Gabriella Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Epistylis smalli n. sp., a freshwater colonial peritrich, was collected in Guaíba Lake, Southern Brazil. Its morphology was investigated using in vivo observations and protargol stained specimens. E. smalli possess an elongate zooid that measures in vivo, on average, 173 μm in length and 50 μm in width. A C-shaped macronucleus that surrounds the infundibulum and a single contractile vacuole could be easily observed in the living cell. The oral infraciliature observed in silver-stained specimens was typical of peritrich ciliates, with three infundibular polykinetids bearing three rows of kinetosomes. A detailed description of the live and stained zooids is given. PMID:26624684

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

  10. Geophysical structures and tectonic evolution of the southern Guyana shield, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2014-07-01

    Aerogeophysical data of an area located on the southern portion of the Guyana shield in Brazil was processed using a fine interpolating mesh, and a corresponding spatial data integration strategy which included the stacking of different high-resolution images, and interpretation following quality control of these. The selected images were correlated to the local known surface geologic units, and to the spatial distribution of the main geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton. The interpretation of the results also included the available geophysical information for the region, related to Moho depth values, and previously determined SKS shear-wave splitting direction. The observed magnetic regional trends may be strongly influenced by the Proterozoic crustal structure in the area, while radiometric anomalies correlate with the more detailed geologic features. Based on the parallelism among mapped geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton, and observed geophysical structures on the study area, a geotectonic model is proposed for southern Guyana shield at Proterozoic age.

  11. Evidence for spawning aggregations of the endangered Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bueno, L S; Bertoncini, A A; Koenig, C C; Coleman, F C; Freitas, M O; Leite, J R; De Souza, T F; Hostim-Silva, M

    2016-07-01

    In this study, seasonal numerical abundance of the critically endangered Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara was estimated by conducting scuba dive surveys and calculating sightings-per-unit-effort (SPUE) at three sites in southern Brazil. Seasonal differences in size and reproductive condition of captured or confiscated specimens were compared. The SPUE differed significantly with season, increasing in late spring and peaking during the austral summer months. A significant effect was observed in the number of fish relative to the lunar cycle. All females sampled during the summer were spawning capable, while all those sampled during other seasons were either regressing or regenerating. What these data strongly infer is that the E. itajara spawning aggregation sites have been located in the southern state of Paraná and the northern state of Santa Catarina and summer is the most likely spawning season. Size frequency distributions, abundance and reproductive state were estimated and correlated with environmental variables. PMID:27264779

  12. Taphonomy and paleoecology inferences of vertebrate ichnofossils from Guará Formation (Upper Jurassic), southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; Schultz, Cesar L.; Bertoni-Machado, Cristina

    2008-03-01

    In southern Brazil, the eolian facies of the Guará Formation (Late Jurassic) reveal footprints and trackways of vertebrates (dinosaurs), as well as burrows made by small vertebrates. All the footprints and trackways are preserved in dunes and sand sheets. The footprints made in the sand sheets are not well preserved due to intense trampling and can be distinguished only by the deformation of the sandstone laminations. In some cases it is possible to see this deformation in plan and in section. Tracks of theropods, ornithopods and middle-sized sauropods are present. Two footprints preserved in the foreset of a paleodune permitted recognition of slide structures and identification of the trackmaker, a theropod. Burrows horizontally across the foresets were found at this same paleodune. Ribbons of massive sandstone - interpreted as the partial filling of the base of the burrows - covered by little blocks of stratified sandstone - suggest the collapse of the burrow roof inward. There are no body fossils in the Guará Formation, consequently the preservation of these tracks provides unique evidence of widespread dinosaurs activity in southern Brazil near the end of the Jurassic.

  13. Wachholz, a new exquisite dinosaur-bearing fossiliferous site from the Upper Triassic of southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Rodrigo Temp; da Rosa, Átila Augusto Stock; Roberto da Silva, Lúcio; Aires, Alex Sandro Schiller; Pacheco, Cristian Pereira; Pavanatto, Ane Elise Branco; Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio

    2015-08-01

    The present contribution reports a new fossiliferous site from the Caturrita Formation (Upper Triassic of Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil), which yields articulate, complete, associated, and exceptionally well-preserved dinosaur specimens, together with the sole occurrence of an isolated tooth ascribed to a carnivore indetermined archosauriform. These specimens increase the sauropodomorph record from this geological unit. A preliminary evaluation of such specimens suggests that sauropodomorph dinosaurs could have been more abundant in Norian Faunas from southern Brazil, considering the increased sampling here reported. So far, about six specimens are previously recognized (disregarding Guaibasaurus) from the Caturrita Formation, and here we add four specimens, or even five if consider an additional autopodium. Also, the morphology of the isolated carnivorous-type tooth differs from other described carnivorous archosauriform teeth from the Caturrita Formation. Hence, it might represent a still undescribed taxon. Further studies of these specimens will certainly provide new data regarding biostratigraphy, phylogeny, paleoecology, and taphonomy, as this new fossiliferous locality preserves one of the most representative dinosaur records from the Norian worldwide.

  14. Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Cutaneous Melanoma in a Region of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Marcelo; Schmitt, Ricardo Ludwig; Lang, Maria Gabriela; Gheno, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania. PMID:22548178

  15. Infant mortality in southern Brazil: a population based study of causes of death.

    PubMed Central

    Barros, F C; Victora, C G; Vaughan, J P; Teixeira, A M; Ashworth, A

    1987-01-01

    The causes of 215 infant deaths occurring in a population based cohort of 5914 infants from southern Brazil were determined. Perinatal problems were responsible for 43% of these deaths and infectious diseases for 32%. In the group who died of infectious diseases, respiratory infections and diarrhoea were equally important, each accounting for 12% of all deaths. A total of 87% of the deaths occurred in the first six months of life, and this proportion remained high (77%) even after perinatal causes had been excluded. On the other hand, 53% of the infants who died were of low birth weight, as opposed to 7.9% of the survivors. This suggests that low birthweight infants need to be carefully followed by health workers at primary level, especially during the first six months. It was estimated that if the incidence of low birth weight was reduced from the present 8.8% to 5% the likely reduction in infant mortality would be 20%. This reduction would be 33% for deaths due to perinatal causes, 14% for respiratory infections, and only 5% for diarrhoea. Efforts for the prevention of infant deaths in southern Brazil are more likely to be effective if they concentrate on improving perinatal health care and environmental conditions. PMID:3606182

  16. Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a Parasite of Wild Mammals in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Martins, Thiago F; Oliveira, Caroline S; Binder, Lina C; Costa, Francisco B; Nunes, Pablo H; Gregori, Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    During 2013-2014, adult ticks were collected on the vegetation and subadult ticks were collected from small mammals [Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer), Euryoryzomys russatus (Wagner), Akodon montensis Thomas, Oxymycterus judex Thomas] in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southern Brazil. Analyses of the external morphology of the adult ticks revealed that they represent a new species, Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. Partial 16S rRNA sequences generated from males, females, and nymphs were identical to each other and closest (95% identity) to corresponding sequences of Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann. A. yucumense is morphologically and genetically closest related to A. dubitatum. Dorsally, male of these species can be separated by major longitudinal pale orange stripes associated with a pseudoscutum indicated by a pale stripe in A. yucumense, in contrast to pale creamy longitudinal stripes and absence of pseudoscutum in A. dubitatum. Ventrally, male coxal I spurs are separated by a space narrower than external spur width in A. yucumense, and wider than external spur width in A. dubitatum. Females of the two species can be separated by coxal I spurs, longer in A. yucumense than in A. dubitatum. In addition, the adult capitulum and ventral idiosoma of A. yucumense are generally dark brown colored, while A. dubitatum is yellowish or light brown colored. The nymph of A. yucumense differs from A. dubitatum by the scutal cervical groove length, slightly shorter in the former species. Currently, A. yucumense is restricted to southern Brazil. PMID:26336277

  17. Evaluation of water quality at the source of streams of the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, T; Kieling-Rubio, M A; Klauck, C R; Rodrigues, M A S

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos River Basin (SRB) is located in the northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º20' to 30º10'S and 50º15' to 51º20'W), southern Brazil, and covers two geomorphologic provinces: the southern plateau and the central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin, has an area of approximately 800 km 2 and contains 32 counties. The basin provides drinking water for 1.6 million inhabitants in one of the most important industrial centres in Brazil. This study describes different water quality indices (WQI) used for the sub-basins of three important streams in the SRB: Pampa, Estância Velha/Portão and Schmidt streams. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters assessed bimonthly using samples collected at each stream source were used to calculate the Horton Index (HI), the Dinius Index (DI) and the water quality index adopted by the US National Sanitation Foundation (NSF WQI) in the additive and multiplicative forms. These indices describe mean water quality levels at the streams sources. The results obtained for these 3 indexes showed a worrying scenario in which water quality has already been negatively affected at the sites where three important sub-basins in the Sinos River Basin begin to form. PMID:26270221

  18. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil. PMID:19569487

  19. Evaluation of the impact of ENSO on precipitation extremes in southern Brazil considering the ODP phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firpo, M. A.; Sansigolo, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most important modes of interannual variability from ocean-atmosphere system is the El Niño/Southern Oscillation - ENSO. The Brazil southern region belongs to the Southeast of South America, where there is a strong signal of ENSO, especially over the precipitation. This phenomenon can be modulated by low frequency climate patterns, especially the dominant pattern of North Pacific, called Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Attempting to better understand these interactions, the objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal impact of ENSO events over the Southern Brazil precipitation, taking into account the PDO phases. The dataset used in this study, consist of monthly precipitation records of six well distributed stations from southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul state). From these series it was calculated a unique index, which was categorized in three classes, in order to obtain the extremes: very below normal precipitation (below the percentile 10), normal precipitation (between percentile 10 and 90) and very above normal precipitation (above the percentile 90). To characterize the ENSO events, it was applied the Trenberth (1997) criteria in the index proposed by Bunge and Clarke (2009), which corrects the inconsistencies between the conventional SST index for Niño 3.4 region and the Southern Oscillation Index before 1950, going beyond the incoherence for decadal scale. For PDO, it was used the index proposed by Mantua et al. (1997). Contingency tables were constructed to analyze the seasonal, simultaneous, and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months lagged relationships between ENSO events (El Niño, neutral, La Niña), and extreme precipitation anomalies (categories), also considering the PDO phases during the 1913-1999 period. Moreover, a wavelet analysis was used to check the coherency and phase among these 3 times series during the 1913-2006 period. The Contingency Tables analysis showed that, generally, there were more positive (negative) precipitation

  20. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

    PubMed

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920. PMID:26275046

  1. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where ‘islands’ of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920. PMID:26275046

  2. Hydrology evaluation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool considering measurement uncertainty for a small watershed in southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Areas under intensive tobacco crop cultivation have impacted the water balance and have become sources of environmental contamination in Southern Brazil. Correct determination of the area’s hydrology is essential since it is the driving force of sediment and nutrient loading dynamics. The Soil and W...

  3. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…

  4. Multi-cereal molecular surveys suggest host preference among members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex from southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to assess the extent and distribution of members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) associated with cereals grown in southern Brazil between 2009 and 2012. The total collection comprised 1,127 isolates, which were divided into four collections obtained from: 1) disea...

  5. Denudation History and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Phanerozoic of southern Mantiqueira Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission

  6. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  7. Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhoff, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major

  8. Geochronological Records of Southern Ribeira Belt (Brazil): New Calibrations for Gondwana History.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cury, L. F.; Siga Junior, O., Sr.; Harara, O.; Bahniuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Paranaguá terrane is mainly constituted by an arc-related granitic complex, spread in a large NE-SW elongated stripe, located in Southern Ribeira Belt, Southeastern Brazil. The country rocks of these granites occur as a disrupted folded belt composed of metassedimentary rocks and gneissic-migmatitic rocks in split basement nuclei. The southern part of the Paranaguá Terrane is characterized by high angle tectonics; on the other hand, the northern portion by low angle tectonics. The transcurrent shear zones of Southern Paranaguá Terrane, comprising a sinistral kinematic with oblique component, are marked by the coexistence of strike-slip and down-dip lineations. The thrust shear zones represent a large front collision, located in the Northern Paranaguá Terrane, with north-northwest convergence and oblique components. The transition between these two distinct tectonic styles is given by N-S faults associated with a transpressive regime, with lateral ramp characteristics. Different generations of granite intrusions took place during the magmatic arc development, with petrographic, lithogeochemical and isotopic similarities suggesting emplacement stages during a late collisional event. Older U-Pb zircon ages between 620-610 Ma indicate the presence of a relatively early magmatism associated to the first stages of subduction in southern Paranaguá Terrane. The main magmatic period is characterized by Neoproterozoic records obtained by U-Pb zircon, which give ages between 600-580 Ma. Furthermore, the metamorphic peak of the metassedimentary sequence, with U-Pb monazite age of 599 ± 5 Ma, is quite close to the main magmatic events. In addition, the U-Pb zircon records obtained in crystals rims of deformed granitoids and late leucogranitic veins show ages between 530-480 Ma. This geological context suggests a complex history for Gondwana agglutination, with late stages at Cambro-Ordovician's Buzios Orogeny.

  9. The Montesbelos mass-flow (southern Amazonian craton, Brazil): a Paleoproterozoic volcanic debris avalanche deposit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, M.

    2016-07-01

    The present contribution documents the extremely well-preserved Paleoproterozoic architecture of the Montesbelos breccia (named here for the first time), which is interpreted as a rare example of a subaerial paleoproterozoic (>1.85 Ga) granular-dominated mass-flow deposit, few of which are recorded in the literature. Montesbelos deposit is part of the andesitic Sobreiro Formation located in the São Felix do Xingu region, southern Amazonian craton, northern Brazil. The large volume, high variability of textural features, presence of broken clasts, angular low sphericity fragments, mono- to heterolithic character, and the size of the outcrops point to a volcanic debris avalanche flow. Fluviatile sandy material and debris flows are associated with the deposit as a result of post-depositional reworking processes.

  10. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout–vent length 9.9–13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  11. Feeding ecology and trophic comparisons of six shark species in a coastal ecosystem off southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bornatowski, H; Braga, R R; Abilhoa, V; Corrêa, M F M

    2014-08-01

    The diets of six shark species, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena, Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Rhizoprionodon lalandii and Galeocerdo cuvier, were investigated in a subtropical coastal ecosystem of southern Brazil. Stomach content data were obtained to assess foraging niche segregation and ontogenetic shifts in the diets of these sharks. Five of the shark species off the Paraná coast were ichthyophagous, with the exception of S. zygaena, which was teutophagous. With the exception of G. cuvier, which had a generalist diet, the other five species displayed specialization in their feeding. Ontogenetic shifts were observed in C. obscurus and S. lewini with large individuals consuming elasmobranchs. Owing to the diet overlap between C. obscurus and S. lewini, C. obscurus and C. limbatus and R. lalandii and C. limbatus, future studies on the spatial and temporal distributions of these species are needed to understand the extent of competitive interactions. PMID:24919949

  12. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23° 27'S and 51° 15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant. PMID:26602353

  13. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pie, Marcio R; Ribeiro, Luiz F

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout-vent length 9.9-13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  14. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Henrique C; Resende, Flávia C; Teixeira, Mauro; Dal Vechio, Francisco; Clemente, Cinara A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains. PMID:26131637

  15. Exobiology at Southern Brazil: Spore Dosimetry and the UV Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampelotto, P. H.; Rosa, M. B.; Schuch, N. J.; Pinheiro, D. K.; Schuch, A. P.; Munakata, N.

    2009-12-01

    The ultraviolet - UV is considered the range of solar radiation most immediately lethal to the life organisms on the Earth’s surface. In this context, since 2000, the monitoring of the biologically-effective solar radiation using spore dosimeter at the Southern Space Observatory (29.4° S, 53.8° W), South of Brazil, has been performed. The biological dosimeter is based in the spore inactivation doses of Bacillus subtilis strain TKJ6312, who is sensitive to the UV solar radiation. Monthly expositions of biological dosimeter have been compared with solar irradiance obtained by Brewer spectrophotometer. Correlations indices about r > 0.86 shows the potential applicability of the biosensor in the monitoring of biologically-effective solar radiation. Since spores are stabile microorganisms, considering extreme environment variations, the biosensor may be used for studies of the effects of the solar radiation in others planetary environments for future work.

  16. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Leptospira interrogans Isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Sérgio; Monte, Leonardo G; De Oliveira, Natasha R; Collares, Thais F; Roloff, Bárbara C; Gomes, Charles K; Hartwig, Daiane D; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartleben, Cláudia P

    2015-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes from the genus Leptospira, which includes 20 species and more than 300 serovars. Canines are important hosts of pathogenic leptospires and can transmit the pathogen to humans via infected urine. Here, we report the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil. The isolated strain was characterized by variable-number tandem-repeats analysis as L. interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. In addition, the isolate was recognized by antibodies from human and canine serum samples previously tested by microscopic agglutination test. Ultimately, the expression of membrane-associated antigens (LipL32 and leptospiral immunoglobulin-like proteins) from pathogenic leptospires using monoclonal antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In conclusion, identification of new strains of Leptospira can help in the diagnosis and control of leptospirosis. PMID:26100241

  17. Radon emissions related to the granitic Precambrian shield in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fianco, Ana C B; Roisenberg, Ari; Bonotto, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The equivalent uranium (eU) activity concentration was analysed in selected granite samples at several sites in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, to obtain information on the radon ((222)Rn) generation by the aquifer rock matrices. Radon analyses of ground water and soil samples were also performed. Several samples exhibited a dissolved (222)Rn activity concentration exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq l(-1). The dissolved radon content in ground waters from the Fractured Precambrian Aquifer System exhibited a direct significant correlation with the eU in the rock matrices, which is a typical result of water-rock interactions. Variation in the soil's porosity was confirmed as an important factor for (222)Rn release, as expected, due to its gaseous nature. Thus, although the calcic-alkaline to alkaline Precambrian granitoid rocks of the study area are important reservoirs for underground resources, they can release high amounts of radon gas into the liquid phase. PMID:22852747

  18. [Use of evaluation by primary healthcare managers: a case study in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nickel, Daniela Alba; Natal, Sonia; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2014-12-01

    This article reports on a meta-evaluation, focused on utilization, in a state in southern Brazil. This was a single case study with primary data collection using semi-structured interviews with health department administrators and staff. Content analysis used categories defined in the evaluation matrix: political and organizational context and implementation of evaluation. The political and organizational context revealed weaknesses in the items on experience, evaluation team, and time and space for reflection. Technical autonomy was verified in the State and in one municipality. In the implementation of evaluation, evaluative quality met the established criteria, but there was no prior definition of the uses and users of evaluation. One report referred to use for planning actions and political use. The study concluded that evaluation produced important information for stakeholders, with the political and organizational context as the principal limiting factor for use. PMID:26247991

  19. Multiple resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to nine different drugs in a sheep flock in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Toscan, Gustavo; Camillo, Giovana; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Ribas, Henrique Olmedo; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres

    2010-10-11

    Based on clinical observation of a flock of approximately 5000 sheep (breed Merino) from southern Brazil, the failure of anthelmintic treatments was suspected. The sensitivity of the gastrointestinal nematodes that infected these sheep to nine drugs (Levamisole, Moxidectin, Albendazole, Ivermectin, Nitroxynil, Disophenol, Trichlorphon, Closantel, and a combination of Ivermectin, Levamisole and Albendazole) was evaluated. None of the drugs reduced the count of nematode eggs per gram of feces (EPG) in the sheep to an adequate extent (defined as a 95% reduction in EPG). Therefore, we found multiple parasite resistance to all classes of anthelmintic drugs available for small ruminants in the Brazilian market. The genera Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Ostertagia spp. had various degrees of resistance (or natural tolerance) to each of the drug treatments. PMID:20619543

  20. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    PubMed Central

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. OBJECTIVE We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. METHODS We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. RESULTS Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. CONCLUSION Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index. PMID:24068126

  1. Association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and outcome of hepatitis B virus infection in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gusatti, Carolina de Souza; Costi, Cintia; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Silva, Márcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2016-10-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, no general consensus has been reached, possibly due to differences between ethnic groups. In this study, 345 individuals living in southern Brazil, including 196 chronic HBV carriers and 149 subjects who had spontaneously recovered from acute infection, were enrolled to evaluate the influence of cytokine gene polymorphisms on the outcome of HBV infection. Most participants were of European descent. Genotyping of IL2-330 G/T, IL4-589C/T, IL6-174 G/C, IL10-592C/A, IL10-1082 A/G, IL17A-197 G/A, IL17A-692 T/C, TNF-α-238 G/A, and TNF-α-308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed by using the minisequencing (single base extension) method. By multivariable analysis, a statistically significant association was found between genotypic profile AA + GA in TNF-α-308 and chronic HBV infection (OR, 1.82; 95%CI, 1.01-3.27; P = 0.046). In southern Brazil, the carriers of the -308A allele in the TNF-α gene promoter have a moderately higher risk of becoming chronic carriers in case of HBV infection. In addition, patients with chronic active hepatitis B (n = 60) exhibited a decreased frequency (3.3%) of the TNF-238A allele when compared to that (14.8%) found among asymptomatic HBV carriers (n = 136), suggesting that this could be a protective factor against liver injury (OR, 0.17; 95%CI, 0.04-0.076; P = 0.023). J. Med. Virol. 88:1759-1766, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26959287

  2. Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Landínez, M; Sánchez-Ingunza, R; Guard, J; do Nascimento, V Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from southern Brazil, the Kauffmann–White–Le Minor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR) region that assesses single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring around a 5S ribosomal gene. Serotypes identified were Heidelberg (40·6%), Enteritidis (34·2%), Hadar (8·4%), Typhimurium (3·9%), Gallinarum (3·2%), Agona (1·3%), Cerro (1·3%), Livingstone (1·3%), Infantis (0·6%), Isangi (0·6%), Mbandaka (0·6%), Montevideo (0·6%) and Senftenberg (0·6%). Three unique ISRs were detected from four strains. Day old chicks yielded only S. Enteritidis, whereas S. Heidelberg was most often associated with poultry carcasses. Overall agreement between KWL and ISR was 85·2%, with disagreement possibly due to the ability of ISR to detect mixtures of serotypes in culture. Overall, ISR provided more information than did KWL about the ecology of Salm. enterica on-farm. The O-antigen group D Salm. enterica serovars such as Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis appear susceptible to overgrowth by other serotypes. Significance and Impact of the Study Single nucleotide polymorphisms found in a group of poultry-associated Salmonella isolates from southern Brazil provided evidence of mixtures of serovar group D serotypes on-farm and in single samples from birds. This finding suggests that co-infection and interserotype competition of Salmonella enterica in poultry could impact the incidence of disease in animals or humans. In addition, unique serotypes were identified on-farm that escaped characterization by antibody typing. Application of cost-efficient and highly discriminatory genomic methods for assigning serotype may alter concepts about the epidemiology of Salm. enterica on-farm and in foods. PMID:23734786

  3. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

  4. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in the State of Parana in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malaghini, Marcelo; Brockelt, Sonia Regina; Burger, Marion; Kritski, Afrânio; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2009-01-01

    Sequence IS6110 has been successfully used throughout the world for characterizing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages. The aim of this study was to obtain data about circulating strains of M. tuberculosis in patients from the State of Parana in southern Brazil. Sixty-two clinical specimens obtained from sputum, bronchial aspirate, biopsy and urine from 62 patients clinically diagnosed with tuberculosis and admitted to the SUS-Brazil - The Brazilian Centralized Health Service System - were genotyped by the mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting technique. The analysis demonstrated that the number of copies of the IS6110 sequence per isolates varied from four to 13 bands, with an average number of 8.5. From this, 93% of the isolates presented multiple copies. Isolates with no copies of the IS6110 element were not observed. The genetic analysis by UPGMA grouped the 62 isolates by similarity into three different groups: the first group contained two strains, the second was composed of 23, and the third, a more heterogeneous group, contained 37 isolates. Only two isolates (3.2%) formed a cluster; in other words, they presented a pattern of polymorphism with similarity above 95%. Such findings suggest that in the State of Parana, illness predominantly develops through reactivation of the latent infection as opposed to exogenous transmission. The methodology used (mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting) allowed for 93.5% differentiation of the isolates tested, and proved to be a powerful tool for differentiation in the molecular genotyping of M. tuberculosis. PMID:18824413

  5. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    PubMed

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  6. High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

  7. Geological context of the dinosauriform-bearing outcrops from the Triassic of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da-Rosa, Átila A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The Triassic of the western Gondwana (southern Brazil and northwestern Argentina) records the oldest dinosaurs. The Southern Brazilian Triassic fauna is subdivided into four assemblage zones (AZ's), recorded in alluvial (channel and floodplain) deposits, split into three third-order sequences that comprise the Santa Maria Supersequence. These deposits record dinosauriforms in three of these AZ's, mostly in near-channel environments (channel deposits, crevasse splays, distal floodplains) with different types of preservation (mostly partly articulated, with little carbonate deposition). There is faciological homogeneity within the Dinodontosaurus, Santacruzodon and Hyperodapedon AZ's, whereas change in fluvial style is recorded at the Riograndia AZ. So, further stratigraphic studies must include the recognition of post-depositional tectonism, in order to better understand the autogenic and allogenic mechanisms of deposition. It is suggested here that there is a lateral change on main channel deposition, with the areal restriction of the Santacruzodon AZ probably linked to reactivation on the Passo do Sobrado lineament and modification of the basin floor.

  8. Genetic diversity of the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis Olfers, 1818) in Southern and Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Trinca, C S; Waldemarin, H F; Eizirik, E

    2007-12-01

    The Neotropical otter is one of the least known otter species, and it is considered to be threatened to various degrees throughout its geographic range. Little information exists on the ecological characteristics of this species, and no genetic study has been published about it until now, hampering the design of adequate conservation strategies for its populations. To contribute with genetic information to comprehensive conservation efforts on behalf of L. longicaudis, we characterized the molecular diversity of the 5 portion of the mtDNA control region in samples from this species collected in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The sequence analysis revealed a high level of haplotype diversity (h=0.819; SE=0.0052) and nucleotide variability ranging from 0.0039 to 0.0067. One of the sampled haplotypes was the most common in both regions and, from this sequence, several other (locally occurring) haplotypes could be derived by single point mutations. No significant genetic differentiation was observed between the Southern and Southeastern regions. PMID:18278347

  9. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  10. First occurrence of blaOXA-58 in Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from a clinical sample in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Gusatti, Carolina; Bertholdo, Lauren Martins; Otton, Letícia Muner; Marchetti, Desirée Padilha; Ferreira, Alessandra Einsfeld; Corção, Gertrudes

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii from clinical origin carrying the blaOXA-58 gene in Brazil. The isolate included in this study was from a patient during an outbreak in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2007. It was resistant to most of the beta-lactams tested, it has also the blaOXA-65 gene and the ISAbal sequence located upstream to both blaOXA genes detected and it has a MIC of imipenem of 64 μg/mL. PMID:24031824

  11. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  12. Reproductive biology of the stingrays, Myliobatis goodei and Myliobatis ridens (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae), in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, P R V; Oddone, M C; Velasco, G

    2016-07-01

    This study, carried out between spring 2012 and winter 2014, characterized the sexual development and reproductive cycle of Myliobatis goodei and Myliobatis ridens in the extreme south of Brazil to support future management and conservation plans. Ninety-five specimens of M. goodei (24 males and 71 females) and 175 M. ridens (24 males and 151 females) were sampled. Female M. goodei attained disc-width-at-50% maturity (WD50 ) at 683 mm. Uterine fecundity was four to five embryos. The largest male recorded, a mature individual, had a disc width of 650 mm. In M. ridens, WD50 was 662 mm. Uterine fecundity varied from one to eight embryos. The largest male on record was a maturing 590 mm WD individual. The hepato-somatic index was higher in autumn in females of M. goodei, and in the summer in M. ridens. The gonado-somatic index and the largest vitellogenic follicle diameter were higher in spring in both species. Pregnant females of both species were recorded during spring, although for M. ridens, these females also occurred in summer. Embryos had WD of 61-218 and 40-236 mm for M. goodei and M. ridens, respectively. The incidence of pregnant females in southern Brazil in spring-summer coincides with the small-scale beach artisanal fisheries season peak, when M. goodei and M. ridens suffer fishing mortality, while using the coastal shallow areas in the warmer periods (spring-summer) to give birth. PMID:27221505

  13. Post-collisional subvolcanic rhyolites associated with the Neoproterozoic Pelotas Batholith, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Diego Skieresz de; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Lima, Evandro Fernandes de; Basei, Miguel Ângelo Stipp

    2015-11-01

    Neoproterozoic volcanic and subvolcanic rhyolitic systems in southernmost Brazil are correlated with acid magmatism linked to different petrotectonic associations of the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield. A portion of this volcanism in the Dom Feliciano Belt is associated with the Pelotas Batholith, which resulted from magmatic episodes associated with the Ediacaran post-collisional evolution of southern Brazil. Ana Dias Rhyolite is the main subvolcanic occurrence of this volcanism that took place in the Quitéria region, in the central part of Rio Grande do Sul State. The acid magmatism has been commonly associated with the most differentiated granite suite phases during the final stages of emplacement of the Pelotas Batholith. The Ana Dias Rhyolite is characterized as an intrusive body with rocks that present a porphyritic to seriated texture and a gradational variation to fine-grained equigranular rocks. New zircon U-Pb dating indicates crystallization age of 581.9 ± 1.9 Ma for the Ana Dias Rhyolite. Geochemistry data characterize the rhyolites as belonging to the alkaline series; they present a metaluminous to peraluminous character; elevated SiO2 and alkali concentrations, high FeOt/FeOt + MgO ratios and agpaitic index; and low Al2O3, CaO, and MgO contents. The Zr, Rb, Y, Nb, and Ga concentrations are moderate when compared with the relatively low Ba and Sr contents. These geochemistry characteristics are common in acid magmas with alkaline affinity. The behavior of certain trace elements and REE demonstrate enrichment in more incompatible elements, in addition to the negative anomaly of Ba, the slight enrichment in Ce relative to adjacent elements, as well as the enrichment in K2O and Rb relative to Nb, suggesting magmas derived from mantle sources enriched in incompatible elements with some crustal contamination. The chemical characteristics are similar to those of A-type granites associated with Neoproterozoic post-collision magmatism in the Sul

  14. Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Béria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andréia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations. PMID:19432975

  15. Modeling sugarcane ripening as a function of accumulated rainfall in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Nilceu P.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.; Panosso, Alan R.; Palhares, Antonio L.; Ide, Bernardo Y.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12 months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kg t-1). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120 days before harvest as an independent variable ( R 2 adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision ( R 2 adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy ( D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE ≤ 5 %), even in regions with different climatic conditions.

  16. Modeling sugarcane ripening as a function of accumulated rainfall in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Nilceu P; Sentelhas, Paulo C; Panosso, Alan R; Palhares, Antonio L; Ide, Bernardo Y

    2015-12-01

    The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12 months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kg t(-1)). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120 days before harvest as an independent variable (R (2) adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision (R (2) adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy (D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE ≤ 5 %), even in regions with different climatic conditions. PMID:25921362

  17. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods - especially eggs and meat products - were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. PMID:24516439

  18. Investigation of rainwater contamination sources in the southern part of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hoinaski, Leonardo; Franco, Davide; Haas, Reinaldo; Martins, Renata Fátma; Lisboa, Henrique de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Rainwater quality is influenced by air pollutants and can affect sensitive ecosystems. This study was conducted to identify the sources of rainwater contamination in a receptor investigated in the southern part of Brazil. A total of 22 rainwater samples were collected at Florianópolis, Brazil. The sampling station is influenced by continental emissions (soil resuspension, traffic emissions and combustion) and marine aerosols. Over the sampling period, the average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the precipitation was found to be 4.97 +/- 0.41 and 14.68 microS cm(-1) +/- 13.47, respectively. In addition topH and EC, ions and trace metals in the collected rainwater were quantified. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including principal component analysis (PCA), a back trajectory model and other statistical and graphical interpretation methodologies. A PCA showed that Cl(-), Na+, Mg2+ and part of the K+ and SO4(2-) content were mainly contributed by marine aerosols, whereas the contribution from continental sources (combustion, traffic emissions and other urban activities) was dominant in the content of NO3(-) and part of the SO4(2-) and Mn content. Soil resuspension was responsible for the concentrations of most of the trace metals (apart from Mn) and Ca2+ in the rainwater. An inverse correlation among the elemental concentrations, amount of rainfall and wind speed was observed. The northern transport pathway was identified as being associated with high concentrations of NO3(-) and slightly decreased pH values. However, the low standard deviation observed for the pH values during the sampling campaign also showed a small variation in the data, suggesting that the acidity is most probably being constantly sourced from a natural origin, such as organic acids. PMID:24645469

  19. A new species of inseminating seasonal killifish of the Cynopoecilus melanotaenia complex from southern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae)

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cynopoecilus melanotaenia complex is a morphologically homogeneous killifish group, endemic from an area encompassing southern Brazil and northeastern Uruguay. It presently comprises four valid species: C. melanotaenia, the type species of the genus, and C. fulgens, C. intimus, and C. nigrovittatus. New information Cynopoecilus feltrini, n. sp., from the lower Tubarão river basin, southern Brazil, is distinguished from all congeners of the C. melanotaenia complex by having frontal E-scales medially overlapped, branchiostegal region orangish red in males and dorsum with few dark brown spots above opercular region. A phylogenetic tree derived from the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (681 bp) indicates that C. feltrini is a member of the clade that includes all species of the C. melanotaenia complex except C. melanotaenia, as well as that C. feltrini is the sister group of a clade comprising C. fulgens and C. nigrovittatus. PMID:27099548

  20. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  1. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  2. Rickettsia sp. Strain Atlantic Rainforest Infection in a Patient from a Spotted Fever-Endemic Area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Guztzazky, Ana Carolina; Oliveira, Stefan V; Santos, Fabiana C P; Angerami, Rodrigo N; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; de Souza, Julio C; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-09-01

    Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil is the state with the second highest number of laboratory-confirmed cases of spotted fever illness in Brazil. However, all these cases were confirmed solely by serological analysis (seroconversion to spotted fever group rickettsiae), which has not allowed identification of the rickettsial agent. Here, a clinical case of spotted fever illness from Santa Catarina is shown by seroconversion and molecular analysis to be caused by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. This is the third confirmed clinical case due to this emerging rickettsial agent in Brazil. Like the previous two cases, the patient presented an inoculation eschar at the tick bite site. Our molecular diagnosis was performed on DNA extracted from the crust removed from the eschar. These results are supported by previous epidemiological studies in Santa Catarina, which showed that nearly 10% of the most common human-biting ticks were infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. PMID:27325804

  3. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Gislene L; Marinho, Jorge R; Freitas, Thales R O

    2009-10-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high. PMID:21637469

  4. A new Crossodactylodes Cochran, 1938 (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Paratelmatobiinae) from the highlands of the Atlantic Forests of southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mauro; Recoder, Renato Sousa; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Damasceno, Roberta Pacheco; Cassimiro, José; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2013-01-01

    A new Crossodactylodes is described from Serra das Lontras, in the highlands of the Atlantic Forests of southern Bahia. The new species can be distinguished from all other Crossodactylodes by having Finger I ending in an acute tip, a larger body size, by cranial features, and by molecular data. Like their congeners, the new species live in bromeliads but is widely geographically disjunct, being apparently restricted to the summit of a mountain range in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:26146739

  5. Norovirus Recombinant Strains Isolated from Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil, 2004–2011

    PubMed Central

    Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20) has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85%) non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9); GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4); GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4); GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2); GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1); GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1); GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1); and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1). On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009) no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains circulating in the

  6. Local distribution and abundance of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1928 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Neto, J F; Batista, E; Metri, R; Metri, C B

    2014-02-01

    The blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) is officially included in the list of over-exploited species in Brazil, although still abundantly found in the state of Santa Catarina, the southern limit of its distribution. This species was found in forested areas, gardens, and grassy areas, including crabs with carapace width larger than 80mm. The existence of this population with these characteristics is surprising, since there is only one official record of the species in the southern region. The objectives of this study are to estimate the abundance and occupation patterns of C. guanhumi in this region. Correlations with conservation were discussed. The absolute abundance of crabs in the middle of summer activity was established for an area of 100,000 m2. A smaller area was mapped and divided into sampling units for statistical analyses. We distributed approximately 240 crabs in a forested area of about 3,000 m2 and 150 crabs in grassy areas (90,000 m2). The statistical test of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences between the sizes of the openings of the galleries inside the forest and that located in grassy areas. In the forest, the openings tend to be much larger. Burrows were found at a distance of 150 metres from the channel. The number of galleries was higher in the forested area, although the burrows were more densely grouped in grassy areas. Although C. guanhumi seems to be adjusting well to changes caused by human occupation, small forested areas are more conducive to growth and conservation of this species. PMID:25075466

  7. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32%. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality. PMID:25179529

  8. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus. PMID:25806977

  9. A new microendemic species of Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from southern Brazil and revalidation of Tropidurus catalanensis Gudynas & Skuk, 1983.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Tobias Saraiva; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    The South American and cis-andean lizard genus Tropidurus has a complex taxonomic history. Most species were recently described and previous revisions included few specimens from the southern part of the continent. Tropidurus torquatus has the broadest geographic distribution in the genus and several morphological and ecological differences were described within its distribution. We analyzed the geographic variation in external morphological characters of Tropidurus torquatus, including large number of samples from southern Brazil. Tropidurus catalanensis is revalidated and Tropidurus imbituba sp. nov., with a restrict distribution in the southern coast of Brazil, is described. The new species is distinguished from Tropidurus catalanensis by the number of dorsal scales. It can be distinguished from T. catalanensis and T. torquatus by a distinct orange ventral coloration in adults, which can reach the lateral portion of the body in adult males. Our analysis also suggests that at least two other undescribed species could be recognized under the name Tropidurus torquatus in southeastern and central Brazil. PMID:25232619

  10. Paleoproterozoic felsic volcanism of the Tapajós Mineral Province, Southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, M.; Giordano, D.; Echeverri-Misas, C. M.; Juliani, C.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonian rocks record one amongst the most complete and best-preserved Paleoproterozoic magmatic episodes on Earth. The present contribution documents the extremely well preserved paleoproterozoic architecture of a series of felsic rocks found in the Tapajós Mineral Province (TMP), located in the western part of Pará State, southern Amazon Craton, north of Brazil. These rocks are the first to be investigated to comprehend, based on their textural evidences, their emplacement mechanisms. Textural characterization allowed to identify three main facies with, as following reported, 1) chaotic ("Breccia") group, 2) eutaxitic ("Eutax") group and 3) parataxitic ("Paratax") group vitrophyric textures. Given the superb preservation of our samples, the investigated rocks are grouped, according to their grade of welding, into a wide variety of lithofacies from very low-grade to high-grade and rheomorphic ignimbrites. In the "Paratax group" strong similarities with banding in lava flows are observed. Based on the presented data we discuss the effusive or explosive origin of the observed flow mechanisms.

  11. Phaeohyphomycoses in a free-ranging loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domiciano, Isabela Guarnier; Domit, Camila; Trigo, Cariane Campos; de Alcântara, Brígida K; Headley, Selwyn A; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the occurrence of mycotic infection in a loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, found on Mostardas beach in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The specimen was observed alive, emaciated, and died the following day. A necropsy was performed soon after death and tissue samples routinely processed for histopathological and molecular evaluation. Significant pathological alterations included multifocal to coalescing, 0.5-4 cm in diameter nodules were observed throughout the peritoneum and kidneys that revealed caseous, grayish content when sectioned; histopathological evaluation revealed severe peritonitis and nephritis associated with intralesional fungi. Fungal PCR that targeted the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi revealed three different species of fungi: Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternata arborescens within the kidneys while Ampelomyces sp. was identified within peritoneal granulomas. C. cladosporioides and A. arborescens are melanized fungi that produce phaeohyphomycosis in a wide range of species. However, the importance of the identification of the mycoparasite Ampelomyces sp. DNA within the peritoneal granulomas remains unclear. PMID:24947171

  12. Water and CO2 Exchange for Different Land Use in Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, D. R.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Diaz, M.; Tatsch, J. D.; Acevedo, O. C.; Zimermann, H. R.; Rubert, G. C.; Acosta, R.; Campos Velho, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa is the newest and most unknown Brazilian Biome. It is located in the Southern portion of the country, as well as part of Argentina and the entire Uruguay, and is formed principally by natural grasslands that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock. In recent decades it has gone through a process of intense land use change and degradation, with the replacement of natural vegetation by rice paddy crops, soybean and exotic forests. Recent studies show that the Pampa has only 36% of its original vegetation in Brazil. Research on carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in Pampa Biome are recent. It is known that the Pampa natural areas contain high stocks of soil organic carbon, and therefore their conservation is relevant for climate change mitigation. However, the net exchange of carbon and water between the surface and the atmosphere are unknown. To fill this gap, a flux tower network, SULFLUX - www.ufsm.br/sulfux, was created. Currently, SULFLUX comprises three flux towers in the Pampa biome, two of them being over natural vegetation and the other one over a rice paddy. The flux towers are nearly 100 km apart from each other. We examine the effects of climate on carbon fluxes of through the year 2014. Analysis of temporal variability in water and CO2 fluxes are examined at daily to annual scales. Overall, regional variability in climatic drivers, land use and soil proprieties appears to have a greater effect on evapotranspiration than on net carbon exchange.

  13. Holocene dynamics of vegetation change in southern and southeastern Brazil is consistent with climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Jackson Martins; Behling, Hermann; Giesecke, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    At mid to high northern latitudes postglacial vegetation change has often occurred synchronously over large regions triggered mainly by abrupt climate change. Based on 19 pollen diagrams from southern and southeastern Brazil we explore if similar synchronicities in vegetation change were also characteristic for the vegetation dynamics in low latitudes. We used sequence splitting to detect past vegetation change in the pollen diagrams and computed principal curves and rates of change to visually evaluate the changes in composition and dynamics. The results show that vegetation change occurred mostly during the second half of the Holocene with distinct episodes of change. The character of vegetation change is generally consistent with shifts to wetter conditions and agrees with inferred shifts of the South American Monsoon. Speleothems as well as the titanium record from the Cariaco Basin indicate several episodes of rapid shifts in the precipitation regime, which are within the dating uncertainty of the here detected periods of vegetation change (8900, 5900, 2800, 1200 and 550 cal yrs BP). Our results indicate that low latitude vegetation composition follows precession forcing of the hydrology, while change is often triggered and synchronized by rapid climate change much like in high and mid latitudes. Pollen diagrams document changes in the abundance of individual taxa and changes in the amount of woodland cover, while small compositional changes indicate a regional stability of vegetation types during the Holocene.

  14. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3 /DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8) and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17). CMA 3 /DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time. PMID:21637420

  15. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P.

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among “shantytown” youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an “anti-biologizing” explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven “biopsychiatrization” so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to “resist” pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870

  16. Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.

    2001-11-01

    Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.

  17. [Autoantibody profile among Kaingang and Guarani tribe Indians in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Utiyama, S R; Guardiano, J; Petzl-Erler, M L; Mocelim, V; de Messias-Reason, I J

    2000-06-01

    This study investigated the autoantibody profile of 241 blood samples from 176 Kaingang and 65 Guarani Indians from three populations living on the Rio das Cobras and Ivaí reservations, in the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil. The presence of antimitochondrial, anti-smooth muscle, antinuclear, anti-parietal cell, and anti-liver-kidney microsome antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. These results were compared with samples from 100 healthy Caucasian individuals from the general population of the state. Total positivity was 9% for the indigenous population and 4% for the control population. The prevalence of anti-smooth muscle antibodies was significantly higher among the Guarani and Kaingang individuals from the Rio das Cobras reservation (P = 0.03). It is likely that the increased exposure that these indigenous Brazilians have to infectious diseases that were previously unknown to them comes from more contact with non-native populations, growing acculturation, and cultural practices that include scarification and tattooing. The presence of auto-antibodies in these Brazilian Indians may be related to mechanisms of molecular mimicry with viral or bacterial antigens. PMID:10949897

  18. Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

    2013-06-01

    High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals). PMID:23149723

  19. Risk Factors for Infection with Different Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Paraboni, Marisa Lúcia Romani; Sbeghen, Marina Dallagasperina; Wolff, Fernando Herz; Moreira, Leila Beltrami

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the proportion of different genotypes in countryside microregions in southern Brazil, and their association with risk factors. Methods. Cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of patients who tested positive for HCV-RNA and were referred to a regional health center for genotyping, from December 2003 to January 2008. Data were obtained through the National Disease Surveillance Data System, from laboratory registers and from patient charts. Identification of genotypes was carried out using the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism “in house” technique. Independent associations with genotypes were evaluated in multinomial logistic regression and prevalence rates of genotypes were estimated with modified Poisson regression. Results. The sample consisted of 441 individuals, 41.1 ± 12.0 years old, 56.5% men. Genotype 1 was observed in 41.5% (95% CI 37.9–48.1) of patients, genotype 2 in 19.3% (95% CI 15.0–23.6), and genotype 3 in 39.2% (95% CI 35.6–43.0). HCV genotype was significantly associated with gender and age. Dental procedures were associated with higher proportion of genotype 2 independently of age, education, and patient treatment center. Conclusions. The hepatitis C virus genotype 1 was the most frequent. Genotype 2 was associated with female gender, age, and dental procedure exposition. PMID:22666173

  20. [Dietary patterns in menopausal women receiving outpatient care in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maichelei; Mendes, Karina Giane; Canuto, Raquel; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Theodoro, Heloísa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to identify dietary patterns and the relationship with menopausal status. It involved a cross-sectional study with 646 women in outpatient care in southern Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed by a frequency questionnaire and five dietary patterns were identified by main component analysis. The menopausal status was classified as premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Five dietary patterns were identified: fruit and vegetables; Brazilian fare (rice, beans and milk); snacks (cake, burgers, pizza and sweetbread); health diet (fish, fruit juice, bread and vegetable soup), and regional (typical food in the Serra Gaucha, like red meat, pasta and yams). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, there was no significant association between menopausal status and dietary patterns. Only age, education and income were associated with dietary patterns. Five dietary patterns that described the food consumption of the population studied were identified, which are similar to those indicated as ideal for the Brazilian population. The findings reveal that the dietary pattern of women in menopause are significantly influenced by age, education and income but are not influenced by the menopausal status per se. PMID:26017958

  1. Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reche, Maria Helena L R; Machado, Vilmar; Saul, Danilo A; Macedo, Vera R M; Marcolin, Elio; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program. The indicators used were: potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total and fecal coliforms. Principal Component and Discriminant Analysis showed consistent differences between the water irrigation and drainage, as the temporal variation demonstrated a clear reduction in the concentration of most of the variables analyzed. The pattern of this reduction is not the same in the two regions - that is, the importance of each of the different variables in the observed differentiation is modified in two locations. These results suggested that the variations in the water quality utilized for rice irrigation was influenced by certain specific aspects of each rice region in South Brazilian - such as anthropic action or soil/climate conditions in each hydrographic basin. PMID:26959326

  2. Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar Vaz, Joana

    2015-01-01

    This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ≤ 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606

  3. Risk communication concerning welding fumes for the primary preventive care of welding apprentices in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ≤ 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606

  4. Reduced riparian zone width compromises aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Aline Bianca; Wilhelm, Andréia Emília; Boelter, Thaíse; Stenert, Cristina; Schulz, Uwe H; Maltchik, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Recent changes in Brazilian legislation reduced the width of riparian forest buffer needed to be preserved in private properties from 30 to 15 m or less. The consequences of these modifications can be dramatic, mainly because riparian buffer width is an important parameter for riparian forest structure and functioning. Our study assessed whether (1) macroinvertebrate family richness and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) family richness decrease with reduced riparian buffer width; (2) taxonomic composition and functional feeding group (FFG) composition of macroinvertebrates vary with a reduced riparian buffer width; and (3) reduced riparian buffer width similarly influence the macroinvertebrate community in different stream substrates. We selected three fragments with different riparian buffer widths (>40, <30, and <15 m) in three streams (fourth and fifth orders) in the Sinos River watershed, southern Brazil. Our results show that on all substrate types, reducing the width of the riparian buffer altered neither the macroinvertebrate richness nor EPT richness. However, EPT richness was greater in the substrates stone and gravel than leaf litter, independent of riparian buffer width. There was a significant difference in macroinvertebrate composition among riparian buffer widths. The macroinvertebrate composition and FFG differed among substrates, independent of riparian buffer width. This study showed that riparian buffer widths <15 m altered the macroinvertebrate community. A width greater than 15 m is necessary to maintain the composition and trophic conditions of macroinvertebrate families similar to those found in reference states of conservation. PMID:25052327

  5. High frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Weber, M N; Silveira, S; Machado, G; Groff, F H S; Mósena, A C S; Budaszewski, R F; Dupont, P M; Corbellini, L G; Canal, C W

    2014-10-13

    Ruminant pestiviruses can infect cattle populations worldwide and cause significant economic losses due to their impact on productivity and health. Knowledge of pestivirus diversity is important for control programs and vaccine development and for determining probable sources of infection. In this paper, we describe a search for ruminant pestiviruses with RT-PCR in sera of 9078 calves from 6 to 12 months of age. The calves were first analyzed in pools and then analyzed individually. Thirty-three RT-PCR positive animals were detected (0.36%) from 6.9% (24) of the 346 herds. The sequencing analysis of the 5' non-coding region and N terminal autoprotease showed the presence of BVDV-1a (15 isolates), -1b (3), -1d (1) and -2b (14), with a higher frequency (42.4%) of BVDV-2 in comparison with other countries. The presence of sheep was significantly associated with BVDV infection. Our results also suggested that a BVDV control program based only on the investigation of cattle would not be successful, especially in regions with farms harboring multiple animal species. This study may also serve as a reference for future control programs in Southern Brazil because it reports the prevalence of cattle with active infections and the genetic background of the circulating strains. PMID:25109547

  6. Clinical and molecular characterization of patients at risk for hereditary melanoma in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ashton-Prolla, Patricia; Bakos, Lucio; Junqueira, Gerson; Giugliani, Roberto; Azevedo, Sergio J; Hogg, David

    2008-02-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous of all common skin cancers, due to its propensity to metastasize. Therefore, identification of at-risk populations may allow early detection of disease at a curable stage. In Europe and North America, between 8-14% of melanoma patients have a family history of the disease, and a subset of these individuals possess germline mutations in the CDKN2A gene, which encodes the p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) tumor suppressors. We identified 30 patients (29 families) from Southern Brazil, who had a family history of melanoma and/or pancreatic cancer; or a personal history of multiple primary melanoma. We screened this cohort for mutations in the CDKN2A and CDK4 genes, and detected two functional mutations: a G-34T transversion in 5'untranslated region; and a M53I alteration encoded in exon 2. Both mutants have been previously associated with melanoma and demonstrate founder effects. We conclude that germline mutations of CDKN2A occur in the Brazilian population, and that these mutations likely originated in Europe. PMID:17713569

  7. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterization of pathogenic bacteria at different stages of cattle slaughtering in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loiko, Márcia R; de Paula, Cheila M D; Langone, Ana C J; Rodrigues, Rochele Q; Cibulski, Samuel; Rodrigues, Rogério de O; Camargo, Anderson C; Nero, Luís A; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Tondo, Eduardo C

    2016-06-01

    Meat can be contaminated in different stages of the slaughtering process and the identification of these stages is the starting point to implement adequate control measures. The objectives of this study were to assess the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in cattle carcasses, to identify the most important contamination points of the slaughtering process, and to evaluate the possible risk factors related to them in a cattle slaughterhouse. To this aim, 108 cattle carcasses were sampled at three stages of the slaughtering process: Point 1 (hides after bleeding); Point 2 (carcasses after hide removal); and Point 3 (carcasses immediately after division). Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Livingstone were isolated from the carcasses. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that there was cross-contamination among animals, since bacteria with identical genotypic and phenotypic profiles were isolated from different animals at the same sampling day. Furthermore, this is the first report about the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in a bovine slaughterhouse from southern Brazil. PMID:26896744

  8. Dental pathology in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from the southern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loch, Carolina; Grando, Liliane J; Kieser, Jules A; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C

    2011-05-01

    Pathological processes observed in the stomatognathic systems of mammalian species are a useful source of information about the habits, evolution and general health of such animals. Studies of pathological conditions on teeth are common in humans and other primates, but rare in wild animals in general and marine mammals in particular. For cetaceans, previous studies provided scanty records of dental anomalies in a few species. This is the first broad and systematic inventory of dental pathology in dolphins. Specimens stored at scientific collections from the southern coast of Brazil were visually inspected under a stereoscopic microscope using a dental explorer. Diagnosis of lesions and anomalies followed literature descriptions. Abnormalities such as caries-like lesions, mineralized calculus deposits, dental erosion, enamel anomalies (hypoplasia and exogenous pigmentation), root resorption, germination and other shape anomalies, were diagnosed in the delphinids Sotalia guianensis, Delphinus capensis, Stenella frontalis, Stenella coeruleoalba, Lagenodelphis hosei, Pseudorca crassidens, Orcinus orca, Steno bredanensis and Tursiops truncatus. Endogenous causes may be related to the occurrence of certain conditions, but the aetiology of caries-like lesions and calculus accumulation is still unknown for cetaceans. The diagnosis of alveolar anomalies and other bone lesions in specimens with dental pathology lead us to believe these lesions modify the integrity of the periodontal ligament and bony tissues, adding to the burden of morbidity of affected animals. PMID:21790069

  9. Social vulnerability and climate variability in southern Brazil: a TerraPop case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, S. B.; Fitch, C. A.; Kugler, T.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is an inherent characteristic of the Earth's climate, including but not limited to climate change. It affects and impacts human society in different ways, depending on the underlying socioeconomic vulnerability of specific places, social groups, households and individuals. This differential vulnerability presents spatial and temporal variations, and is rooted in historical patterns of development and relations between human and ecological systems. This study aims to assess the impact of climate variability on livelihoods and well-being, as well as their changes over time and across space, and for rural and urban populations. The geographic focus is Southern Brazil-the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul-- and the objectives include (a) to identify and map critical areas or hotspots of exposure to climate variability (temperature and precipitation), and (b) to identify internal variation or differential vulnerability within these areas and its evolution over time (1980-2010), using newly available integrated data from the Terra Populus project. These data include geo-referenced climate and agricultural data, and data describing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, households and places.

  10. Breastfeeding and feeding patterns in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: trends and differentials

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar G.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Barros, Fernando C.

    2009-01-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental for child health. Changes in the duration of breastfeeding are compared for three population-based cohorts of children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples of the 1982 and 1993 children and all of the children from the 2004 cohort study were sought at home when they were aged around 12 months. Both the duration of breastfeeding and the stage at which different kind of foods were regularly introduced were investigated. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 3.1 to 6.8 months in this period. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months was practically non-existent in 1982 and had reached one third of infants by 2004. The increase was faster after 1993, suggesting an important impact made by promotion activities. Up to about 6-9 months, breastfeeding was more prevalent in high-income families, but after this age it became more common among the poor. Low birth weight babies were breastfeed for shorter durations. The duration of breastfeeding is still far short of international recommendations, justifying further campaigns. Special attention should be given to low birth weight babies and those from low-income families. PMID:18797716

  11. Ecological risk analysis of pesticides used on irrigated rice crops in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Danielle Cristina; Noldin, José Alberto; Deschamps, Francisco C; Resgalla, Charrid

    2016-11-01

    Based on studies conducted in the past decade in the southern region of Brazil to determine residue levels of the pesticides normally used on irrigated rice crops, changes can be observed in relation to the presence of pesticides in the waters of the main river basins in Santa Catarina State. In previous harvests, the presence of residues of 7 pesticides was determined, with the herbicide bentazon and the insecticide carbofuran being the products showing highest frequency. Following toxicological tests conducted with 8 different test organisms, deterministic and probabilistic risk analysis was performed to assess the situation of the river basins in areas used for the production of irrigated rice. Of the species tested, the herbicide bentazon showed greatest toxicity toward plants, but did not present an ecological risk because in the worst-case scenario the highest concentration of this pesticide in the environment is 37 times lower than the lowest EC50/LC50 value obtained in the tests. The insecticide carbofuran, which had the highest toxicity toward the organisms used in the tests, presented an ecological risk in the deterministic analysis, but without any associated probability. The results highlight the need for increased efforts in training farmers in crop management practices and for the continual monitor of water bodies for the presence of pesticide residues. PMID:27479455

  12. Southern elephant seal trajectories, fronts and eddies in the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagna, Claudio; Piola, Alberto R.; Rosa Marin, Maria; Lewis, Mirtha; Fernández, Teresita

    2006-12-01

    This study describes the association between transient, mesoscale hydrographic features along the axis of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence, in the SW Atlantic, and the foraging behavior of 2-3-year-old (focal) juvenile southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, from Península Valdés, Argentina. Departing from the dominant pattern of foraging on predictable bathymetric fronts on the Patagonian shelf and slope, three females out of 12 satellite-tracked juveniles remained at the edge of young warm-core eddies and near the outer core of cold-core eddies, coinciding with the most productive areas of these temperature fronts. Seal trajectories along high-temperature gradients were always consistent with the speed and direction of surface currents inferred from the temperature distribution and confirmed by surface drifters. Movements of foraging seals were compared with those of surface drifters, coinciding in time and space and yielding independent and consistent data on regional water circulation parameters. The diving pattern recorded for one focal seal yielded shallower dives and a loose diel pattern in the eddy, and a marked diurnal cycle compatible with foraging on vertically migrating prey in the cold waters of the Malvinas Current. Pre-reproductive females that use the mesoscale fronts of the Argentine Basin as an alternative foraging area would benefit from lower competition with more experienced seals and with other top predators that reproduce along the coast of Patagonia.

  13. Risk perception and occupational accidents: a study of gas station workers in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Silva, Mara Regina Santos da; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira

    2012-07-01

    The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05). It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment. PMID:22851948

  14. Detection and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from fresh semen of naturally infected dogs in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koch, M O; Weiss, R R; Cruz, A A; Soccol, V T; Gonçalves, K A; Bertol, Maf; Beltrame, O C; Dittrich, R L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate Toxoplasma gondii and determine the viability of the parasite in fresh semen samples of clinically healthy adult dogs naturally infected. Eleven seropositive dogs with T. gondii IgG antibodies from southern Brazil were selected to confirm the presence and viability of T. gondii in fresh semen samples using in vitro isolation in Vero cell culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The presence of viable T. gondii was confirmed by in vitro isolation and PCR in five semen samples. The ITS1 region of the isolated protozoa (TG S4) was amplified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence obtained was 99% compatible with the T. gondii DNA sequences stored in the GenBank. It has been shown that T. gondii tachyzoites may be isolated in vitro from fresh semen samples of clinically healthy dogs seropositive for T. gondii. PMID:27287987

  15. The Association of Health and Income in the Elderly: Experience from a Southern State of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.; Pieper, Carl F.; King, Katherine E.; Andreoli, Sergio B.; Gastal, Fábio L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50th-66th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions. Methods Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥60 (N=6963), in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status), depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale) together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures. Results In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status). For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association), and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes. Conclusion Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled. PMID:24058505

  16. Epistylis portoalegrensis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Peritrichia): A New Freshwater Ciliate Species from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kühner, Steffen; Simão, Taiz L L; Safi, Lúcia S L; Gazulha, Fernanda B; Eizirik, Eduardo; Utz, Laura R P

    2016-01-01

    The peritrich ciliate Epistylis portoalegrensis n. sp. was found in two bodies of freshwater located in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Morphological features were investigated using live and protargol-stained specimens. The zooids presented a vase to cylindrical shape narrowed at the scopula, and a mean size of 131 × 37 μm in vivo. A C-shaped macronucleus lay in the middle of the cell close to a single contractile vacuole. The oral infraciliature was typical for the genus, with all infundibular polykineties composed by three distinct rows of kinetosomes. Colonies are often nonbranched with no lateral stalk, carrying several zooids stemming from a single point. Specimens from the two sampling sites showed identical arrangement of the infraciliature, similar morphometry, identical 18S rDNA sequences, and a single nucleotide difference across the more variable ITS regions. Molecular phylogenetic analyses placed E. portoalegrensis in a well-supported clade containing other Epistylis species, within the order Vorticellida. PMID:26198754

  17. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

  18. Seasonal patterns of horse fly richness and abundance in the Pampa biome of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome. PMID:26611972

  19. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    2009-10-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

  20. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique P

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among "shantytown" youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an "anti-biologizing" explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven "biopsychiatrization" so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to "resist" pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870

  1. First insight into the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Prim, Rodrigo Ivan; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Rovaris, Darcita Büerger; Maurici, Rosemeri; Rossetti, Maria Lúcia; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Bazzo, Maria Luiza

    2016-03-01

    Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is useful for understanding disease transmission dynamics, and to establish strategic measures for TB control and prevention. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical, epidemiological and molecular characteristics of MTBC clinical isolates from Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. During one-year period, 406 clinical isolates of MTBC were collected from Central Laboratory of Public Health and typed by spoligotyping. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the Brazilian National Mandatory Disease Reporting System. The majority of cases occurred in highest population densities regions and about 50% had some condition associated with TB. Among all isolates, 5.7% were MDR, which showed association with drug addiction. LAM was the most predominant lineage with 47.5%, followed by the T superfamily with 25.9% and Haarlem with 12.3%. The MST showed two major groups: the first was formed mainly by the LAM lineage and the second was mainly formed by the T and Haarlem lineages. Others lineages were distributed in peripheral positions. This study provides the first insight into the population structure of M. tuberculosis in SC State. Spoligotyping and other genotyping analyses are important to establish strategic measures for TB control and prevention. PMID:26980497

  2. Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline about to take off; seen as litmus test for Southern Cone gas grid

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    After more than 4 decades of studies, plans, and shelved projects, the proposed Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline is finally about to get off the ground. The 3,700 km gas pipeline will require an investment of at least $2 billion and is viewed by many as a litmus test for the developing gas market and energy integration of South America`s Southern Cone countries. Overall, industry officials see eventual emergence of two large integrated gas grids serving South America: one for the northern countries and another for the Southern Cone. This will enable the six countries with gas surplus to their needs to export the surplus to neighboring, gas-short countries. The northern gas-long countries are Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago; those in the Southern Cone are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. The paper discusses financial details, project details, pipeline construction, the Petrobras strategy, Argentine pipeline projects, and other pipeline proposals.

  3. Synsedimentary deformation and the paleoseismic record in Marinoan cap carbonate of the southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Joelson Lima; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio; Riccomini, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    Event Layers in Neoproterozoic cap carbonates of Brazil's southwestern Amazon Craton record post-Marinoan synsedimentary seismicity. The 35 m-thick cap carbonates overlie glaciogenic sediments related to the Marinoan glaciation (635 Ma) and are comprised of two units: the lower cap consists of dolomite (˜15 m thick) and the upper cap is limestone (˜25 m thick). The cap dolomite includes pinkish crystalline dolostone with even parallel lamination, stratiform stromatolites, eventual tube structures and megaripple bedded peloidal dolostone interpreted as shallow (euphotic) platform deposits. The cap limestone onlaps the cap dolomite and consists of red marl, gray to black bituminous lime mudstone, bituminous shale with abundant calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite) and even parallel lamination interpreted as moderately deep to deep platform deposits. Five successive events of synsedimentary deformation were recognized in the cap carbonates exposed at Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra, in Central Brazil: Event 1 - large to small-scale load cast structures in the contact between dolostones and glaciogenic sediments; Event 2 - stromatolitic lamination truncated by tube structures; Event 3 - vertical to subvertical fractures and faults, and large-scale synclines and anticlines with chevron folds; Event 4 - conglomerate and breccia filling neptunian dykes limited by undeformed beds; and Event 5 - slump and sliding deposits found only in the upper part of the cap limestone. Event 1 was produced by hydroplastic dynamics likely induced by isostatic rebound during ice cap melting in the final stages of the Marinoan glaciation. Events 2 and 5 are autocyclic in nature, and related to depositional processes. Event 2 is linked to fluid and methane escape from organic degradation of microbial mats and domes that formed tubestones; Event 5 is associated to collapse and sliding/slumping in the platform and slope. The reliable orientations of synsedimentary faults

  4. Identification of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malheiros, J; Costa, M M; do Amaral, R B; de Sousa, K C M; André, M R; Machado, R Z; Vieira, M I B

    2016-07-01

    Dogs and cats are often infected with vector-borne pathogens and play a crucial role as reservoirs and hosts in their life cycles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and cats in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. One hundred and ten blood samples were collected from dogs (n=80) and cats (n=30). Laboratory analysis were carried out through stained blood smears, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis (only for dogs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aiming the detection of pathogens. The following pathogens were screened by PCR among dogs and cats: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene for dogs and 16S rRNA gene for cats) and Bartonella spp. (nuoG gene only for cats). Using blood smears structures morphologically compatible with piroplasms were found in 5.45% (6/110) of the samples. Anti-B. vogeli and anti-E. canis antibodies were detected in 91% (73/80) and 9% (7/80) of the dogs, respectively. All the seropositive dogs to E. canis were also to B. vogeli. Nineteen (17.3%) animals were positive to hemoparasites by PCR. After sequencing Rangelia vitalii 6/80 (7.5%), B. vogeli 3/80 (4%), Hepatozoon spp. 1/80 (1%), and Anaplasma spp. 1/80 (1%) were found in the dogs, and B. vogeli 2/30 (7%) and Bartonella spp. 6/30 (20%) were detected in the screened cats. No sample was positive for genes dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia spp. Only those animals which were positive for R. vitalii showed findings compatible with rangeliosis, such as anemia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), jaundice (50%), external bleeding (50%), and anorexia (50%). This is the first time that B. vogeli detected among cats in Southern Brazil. PMID:27266811

  5. Clustering of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases among Adolescents from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil. Methods The study included 916 students (14–19 years old) enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet), demographic variables (sex, age and skin colour) and economic variables (school shift and economic level) were assessed through a questionnaire. Simultaneous behaviours were assessed by the ratio between observed and expected prevalences of risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The clustering of risk factors was analysed by multinomial logistic regression. The clusters of risk factors that showed a higher prevalence were analysed by binary logistic regression. Results The clustering of two, three, four, and five risk factors were found in 22.2%, 49.3%, 21.7% and 3.1% of adolescents, respectively. Subgroups that were more likely to have both behaviours of physical inactivity and unhealthy diet simultaneously were mostly composed of girls (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.57–5.85) and those with lower socioeconomic status (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05–3.21); simultaneous physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.05–2.12). Subgroups less likely to have both behaviours of sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mostly composed of girls (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38–0.89); simultaneous physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older individuals (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49–0.87) and those of the night shift (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.43–0.82). Conclusion Adolescents had a high prevalence

  6. Tracing anthropogenically driven groundwater discharge into a coastal lagoon from southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Niencheski, Felipe; Burnett, William; Peterson, Richard; Chanton, Jeffrey; Andrade, Carlos F. F.; Milani, Idel B.; Schmidt, Axel; Knoeller, Kay

    2008-05-01

    SummaryWe investigated the distribution of naturally occurring geochemical tracers ( 222Rn, 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, CH 4, δ18O, and δ2H) in the water column and adjacent groundwater of Mangueira Lagoon as proxies of groundwater discharge. Mangueira Lagoon is a large (90 km long), shallow (˜4-5 m deep), fresh, and non-tidal coastal lagoon in southern Brazil surrounded by extensively irrigated rice plantations and numerous irrigation canals. We hypothesized that the annual, intense irrigation for rice agriculture creates extreme conditions that seasonally change groundwater discharge patterns in the adjacent lagoon. We further supposed that dredging of irrigation canals alters groundwater fluxes. While the activities of 222Rn in shallow groundwater were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in surface water, CH 4 and radium isotopes were only ˜1 order of magnitude higher. Therefore, 222Rn appears to be the preferred groundwater tracer in this system. Radon concentrations and conductivities were dramatically higher near the pump house of rice irrigation canals, consistent with a groundwater source. Modeling of radon inventories accounting for total inputs (groundwater advection, diffusion from sediments, and decay of 226Ra) and losses (atmospheric evasion, horizontal mixing and decay) indicated that groundwater advection rates in the irrigation canals (˜25 cm/d) are over 2 orders of magnitude higher than along the shoreline (˜0.1 cm/d). Nearly 75% of the total area of the canals is found in the southern half of the lagoon, where groundwater inputs seem to be higher as also indicated by methane and stable isotope trends. In spite of the relatively small area of the canals, we estimate that they contribute nearly 70% of the total (˜57,000 m 3/d) groundwater input into the entire Mangueira Lagoon. We suggest that the dredging of these canals cut through aquitards which previously restricted upward advection from the underlying permeable strata. The irrigation channels

  7. Seasonal contamination of public squares and lawns by parasites with zoonotic potential in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tiyo, R; Guedes, T A; Falavigna, D L M; Falavigna-Guilherme, A L

    2008-03-01

    The presence of helminths and protozoans in public squares and lawns of the city of Maringá, southern Brazil, during winter and summer was assessed in order to evaluate their seasonal fluctuations in relation to edaphic and climatic factors. Samples were collected from January 2003 through June 2004 in 90% (13) of all public squares covered by sand, and in 30% (4) of all lawns used as leisure areas. The samples were analysed quantitatively by modified centrifugal-flotation and sedimentation in water techniques, and qualitatively by a method based on positive larval thermo-hydrotropism. Meteorological data were recorded, and physical, chemical and structural characteristics of the soil were analysed. One hundred and thirty samples of sand from squares, 65 in summer and 65 in winter, and 40 samples of grass from lawns, 20 in each season, were collected. All samples from lawns, 62 (95.38%) from squares in winter and 45 (69.23%) in summer, contained protozoans and/or helminths. Eggs of Toxocara spp. were the most frequently observed parasites in both winter and summer in squares (P < 0.0001) and in lawns (P = 0.6142), being equally distributed among the different locations (P = 0.2038). Species diversity was lower in winter; fewer parasites were found in summer. This region, with a tropical climate and a mild winter dry season, has favourable edaphic and climatic conditions for soil contaminants to persist year-round. In addition, the high frequency of animals such as dogs and cats and the poor sanitary measures in force made it possible for zoonoses to be transmitted in the public spaces. PMID:18053297

  8. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2015-10-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model (R 2 = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  9. Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-1 Clade C versus B Infected Individuals in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Badiee, Jayraan; Cherner, Mariana; Smith, Davey; Maich, Ingrid; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Rotta, Indianara; Barbosa, Francisco Jaime; Heaton, Robert K.; Umlauf, Anya; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 clade C isolates show reduced Tat protein chemoattractant activity compared with clade B. This might influence neuropathogenesis by altering trafficking of monocytes into the CNS. A previous study suggested low rates of HIV-associated dementia in clade C infected individuals. The present study evaluated neurocognitive impairment rates in clade B- and C-infected individuals from the same local population. HIV+ and HIV- participants were recruited from the same geographic region in southern Brazil. We evaluated neuropsychological (NP) impairment using a screening instrument (the International HIV Dementia Scale; IHDS), as well as a Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of a comprehensive battery that has demonstrated sensitivity to HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) internationally. NP performance in controls was used to generate T-scores and impairment ratings by the global deficit score (GDS) method. Clade assignments were ascertained by sequencing pol and env. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected from all HIV+ participants. HIV+ and HIV- participants were comparable on demographic characteristics. HIV+ participants overall were more likely to be impaired than HIV- by the IHDS and the GDS. Clade B and C infected individuals were demographically similar and did not differ significantly in rates of impairment. The prevalence of pleocytosis, a marker of intrathecal cellular chemotaxis, also did not differ between clade B and C infections. Clade B and C HIV-infected individuals from the same geographic region, when ascertained using comparable methods, did not differ in their rates of neurocognitive impairment, and there was no evidence of differences in CNS chemotaxis. PMID:24277437

  10. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Domiciano, Isabela G.; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K.; Koch, Mariana S.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience. PMID:26871703

  11. Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm2. All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm2. Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm2 were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by both methods, achieving an approximately 5 log reduction. The reductions achieved by the sodium hypochlorite soaking method and the boiling method were not significantly different. Thus, it was possible to conclude that both recommended methods were suitable to disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services. PMID:24516443

  12. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in captive Neotropical felids from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Montaño, Patrícia; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2010-08-27

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. Members of the Felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. Wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of T. gondii IgG antibodies in 57 neotropical felids (1 Leopardus geoffroyi; 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 17 Leopardus wiedii; 22 Leopardus tigrinus; and 14 Leopardus pardalis) kept at the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, Itaipu Binacional, Southern Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using titer 16 as cut-off point. Seropositivity was observed in 38/57 (66.67%; 95% CI 53.66-77.51%) samples, with higher frequency in ocelots (71.43%). Wild-caught felids were three times more likely to be infected when compared to zoo-born animals (P

  13. Cognition and Indicators of Dietary Habits in Older Adults from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    França, Vivian Francielle; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; D’Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between unhealthy dietary habits and cognition in older adults from Southern Brazil. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave of a population- and household-based epidemiological survey (2013–2014) conducted in the city of Florianópolis. A total of 1,197 older adults (778 women) over 60 years old participated in the study. Cognition, the dependent variable, was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The independent variables were the following indicators of unhealthy dietary habits: low intake of fruits and vegetables (≤ 4 servings/day); fish (< 1 serving/week); and habitual fatty meat intake (yes/no). Adjustments were made for age, education level, income, smoking status, alcohol intake, leisure-time physical activity, depression symptoms, chronic diseases, and body mass index. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed, considering sampling weights and stratification by gender. Results The mean MMSE scores for men and women were 25.15 ± 5.56 and 24.26 ± 5.68, respectively (p = 0.009). After adjustments, in women low fruit and vegetable intake (≤ 4 servings/day) was independently associated with the lowest MMSE scores. No associations were found in men. Additionally, women’s mean MMSE scores increased as their daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake increased (p = 0.001). Conclusion Women with low fruit and vegetable intake according to the World Health Organization (WHO) have lower cognition scores. Regular intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish in exchange of fatty meats may be a viable public policy strategy to preserve cognition in aging. PMID:26894259

  14. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domiciano, Isabela G; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K; Koch, Mariana S; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2016-01-01

    Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience. PMID:26871703

  15. Vital Pulp Therapies in Clinical Practice: Findings from a Survey with Dentist in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chisini, Luiz Alexandre; Conde, Marcus Cristian Muniz; Correa, Marcos Britto; Dantas, Raquel Venâncio Fernandes; Silva, Adriana Fernandes; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Studies based on dentists' clinical practice possess vital relevance to understand factors leading the clinicians to choose by a specific technique over another. This study investigated which clinical conduct therapies are adopted by dentists in front of deep caries. Was evaluated how the place of work, post-graduate training and years since complete graduation influenced their decisions. A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-applied questionnaire with dentists (n=276) in Southern Brazil. Information regarding post-graduation training (specialization, master's or PhD), clinical experience (years since completing graduation) and place of work were investigated. The information regarding pulp vital therapies (materials for direct pulp capping; techniques for caries removal in deep cavities and strategies for indirect pulp capping) were collected by specific questions. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis and Exact Fischer Test. Response rate was 68% (187). The majority of dentists selected the calcium hydroxide (CH) as first material for direct (86.3%) and indirect (80.3%) pulp protection. Partial caries removal was reported by 61.9% of dentists. Less experienced clinical dentists choose partial caries removal more frequently (p=0.009), if compared with dentists graduated 10 years and up ago. The use of MTA was more common among professionals working at academic environment. Besides, MTA was not mentioned by professionals working exclusively in the public health service (p=0.003). In conclusion, the time since graduation influenced the clinical conduct related to caries removal. The choice of liner materials was influenced by dentists' workplace. PMID:26963197

  16. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2016-06-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model ( R 2 = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  17. Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm(2). All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm(2). Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm(2) were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by both methods, achieving an approximately 5 log reduction. The reductions achieved by the sodium hypochlorite soaking method and the boiling method were not significantly different. Thus, it was possible to conclude that both recommended methods were suitable to disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services. PMID:24516443

  18. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards. PMID:26987643

  19. Anthropometric indices among schoolchildren from a municipality in Southern Brazil: a descriptive analysis using the LMS method☆

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Valter Cordeiro; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Fagundes, Ricardo Rosa; de Campos, Wagner

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the percentile values for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height (WHtR) of children from Colombo, Brazil, and compare them with data of children from other countries. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2,035 children aged 6-11 years. Age- and sex-specific smoothed percentiles curves for BMI, WC and WHtR were created using the LMS method. Values of 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles from Brazilian children were compared with data from other countries. RESULTS: There was a trend of increasing BMI and WC with age in both sexes. WHtR remained constant with advancing age in boys and girls. Comparison of the growth pattern among countries showed clear differences. Southern Brazil boys and girls had elevated 90th percentile values for BMI, which was similar to German children and higher than the North American and World Health Organization percentile values. However, children from this study had intermediate values for WC and WHtR in comparison to children from other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated BMI values were observed among southern Brazilian children, but WC and WHtR percentile values were lower in southern Brazilian children than in children from other countries. Interventions at different levels should be made to avoid a probable increase of nutritional disorders (especially general obesity) in the next years. PMID:25510997

  20. [Use of medication by the elderly in urban and rural areas in southern Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Dal Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva; Pons, Emilia da Silva; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to measure use of medication and polypharmacy among the elderly in Carlos Barbosa, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and to compare socio-demographic, economic, and health characteristics in relation to area of residence (urban versus rural) in a random sample of 811 persons 60 year of age or older. Interviews were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, chronic illnesses, and self-reported use of medications. The association between area of residence and medication or polypharmacy was adjusted for confounders using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence rates for use of medication and polypharmacy were higher among older persons living in the urban area. Living in the urban area was positively and independently associated with use of medication (PR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1.02-1.20) and polypharmacy (PR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.27-2.65) in this group of elderly in southern Brazil. PMID:22267070

  1. Population-based HIV prevalence and associated factors in male-to-female transsexuals from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required. PMID:25245931

  2. Occurrence of Prosthenorchis elegans in Free-living Primates from the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Catenacci, Lilian S; Colosio, Adriana C; Oliveira, Leonardo C; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel M; Munhoz, Alexandre D; Deem, Sharon L; Pinto, Jaqueline M S

    2016-04-28

    Parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species' conservation. During necropsies on a free-living golden-headed lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ) and two Wied's marmosets ( Callithrix kuhlii ) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as Prosthenorchis elegans. This parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. Prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with increased risk of exposure from ingesting invertebrate intermediate hosts. The biological similarities and sympatric nature of these two nonhuman primates support that they may harbor similar infectious and parasitic agents. PMID:26981688

  3. Genetic identification of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in an endemic area of a mild spotted fever in Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo Voizzoni, Vinicius; Barbosa Silva, Arannadia; Medeiros Cardoso, Karen; Barbosa Dos Santos, Fernanda; Stenzel, Barbara; Amorim, Marinete; Vilges de Oliveira, Stefan; Salles Gazeta, Gilberto

    2016-10-01

    Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest causes a less severe rickettsiosis, with two cases confirmed until now. The tick species Amblyomma ovale is appointed as the main vector of this bacterium. The southern region of Brazil has reported patients with spotted fever who have milder symptoms. In 2013, during an investigation of rickettsiosis cases, an A. ovale tick was found attached to a man in an area where there were two cases. The parasite was processed for molecular analysis and the rickettsial infection was confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis of genes ompA, ompB and geneD (sca4). In the present study the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest was identified in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Since A. ovale, its main vector, is found frequently parasitizing dogs, animals that can cross international borders freely in southern Brazil, this bacteria can bring major concerns in terms of public health. PMID:27338183

  4. Wind Power Energy in Southern Brazil: evaluation using a mesoscale meteorological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusche, Nisia; Stoevesandt, Bernhard; Chang, Chi-Yao; Peralta, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, several wind farms were build in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul state. This region of Brazil was identified, in wind energy studies, as most favorable to the development of wind power energy, along with the Northeast part of the country. Site assessments of wind power, over long periods to estimate the power production and forecasts over short periods can be used for planning of power distribution and enhancements on Brazil's present capacity to use this resource. The computational power available today allows the simulation of the atmospheric flow in great detail. For instance, one of the authors participated in a research that demonstrated the interaction between the lake and maritime breeze in this region through the use of a atmospheric model. Therefore, we aim to evaluate simulations of wind conditions and its potential to generate energy in this region. The model applied is the Weather Research and Forecasting , which is the mesoscale weather forecast software. The calculation domain is centered in 32oS and 52oW, in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The initial conditions of the simulation are taken from the global weather forecast in the time period from October 1st to October 31st, 2006. The wind power potential was calculated for a generic turbine, with a blade length of 52 m, using the expression: P=1/2*d*A*Cp*v^3, where P is the wind power energy (in Watts), d is the density (equal to 1.23 kg/m^3), A is the area section, which is equal to 8500 m2 , and v is the intensity of the velocity. The evaluation was done for a turbine placed at 50 m and 150 m of height. A threshold was chosen for a turbine production of 1.5 MW to estimate the potential of the site. In contrast to northern Brazilian region, which has a rather constant wind condition, this region shows a great variation of power output due to the weather variability. During the period of the study, at least three frontal systems went over the region, and thre was a

  5. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R; Alvares, Clayton A; Sentelhas, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model (R (2) = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease. PMID:26493198

  6. Gamma-ray spectrometry of granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihermann, Jessica Derkacz; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; Cury, Leonardo Fadel; da Silveira, Claudinei Taborda

    2016-09-01

    The Paranaguá Terrane, located in the coastal portion of the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná and São Paulo in Southern Brazil is a crustal segment constituted mainly by an igneous complex, with a variety of granitic rocks inserted into the Serra do Mar ridge. The average altitude is approximately 1200 m above sea level, with peaks of up to 1800 m. Due to the difficulty of accessing the area, a shortage of outcrops and the thick weathering mantle, this terrane is understudied. This research aims to evaluate the gamma-ray spectrometry data of the granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, in correspondence with the geological, petrographical, lithogeochemical, relief and mass movement information available in the literature. Aerogeophysical data were acquired along north-south lines spaced at 500 m, with a mean terrain clearance of 100 m. These data cover potassium (K, %), equivalent in thorium (eTh, ppm) and equivalent in uranium (eU, ppm). After performing a critical analysis of the data, basic (K, eU, eTh) and ternary (R-K/G-eTh/B-eU) maps were generated and then superimposed on the digital elevation model (DEM). The investigation of the radionuclide mobility across the relief and weathering mantle consisted of an analysis of the schematic profiles of elevation related with each radionuclide; a comparison of the K, eU and eTh maps with their 3D correspondents; and the study of mass movements registered in the region. A statistical comparison of lithogeochemical (K, U, Th) and geophysical (K, eU, eTh) data showed consistency in all the granitic suites studied (Morro Inglês, Rio do Poço and Canavieiras-Estrela). Through gamma-ray spectrometry, it was possible to establish relationships between scars (from mass movements) and the gamma-ray responses as well as the radionuclide mobility and the relief and to map the granitic bodies.

  7. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Leila; Gigante, Luciana P; Fuchs, Sandra C; Busnello, Ellis DA

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants) using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison), with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7). After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income populations, women should be

  8. Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Ramos, Ana Paula Dores; Nunes, Fabrício Flores; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Durigan, Maurício; Teixeira, Adriano Luiz; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; Delfino, Nicésio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2012-02-01

    Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes to the contamination of mollusks with trace metals, pesticides, other organic compounds, and human pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoan. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough diagnosis of the shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis, on the coast of Santa Catarina. The contamination levels of seawater, sediments, and oysters were evaluated for their microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters at five sea sites in Florianópolis, namely three regular oyster cultivation areas (Sites 1, 2, and oyster supplier), a polluted site (Site 3), and a heavily polluted site (Site 4). Samples were evaluated at day zero and after 14 days. Seawater and sediment samples were collected just once, at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant defenses, which may occur in contaminated environments in response to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organisms, were analyzed in oysters, as well as organic compounds (in oysters and sediment samples) and microbiological contamination (in oysters and seawater samples). The results showed the presence of the following contaminants: fecal coliforms in seawater samples (four sites), human adenovirus (all sites), human noroviruses GI and GII (two sites), Hepatitis A viruses (one site), JC Polyomavirus in an oyster sample from the oyster supplier, Giardia duodenalis cysts, and Cryptosporidium sp oocysts (one site). Among organochlorine pesticides, only DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in some sediment and oysters samples in very

  9. Association between HLA genes and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic regions of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study sought to investigate the association between HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 genes and susceptibility or resistance to the different clinical manifestations of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in southern Brazil. Methods The sample consisted of 169 patients with a diagnosis of ACL and 270 healthy subjects for comparison. HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 were typed by PCR-SSO reverse dot blot. Results Results showed a trend towards susceptibility to cutaneous lesions for alleles HLA-DRB1*13 (P=0.0228; Pc=0.3420; OR=1.66; 95%CI=1.08 – 2.56), HLA-B*35 (P=0.0218; Pc=0.6758; OR=1.67; 95%CI=1.08 – 2.29) and HLA-B*44 (P=0.0290; Pc=0.8990; OR=1.67; 95%CI=1.05 – 2.64). Subjects with allele HLA-B*27 (P=0.0180; Pc=0.5580; OR=7.1111; 95%CI=1.7850 – 28.3286) tended towards susceptibility to mucocutaneous lesions, those with HLA-B*49 (P=0.0101; Pc=0.3131; OR=6.4000; 95%CI=1.8472 – 22.1743) to recurrent ACL, and HLA-B*52 (P=0.0044; Pc=0.1360; OR=12.61; 95%CI=3.08 – 51.66), to re-infection. Presence of HLA-B*45 (P=0.0107; Pc=0.3317) tended to provide protection against the cutaneous form of ACL. The most frequent haplotypes that may be associated with susceptibility to ACL were A*02 B*44 DRB1*07 (P = 0.0236) and A*24 B*35 DRB1*01 (P = 0.0236). Conclusion Some Class I and Class II HLA genes appear to contribute towards susceptibility to and protection against different clinical manifestations of ACL. Other genetic marker studies may contribute toward future prophylactic and therapeutic interventions in ACL. PMID:23638805

  10. Vertical and lateral particle and element fluxes across soil catenas in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonejans, Jerome; Vanacker, Veerle; Opfergelt, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    At the Earth's surface, mechanical disaggregation and chemical weathering transform bedrock into mobile regolith and soil. Downslope translocation of weathering products by lateral transport of soil particles and elements are determinant for the development of soil catenas. To grasp the rates of soil formation and development along catenas, we need better constraints on the vertical and lateral fluxes of particles and nutrients along hillslopes. Our study aims to analyze soil catena development in a spatio-temporal framework. The data are collected in the central part of the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. The sampling area is located on the Serra Geral plateau composed by rhyodacite rocks (˜700 m.a.s.l). The climate is humid subtropical (Cfa), and the natural vegetation is characterized by deciduous tropical forest and native Araucaria angustifolia forests. Two soil catenas with different slope morphology were selected: a steep slope of 190m long with maximum slope angle of 24° , and a gentle one of 140m long with a maximum slope angle of 11° . In total, eight soil profiles were sampled and 67 soil and 8 saprock or bedrock samples have been analysed for total element composition. Bulk densities were determined on undisturbed soil samples. The soil thickness varies along catenas with soil depths of about 90 cm on the ridge top, 30 cm on the convex nose of the steep slope and >2 m on the foot slope. Chemical mass balance techniques are used to constrain chemical weathering intensities (CDF) and absolute chemical mass losses or gains (δj,w). In each one of the eight soil profiles, we notice important absolute chemical mass losses for the most mobile elements (Na, K and Ca). The mass transfer coefficients of Al and Fe do not show a clear pattern, and largely depend on soil depth and position along the soil catena. The weathering intensity of the soil and the absolute chemical mass transfer are correlated with the residence time of the soil. Our data

  11. Petrology, geochemistry and geochonology of the Jacupiranga ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic complex (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmyz, Luanna; Arnaud, Nicolas; Biondi, João Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian carbonatitic complexes are located at the edges of the Paleozoic basins and are usually associated to tectonic crustal flexuring or deep fault zones. The Jacupiranga Complex is a 65 km² ultrabasic-alkaline carbonatitic intrusive body outcroping at the northeastern border of the Paraná Basin, South of São Paulo State (Brazil). The northern portion of the unit is mostly composed of peridotitic rocks, while the southern part contains ijolites, melteigites, clinopyroxenites and carbonatites which host a phosphate deposit, mined since 1966. Even though the carbonatites only represent 1% of the Complex's area, they have concentrated most of the historical petrogenetic studies, leaving almost unknown the petrogenetic and the geochronological characteristics of other rocks. This explains why the few petrogenetic models from the literature are very partial and mostly unsatisfactory. While the peridotitic rocks are largely hindered by the absence of fresh outcrops, the regolith thickness and the high serpentinization degree, field observations and petrographic data notably show a heterogeneous zone around the peridotitic body. That zone is composed of a large variety of lithotypes over a relatively small area (~9 km²), comprising diorites, monzodiorites, alkali feldspar syenites, trachytes, lamprophyres and syenites. Moreover, these rocks present a restricted lateral continuity (decametric) and a lack of the magmatic bedding characteristic of the ijolitic and clinopyroxenitc rocks. The southern clinopyroxenitic zone (~20 km²) is composed of clinopyroxenite and melteigite with prominent magmatic layering, probably of cumulative origin, and a body of carbonatites which outcrops over less than 1 km2 essentially composed of sovite and beforsite, with abundant apatite. The Jacupiranga Complex characteristics indicate that its formation possibly comprises at least five magmatic events which cannot at present be surely ordinated in time: a) the emplacement of the

  12. Comparison of Epidemiological Methods for Estimation of Hepatitis B Incidence and Residual Risk for Blood Donors in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kupek, Emil; Petry, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective. The objective of this work was to compare three methods for estimating hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence and residual risk. Methods. Computerized blood donor records in southern Brazil were examined for the period 2004–2006. The methods for estimating HBV incidence included stand-alone HBsAg, HBsAg yield method, and an extension of the latter which added recent anti-HBc seroconversions as incident HBV cases. Results. HBV incidences for the above methods were 9.91, 20.09, and 22.93 per 100000 repeat donors, respectively. In the same order, corresponding residual risks were 1 : 62482, 1 : 30821, and 1 : 47559, respectively. First-time donors had 52 higher HBV incidence compared to repeat donors. Conclusion. Although the three methods compared produced overlapping 95% confidence intervals, their variation was considerably lower for the method which included recent anti-HBc seroconversions. First-time donors are primary cause for concern regarding HBV transmission via blood transfusion in southern Brazil. PMID:25346858

  13. Swine Influenza Virus and Association with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Pig Farms in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Cibulski, S P; Andrade, C P; Teixeira, T F; Varela, A P M; Scheffer, C M; Franco, A C; de Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M

    2016-05-01

    Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect the A(H1N1)pdm09; other swIAV subtypes were determined by multiplex RT-PCR. In lung tissues, the major bacterial and viral pathogens associated with PRDC (Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and PCV2) were investigated. In some affected pigs, clinico-pathological evaluations were conducted. Influenza A was detected by screening PCR in 46 of 66 swab samples and from five of six lungs. Virus was recovered from pigs of all six herds. Subtype A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected in four of six herds and H1N2 in the other two herds. In lung tissues, further agents involved in PRDC were detected in all cases; Pasteurella multocida was identified in five of six samples and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in three of six. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (1/6), Haemophilus parasuis (1/6) and PCV2 (1/6) were also detected. These findings indicate that subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and H1N2 were present in pigs in southern Brazil and were associated with PRDC outbreaks. PMID:26302164

  14. Visiting bees of cucurbita flowers (cucurbitaceae) with emphasis on the presence of peponapis fervens smith (eucerini - apidae) - Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbita flowers are monoecious, the male and female requiring a pollinator to transfer pollen. Bees were systematically collected as they visited flowers of three cultivated Cucurbita species grown at seven separate localities of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. Additionally, pantraps we...

  15. Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

  16. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Reveals a New Species in the Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis Group (Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae) from the Atlantic Forest of the Highlands of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bruschi, Daniel P.; Lucas, Elaine M.; Garcia, Paulo C. A.; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of a disjunctive population of Phyllomedusa from southern Brazil was diagnosed using molecular, chromosomal, and morphological approaches, which resulted in the recognition of a new species of the P. hypochondrialis group. Here, we describe P. rustica sp. n. from the Atlantic Forest biome, found in natural highland grassland formations on a plateau in the south of Brazil. Phylogenetic inferences placed P. rustica sp. n. in a subclade that includes P. rhodei + all the highland species of the clade. Chromosomal morphology is conservative, supporting the inference of homologies among the karyotypes of the species of this genus. Phyllomedusa rustica is apparently restricted to its type-locality, and we discuss the potential impact on the strategies applied to the conservation of the natural grassland formations found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. We suggest that conservation strategies should be modified to guarantee the preservation of this species. PMID:25141279

  17. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem. PMID:12178118

  18. Assessment of Yield with Altered Soybean Traits Under Climate Change in Southern Brazil: Performance of the Crop Model and Genotype Trait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, R.; Sentelhas, P. C.; Boote, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Water deficit is the main factor responsible for soybean yield gap in Southern Brazil and tends to increase under climate change scenarios. Alternatives need be identified in order to create options to reduce the yield gap. One alternative is the selection of soybean cultivars with traits associated to drought tolerance. Thus, the aim of this study, via use of crop models, is to evaluate genetic traits that can help to improve soybean yield under climate change scenarios in Southern Brazil by improving the crop tolerance to water deficit. For this, the CSM-CROPGRO-Soybean model was used to simulate soybean yield in Southern Brazil and evaluate yield with altered genetic traits. The first step was to calibrate the model for a Brazilian soybean cultivar, using results from irrigated and rainfed experiments conducted in different sowing dates and locations in Southern Brazil. The CSM-CROPGRO-Soybean estimated a mean yield of 3551 (SD = 1439) kg ha-1, while the mean observed yield was 3313 (SD = 1105) kg ha-1. The mean error was 238 kg ha-1 (7.2%), mean error absolute was 765 kg ha-1 (23%) and modeling efficiency was 0.27, with a good relationship between observed and simulated yield (Figure 1). The model was able to estimate soybean yield for different levels of soil water available during the crop season. The next steps of the project are to manipulate the coefficients related with rooting depth extension, early stomata closure at high soil water contents, transpiration limited to a maximum rate, and N2 fixation drought tolerance in the model in order to identify their impact on yield under current and future climate scenarios in all soybean production regions in Southern Brazil. The soybean yield from different changed traits will be evaluated in order to define guidelines for breeding programs, allowing the saving of resources and time in the new cultivars development process, focused on adaptation to climate change.

  19. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bornschein, Marcos R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A. A.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  20. Diversity of culturable Gram-negative bacteria isolated from irrigation water of two rice crop regions in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reche, Maria Helena Lima Ribeiro; Reali, Catiusca; Pittol, Michele; de Athayde Saul, Danilo; Macedo, Vera Regina Mussoi; Valiati, Victor Hugo; Machado, Vilmar; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the diversity of Gram-negative bacteria found in water used for irrigation of rice crops in two growing areas of southern Brazil. Samples were collected from the main irrigation channel and field drain area. Twenty-two bacterial species were found in Cachoeirinha and 28 in Camaquã. In both areas, the most frequent bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae. Differences in microbial diversity were observed in both study areas. Thirty-five Gram-negative species were identified; however, only 15 were common in both locations. In addition, there were found pathogenic and drug-resistant species, such as Acinetobacter sp., Brucella spp., and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. This study demonstrates the existence of a number of pathogenic species in aquatic ecosystems analyzed in three consecutive crop years, especially water used for rice production. PMID:27197729

  1. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Bornschein, Marcos R; Firkowski, Carina R; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  2. HIV behind Bars: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cluster Analysis and Drug Resistance in a Reference Correctional Unit from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Letícia R.; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D.; Jarczewski, Carla A.; Osório, Marta R.; Sánchez, Alexandra; Seuánez, Héctor N.; Larouzé, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.

    2013-01-01

    People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons. PMID:23874857

  3. Genetic Structure of Colletotrichum fructicola Associated to Apple Bitter Rot and Glomerella Leaf Spot in Southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rockenbach, Mathias F; Velho, Aline C; Gonçalves, Amanda E; Mondino, Pedro E; Alaniz, Sandra M; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2016-07-01

    Colletotrichum fructicola is the main species causing apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) in southern Brazil, and ABR in Uruguay where GLS remains unnoticed. Thus, this work aimed to determine the genetic structure of C. fructicola isolates of both the countries. A total of 28 out of 31 Brazilian isolates (90.3%) caused typical symptoms of GLS, while only 6 of 25 Uruguayan isolates (24.0%) originating from fruits were able to infect leaves, but causing atypical symptoms. Both populations showed similar levels of Nei's gene diversity (h = 0.088 and 0.079, for Brazilian and Uruguayan populations, respectively), and Bayesian cluster analysis inferred two genetic clusters correlated with the geographical origin of isolates. A principal coordinates analysis scatter plot and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean-based dendrogram also grouped Brazilian and Uruguayan isolates into two groups. By pairwise comparison of nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants with a proposed set of testers, all Uruguayan isolates were grouped into a unique vegetative compatibility group (namely VCG 1), while Brazilian isolates were grouped into four VCGs (VCG 1 to 4). Brazilian and Uruguayan populations of C. fructicola were found to be genetically distinct. Our results suggest that isolates of C. fructicola from Brazil capable of causing GLS and ABR arose independently of those from Uruguay. Possible causes leading to the evolutionary differences between populations are discussed. PMID:27019063

  4. [Inadequate dietary micronutrient intake in men and women in southern Brazil: the EpiFloripa Adults Study, 2012].

    PubMed

    Cembranel, Francieli; González-Chica, David Alejandro; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate dietary intake of micronutrients among adults in a city in Southern Brazil according to sex and age, and to measure the prevalence of inadequate dietary micronutrient intake according to sex. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,222 adults 22 to 63 years of age living in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data on dietary intake were obtained from two 24-hour recalls (one in the total sample and the other in a subsample of 40% of the research subjects). Micronutrient intake and prevalence rates for inadequate intake were estimated according to the guidelines of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. High prevalence rates of inadequate intake in the entire sample were seen for vitamins A, C, D, and E (range, 52%-100%). Calcium and iron intake were more inadequate in women (87.3% and 13.7%, respectively), as was zinc in men (25.1%). Adults in Florianópolis, showed high prevalence rates of inadequate intake of essential micronutrients. PMID:27580235

  5. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae).

    PubMed

    Verrastro, L; Ely, I

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of a species' diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard's diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, "sit-and-wait" or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often. PMID:26132010

  6. Contributions to the Dart versus Arrow Debate: New Data from Holocene Projectile Points from Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Mercedes; Araujo, Astolfo G M

    2015-01-01

    Lithic bifacial points are very common in the southern and southeastern regions of the Brazilian territory. Dated from Early to Late Holocene, these artifacts have not been studied in terms of their propulsion system. Given the characteristics of the bow and arrow compared to the atlatl and dart, there are important differences in the size and weight of arrowheads and dart points. Applying the techniques proposed by Shott (1997), Bradbury (1997), Fenenga (1953), Hughes (1998), and Hildebrandt and King (2012) to specimens recovered from eight sites dating from the early to the late Holocene, this work aims to present preliminary results to better understand the potential presence of darts and arrows in southeastern and southern Brazil. There was a variation in the results according to the application of different techniques. At least one set of points, dated from the Early Holocene, presented quite a high proportion of specimens classified as arrows, indicating the presence of points that could be used as arrowheads. PMID:26648546

  7. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  8. Cytisus scoparius (Fam. Fabaceae) in southern Brazil - first step of an invasion process?

    PubMed

    Cordero, Rodrigo León; Torchelsen, Fábio P; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Anand, Madhur

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented. PMID:26871495

  9. Clinical survey of hantavirus in southern Brazil and the development of specific molecular diagnosis tools.

    PubMed

    Raboni, Sonia M; Rubio, Gisélia; DE Borba, Luana; Zeferino, Aurélio; Skraba, Irene; Goldenberg, Samuel; Dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte

    2005-06-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an emerging disease caused by an increasing number of distinct hantavirus serotypes found worldwide. It is also a very severe immune disease. It progresses quickly and is associated with a high mortality rate. At the prodrome phase, hantavirosis symptoms can resemble those of other infectious diseases such as leptospirosis and influenza. Thus, prognosis could be improved by developing a rapid and sensitive diagnostic test for hantavirus infection, and by improving knowledge about clinical aspects of this disease. This study describes clinical features and laboratory parameters throughout the course of HPS in 98 patients. We report the seasonality and regional distribution of this disease in Paraná State, Brazil during the last seven years. In addition, we evaluated a specific molecular diagnostic test based on a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the detection of hantaviruses circulating in Brazil. PMID:15964966

  10. Polymorphic variants of UGT1A1 in neonatal jaundice in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Clarissa Gutiérrez; Castro, Simone Martins; Santin, Ana Paula; de Azevedo, Laura Alencastro; Pereira, Maria Luiza Saraiva; Giugliani, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Alterations in the hepatic conjugation of bilirubin due to uridyl-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) polymorphisms have been proposed as risk factors to neonatal jaundice. Herein, we estimated the frequency of genotypes of the promoter region of UGT1A1 gene in newborns and evaluated its association with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Prospective study of cases and controls including all newborns admitted for phototherapy at HCPA, Brazil, during 9 months; 490 babies were enrolled and PCR was performed. Polymorphic genotypes were detected in 16% of the patients and 7 of the 10 possible genotypes were identified with higher prevalence of polymorphisms in Afro-descendants. In this sample, the variants of UGT1A1 were not associated to severe hyperbilirubinemia; other genic factors should be sought in this high miscegenation area of Brazil. PMID:20061399

  11. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallas, Moisés; da Silveira, Eliane Fraga; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:23070447

  12. Evaluation of different methods to estimate daily reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s‑1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m‑ 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than

  13. Molecular characterization of host strains of Spodoptera frugiperda(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)in southern Brazil :

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm infestations in most of North America north of Mexico arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Mapping the pattern of migration and the relative contributions of the Texas and Florida populations would contribute both to our understandi...

  14. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

  15. Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: tree component, management, species conservation and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...

  16. A sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Upper Triassic (Carman) of southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Max C.; Abdala, Fernando; Richter, Martha; Benton, Michael J.

    1999-10-01

    Three newly discovered skeletons from the Carnian red beds of the Santa Maria Formation, south Brazil, represent one of the oldest dinosaurs ever found. The new taxon Saturnalia tupiniquim, is equivalent in age to the earliest dinosaurs from northwestern Argentina, being the oldest sauropodomorph dinosaur known from plentiful skeletal material. The record of Saturnalia, a 1.5-m-long gracile plant-eating animal, indicates that, like other major dinosaur lineages, the first representatives of the mainly heavy-built sauropodomorphs were gracile animals.

  17. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer. PMID:25402242

  18. Spatiotemporal Distribution and Population Structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae) in an Estuary in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-Júnior, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Araújo, Joafrâncio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto

    2013-01-01

    Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas. PMID:24298211

  19. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEIDRICH, Daiane; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; VETORATTO, Gerson; AMARO, Taís Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malasseziayeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective crosssectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease. PMID:26422149

  20. Assessment of inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Macedo, Silvia Elaine Cardozo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify incorrect inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil and to profile the individuals who make such errors. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study involving subjects ≥ 10 years of age using metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in 1,722 households in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. RESULTS: We included 110 subjects, who collectively used 94 MDIs and 49 DPIs. The most common errors in the use of MDIs and DPIs were not exhaling prior to inhalation (66% and 47%, respectively), not performing a breath-hold after inhalation (29% and 25%), and not shaking the MDI prior to use (21%). Individuals ≥ 60 years of age more often made such errors. Among the demonstrations of the use of MDIs and DPIs, at least one error was made in 72% and 51%, respectively. Overall, there were errors made in all steps in 11% of the demonstrations, whereas there were no errors made in 13%.Among the individuals who made at least one error, the proportion of those with a low level of education was significantly greater than was that of those with a higher level of education, for MDIs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0.018) and for DPIs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, the most common errors in the use of inhalers were not exhaling prior to inhalation, not performing a breath-hold after inhalation, and not shaking the MDI prior to use. Special attention should be given to education regarding inhaler techniques for patients of lower socioeconomic status and with less formal education, as well as for those of advanced age, because those populations are at a greater risk of committing errors in their use of inhalers. PMID:25410839

  1. Genetic characterization of hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Padula, Paula J; Gomes, Raphael; Martinez, Valeria P; Bellomo, Carla; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Freire e Lima, Danúbia Inês; Bragagnolo, Camila; Caldas, Antônio C S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; de Lemos, Elba R S

    2011-03-01

    An ecological assessment of reservoir species was conducted in a rural area (Jaborá) in the mid-west of the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil, where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is endemic, to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 507 rodents during seven field trips from March 2004 to April 2006. Some of the animals were karyotyped to confirm morphological identification. Phylogenetic reconstructions of rodent specimens, based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences, were also obtained. Hantavirus antibody was found in 22 (4.3%) of the 507 rodents: 5 Akodon montensis, 2 Akodon paranaensis, 14 Oligoryzomys nigripes, and 1 Sooretamys angouya. Viral RNAs detected in O. nigripes and A. montensis were amplified and sequenced. O. nigripes virus genome was 97.5% (nt) and 98.4% (nt) identical to sequences published for Araucaria (Juquitiba-like) virus based on N and G2 fragment sequences. Viral sequences from A. montensis strain showed 89% and 88% nucleotide identities in a 905-nt fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein-coding region of the S segment when it was compared with two other Akodontine rodent-associated viruses from Paraguay, A. montensis and Akodon cursor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of two genetic hantavirus lineages in the state of Santa Catarina, one from O. nigripes and the other from A. montensis, previously characterized in Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The hantavirus associated with A. montensis, designed Jaborá virus, represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage among the Brazilian hantaviruses. PMID:21138380

  2. Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trigo, Tatiane C.; Tirelli, Flávia P.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657

  3. Nine thousand years of upper montane soil/vegetation dynamics from the summit of Caratuva Peak, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Maurício B.; Pereira, Nuno Veríssimo; Behling, Hermann; Curcio, Gustavo R.; Roderjan, Carlos V.

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity loss, climate change, and increased freshwater consumption are some of the main environmental problems on Earth. Mountain ecosystems can reduce these threats by providing several positive influences, such as the maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and carbon storage, amongst others. The knowledge of the history of these environments and their response to climate change is very important for management, conservation, and environmental monitoring programs. The genesis of the soil organic matter of the current upper montane vegetation remains unclear and seems to be quite variable depending on location. Some upper montane sites in the very extensive coastal Sea Mountain Range present considerable organic matter from the late Pleistocene and other from only the Holocene. Our study was carried out on three soil profiles (two cores in grassland and one in forest) on the Caratuva Peak of the Serra do Ibitiraquire (a sub-range of Sea Mountain Range - Serra do Mar) in Southern Brazil. The δ13C isotopic analyses of organic matter in soil horizons were conducted to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities. Complementarily, we performed a pollen analysis and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. Except for a short and probably drier period (between 6000 and 4500 cal yr BP), C3 plants, including ombrophilous grasses and trees, have dominated the highlands of the Caratuva Peak (Pico Caratuva), as well as the other uppermost summits of the Serra do Ibitiraquire, since around 9000 cal yr BP. The Caratuva region represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands (campos de altitude altomontanos or campos altomontanos) and upper montane rain/cloud forests with soils that most likely contain some organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as has been reported in Southern and Southeastern Brazil for other sites. However, our results indicate that the studied deposits (near the summit) are from the early

  4. Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of the species, to identify the importance of E.edulis for the German immigrant community, to identify past and current uses of E.edulis, to describe the historical use of the landscape, and lastly, to identify landscape units in which E.edulis is found. Methods The researched community is composed of people of German descent residing in southern Brazil. A variety of research tools were used to achieve the objectives of the research. Semi-structured interviews and free-listings were conducted in all family units. The interviews focused on groups of people in the community who had current or historical connection with the species. Group workshops and guided tours were conducted to identify different landscape units. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, use-value index, citation frequency, salience index, and informant perception analysis. Results Over the historical period studied, the community demonstrated changes with respect to economic activities. These changes are reflected in the transformation of the landscape. The species E.edulis was and still is very important for people in the community; its importance is reflected in its high use value, citation frequency and salience. The species is found within various landscape units in the community as well as in homegardens and in secondary forests. Conclusions The landscape heterogeneity of this community is influenced by changes in economic activities and by the relationship

  5. Potential of carbon accumulation in no-till soils with intensive use and cover crops in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Bayer, Cimélio; Conceição, Paulo Cesar; Spagnollo, Evandro; de Campos, Ben-Hur Costa; da Veiga, Milton

    2006-01-01

    The area under no-till (NT) in Brazil reached 22 million ha in 2004-2005, of which approximately 45% was located in the southern states. From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, this region was a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to decrease of soil carbon (C) stocks and high consumption of fuel by intensive tillage. Since then, NT has partially restored the soil C lost and reduced the consumption of fossil fuels. To assess the potential of C accumulation in NT soils, four long-term experiments (7-19 yr) in subtropical soils (Paleudult, Paleudalf, and Hapludox) varying in soil texture (87-760 g kg(-1) of clay) in agroecologic southern Brazil zones (central region, northwest basaltic plateau in Rio Grande Sul, and west basaltic plateau in Santa Catarina) and with different cropping systems (soybean and maize) were investigated. The lability of soil organic matter (SOM) was calculated as the ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) to particulate organic carbon (POC), and the role of physical protection on stability of SOM was evaluated. In general, TOC and POC stocks in native grass correlated closely with clay content. Conversely, there was no clear effect of soil texture on C accumulation rates in NT soils, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). The C accumulation was higher in NT than in conventional-till (CT) soils. The legume cover crops pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] and velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy) in NT maize cropping systems had the highest C accumulation rates (0.38-0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). The intensive cropping systems also were effective in increasing the C accumulation rates in NT soils (0.25-0.34 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) when compared to the double-crop system used by farmers. These results stress the role of N fixation in improving the tropical and subtropical cropping systems. The physical protection of SOM within soil aggregates was an important mechanism of C accumulation in the sandy clay loam Paleudult under NT

  6. Serotypes and Genotypes of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Before and After PCV10 Implementation in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Caierão, Juliana; Hawkins, Paulina; Sant’anna, Fernando Hayashi; da Cunha, Gabriela Rosa; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; McGee, Lesley; Dias, Cícero

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the burden of pneumococcal diseases, different formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have been introduced in many countries. In Brazil, PCV10 has been available since 2010. We aimed to analyze the serotype and genetic composition of invasive pneumococci from Brazil in pre- and post- vaccination periods (2007–2012). Antibiotic susceptibility was determined and genotypes of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance were characterized. The genotypes of isolates of the most frequent serotypes were determined by multilocus sequence typing. The study included 325 isolates, which were primarily recovered from blood. The most common serotypes recovered were 14, 3, 4, 23F, 7F, 9V, 12F, 20, 19F, 8, 19A, and 5. Thirty-eight pneumococci (11.7%) were from children ≤5 years old. Considering the overall population, PCV10 and PCV13 serotype coverage was 50.1% and 64.9%, respectively. During the pre-vaccine period, isolates with serotypes belonging to the PVC10 represented 51.5% (100/194), whereas in the post vaccine they represented 48.0% (63/131). PCV13 serotypes represented 67.5% (131/194) and 59.2% (77/131) of total for pre- and post-vaccination periods, respectively. Seventy different sequence types [STs] were found, accounting for 9 clonal complexes [CCs] and 45 singletons. Eight STs (156, 180, 218, 8889, 53, 191, 770, and 4967) represented the majority (51.5%) of isolates. Fifty STs were associated with the pre-vaccination period (27 exclusive) and 43 (20 exclusive) with the post-vaccination period; 23 STs were identified in both periods. Some serotypes were particularly clonal (7F, 8, 12F, 20). Non-susceptibility to penicillin was associated with serotype 19A, CC320. Erythromycin resistance was heterogeneous when considering serotype and ST. A single serotype 23F (ST4967) isolate was resistant to levofloxacin. Continued surveillance is required to determine vaccine impact and to monitor changes in pneumococcal population biology post-PCV10

  7. Edentulism, Severe Tooth Loss and Lack of Functional Dentition in Elders: A Study in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Camila Garcez; Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Silva, Alexandre Emídio Ribeiro; Seerig, Lenise Menezes; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate self-reported prevalence of edentulism, severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition in elders, and to identify potential associated factors. A population based cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,451 elders (≥60 years), in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regressions. The prevalence of edentulism, severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition was 39.3%, 60.9% and 82.7%, respectively. The factors positively associated with tooth loss in the three-degree severity were sex (females), older individuals, low familial income, low level of schooling and having the last dental visit longer than 24 months ago. The high prevalence of tooth loss in its different degrees of severity and the association with preventable factors highlight the need of programs focused on elders, emphasizing the prevention of tooth loss and need for prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:27224572

  8. A new species of Astyanax from headwater streams of southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    De Lucena, Carlos A S; Bertaco, Vinicius A; Berbigier, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Astyanax pirabitira, new species, is described from the upper portion of the rio das Antas, laguna dos Patos system, and from the rio Pelotas, upper rio Uruguay drainage, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The new species belongs to the A. scabripinnis species complex and differs from its congeners by a combination of characters, viz., body depth (27.1-34.0% of standard length), narrow interorbital width (22.2-28.7% of head length), head depth (72.9-97.0% of HL), number of branched anal-fin rays (15-20), number of lateral line scales (37-40), one or two maxillary teeth, two humeral spots and absence of secondary sexual characters (bony hooks in the fins or other differences in the morphology). Comments on the endemic fish fauna of the region are presented. PMID:26106724

  9. Evaluation of metals and hydrocarbons in sediments from a tropical tidal flat estuary of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eduardo S; Grilo, Caroline F; Wolff, George A; Thompson, Anu; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; Neto, Renato Rodrigues

    2015-03-15

    Although the Passagem Channel estuary, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, is located in an urbanized and industrialized region, it has a large mangrove system. Here we examined natural and anthropogenic inputs that may influence trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sc, Pb and Zn) and hydrocarbon (n-alkane and terpane) deposition in three sediment cores collected in the tidal flat zone of the estuary. The cores were also analyzed for carbonate, grain size and stable isotopic composition (δ(13)Corg. and δ(15)Ntotal). Metal enrichment and its association to petroleum hydrocarbons in the surficial sediments of one of the cores, indicate crude oil and derivative inputs, possibly from small vessels and road run-off from local heavy automobile traffic. At the landward sites, the major contributions for metals and hydrocarbons are from natural sources, but in one case, Cu may have been enriched by domestic effluent inputs. PMID:25530014

  10. A new species of Caenis Stephens, 1836 (Ephemeroptera: Caenidae) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lucas R C; Molineri, Carlos; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Caenis Stephens is described based on the male imago, female imago and egg stages from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The male imago of Caenis gaucha sp. nov. is diagnosed as follows: body length of male 2.0-2.5 mm; base of antennal flagellum not dilated; forceps apically rounded, not fused to lateral margins of styliger plate; styliger plate short with posterior margin slightly sub-triangular; ratio of foreleg 1.7-2.2 × the length of hind leg, forceps length 4.4-6.0 × the width ½ from base, and distance between the extreme lateral points of the forceps bases 1.7-1.8 × forceps length. PMID:25947532

  11. Isolation and pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected (rustic farm) pigs in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cademartori, B G; Santos, L M J F; Oliveira, F C; Quevedo, P; Oliveira, P A; Ramos, T S; Rocha, A S R; Ruas, J L; Farias, N A R

    2014-06-16

    This study reported a serological test for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 100 pigs from 58 rural farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thirty-six pigs were seropositive (IFAT≥1:64). Bioassays were performed for all 36 seropositive pigs, and 17 isolates were obtained (47.2%). Seven of these isolates (41.2%) were highly pathogenic to mice, as clinical signs of acute infection were observed, and tachyzoites were found in the peritoneal exudates, livers, and lungs. The remaining 10 isolates were able to establish a chronic infection in mice, therefore, they were not highly virulent. The results of this study indicate that pork is a potential source of T. gondii transmission to humans. PMID:24612744

  12. Hepatitis E Virus in Surface Water, Sediments, and Pork Products Marketed in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heldt, F H; Staggmeier, R; Gularte, J S; Demoliner, M; Henzel, A; Spilki, F R

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging causative agent of food and waterborne hepatitis in human beings. HEV circulates among human populations and swine herds, and may be found in water contaminated by swine feces, as well as in pork. In the present study, 68 sediment samples and 250 water samples collected from the Sinos River tributaries, as well as 50 samples of pork products (pâté and blood sausage) marketed in the Sinos River watershed region, Brazil, were tested for the presence of HEV genome. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by nucleotide sequencing was used for detection and characterization of HEV genomes. Overall, 36 % of food samples tested positive for HEV (genotype 3). No sediment or water samples were positive. These results suggest that contaminated pork products may be a source of HEV infection within this region and indicate a need for better monitoring of food safety and swine herds. PMID:27169536

  13. Diversity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in sheep flocks of Paraná State, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fernando Henrique; Guth, Beatriz Ernestina Cabilio; Piazza, Roxane Maria; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Ludovico, Agostinho; Ludovico, Marilúcia Santos; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Marzoa, Juan; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

    2015-01-30

    Sheep constitute an important source of zoonotic pathogens as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, the prevalence, serotypes and virulence profiles of STEC were investigated among 130 healthy sheep from small and medium farms in southern Brazil. STEC was isolated from 65 (50%) of the tested animals and detected in all flocks. A total of 70 STEC isolates were characterized, and belonged to 23 different O:H serotypes, many of which associated with human disease, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Among the serotypes identified, O76:H19 and O65:H- were the most common, and O75:H14 and O169:H7 have not been previously reported in STEC strains. Most of the STEC isolates harbored only stx1, whereas the Stx2b subtype was the most common among those carrying stx2. Enterohemolysin (ehxA) and intimin (eae) genes were detected in 61 (87.1%) and four (5.7%) isolates, respectively. Genes encoding putative adhesins (saa, iha, lpfO113) and toxins (subAB and cdtV) were also observed. The majority of the isolates displayed virulence features related to pathogenesis of STEC, such as adherence to epithelial cells, high cytotoxicity and enterohemolytic activity. Ovine STEC isolates belonged mostly to phylogenetic group B1. PFGE revealed particular clones distributed in some farms, as well as variations in the degree of genetic similarity within serotypes examined. In conclusion, STEC are widely distributed in southern Brazilian sheep, and belonged mainly to serotypes that are not commonly reported in other regions, such as O76:H19 and O65:H-. A geographical variation in the distribution of STEC serotypes seems to occur in sheep. PMID:25465174

  14. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping

  15. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic. PMID:26960764

  16. High genetic differentiation of Aegla longirostri (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) populations in southern Brazil revealed by multi-loci microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartholomei-Santos, M L; Roratto, P A; Santos, S

    2011-01-01

    Species with a broad distribution rarely have the same genetic make-up throughout their entire range. In some cases, they may constitute a cryptic complex consisting of a few species, each with a narrow distribution, instead of a single-, widely distributed species. These differences can have profound impacts for biodiversity conservation planning. The genetic differentiation of four populations of Aegla longirostri, a freshwater crab found in two geographically isolated basins in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, was investigated by analyzing pentanucleotide multi-loci microsatellites in a heteroduplex assay. Although no morphological differences were evident, we found significant genetic differentiation among the four populations, based on F(ST) values and clustering analysis. This high level of differentiation may be indicative of cryptic species in these populations. If this hypothesis is correct, then the species occurring in the Ibicuí-Mirim River, at the southern limit of the Atlantic Rain Forest, would be under threat, considering its very restricted distribution. PMID:22179994

  17. Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as a potential Brassica napus pollinator (cv. Hyola 432) (Brassicaceae), in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A S; Blochtein, B; Ferreira, N R; Witter, S

    2010-11-01

    Brassica napus Linnaeus is considered a self-compatible crop; however, studies show that bee foraging elevates their seed production. Considering bee food shortages during the winter season and that the canola is a winter crop, this study aimed to evaluate the foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 regarding those flowers, and to verify if it presents adequate behaviour for successfully pollinating this crop in Rio Grande do Sul State. The study was carried out in a canola field, in Southern Brazil. The anthesis stages were morphologically characterised and then related to stigma receptivity and pollen grain viability. Similarly, the behaviour of A. mellifera individuals on flowers was followed, considering the number of flowers visited per plant, the amount of time spent on the flowers, touched structures, and collected resources. Floral fidelity was inferred by analysing the pollen load of bees collected on flowers. The bees visited from 1-7 flowers/plant (x = 2.02; sd = 1.16), the time spent on the flowers varied between 1-43 seconds (x = 3.29; sd = 2.36) and, when seeking nectar and pollen, they invariably touched anthers and stigmas. The pollen load presented 100% of B. napus pollen. The bees' attendance to a small number of flowers/plants, their short permanence on flowers, their contact with anthers and stigma and the integral floral constancy allows their consideration as potential B. napus pollinators. PMID:21180917

  18. Dental pain, use of dental services and oral health-related quality of life in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, Charles Henrique; Abegg, Claides; Fontanive, Victor Nascimento; Davoglio, Rosane Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the relationship between dental pain and the reason for using dental services and oral health quality of life in people aged 50 to 74 years in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 720 individuals aged 50 to 74 years, living in three health districts in the city of Porto Alegre. Dental impacts on daily life and sociodemographic data were assessed using structured interviews. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance - OIDP instrument was used to measure oral impacts. The information was analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment, taking into account cluster sampling. Dental pain was present in 32.5% of those reporting an oral impact on their daily activities. Dental pain most frequently affected talking (37.6%), cleaning teeth and gums (37.0%) and enjoying the companionship of people (36.5%). After adjustments to the multivariate analysis, the reason for dental visits due to dental pain was found to have a high impact on daily activities [RP 1.68 (1.11 - 2.54]. PMID:27556550

  19. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ≥ 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

  20. Leachability of major and minor elements from soils and sediments of an abandoned coal mining area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Josefa; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Cunha, Isabella; Zapelini, Iago; Galunin, Evgeny; Bleinroth, Diego; Vieira, Isadora; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-03-01

    Leachability of major and trace elements from sediment and soil samples of an abandoned coal mining area in southern Brazil was assessed by titration and pH-stat tests according to the SR002.1 and CEN/TS 14429 protocols. Major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Mn) and trace (Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg) elements were quantified in aqueous extracts. Acid and base neutralizing capacity values and pH changes after the addition of certain acid/base amounts were estimated. In general, a decrease in the major metal leaching at pH < 4.0 and an increase at pH > 8.0 was observed. The response to the acid and base additions confirmed that strong acids can cause an effect on Ca- and Mg-bearing silicate phases and Mn oxides, and strong bases can only affect Ca silicates. At pH < 5.0, higher extractability was found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Considering that the samples showed sharp pH changes after acid additions and released major and trace metal into the solution at greater rates, high metal contamination risks can be assumed for the studied area. PMID:25655127

  1. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos

    2015-05-01

    A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries. PMID:26083184

  2. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country. PMID:26712361

  3. Metabolic Profiling and Classification of Propolis Samples from Southern Brazil: An NMR-Based Platform Coupled with Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Maraschin, Marcelo; Somensi-Zeggio, Amélia; Oliveira, Simone K; Kuhnen, Shirley; Tomazzoli, Maíra M; Raguzzoni, Josiane C; Zeri, Ana C M; Carreira, Rafael; Correia, Sara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel

    2016-01-22

    The chemical composition of propolis is affected by environmental factors and harvest season, making it difficult to standardize its extracts for medicinal usage. By detecting a typical chemical profile associated with propolis from a specific production region or season, certain types of propolis may be used to obtain a specific pharmacological activity. In this study, propolis from three agroecological regions (plain, plateau, and highlands) from southern Brazil, collected over the four seasons of 2010, were investigated through a novel NMR-based metabolomics data analysis workflow. Chemometrics and machine learning algorithms (PLS-DA and RF), including methods to estimate variable importance in classification, were used in this study. The machine learning and feature selection methods permitted construction of models for propolis sample classification with high accuracy (>75%, reaching ∼90% in the best case), better discriminating samples regarding their collection seasons comparatively to the harvest regions. PLS-DA and RF allowed the identification of biomarkers for sample discrimination, expanding the set of discriminating features and adding relevant information for the identification of the class-determining metabolites. The NMR-based metabolomics analytical platform, coupled to bioinformatic tools, allowed characterization and classification of Brazilian propolis samples regarding the metabolite signature of important compounds, i.e., chemical fingerprint, harvest seasons, and production regions. PMID:26693586

  4. Evidence of HLA-DQB1 Contribution to Susceptibility of Dengue Serotype 3 in Dengue Patients in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Daniela Maria; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Sell, Ana Maria; Guelsin, Gláucia Andréia Soares; Beltrame, Leticia Maria; Clementino, Samaia Laface; Reis, Pamela Guimarães; Alves, Hugo Vicentin; Mazini, Priscila Saamara; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2014-01-01

    Dengue infection (DI) transmitted by arthropod vectors is the viral disease with the highest incidence throughout the world, an estimated 300 million cases per year. In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors may also influence the manifestation of the disease; as even in endemic areas, only a small proportion of people develop the most serious form. Immune-response gene polymorphisms may be associated with the development of cases of DI. The aim of this study was to determine allele frequencies in the HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 loci in a Southern Brazil population with dengue virus serotype 3, confirmed by the ELISA serological method, and a control group. The identification of the HLA alleles was carried out using the SSO genotyping PCR program (One Lambda), based on Luminex technology. In conclusion, this study suggests that DQB1∗06:11 allele could act as susceptible factors to dengue virus serotype 3, while HLA-DRB1∗11 and DQA1∗05:01 could act as resistance factors. PMID:24817893

  5. Efficacy of entecavir and tenofovir in chronic hepatitis B under treatment in the public health system in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Camila V; Tovo, Cristiane Valle; Grossmann, Thiago K; Mirenda, Henrique; Dal-Pupo, Bruna B; de Almeida, Paulo RL; de Mattos, Angelo A

    2016-01-01

    There are about 350 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide and chronic HBV is considered a major public health problem. The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the nucleos(t)ide analogues tenofovir (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) in the treatment of chronic HBV. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March-December 2013, including all patients with chronic HBV, over 18 years of age, undergoing therapy through the public health system in southern Brazil. Only the data relating to the first treatments performed with TDF or ETV were considered. Retreatment, co-infection, transplanted or immunosuppressed patients were excluded. Six hundred and forty patients were evaluated, of which 336 (52.5%) received TDF and 165 (25.8%) ETV. The other 139 (21.7%) used various combinations of nucleos(t)ide analogues and were excluded. The negativation of viral load was observed in 87.3% and 78.8% and the negativation of hepatitis B e antigen was achieved in 79% and 72% of those treated with ETV or TDF, respectively. Negativation of hepatitis B surface antigen was not observed. There was no occurrence of adverse effects. This is a real-life study demonstrating that long-term treatment with ETV and TDF is both safe and effective. PMID:27074254

  6. A qualitative assessment of long distance truck drivers' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Itajaí, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malta, M; Bastos, F I; Pereira-Koller, E M; Cunha, M D; Marques, C; Strathdee, S A

    2006-07-01

    Itajaí is the largest port in southern Brazil and has one of the nation's highest AIDS incidence rates. Since over 400 truck drivers enter the city daily, they may play a key role in the HIV/AIDS epidemic due to transactions with commercial sex workers (CSWs) and/or substance use. We conducted a rapid assessment to establish the context of HIV vulnerability among truckers and CSWs in Itajaí. Forty three in-depth interviews and eight focus groups were conducted with truckers and CSWs. Two truck-driving routes involving brothels, meeting places and drug-use locations were mapped and field observations were collected. Tapes and field notes were transcribed and analyzed for emerging themes. Truck drivers typically had unprotected sex with several partners, including CSWs and truckstop employees. Both truckers and CSWs had low perceived HIV risk in spite of being engaged in high-risk sex behaviors. Use of alcohol and amphetamine-like drugs was frequent among truckers and appeared to influence unsafe sex practices. Knowledge about amphetamine-related risks was low, as was access to health services and HIV/AIDS behavioral interventions. Interventions, targeting truckers, CSWs and truckstop employees, are needed that traverse cities, states and borders and take into account seasonality, spatial context and workplace conditions. PMID:16777641

  7. Impact of human metapneumovirus infection on in and outpatients for the years 2006-2008 in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Debur, Maria C; Vidal, Luine Rr; Stroparo, Elenice; Nogueira, Meri B; Almeida, Sérgio M; Takahashi, Gislene A; Rotta, Indianara; Pereira, Luciane A; Silveira, Clyete S; Delfraro, Adriana; Nakatani, Sueli M; Skraba, Irene; Raboni, Sonia M

    2010-12-01

    The human metapneumovirus (hMPV), member of the Paramyxoviridae family, has been reported as an important agent involved with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). The aim of this study is to identify hMPV as the etiological agent of ARIs on in and outpatients in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, and describe clinical data of hMPV subtyping. A retrospective study was performed in 1,572 respiratory samples over a period of three years. hMPV was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subtyping was performed by nucleotide sequencing. hMPV was present in 61 (3.9%) samples and subtypes A1, A2a, B1 and B2 were detected. The incidence of hMPV was higher in outpatients (5.9%), whose mean age was 19.7 years (range 6 months-75 years old), than in inpatients (3%), whose mean age was 7.6 months (range 1 month-26 years old). The outpatients had upper respiratory tract infections with flu-like symptoms and all hospitalized children had lower respiratory tract infections. A pediatric patient died from complications associated with hMPV A2a infection. hMPV has been reported as a respiratory pathogen in all age groups. No correlation was observed between viral subtype and disease severity in the samples of this study. PMID:21225198

  8. Surface water quality in the Sinos River basin, in Southern Brazil: tracking microbiological contamination and correlation with physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Dalla Vecchia, Andréia; Rigotto, Caroline; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Soliman, Mayra Cristina; Gil de Souza, Fernanda; Henzel, Andreia; Santos, Eliane Lemos; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Fleck, Juliane Deise; Heinzelmann, Larissa Schemes; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-07-01

    Around the world, enteric viruses are often found in surface waters. This study set out to evaluate the occurrence of adenoviruses (AdVs) in water samples, and its relation to different physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters [total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC), represented by Escherichia coli]. Monthly samples of 500 ml of raw water were collected from May 2011 to June 2013 in eight abstraction points water treatment stations along three stretches of the Sinos River Basin (SRB), in Southern Brazil and, subsequently, were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). AdVs from different species, from human (HAdV), and from other animals (CAV1-2, BAdV, PAdV, and AvAdV) were detected along the three stretches of the basin, indicating fecal contamination from different sources and proving the inefficiency of the wastewater treatment in the waters of the SRB and intensifying the strong influence of human activities that can contribute to the presence of inhibitory substances such as organic acids in surface of these waters. Statistical analyses revealed no significant correlations between the concentrations of TC and FC and the concentrations of AdVs. We observed a small, nonconstant, and unstable correlation between viruses and physicochemical parameters. These correlations were not sufficiently consistent to establish a reliable association; therefore, this study corroborates that only the viral assay itself is reliable for the diagnosis of fecal contamination by viruses in environmental samples. PMID:25649392

  9. A rapid fish radiation associated with the last sea-level changes in southern Brazil: the silverside Odontesthes perugiae complex.

    PubMed Central

    Beheregaray, Luciano B; Sunnucks, Paul; Briscoe, David A

    2002-01-01

    Coastal freshwater fishes provide valuable models for studying the role of the last glaciations in promoting speciation. To date, the great majority of studies are of Northern Hemisphere taxa, and reflect the influence of vicariant events during, or prior to, the Pleistocene. Microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to investigate patterns of population divergence and evolutionary relationships in a freshwater group of silverside fishes (Odontesthes perugiae complex), endemic to the recently formed coastal plain of southern Brazil. Lacustrine morphotypes showed concordant patterns of genetic and morphological divergence consistent with the geographical history of the coastal plain. The results support the proposal of a silverside radiation chronologically shaped by the sea-level changes of the Pleistocene and Holocene. The radiating lineage comprises a minimum of three allopatric and two sympatric lacustrine species. Four species displayed extremely high levels of genetic variation and some of the most rapid speciation rates reported in fishes. These features were related to a marine-estuarine origin of the radiation. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first molecular phylogeographic survey of a coastal radiation in South America. PMID:11788038

  10. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among enterococci isolated from fecal samples of wild marine species in the southern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; Tolfo, Neidimar Cezar Correa; Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; Medeiros, Aline Weber; Tavares, Maurício; Frazzon, Jeverson; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2016-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate species distribution, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and presence of resistance genes in enterococci isolated from fecal samples of wild marine species, including seabirds (n=12), sea turtles (n=8), and mammals (n=3) found alive or dead in southern coast of Brazil. Enterococci were classified based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, tested for antibiotic susceptibility, and the presence of tet(S), tet(M), tet(L), mrsC, and erm(B) genes by PCR. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were the most common species. Single (37.09%), double (25.80%), and multiple (16.12%) antibiotic resistance patterns were observed. Resistance to rifampicin occurred most frequently. The msrC, tet(M), and/or tet(L) genes were detected in 60.15%, 73.07%, and 23.07% of the resistant strains, respectively. In conclusion, the presence of antibiotic resistant strains in these species could be related to food web interactions and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome. PMID:26952995

  11. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4–18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577

  12. Identification of and handling of critical irradiance forecast uncertainties using a Random Forest scheme - a case study for southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Hans Georg; Preed Revheim, Pal; Kratenber, Manfred Georg; Zuern, Hans Helmut

    2015-04-01

    For the secure operation of the utility grid, especially in grid with a high penetration of volatile wind or solar generation forecasts of the respective power flows are essential. Full profit of the forecasts can, however not been taken without the knowledge of their uncertainties. Based on irradiance data from southern Brazil we present a scheme for the identification of situations for which elevated forecast errors are to be expected. For this, the classification technique Random Forests applied, using the history of the site specific irradiance data forecast errors together with a set of auxiliary meteorological variables. As byproduct, extracted systematic forecast errors are used to update the forecasts. The predictive performance of the Random Forest models are assessed by the predictions ability to reduce the number of hours or days with forecast errors exceeding the limits, and on the resulting overall forecast RMSE. Limited to none improvements are obtained when predicting next-hour forecast errors, while significant improvements are obtained when predicting next-day forecast errors. Setting a relatively low limit for forecast error exceedance is found to give the largest improvements in terms of reduction of forecast RMSE.

  13. Vitamin D Status and VDR Genotype in NF1 Patients: A Case-Control Study from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza Mario Bueno, Larissa; Rosset, Clévia; Aguiar, Ernestina; Pereira, Fernando de Souza; Izetti Ribeiro, Patrícia; Scalco, Rosana; Matzenbacher Bittar, Camila; Brinckmann Oliveira Netto, Cristina; Gischkow Rucatti, Guilherme; Chies, José Artur; Camey, Suzi Alves; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients are more likely to have vitamin D deficiency when compared to the general population. This study aimed to determine the levels of 25-OH-vitamin D [25(OH)D] in individuals with NF1 and disease-unaffected controls and analyze FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms in a case and in a control group. Vitamin D levels were compared between a group of 45 NF1 patients from Southern Brazil and 45 healthy controls matched by sex, skin type, and age. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of VDR gene polymorphisms were obtained from the same NF1 patients and 150 healthy controls. 25(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency was not more frequent in NF1 patients than in controls (p = 0.074). We also did not observe an association between FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms and vitamin D levels in NF1 patients, suggesting that their deficient or insufficient biochemical phenotypes are not associated with these genetic variants. The differences between the groups in genotypic and allelic frequencies for FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms were small and did not reach statistical significance. These polymorphisms are in partial linkage disequilibrium and the haplotype frequencies also did not differ in a significant way between the two groups (p = 0.613). PMID:26161090

  14. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Andréa O; Passamani, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a context, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors) using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments). PMID:23025102

  15. Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ilha, M R S; Loretti, A P; Reis, A C F

    2005-10-10

    A sporadic wasting syndrome affecting beef cattle herds parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum is described in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The disease was characterized by progressive weight loss, poor body condition despite plenty of good quality forage available, and death. Annual losses ranged from 1 to 3%. The clinical course of the disease varied from 2 to 10 months after the onset of the first clinical signs. At necropsy, one of the three distinct following patterns of lesions were observed: the pancreas was of normal size and color; small, shrunken, white and markedly and diffusely firm (fibrosis); or slightly enlarged and dark with a shriveled capsular surface. Myriads of leaf-shaped trematodes of the genus Eurytrema were packed inside multiple dilated ducts with thickened, whitish fibrous walls, or the flukes were embedded in the remaining pancreatic parenchyma. Microscopic findings included extensive loss of the pancreatic parenchyma with replacement fibrosis, intralesional flukes and eggs, and ductal hyperplasia. Inflammatory reaction varied from absent to severe with the presence of a granulomatous reaction around the trematode eggs. One affected animal had high plasma amylase concentration (1580U/L) suggesting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Glucose blood levels were not significantly increased. We suggest that diffuse and marked fibrosis of the pancreas induced by the presence of large amounts of pancreatic flukes is the cause of the sporadic cases of chronic wasting and death of cattle in this geographic area. PMID:16046069

  16. Waterborne diseases classification and relationship with social-environmental factors in Florianópolis city - Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cesa, M; Fongaro, G; Barardi, C R M

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate and classify the occurrence of waterborne diseases in Florianópolis city, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil and to correlate these diseases with the following social-environmental indicators of the local population: type of water supply, adequate collection and sewage treatment, areas of flooding and domestic water tank cleaning. Reports of outpatients were analyzed for surveillance of waterborne diseases during the period of 2002 to 2009. Waterborne diseases were classified into four groups: Group A: diarrheal diseases; Group B: parasitological diseases; Group C: skin diseases and Group D: eye diseases. The diarrheal, parasitological and skin diseases were the most frequently reported. Waterborne diseases belonging to Group A in all sites were correlated with other waterborne diseases groups, which can be an indicator of the circulation of other waterborne diseases. Regarding the social-environmental indicators assessed, the most correlated with waterborne diseases were the origin and quality of the water supply, followed by inadequate collection and treatment of sewage, frequent flooding, and finally the lack of cleanliness of the water reservoir. The results highlight the need for policies aiming for improvement of the sanitation service in the maintenance of human, animal and environmental health. PMID:27105418

  17. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, D C; Ferreira, J D; Bueno, P A A; Iwakura, L; Bueno, R O; Campiolo, J B

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period) and April (rainy period), 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m(2) for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April), but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth.) had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir. PMID:26628226

  18. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

    2014-08-01

    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis. PMID:24742904

  19. Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals. PMID:21881799

  20. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba spp. from thermal swimming pools and spas in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fabres, Laura Fuhrich; Rosa Dos Santos, Sayonara Peixoto; Benitez, Lisianne Brittes; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2016-03-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed in soil and water. A few number of them are implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Species of Acanthamoeba can cause keratitis and brain infections. In this study, 72 water samples were taken from both hot tubs and thermal swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the water as well as perform the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolates. The identification of the isolates was based on the cysts morphology and PCR amplification using genus-specific oligonucleotides. When the isolates were submitted to PCR reaction only 8 were confirmed as belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba. The sequences analysis when compared to the sequences in the GenBank, showed genotype distribution in group T3 (12,5%), T5 (12,5%), T4 (25%) and T15 (50%). The results of this study confirmed the presence of potentially pathogenic isolates of free living amoebae in hot swimming pool and spas which can present risks to human health. PMID:27078644

  1. Constipation: Prevalence and Associated Factors in Adults Living in Londrina, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Fernanda Mateus Queiroz; de Gouveia Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição; de Cássia Domansky, Rita; Neves, José Marcio Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of constipation and identify associated factors among adults living in an urban area in Londrina, Brazil. This was a secondary analysis of an epidemiological, population-based study on bowel habit performed in 2008 with 2,162 individuals selected through cluster sampling. Interviews were administered using a sociodemographic questionnaire and the adapted and validated Brazilian version of the "Bowel Function in the Community" tool. Variables from the original database were used to determine the prevalence of constipation (according to the Rome Criteria III) and associated factors. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used for data analysis. The overall prevalence of constipation (14.6%; n = 315) was higher among women than among men (21.9% vs. 5.3%), increased with age among men, and was inversely related to family income. Overall, female gender, low socioeconomic status, history of anal fissure, anorectal surgery, stroke, nervous system disease, fistulae, and hemorrhoids were factors significantly associated with constipation. The variables low social economic status, stroke, anal fissure history, and anorectal surgery were statistically significant in all three tested statistical models. PMID:27258460

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grisard, E C; Carvalho-Pinto, C J; Scholz, A F; Toma, H K; Schlemper, B R; Steindel, M

    2000-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI), in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI), located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed. PMID:11080763

  3. Black-fly assemblage distribution patterns in streams in disturbed areas in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa; Sagot, Lúcia Beatriz; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2014-12-01

    Black flies (Simuliidae) are considered to be pests in rural and in some urban areas in the south of Brazil due to the bites of females. Little information exists on the factors that contribute to Simuliidae distribution in these areas. We sampled 39 streams in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in September 2004 to address ecological aspects. Of the 18 species collected, those that occurred in more than 50% of the streams were: Simulium subnigrum Lutz 1910, Simulium pertinax Kollar 1882, Simulium subpallidum Lutz 1910 and Simulium incrustatum Lutz 1910. Species richness was not influenced by any of the environmental or geographical variables considered, and there was no pattern of species co-occurrence, corroborating the hypothesis of a stochastic distribution of the Simuliidae assemblage. When analyzed individually, only three of seven species with occurrence frequency >30% were related to any of the variables measured. The probabilities of occurrence of Simulium jujuyense Paterson & Shannon 1927 and S. pertinax were higher in streams with high values of water pH and electrical conductivity, whereas the opposite was observed for S. incrustatum. Therefore, due to stochastic distribution, the population studies of Simuliidae are more suitable for predicting the occurrence of species in rural areas than are studies of assemblages. PMID:25107279

  4. Interflow, overland flow and leaching of natural nutrients on an Alfisol slope of southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira Leite, J.

    1985-09-01

    Two experimental plots for hydrologic studies, 3595 and 7060 m 2, were delimited on a slope of Alfisol planted with cacao in Bahia, Brazil. Volumes of overland flow and interflow were measured daily and samples of collected water were taken monthly for analysis of Ca, Mg, Na, K, N, P and Fe. The highest overland-flow volumes represented 24% and the highest interflow 53% of the rainfall but on the average the volumes of overland flow and interflow were found to represent 1 and 14% of the annual rainfall. The percentage of interflow increases with increasing rainfall. In winter, it is higher than in summer, except during the highest rains observed. The mean annual loss for calcium was 85.8 kg ha -1 yr -1; for magnesium 18.2; potassium 17.0; sodium 23.5; nitrogen 22.1; iron 5.5 and phosphorus 0.9. In relative terms, considering the chemical components of the soils, the K losses are highest, indicating that this element is most leachable. The interflow volumes and the amounts of Na, K, N and P correlated at the 1% significance level in both plots. A general conclusion is that the leaching of nutrients varied with the intensity of the interflow, especially for Na, K, N and P, the leaching of nutrients through overland flow being of less importance.

  5. [Quality of life and burnout among public high school and primary school teachers in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Tabeleão, Viviane Porto; Tomasi, Elaine; Neves, Siduana Facin

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate quality of life among public schoolteachers in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and work conditions, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 601 primary and secondary teachers from the State and Municipal public school system in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The study analyzed the following domains from the WHOQOL-BREF scale: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. The mean indices were: 69.2 (SD = 16.8) for physical health, 70.6 (SD = 14.0) for psychological health, 72.5 (SD = 17.3) for social relationships, and 60.7 (SD = 14.0) for environment. Age, time in the teaching career, and total number of students were not significantly associated with quality of life. Teachers in municipal schools scored higher than their counterparts in the State public schools in the physical health domain (p = 0.026). Men scored higher than women in the physical and psychological health domains. Higher family income was associated with better quality of life. Higher classroom workload was associated with better scores in the physical health and environment domains. PMID:22218582

  6. Acute gastroenteritis and enteric viruses in hospitalised children in southern Brazil: aetiology, seasonality and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Raboni, Sonia Maria; Damasio, Guilherme Augusto Costa; Ferreira, Carla EO; Pereira, Luciane A; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R; Cruz, Cristina R; Almeida, Sergio M

    2014-01-01

    Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG) is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA) is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV), RVA, norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV). NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26%) were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5), HAdV/NoV (3) and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1). The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations. PMID:25075782

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in southern and central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D T; Arnoldi, F G C; Rosa, S P; Viviani, V R

    2014-08-01

    Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. PMID:23868199

  8. Presence of Torque teno virus (TTV) in tap water in public schools from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vecchia, Andréia Dalla; Kluge, Mariana; dos Santos da Silva, Joseane V; Comerlato, Juliana; Rodrigues, Manoela T; Fleck, Juliane D; da Luz, Roger B; Teixeira, Thais F; Roehe, Paulo M; Capalonga, Roberta; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz; Spilki, Fernando R

    2013-03-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV) was surveyed in tap water collected in schools from three municipalities located in the south of Brazil. TTV genomes were found in 11.7 % (4/34) of the samples. TTV DNA was detected in 10.5 % (2/19) of the samples collected at the city of Caxias do Sul and in 25 % (2/8) of the samples from Pelotas. Those cities have a low rate of sewage treatment. All samples from Santa Cruz do Sul, which has nearly 92 % of its sewage treated, were negative. These results suggest that the amount of sewage treated may have an effect on the detection rates of TTV DNA in drinking water in a given urban area, showing a mild negative correlation (r = -0.76), when comparing the percentage of sewage treatment to the detection of TTV genomes. The detection rate of TTV was also compared with Escherichia coli, showing a strong correlation (r = 0.97), indicating that TTV may be a suitable marker of fecal contamination. PMID:23412718

  9. [Health conditions, lifestyles and occupational characteristics of teachers in a city in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marcio Neres; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde

    2013-03-01

    Various health complications have been identified among teachers and there is little information available about their lifestyle habits. The scope of this study was to investigate health conditions, lifestyles and occupational characteristics of municipal teachers in Bagé in the south of Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving 414 teachers was conducted by asking the teachers to fill out a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate analysis techniques were employed. Most teachers were females (96.1%) and the mean age was 40.1 years (SD 9.4). Average teaching experience was 12.4 years (SD 9.5); 59% of the teachers had a degree; they taught many working hours per week (31.7 hours, SD 10.5) and 62% were absent from work at least once in the last 12 months. Self-rated heath was good (38.5%); 62.5% of them were physically active; 32.3% were overweight and 14.4% obese. They consumed hardly any fruit and vegetables (79.6%), had average stress levels of 14.9 points (SD 6.6) and 20.3% reported hypertension. Self-reported health was associated with teaching time, absenteeism, physical activity, number of meals per day, stress levels and hypertension. The prevalence of teachers who rated their health negatively was low, however several lifestyle issues were identified, which can be prejudicial to the health of these individuals. PMID:23546210

  10. [Accidental poisoning among children and adolescents in a county in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; de Paiva, Priscila Aparecida Batista

    2006-02-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of accidental poisoning among children and young adolescents (< 15 years) in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, in 2001. Data were obtained from patient records in general hospitals, the local Poison Control Center, and the municipal Mortality Information Center. There were 473 cases of poisoning, with an incidence rate of 339.8 per 100,000, 58.5% due to poisonous substances and 39% due to venomous animals and plants. Increased risk was observed in the 1-3-year age group, due to poisonous substances. Medications (47.5%), pesticides (14.1%), and cleaning products (11.3%) were the main substances involved (284 cases), and 17.2% of children were hospitalized. Among 189 cases of contact with venomous animals and plants, caterpillars (29.1%), bees (25.9%), and spiders (22.8%) were the main agents, with a 1.1% hospitalization rate. Incidence of poisoning is high, and there are important differences in the types of agents involved according to age group, which may help orient the prevention of such accidents. PMID:16501753

  11. Age distribution of Serra Geral (Paraná) flood basalts, southern Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodor, R.V.; McKee, E.H.; Roisenberg, A.

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated 193 K-Ar ages (10 newly determined) of basaltic and differentiated rocks of the Serra Geral (Paraná) flood-basalt province for indications of magmatism occurring systematically with progressive rifting and complete separation ( ≈130-105 Ma) of South America from Africa. The K-Ar ages represent basalt emplacement between 35° and 19°S covering about 1,200,000 km2. We note that volcanism appears ubiquitous across the province between about 140 and 115 Ma, and that there are no significant age differences within that relate directly to progressive south-to-north tectonism. On the other hand, the oldest samples, about 140–160 Ma, are among those nearest the Brazil coastline (rift margin), perhaps suggesting migration of activity away from the rift with time. Studies of other flood-basalt provinces now indicate short (<3 m.y.) eruption periods, thereby pointing to the need for re-examination of Serra Geral ages by 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating techniques.

  12. [Perception, knowledge, and use of generic drugs in southern Brazil: what changed from 2002 to 2012?].

    PubMed

    Guttier, Marília Cruz; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-08-01

    This study compared the perception, knowledge, and use of generic drugs by adults in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, using two cross-sectional population-based studies from 2002 and 2012. Study outcomes were: (a) prevalence of use of generics; (b) generics as a proportion of all medication; (c) users' perceptions of prices and quality; (d) users' knowledge of generics; and (e) strategies for acquisition of medicines. Prevalence of generics use increased from 3.6% (95%CI: 3.0-4.3) to 26.1% (95%CI: 24.5-27.7) in the 10-year period. Perceptions of prices and quality of generics remained stable, identification of characteristics that distinguish generics from other drugs improved (p < 0.001), and drug classification errors decreased (p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in acquiring medication by replacing prescribed drugs with generics. Between 2002 and 2012 there was an increase in knowledge and use of generics, while perception of lower prices and equivalent quality remained high. PMID:27487440

  13. Infant mortality in three population-based cohorts in Southern Brazil: trends and differentials.

    PubMed

    Santos, Iná S; Menezes, Ana M B; Mota, Denise M; Albernaz, Elaine P; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2008-01-01

    We studied time trends in infant mortality and associated factors between three cohort studies carried out in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1982, 1993, and 2004. All hospital births and deaths were determined by means of regular visits to hospitals, registrar's offices, and cemeteries. This data was used to calculate neonatal, post-neonatal, and infant mortality rates per thousand live births. Rates were also calculated according to cause of death, sex, birth weight, gestational age, and family income. The infant mortality rate fell from 36.4 per 1,000 live births in 1982 to 21.1 in 1993 and 19.4 in 2004. Major causes of infant mortality in 2004 were perinatal causes and respiratory infections. Mortality among low birth weight children from poor families fell 16% between 1993 and 2004; however, this rate increased by more than 100% among high-income families due to the increase in the number of preterm deliveries in this group. The stabilization of infant mortality in the last decade is likely to be due to excess medical interventions relating to pregnancies and delivery care. PMID:18797721

  14. Nutrient recovery from swine waste and protein biomass production using duckweed ponds (Landoltia punctata): southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, R A; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important countries in pork production worldwide, ranking third. This activity has an important role in the national economic scenario. However, the fast growth of this activity has caused major environmental impacts, especially in developing countries. The large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in pig manure has caused ecological imbalances, with eutrophication of major river basins in the producing regions. Moreover, much of the pig production in developing countries occurs on small farms, and therefore causes diffuse pollution. Therefore, duckweed pond have been successfully used in the swine waste polishing, generating further a biomass with high protein content. The present study evaluated the efficiency of two full scale duckweed ponds for the polishing of a small pig farm effluent, biomass yield and crude protein (CP) content. Duckweed pond series received the effluent from a biodigester-storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3)/day (chemical oxygen demand rate = 186 kg/ha day) produced by 300 animals. After 1 year a great improvement of effluent quality was observed, with removal of 96% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and 89% of total phosphorus (TP), on average. Nitrogen removal rate is one of the highest ever found (4.4 g TKN/m(2) day). Also, the dissolved oxygen rose from 0.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The two ponds produced together over 13 tons of fresh biomass (90.5% moisture), with 35% of CP content, which represents a productivity of 24 tonsCP/ha year. Due to the high rate of nutrient removal, and also the high protein biomass production, duckweed ponds revealed, under the presented conditions, a great potential for the polishing and valorization of swine waste. Nevertheless, this technology should be better exploited to improve the sustainability of small pig farms in order to minimize the impacts of this activity on the environment. PMID:22592476

  15. Telenursing in primary health care: report of experience in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Valesca Pastore; Witt, Regina Rigatto; Silveira, Denise Tolfo; Kolling, João Henrique Godinho; Fontanive, Paulo; de Castro Filho, Eno Dias; Harzheim, Erno

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande do Sul Telematics and Telehealth kernel in Brazil, aims to enhance the quality of the Unified Health System (UHS) in support of primary health care (PHC) services, most of them engaged in the Family Health Program (FHP). Among the initiatives of the TeleHealth Rio Grande do Sul, there is consulting via e-mail and videoconference. They are requested and answered using specific forms available on TeleHealth's intranet. This study registers the experience on supporting and answering demands using clinical evidence, and presents professional characteristics and some results reached until now. Data related to professional characteristics were extracted from a questionnaire prepared by the program execution team, and applied during training sessions in 2007 and 2008. Consults sent by nurses, technicians and community health agents were analyzed considering its number and content. The analyzed sample of nurses showed that 89.1% were female, 40% younger than 30 years old and the majority graduated within the past 5 years. Most of them (97) work for the FHP and 51.61% have a pos graduate degree. Most of the interviewed nurses use e-mail to communicate and the internet at least once a week. So far, the program TeleHealth Rio Grande do Sul have received 498 consult requests, 111 related to the nursing field. The nurses answer nursing related doubts, sent by nursing technicians and community health agents. The consults involve several different subjects, mainly on wounds, woman health, drugs and medicines. Considering the consults demanded, the group decided to create health care protocols, starting with the most requested subjects, such as the wounds, which is about to be released on the Rio Grande do Sul TeleHealth website. PMID:19592835

  16. Ecology of a tick-borne spotted fever in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Binder, Lina C; Oliveira, Caroline S; Costa, Francisco B; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Gregori, Fábio; Polo, Gina; Oliveira, Stefan V; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-10-01

    Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state of Brazil, bordering Uruguay. Clinical cases of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis were recently reported in Rio Grande do Sul. None of these cases was lethal, and all were confirmed by seroconversion to R. rickettsii antigens. Because serological cross-reactions are well known to occur between different SFG agents, the SFG agent responsible for the clinical cases remains unknown in Rio Grande do Sul, where no rickettsial agent is known to infect ticks. During 2013-2014, ticks and blood sera samples were collected from domestic dogs and wild small mammals, and from the vegetation in a SFG-endemic area of Rio Grande do Sul. Dogs were infested by Amblyomma ovale adult ticks, whereas small mammals were infested by immature stages of A. ovale, Ixodes loricatus, and adults of I. loricatus. Ticks collected on vegetation were adults of A. ovale, and immature stages of A. ovale, Amblyomma dubitatum, and Amblyomma longirostre. Three Rickettsia species were detected: Rickettsia bellii in I. loricatus, Rickettsia amblyommii in A. longirostre, and a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent (Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) in A. ovale. Seroreactivity to SFG antigens were detected in 19.7 % (27/137) canine and 37.5 % (15/40) small mammal sera, with highest titers to R. parkeri. Results indicate that the R. parkeri-like agent, strain Atlantic rainforest, is circulating between A. ovale ticks, dogs and small mammals in the study area, suggesting that this SFG pathogen could be one of the etiological agents of SFG clinical cases in Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:27392739

  17. Tectonic evolution of the Brusque Group, Dom Feliciano belt, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basei, M. A. S.; Campos Neto, M. C.; Castro, N. A.; Nutman, A. P.; Wemmer, K.; Yamamoto, M. T.; Hueck, M.; Osako, L.; Siga, O.; Passarelli, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Dom Feliciano Belt constitutes the main geotectonic unit of the southeastern portion of Brazil and Uruguay. It was formed by the end of the Neoproterozoic as a result of the interaction among the Rio de La Plata, Paranapanema, Congo and Kalahari cratons during the formation of Western Gondwana. The Brusque Group represents the supracrustal units of the Dom Feliciano Belt that occur in its northernmost part, which ends in the Brazilian coast and probable continuity in the Kaoko Belt in southwestern Africa. It is possible to constrain the evolution of the Brusque Group paleobasin to the Neoproterozoic, with the rift phase starting in the Tonian (940-840 Ma) and the main sedimentation occurring until 640 Ma, as indicated by the ages of the acid volcanic rocks intercalated with the metasedimentary sequence. The supracrustal rocks can be grouped in three main units lithostratigraphically organized from the oldest to the youngest: Rio Oliveira Formation (rift phase, predominating metavolcanic units), Botuverá Formation (metasedimentary) and Rio da Areia Formation (metavolcano-carbonatic). Between 640 and 600 Ma several metamorphism and deformation phases affected the Brusque Group. Around 600 ± 10 Ma the three granitic suites (São João Batista, Valsungana and Nova Trento) were emplaced within regional metamorphites, producing post-foliation S2 metamorphic aureoles. S2 represents the main foliation observed in the metavolcanosedimentary rocks that constitute the Brusque Group. The tectonic model for the evolution of Brusque Group can be better achieved only when the geochemical, isotopic and geochronologic information available for the Dom Feliciano Belt in Santa Catarina, is considered as a whole. Therefore it is here suggested that the Brusque Group initially evolved in an independent peri-cratonic basin setting separated from the Florianópolis - Pelotas-Aiguá magmatic arc by the Adamastor ocean, having been juxtaposed to it only around 600 Ma, when Brusque

  18. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly. PMID:27394218

  19. Pharmacy practice simulations: performance of senior pharmacy students at a University in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Galato, Dayani; Alano, Graziela M.; Trauthman, Silvana C.; França, Tainã F.

    Objective A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulations were filmed to facilitate the evaluation process. It presents the OSCE educational experience performed by pharmacy trainees of the University of Southern Santa Catarina and experienced by two evaluators. The student general performance was analyzed, and the criteria for pharmacy practice assessment often identified trainees in difficulty. Results The results of 291 simulations showed that students have an average yield performance of 70.0%. Several difficulties were encountered, such as the lack of information about the selected/prescribed treatment regimen (65.1%); inadequate communication style (21.9%); lack of identification of patients’ needs (7.7%) and inappropriate drug selection for self-medication (5.3%). Conclusions These data show that there is a need for reorientation of clinical pharmacy students because they need to improve their communication skills, and have a deeper knowledge of medicines and health problems in order to properly orient their patients. PMID:24367467

  20. Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae), southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Regolin, André Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José

    2015-04-01

    Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts. PMID:25830106

  1. Modeling habitat suitability of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a Neotropical shallow lagoon, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, T C L; Gama, A M S; Alves, T P; Fontoura, N F

    2016-04-19

    This study aimed to model the habitat suitability for an invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a coastal shallow lagoon in the southern Neotropical region (-30.22, -50.55). The lagoon (19km2, maximum deep 2.5m) was sampled with an Ekman dredge in an orthogonal matrix comprising 84 points. At each sampling point, were obtained environmental descriptors as depth, organic matter content (OMC), average granulometry (Avgran), and the percentage of sand (Pcsand). Prediction performance of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) were compared. Also, niche overlapping with other native clam species (Castalia martensi, Neocorbicula limosa and Anodontites trapesialis) was examined. A BRT model with 1400 trees was selected as the best model, with cross-validated correlation of 0.82. The relative contributions of predictors were Pcsand-42.6%, OMC-35.8%, Avgran-10.9% and Depth-10.8%. Were identified that C. fluminea occur mainly in sandy sediments with few organic matter, in shallow areas nor by the shore. The PCA showed a wide niche overlap with the native clam species C. martensi, N. limosa and A. trapesialis. PMID:27097092

  2. Paleoproterozoic andesitic volcanism in the southern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil); lithofacies analysis and geodynamic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano; Capra, Lucia; Dias Fernandes, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    Precambrian volcanism played an important role in geological evolution and formation of new crust. Most of the literature on Precambrian volcanic rocks describes settings belonging to subaqueous volcanic systems. This is likely because subaerial volcanic rocks in Proterozoic and Archean volcano-sedimentary succession are poorly preserved due to erosive/weathering processes. The late Paleoproterozoic Sobreiro Formation (SF) here described, seems to be one of the rare exceptions to the rule and deserves particular attention. SF represents the subaerial expression of an andesitic magmatism that, linked with the upper felsic Santa Rosa F., composes the Uatumã Group. Uatumã Group is an extensive magmatic event located in the Xingú region, southwestern of Pará state, Amazonian Craton (northern Brazil). The Sobreiro volcanism is thought to be related to an ocean-continent convergent margin. It is characterized by ~1880 Ma well-preserved calc-alkaline basaltic/andesitic to andesitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and associated reworked successions. The superb preservation of its rock-textures allowed us to describe in detail a large variety of volcaniclastic deposits. We divided them into primary and secondary, depending if they result from a direct volcanic activity (pyroclastic) or reworked processes. Our study reinforces the importance of ancient volcanic arcs and rocks contribution to the terrestrial volcaniclastic sedimentation and evolution of plate tectonics. The volcanic activity that produced pyroclastic rocks influenced the amount of detritus shed into sedimentary basins and played a major role in the control of sedimentary dispersal patterns. This study aims to provide, for the first time, an analysis of the physical volcanic processes for the subaerial SF, based in field observation, lithofacies analysis, thin section petrography and less geochemical data. The modern volcanological approach here used can serve as a model about the evolution of Precambrian

  3. Hemorrhagic disease in dogs infected with an unclassified intraendothelial piroplasm in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; Barros, Severo Sales

    2005-12-10

    A hemorrhagic disease affecting dogs in Brazil, referred to popularly as "nambiuvú" (bloody ears) and believed to be transmitted by ticks, has been observed in animals infected with an organism described originally in 1910 as a piroplasm, and known locally as Rangelia vitalii. In this series of 10 cases, the disease was characterized by anaemia, jaundice, fever, spleno- and lymphadenomegaly, hemorrhage in the gastrointestinal tract, and persistent bleeding from the nose, oral cavity and tips, margins and outer surface of the pinnae. The ixodid ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Amblyomma aureolatum infested affected dogs from suburban and rural areas, respectively. Laboratory findings included regenerative anaemia, spherocytosis, icteric plasma and bilirubinuria. Those intracellular organisms were found in bone marrow smears but not in blood smears. Microscopically, zoites were seen within the cytoplasm of blood capillary endothelial cells. Parasitized and non-parasitized endothelial cells were positive immunohistochemically for von Willebrand factor (vWF). Langhans-type multinucleate giant cells were observed in the lymph nodes and choroid plexus. There was prominent erythrophagocytosis by macrophages in the lymph node sinuses and infiltration of the medullary cords by numerous plasma cells. Ultrastructurally, this organism had an apical complex that included a polar ring and rhoptries but no conoid. This parasite was contained within a parasitophorous vacuole that had a trilaminar membrane with villar protrusions and was situated in the cytoplasm of capillary endothelial cells. This organism tested positive by immunohistochemistry for Babesia microti. This pathogen was also positive by in situ hybridization for B. microti. Tentative clinical diagnosis in these cases was based on the history, clinical picture, haemogram and favorable response to therapy, and confirmed through microscopic examination of smears from the bone marrow or histological sections of

  4. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  5. Neotropical Monogenoidea 59. Polyonchoineans from Characidium spp. (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boeger, Walter A; Ferreira, Renata C; Vianna, Rogério T; Patella, Luciana

    2014-04-01

    Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae (Monogenoidea) are described or reported from three species of Characidium Reinhardt (Crenuchidae), small species of Characiformes, from streams located in southern Brazilian states. Gyrodactylus carolinae sp. n. (Gyrodactylidae) is described from the body surface of Characidium lanei Travassos (type host), C. pterostictum Gomez, and Characidium sp. from streams in the states of Paraná and São Paulo. This new species closely resembles species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 described from species of Poeciliidae, from which it differs by the morphology of the hooks and nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Gyrodactylus inesperatus sp. n. is described from the body surface of Characidium sp. from a stream in the State of São Paulo. The latter new species is characterised by lacking a shield on the superficial bar and by the morphology of the hooks, both unique characteristics for Neotropical species of Gyrodactylus. Marumbius gen. n. (Dactylogyridae) is proposed to accommodate two species, M. dorsivaginatus sp. n. from the gills of Characidium pterostictum (type host) and C. lanei, and M. amplexus sp. n. from the gills of C. lanei (all from the state of Paraná). Both species are characterised by having dorsal vagina, hook pairs 2-4, 6 and 7 composed by two subunits, hook pairs 1 and 5 lacking proximal subunit, and by the length of proximal subunits (when present) varying among hook pairs, completely or partially overlapping gonads, and male copulatory organ (MCO) represented by an incomplete coil of a sclerotized tube articulated to the accessory piece by a copulatory ligament. Cacatuocotyle paranaensis Boeger, Domingues et Kritsky, 1997 is reported from C. lanei at low prevalence in the Rio Marumbi (state of Paraná). The Monogenoidea that parasitize species of Characidium are members of several independent lineages, some of distant evolutionary relationships, suggesting a complex origin for this parasitic fauna. PMID

  6. HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR = 7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p = 0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and

  7. Evaluation of the Swat Model in a Small Watershed Representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcon, I. R.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Beling, F. A.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    This study presents the results of simulations with the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in a small watershed in Southern Brazil (latitude 29°38'37.5 " and longitude 53°48'2.2"), representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome. This area was monitored by two sequential stations, each with one rain gauge and one stage gauge, having contributing areas of 4.5 km2 and 12 km2 respectively. The altitudes in the basins range from 316 m to 431 m and vegetation is predominantly composed of native forest (55%) and native pasture (39%). The simulated period was from August 2007 to July 2011, corresponding to the period of monitoring. The temperature ranged from -2.2°C to 39.2°C, and annual rainfall ranged between 2005 mm and 2250 mm. For this application, a modification in the SWAT 2000 model algorithm was made, as proposed by Paiva and Paiva (2006), to adjust the rate of leaf area during the winter season of the region. The quality of the results was characterized by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSE) and by the coefficient of determination (R2). The model was evaluated in a monthly and daily scale. At the monthly scale, the values obtained for NSE in the calibration phase, were 0.73 and 0.81, respectively for the two sections. The values obtained for R2 were 0.77 and 0.83 in the same sections. At the daily scale, in the calibration phase NSE values were -0.44 and -0.31, respectively, for the two sections, while for R2, the values were 0.27 and 0.38 in the same sections. These results show that the fit was good for monthly values, but for daily values a proper adjustment was not possible. Due to the short period of monitoring, the validation of the model results was made with the observed data from first station with an area of 4.5 km2. The values obtained for the NSE in the validation phase were 0.73 and -0.33 for the monthly and daily scales respectively, and for R2, 0.77 and 0.27 for the monthly and daily values, thus confirming the quality of the fit

  8. Stocks and sources of carbon buried in the salt marshes and seagrass beds of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Elizabeth; Johnson, Beverly; Dostie, Philip; Copertino, Margareth

    2016-04-01

    This project investigates carbon stocks in salt marshes and seagrass beds in the Patos Lagoon estuary, the largest choked lagoon in the world, located in Southern Brazil. The study was conducted in the mesohaline region, at three shallow shoals. At each shoal, three sediment cores (50 cm deep) and plant biomass samples (above and belowground) were collected along a transect line, spanning from the marsh to seagrass beds (total = 9 sediment cores). The 50cm cores were subsampled and analyzed for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, C/N ratios, and the isotope ratios of 13C/12C, and 15N/14N. The organic carbon content of these sediments ranged between 10% (in surface sediments) and 1% (deeper in the core), suggesting that both the salt marshes and seagrass beds in this region are sequestering carbon. Early results indicate that cores taken in marsh dominated by C3 plants (Scirpus maritimus) tended to be the most depleted in 13C with δ13C values around -25‰. Cores taken in marsh dominated by C4 plants (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora), seagrass beds (Ruppia maritima) , and non vegetated areas were generally isotopically heavier with δ13C values ranging -20‰ to -15‰, indicating a mix of organic sources in the sediments. The δ15N values and C/N ratios both varied with most values falling in a range of 2-8‰ and 7-20 respectively. Analysis of the δ 34S isotope composition of the sediments is currently underway and may provide better information on the relative contributions of macro and micro algae in the sediments. The present data will reveal the carbon stock size, as well as the types and history of organic matter deposition in Patos Lagoon estuary.

  9. Paleolimnological record as an indication of incipient eutrophication in an oligotrophic subtropical coastal lake in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hennemann, Mariana Coutinho; Simonassi, José Carlos; Petrucio, Mauricio Mello

    2015-08-01

    Paleolimnology of lake sediments can be a powerful tool to assess various aspects of lake history and catchment change through elemental, isotopic and molecular analysis of the sedimented organic matter (OM). In this sense, the objective of the present study was to investigate the source, depositional history and preservation of OM in the sediments of two different sites in Peri Lake (southern Brazil) to better understand the nature and direction of environmental changes. Therefore, two sediment cores were sampled and analysed for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and elemental ratios, and stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ(13)C and δ(15)N). Both cores showed similar general tendencies, with increasing amounts of OM (range 1-35%), TOC (2.55-258.40 mg g(-1)), TN (0.30-25.97 mg g(-1)) and TP (0.03-4.72 mg g(-1)) from the bottom toward the top more recent layers. TOC:TN ratios (range 8.1-14.7) showed a slight decrease in recent times and indicated a mixture of allochthonous and autochthonous contribution to the OM, with predominance of the last source. TN:TP (range 0.2-51.3) indicated a condition of potential limitation by P in general. Both δ(13)C (range -25.58 to -20.85) and δ(15)N (range 2.6 to 7.1) showed a decreasing pattern toward the top of the cores, in opposition to macronutrient concentration. Differences in the depth variation pattern between the two cores were associated to the marginal location of one of the cores. The results suggest that nutrients and primary production are increasing in the lake. PMID:26197956

  10. Clinical and epidemiological features of respiratory virus infections in preschool children over two consecutive influenza seasons in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giamberardin, Heloisa I G; Homsani, Sheila; Bricks, Lucia F; Pacheco, Ana P O; Guedes, Matilde; Debur, Maria C; Raboni, Sonia M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the results of a systematic screening for respiratory viruses in pediatric outpatients from an emergency department (ED) in southern Brazil during two consecutive influenza seasons. Children eligible for enrollment in this study were aged 24-59 months and presented with acute respiratory symptoms and fever. Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs were collected and multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to identify the respiratory viruses involved. In total, 492 children were included in this study: 248 in 2010 and 244 in 2011. In 2010, 136 samples (55%) were found to be positive for at least one virus and the most frequently detected viruses were human rhinovirus (HRV) (18%), adenovirus (AdV) (13%), and human coronavirus (CoV) (5%). In 2011, 158 samples (65%) were found to be positive for at least one virus, and the most frequently detected were HRV (29%), AdV (12%), and enterovirus (9%). Further, the presence of asthma (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.86-5.46) was independently associated with HRV infection, whereas fever was associated with AdV (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.31-16.52) and influenza infections (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.26-16.06). Ten patients (2%) were diagnosed with pneumonia, and six of these tested positive for viral infection (4 HRV, 1 RSV, and 1 AdV). Thus, this study identified the most common respiratory viruses found in preschool children in the study region and demonstrated their high frequency, highlighting the need for improved data collection, and case management in order to stimulate preventive measures against these infections. J. Med. Virol. 88:1325-1333, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26773605

  11. Use of artificial substrata by introduced and cryptogenic marine species in Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, Carolina Somaio; Rocha, Rosana Moreira; Pitombo, Fabio Bettini; Roper, James J

    2007-01-01

    Ports are important locations for the introduction of marine species, while marinas and pontoons often serve as secondary habitats for these species. In a marina near Paranaguá Port, a major international port in southern Brazil, the encrusting community was studied to (i) identify possibly introduced species, and (ii) examine the use of artificial substrata by these species. Samples (20 x 20 cm) were taken from fibreglass floats (boardwalks and boat hulls) and concrete columns. A total of 85 species were found of which 50 were classified into three categories: four introduced, 33 cryptogenic and 13 native. The introduced species were the hydrozoan Garveia franciscana (on floats, boats and submerged concrete), the polychaete Polydora cornuta (more abundant on floats and submerged concrete) and the barnacles Amphibalanus reticulatus (equally abundant on the three substrata) and Striatobalanus amaryllis (only on floats and submerged concrete). Organisms were most abundant on floating boardwalks, while species richness and composition were similar to that on boat hulls (32 and 37, respectively), which are an important vector for intraregional transport. All substrata supported at least three of the four introduced, and many of the cryptogenic species. The proportion of introduced to the total number of species was greater than observed in other ports. This demonstrates that the introduction potential is great in Paranaguá Bay, especially considering that this study was restricted to one site and sampled only hard substrata. None of the introduced species has yet been identified as invasive, but all are generalists with respect to substratum, indicating their invasive potential. The ability to colonise stable concrete walls shows that they could also colonise the natural granite rocky substrata in the bay, and the ability to colonise floating surfaces indicate their capability of spreading in the region on the hulls of recreational boats. PMID:17852067

  12. Population structure and reproductive biology of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Paula Beatriz; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

    2005-11-01

    Data were obtained on the population structure and reproduction of Atlantoscia floridana, one of the most common species of terrestrial isopods in the restinga (coastal dune) forests of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. During a 19-month period, a total of 7833 individuals were sampled: 2792 males, 3400 females and 1691 mancas. There was a significant difference between the size of both males and females collected in 2000 and 2001: the mean size was smaller in the second year when individuals in the larger size classes were lacking. Population density varied with season. The minimum population was 131 ind per m 2 individuals, the maximum 1040 ind per m 2 and the mean 450 per m 2. While the overall sex ratio was clearly female biased, the operational sex ratio favored males, and showed no changes with season. Because both ovigerous and post-ovigerous females were present throughout the year, reproduction is considered continuous; however, reproduction peaked during autumn and spring. Ovigerous females were measured (CW = cephalothorax width) and the number of eggs was counted. Fecundity (F) varied from 5 to 23 eggs ( x¯ = 11.18 ± 4) per female, and was expressed by the regression F = -18.48 + 22.59 CW, with the female cephalothorax width varying from 1.04 to 1.68 mm. Marsupial mortality was only 0.9%. Egg production was 588 eggs per m 2 in spring and 660 eggs per m 2 in autumn. Recruitment occurred in all months, and eggs, embryos and marsupial mancas were also present year-round. A. floridana is the dominant species of terrestrial isopod in the study area. Its most remarkable characteristic is its high reproductive investment.

  13. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Andre; Santos, Luciana Ruschel dos; Borsoi, Anderlise; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Calasans, Max; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562

  14. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  15. Biomonitoring of water genotoxicity in a Conservation Unit in the Sinos River Basin, Southern Brazil, using the Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay.

    PubMed

    Endres Júnior, D; Sasamori, M H; Cassanego, Mbb; Droste, A

    2015-05-01

    The Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay was used to investigate genotoxicity of water bodies in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR), a conservation unit in the city of Novo Hamburgo, Southern Brazil, from November 2010 to October 2011. Every month, cuttings with young inflorescences of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea were exposed for 24 hours to water collected at three sites in the park: (S1) head of the main stream; (S2) head of a secondary stream; (S3) a point past the junction of the two water bodies in which S1 and S2 were located. As a negative control, cuttings were exposed to distilled water for 24 h every quarter. Micronuclei (MCN) frequency was determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and described as MCN/100 tetrads. Rainfall data were also recorded. In nine months at S1 and S2, and in eleven months at S3, micronuclei frequencies were significantly higher than in quarterly controls, in which frequencies varied from 1.19 to 1.62. During sampling, no significant differences were found in MCN frequencies at S1, which ranged from 2.2 to 3.6. At the other sampling sites, there were significant differences between the months evaluated, and MCN frequencies ranged from 1.3 to 6.5 at S2 and from 2.3 to 5.2 at S3. There were no associations between rainfall and MCN frequencies at the three sampling sites. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea confirmed genotoxicity in the water bodies of the PMHLR, even at the head of the streams, which suggests that actions should be promoted to control anthropogenic effects in the streams of this conservation unit. PMID:26270220

  16. Asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil: popular myths and features

    PubMed Central

    Roncada, Cristian; de Oliveira, Suelen Goecks; Cidade, Simone Falcão; Rafael, Joseane Guimarães; Ojeda, Beatriz Sebben; dos Santos, Beatriz Regina Lara; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the frequency of popular myths about and features of asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil. Methods: The parents or legal guardians of public school students (8-16 years of age) completed a specific questionnaire regarding their understanding of asthma, asthma control, and treatment characteristics. The sample included parents or legal guardians of students with asthma (n = 127) and healthy controls (n = 124). Results: The study involved 251 parents or legal guardians, of whom 127 (68.5%) were the mothers and 130 (51.8%) were White. The mean age of these participants was 38.47 ± 12.07 years. Of the participants in the asthma and control groups, 37 (29.1%) and 26 (21.0%), respectively, reported being afraid of using asthma medications, whereas 61 (48%) and 56 (45.2%), respectively, believed that using a metered dose inhaler can lead to drug dependence. However, only 17 (13.4%) and 17 (13.7%) of the participants in the asthma and control groups, respectively, reported being afraid of using oral corticosteroids. In the asthma group, 55 students (43.3%) were diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma, only 41 (32.3%) had a prescription or written treatment plan, and 38 (29.9%) used asthma medications regularly. Conclusions: Popular myths about asthma treatment were common in our sample, as were uncontrolled asthma and inappropriate asthma management. Further studies in this field should be conducted in other developing countries, as should evaluations of pediatric asthma treatment programs in public health systems. PMID:27167435

  17. Breast-feeding among the urban poor in southern Brazil: reasons for termination in the first 6 months of life.

    PubMed Central

    Martines, J. C.; Ashworth, A.; Kirkwood, B.

    1989-01-01

    A study of breast-feeding practices over the first 6 months of life among a cohort of urban poor infants in southern Brazil indicated that the median duration of breast-feeding was 18 weeks, and at 6 months 41% of the infants were still being breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was significantly associated with the following: the infant's sex, mother's colour, type of first feed, timing of the first breast-feed, breast-feeding regimen and frequency of breast-feeding at 1 month, and the use of hormonal contraceptives by the mother. The following were significant risk factors for early termination of breast-feeding: the infant's sex, type of first feed, use of supplementary feeds, frequency of breast-feeding, feeding regimen, weight-for-age, and weight-for-age after controlling for birth weight. Dissatisfaction with their infant's growth rate was the most frequent reason given by mothers for supplementing the diets of infants who were exclusively breast-fed in the first 3 months of life. Also, the mothers' perception that their milk output was inadequate was the most frequent reason expressed for stopping breast-feeding in the first 4 months. The roles of health services and family support in providing favourable conditions for increasing the duration of breast-feeding in the study population are discussed, as well as the possibility of bias being introduced into studies of the relationship between infant feeding and growth by the effect of the infant's rate of growth on the mother's decision to continue breast-feeding. PMID:2743537

  18. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. PMID:22571833

  19. Yellow fever outbreak affecting Alouatta populations in southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State), 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Cruz Cardoso, Jader; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Noll, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Kanamura, Cristina; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo

    2012-01-01

    The natural transmission cycle of Yellow Fever (YF) involves tree hole breeding mosquitoes and a wide array of nonhuman primates (NHP), including monkeys and apes. Some Neotropical monkeys (howler monkeys, genus Alouatta) develop fatal YF virus (YFV) infections similar to those reported in humans, even with minimum exposure to the infection. Epizootics in wild primates may be indicating YFV circulation, and the surveillance of such outbreaks in wildlife is an important tool to help prevent human infection. In 2001, surveillance activities successfully identified YF-related death in a black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), Rio Grande do Sul State (RGS) in southern Brazil, and the YFV was isolated from a species of forest-dwelling mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus). These findings led the State Secretariat of Health to initiate a monitoring program for YF and other 18 arboviral infections in Alouatta monkeys. The monitoring program included monkey captures, reporting of monkey casualties by municipalities, and subsequent investigations. If monkey carcasses were found in forests, samples were collected in a standardized manner and this practice resulted in increased reporting of outbreaks. In October 2008, a single howler monkey in a northwestern RGS municipality was confirmed to have died from YF. From October 2008 to June 2009, 2,013 monkey deaths were reported (830 A. caraya and 1,183 A. guariba clamitans). Viruses isolation in blood, viscera, and/or immunohistochemistry led to the detection of YF in 204 of 297 (69%) (154 A. g. clamitans and 50 A. caraya) dead Alouatta monkeys tested. The number of municipalities with confirmed YFV circulation in howlers increased from 2 to 67 and 21 confirmed human cases occurred. This surveillance system was successful in identifying the largest YF outbreak affecting wild NHP ever recorded. PMID:22020690

  20. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006

    PubMed Central

    PALMEIRA, Andre; dos SANTOS, Luciana Ruschel; BORSOI, Anderlise; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; CALASANS, Max; do NASCIMENTO, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. SalmonellaEnteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562

  1. Seasonal variability of hydro-physical conditions in Faxinal system subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoneli, Valdemir; Thomaz, Edivaldo; Berdnaz, João

    2015-04-01

    The Faxinal System is a form of peasant organization, existing in the Center-South region of Paraná State which is subject to extensive livestock breeding in a common breeding site; forest harvesting within the common breeding site and subsistence feeding polyculture out of faxinal limits. The organization of Faxinal occurs through the fencing of the entire area of faxinal, without boundaries between the properties where the common breeding works. All owners have the right to raise their animals (bovine, equine, etc.) roaming free. The breeding site consists of outdoor areas (natural pastures) and secondary forest areas. The form of creation without properties restriction (roaming free) is identified as the main factor of soil erosion and land degradation due to constant grazing. The trampling ends up compacting and influencing the physical conditions of the soil which lead to the reduction of leakage and increasing the erosive processes. Based on the above considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the compression and water infiltration to the soil in a Faxinal in the South Central Region of Paraná - Brazil. The presented data was collected in a pasture site and secondary forest, both with constant grazing (breeding area) and an area with uncounted animals (control area) out of Faxinal limits. Two collection campaigns were carried out as follows: August (winter) and January (summer). In each collection campaign ten (10) infiltration repetitions were made in each area. In each infiltration test 15 compression collections were performed in each infiltration area, totaling 150 repetitions in each campaign. For the evaluation of water infiltration into the soil, a manual concentric cylindrics infiltrometer was used with readings each 5 minutes during one hour. The Compression was collected with the aid of a pocket penetrometer with a value of 4.5 kgf / cm2. The Infiltration in August was of 26.7 cm / h in secondary forest, 19.1 cm / h in grassland

  2. Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

    2014-05-01

    style that produced them. The aim of this work is to provide a preliminary detailed description of the textural facies of this old volcanic units that outcrop in the southern region of Tapajós to better understand its origins, mechanisms of genesis, and, even possible, stratigraphic relationships. Acknowledgments: we acknowledge the CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and the INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS).

  3. Provenance of the Passo Feio complex, Dom Feliciano Belt: Implications for the age of supracrustal rocks of the São Gabriel Arc, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Carina Graciniana; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Gruber, Leonardo; Armstrong, Richard; Junges, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The Passo Feio complex (PFC) is a sequence of metapelite, amphibolite, metavolcanic/metavolcanoclastic rocks, marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite and magnesium schist. It is part of the São Gabriel Terrane, a Neoproterozoic juvenile arc formed during the early stages of evolution of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB), in southern Brazil. This belt corresponds to the southernmost portion of the Mantiqueira Province, an important Neoproterozoic orogenic system exposed in the NNE direction along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The geotectonic significance of the original Passo Feio basin in the tectonic evolution of São Gabriel Terrene is not well understood. It has been considered as part of a passive margin sequence or as a back-arc sequence. Geochronological and isotopic data are very scarse for the Passo Feio rocks and this has hampered the better understanding of its significance in the Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of southern Brazil. In the present study the age and significance of metasedimentary rocks of the PFC were investigated. The provenance study was carried out in four metapelite samples from the southern and northern Passo Feio complex, using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon. The results showed varied provenance patterns and zircon ages range from 3637 to 803 Ma. Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are present in all samples, but an important Neoproterozoic population has been identified in one of them. 3.5 Ga old zircon grains form the oldest population of detrital zircon ever reported in southern Brazil. Paleoproterozoic/Archean terranes within the Rio de la Plata Craton may represent the main source of detrital sediments and this suggests that part of the Passo Feio complex might have been a passive margin sequence, developed along the northeastern margin of that paleocontinent. However, the presence of a Neoproterozoic zircon population is not consistent with derivation solely from the craton and indicates

  4. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9) and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0). Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class, who did not participate

  5. An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

    2012-04-01

    A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly

  6. Basaltic lava flows covering active aeolian dunes in the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil: Features and emplacement aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M. S.; Frank, Heinrich T.

    2008-03-01

    Burial of active aeolian dunes by lava flows can preserve the morphology of the dunes and generate diverse features related to interaction between unconsolidated sediments and lavas. In the study area, located in southern Brazil, burial of aeolian deposits by Cretaceous basaltic lava flows completely preserved dunes, and generate sand-deformation features, sand diapirs and peperite-like breccia. The preserved dunes are crescentic and linear at the main contact with basalts, and smaller crescentic where interlayered with lavas. The various feature types formed on sediment surfaces by the advance of the flows reflect the emplacement style of the lavas which are compound pahoehoe type. Four feature types can be recognized: (a) type 1 features are related to the advance of sheet flows in dune-interdune areas with slopes > 5°, (b) type 2 is formed where the lava flows advance in lobes and climb the stoss slope of crescentic dunes (slopes 8-12°), (c) type 3 is generated by toes that descend the face of linear dunes (slopes 17-23°) and (d) type 4 occurs when lava lobes descend the stoss slope of crescentic dunes (slopes 10-15°). The direction of the flows, the disposition and morphology of the dunes and the ground slope are the main factors controlling formation of the features. The injection of unconsolidated sand in lava lobes forms diapirs and peperite-like breccias. Sand diapirs occur at the basal portion of lobes where the lava was more solidified. Peperite-like breccias occur in the inner portion where lava was more plastic, favoring the mingling of the components. The generation of both features is related to a mechanical process: the weight of the lava causes the injection of sand into the lava and the warming of the air in the pores of the sand facilitates this process. The lava-sediment interaction features presented here are consistent with previous reports of basalt lavas with unconsolidated arid sediments, and additional new sand-deformation features

  7. Mechanical ventilation in patients in the intensive care unit of a general university hospital in southern Brazil: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Fialkow, Léa; Farenzena, Maurício; Wawrzeniak, Iuri Christmann; Brauner, Janete Salles; Vieira, Sílvia Regina Rios; Vigo, Alvaro; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics, the frequency and the mortality rates of patients needing mechanical ventilation and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a general university hospital in southern Brazil. METHOD: Prospective cohort study in patients admitted to the ICU who needed mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours between March 2004 and April 2007. RESULTS: A total of 1,115 patients admitted to the ICU needed mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate was 51%. The mean age (± standard deviation) was 57±18 years, and the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 22.6±8.3. The variables independently associated with mortality were (i) conditions present at the beginning of mechanical ventilation, age (hazard ratio: 1.01; p<0.001); the APACHE II score (hazard ratio: 1.01; p<0.005); acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (hazard ratio: 1.38; p=0.009), sepsis (hazard ratio: 1.33; p=0.003), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (hazard ratio: 0.58; p=0.042), and pneumonia (hazard ratio: 0.78; p=0.013) as causes of mechanical ventilation; and renal (hazard ratio: 1.29; p=0.011) and neurological (hazard ratio: 1.25; p=0.024) failure, and (ii) conditions occurring during the course of mechanical ventilation, acute lung injuri/acute respiratory distress syndrome (hazard ratio: 1.31; p<0.010); sepsis (hazard ratio: 1.53; p<0.001); and renal (hazard ratio: 1.75; p<0.001), cardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.32; p≤0.009), and hepatic (hazard ratio: 1.67; p≤0.001) failure. CONCLUSIONS: This large cohort study provides a comprehensive profile of mechanical ventilation patients in South America. The mortality rate of patients who required mechanical ventilation was higher, which may have been related to the severity of illness of the patients admitted to our ICU. Risk factors for hospital mortality included conditions present at the start of mechanical

  8. Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear.

    PubMed

    Dehler, Nolan M; Machado, Rômulo; Dehler, Heloisa R S; McReath, Ian; Nummer, Alexis R

    2006-06-01

    Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain. PMID:16710572

  9. Runoff response for a peri-urban watershed in the Atlantic Forest Biome, southern Brazil, using the Kineros2 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beling, F. A.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    Simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed for different scenarios is an important tool for assessing the rational use of the land and natural resources, especially in environments where urbanization is not ever an organized procedure. This study used the Kineros2 event oriented hydrological model to simulate the runoff response of a 4.9 km2 peri-urban basin located in the Atlantic Forest biome in Southern Brazil, with 47% of the area being impermeable. The goal of the simulations was to estimate the characteristic parameters of the soils and land cover of the watershed to then enable the prediction of basin response for different land uses. To acheive this objective, the responses of ten measured rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate five parameters of the model. The PEST (Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) package was used for automatic calibration of the model parameters. The quality of results is shown in Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index values varying from 0.64 up to 0.98, with an average value of 0.88. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow was 4.5% and 20.7% in the simulated runoff volume. A cross-validation using the same events used in the calibration and using average values of the calibrated parameters. gave Nash-Sutcliffe index values varying from 0.26 up to 0.92, with an average value of 0.73. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow and runoff volume were 22.7% and 25.6%, respectively. We used two validated events to simulate distinct scenarios, being representative of a wet and of dry antecedent moisture conditions. For a scenario of a totally forested land cover, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -53% and -46% respectively, and for a wet condition, -63% and -41% respectively, relatively to the present land use. For a complete pasture land use, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -31% and -27% respectively and

  10. Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

    2014-05-01

    Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources

  11. Thermobarometric and geochronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the southern Brasília Fold Belt, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reno, B. L.; Brown, M.; Piccoli, P. M.; Trouw, R. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Usui, T.; Nakamura, E.

    2006-05-01

    The Brasília Fold Belt lies between the São Francisco, Amazonas and Paranapanema cratons in central Brazil. In the southern portion of this belt, the Andrelândia Group comprises a stack of nappes that record metamorphic conditions ranging from greenschist facies at the base to high pressure granulite facies at the top of the stack. Published conventional thermobarometric data indicate peak P-T conditions of ~1.3 GPa and ~900°C in the uppermost nappes, and the few published geochronologic data suggest an age of peak metamorphism around 630 Ma. Here we report new thermobarometry for the uppermost nappes calculated using the average P-T method in THERMOCALC, based on new analytical data from our own samples and literature data, in order compare published results based on conventional thermobarometry to results obtained using the average P-T method. In addition, we report new U-Pb zircon ages that constrain the timing of metamorphism in the uppermost nappes of the Andrelândia Group. Maximum average P-T conditions of 1.5±0.2 GPa and 1020±130°C were calculated for a mafic granulite in the uppermost Socorro --- Guaxupé Nappe, which compares to published results of ~1.1 GPa and ~890°C. The Três Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, immediately below the Socorro --- Guaxupé Nappe, yields an average P-T of 1.1±0.1 GPa and 880±40°C for literature data, compared with published results of ~1.3 GPa and ~730°C. In addition, our new analytical data from the Três Pontas --- Varginha Nappe yield P-T conditions comparable to the recalculated data, with typical peak P ranging from 0.9 to 1.2 GPa and T ranging from 750 to 880°C. These data suggest that the upper nappe was subjected to higher pressures than previously reported, and also may have been subjected to higher temperatures. For the Carmo da Cachoeira Nappe, immediately below the Três Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, we calculate P-T of 0.6 to 0.7 GPa and 520 to 580°C. For the Três Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, zircons were

  12. Evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin in southern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Markus; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Kollenz, Sebastian; Franco-Magalhaes, Ana O. B.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hackspacher, Peter C.

    2013-09-01

    The area between São Paulo and Porto Alegre in southeastern Brazil plays a key area to understand and quantify the evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in Brazil. In this contribution, we present new thermochronological data attained by fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis on apatites and zircons from metamorphic, sedimentary and intrusive rocks. The zircon fission-track ages range between 108.4 (15.0) and 539.9 (68.4) Ma, the zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 72.9 (5.8) and 525.1(2.4) Ma, whereas the apatite fission-track ages range between 40.0 (5.3) and 134.7 (8.0) Ma, and the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 32.1 (1.5) and 93.0 (2.5) Ma. The spatial distribution of these ages shows three distinct blocks with a different evolution cut by old fracture zones. While the central block exhibits an old stable block, the Northern and especially the Southern block underwent complex post-rift exhumation. The sample of the Northern block shows two distinct cooling phases in the Upper Cretaceous and the Paleogene to Neogene. After sedimentation of the Permian sandstones the samples of the Central block were never heated up over 100 °C with a following moderate to fast cooling phase in Cretaceous to Eocene time and a fast cooling between Oligocene to Miocene. The five thermal models obtained in the Southern block indicate a complex evolution with three cooling phases. The exhumation events of the three blocks correspond with the Paraná-Etendekka event, the alkaline intrusions due to the Trinidad hotspot, and the evolution of the continental rift basins in SE Brazil and are, therefore, most likely to be the major force for the post-rift evolution of the passive continental margin in SE Brazil, which therefore corresponds to the three main phases of the Andean orogeny.

  13. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. PMID:25466055

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fat samples from White-chinned Petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and Spectacled Petrels (P. conspicillata) off southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cipro, Caio V Z; Colabuono, Fernanda I; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-12-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been gaining much visibility in environmental chemical studies due to their similarity to PCBs and growing reports of harmful effects. The fact that these contaminants have not yet undergone bans or restrictions on the global level underscores the need for data on their occurrence. In the present study, fat samples from 26 White-chinned Petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and 3 Spectacled Petrels (P. conspicillata) collected dead ashore or as bycatch of longline fisheries in southern Brazil were analyzed to determine concentrations of seven congeners (IUPAC #28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183). Concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from not detectable to 72.70 ng g(-1) (wet weight), comparatively lower than concentrations reported for seabird samples in northern hemisphere. The most detected congeners were 153, 154 and 183. This pattern is close to that previously reported for birds of the same group, but not those from the same region. PMID:24143957

  15. Uranium series disequilibria in ground waters from a fractured bedrock aquifer (Morungaba Granitoids--Southern Brazil): implications to the hydrochemical behavior of dissolved U and Ra.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Erika; Marques, Leila S

    2008-10-01

    Activity concentrations of dissolved (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were determined in ground waters from two deep wells drilled in Morungaba Granitoids (Southern Brazil). Sampling was done monthly for little longer than 1 year. Significant disequilibrium between (238)U, (234)U and (226)Ra were observed in all samples. The variation of (238)U and (234)U activity concentrations and (234)U/(238)U activity ratios is related to seasonal changes. Although the distance between the two wells is short (about 900 m), systematic differences of activity concentrations of U isotopes, as well as of (234)U/(238)U, (226)Ra/(234)U and (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios were noticed, indicating distinct host rock-water interactions. Slightly acidic ground water percolation through heterogeneous host rock, associated with different recharge processes, may explain uranium and radium isotope behavior. PMID:18514535

  16. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella Pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Simone M; Redaelli, Luiza R; Diefenbach, Lúcia M G; Dal Soglio, Fábio K

    2007-01-01

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leafminer, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 degrees 68'S and 51 degrees 46'W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. PMID:18060301

  17. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics. PMID:27231665

  18. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics. PMID:27231665

  19. Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

  20. Towards a Political Ecology of Education: The Educational Politics of Scale in Southern Pará, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, David

    2015-01-01

    Social movements have initiated both academic programs and disciplines. I present ethnographic data that I gathered during 17 months of fieldwork with the Brazilian Landless Workers' Movement (MST) in southeastern Pará, Brazil, to explore the MST's role in creating agroecological education opportunities. My analysis highlights three factors in…

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF RESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF THREE SPECIES OF PINNIPEDS (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS, ARCTOCEPHALUS GAZELLA, AND OTARIA FLAVESCENS) IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Kristy; Marigo, Juliana; Gastal, Silvia Bainy; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Tseng, Florina

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve understanding of parasitism in South American pinnipeds, respiratory and gastrointestinal samples were collected from 12 Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal), one Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic fur seal), and one Otaria flavescens (South American sea lion). Ova and larvae were microscopically identified from fecal samples and respiratory secretions collected from live A. australis undergoing rehabilitation at Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos (CRAM-FURG) in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil during June-July 2012. Adult parasites were collected from the lungs and gastrointestinal tracts of animals that died while undergoing treatment or were found dead along the southern Brazil coast. Parasites were identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, microscopic examination, comparison with keys, and histologic examination of tissues. Lung parasites of the Parafilaroides genus (Metastrongyloidea, Filaroididae) were identified at necropsy in both A. australis and A. gazella and gastrointestinal parasites were found in all three species of pinniped studied. Gastrointestinal parasites identified in A. australis included the nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova cattani, the cestodes Adenocephalus pacificus (previously Diphyllobothrium pacificum), one from the Tetrabothridae family and one undetermined, and the acanthocephalans Corynosoma sp. and Bolbosoma sp.; from A. gazella the nematode Contracaecum sp. and the acanthocephalan Corynosoma sp.; and from O. flavescens the acanthocephalan Corynosoma sp. Ova from fecal samples from A. australis represent ascarid nematodes, Parafilaroides sp., Adenocephalus pacificus, acanthocephalans, and an egg determined either to be a trematode or pseuophyllidean cestode. With limited information surrounding parasitism, these findings are an important contribution to knowledge of the health of Southern Hemisphere pinnipeds. PMID:27010274

  2. Establishing a sediment budget for a small agricultural catchment in southern Brazil, to support the development of effective sediment management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minella, Jean P. G.; Walling, Desmond E.; Merten, Gustavo H.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid expansion of agriculture in Brazil has increased erosion rates and sediment yields, causing many negative environmental and economic impacts, both on- and off-site. However, to date, very few catchment-scale sediment budget investigations have been carried out in Brazil. Given the need to reduce the negative off-site impacts of increasing agricultural activity, there is an important need for such investigations in order to inform the development of effective sediment management strategies. Against this background, 137Cs measurements have been combined with measurements of sediment yield and fingerprinting the source of the fine sediment output, to establish a provisional sediment budget for a small (1.19 km2) agricultural catchment in southern Brazil. The catchment is located in an area of steep highly erodible basaltic terrain, which has been intensively cultivated with tobacco. An ongoing monitoring programme provided information on the sediment yield from the catchment and existing suspended sediment source fingerprinting investigations provided information on the main sediment sources contributing to the sediment load at the catchment outlet. 137Cs measurements have been used to estimate medium-term erosion and deposition rates along 17 transects across the cultivated slopes and to quantify sedimentation rates within valley floor sediment sinks. These data have been used to estimate sediment redistribution rates within the cultivated areas of the study catchment and sediment accumulation in the valley floor sinks. The information provided by the three primary data sources has been integrated to establish the sediment budget for the catchment over the past 57 years. The individual terms of the budget necessarily involve much uncertainty, but its closure adds confidence to the final result. The budget calculations indicate that the study catchment has a sediment delivery ratio of ∼15%. The implications of the key features of the budget for developing

  3. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Reisser, Júlia Wiener; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were 0.5570 ± 0.0697 and 0.0021 ± 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA Φ(ST) pairwise values between the study area and eight other Atlantic foraging grounds revealed significant differences in most areas, except Ubatuba and Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus among users attending a voluntary testing centre in Rio Grande, southern Brazil: predictive factors and hepatitis C virus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Germano, F N; dos Santos, C A; Honscha, G; Strasburg, A; Gabbi, B; Mendoza-Sassi, R A; Soares, E A; Seuánez, H N; Soares, M A; Martínez, A M B

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection and associated risk factors in 750 individuals attending the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center of Rio Grande (VCT/RG), in Southern Brazil, and identified viral genotypes. Demographic data and risk factors for HCV transmission were also collected and analysed. Anti-HCV antibody-positive individuals were tested for HCV-RNA and genotyped by sequencing the 5' untranslated region of the viral genome. Prevalence estimates of anti-HCV and HCV-RNA were 6% and 5.5%, respectively. We identified genotypes 1 (67%), 2 (2%) and 3 (31%); the latter was more prevalent than in other regions of Brazil. Anti-HCV prevalence in VCT/RG users was similar to previous reports. Age, previous blood transfusion, sexual orientation and injecting drug use were independent predictors of HCV infection. The presence of multiple risk factors was also associated with a higher risk for HCV infection. HCV genotype was not associated with any variable analysed in this study. PMID:20852195

  5. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites. PMID:27085719

  6. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were 0.5570 ± 0.0697 and 0.0021 ± 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA ΦST pairwise values between the study area and eight other Atlantic foraging grounds revealed significant differences in most areas, except Ubatuba and Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  7. Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

    2013-06-01

    To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhaço Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (São Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6-970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 ± 1.01 m My- 1 and 3.65 ± 1.26 m My- 1 for the Doce and São Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 ± 1.06 m My- 1 and 3.96 ± 0.91 m My- 1 for the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

  8. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  9. Immunological Profile of the Yellow Clam Mesodesma mactroides (Mesodesmatidae) from the Southern Coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva Santos, Juan Jethro; Carvalho, Yuri Bovi; de Alcantara Lopes, Diogo Luiz; Romano, Luis Alberto

    2016-03-01

    The yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Mesodesmatidae) is a sandy beach bivalve that is distributed from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to the south of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The yellow clam population has been declining in recent decades. To increase our understanding of this species, we evaluated the immunological status of yellow clams collected during different seasons from various areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We characterized the hemocytes, determined the differential hemocyte counts (DHCs), calculated the apoptotic index, and evaluated the incidence of parasites in yellow clams through histological analysis. We identified two types of hemocyte (hyaline and granular) that showed significant variation in DHCs among sampling areas during the summer and winter. The apoptotic index only exhibited significant variation during the summer. Histopathological analysis results did not significantly differ among sampling areas. This work demonstrated that environmental variation (e.g., temperature and salinity) associated with anthropogenic actions may be affecting the immune system of yellow clams. However, more studies are needed to determine the full influence of these factors on the yellow clam's immune system and thus contribute to future management and aquaculture of the species. Received May 10, 2015; accepted October 28, 2015. PMID:26913557

  10. Elemental composition and chemical characteristics of five edible nuts (almond, Brazil, pecan, macadamia and walnut) consumed in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Roshila; Kindness, Andrew; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2007-01-01

    The total elemental concentrations and proximate chemical composition of five different tree nuts, almond (Prunus dulcus), Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa), pecan (Carya pecan), macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) and walnut (Juglans nigra) that are consumed in South African households were investigated. In addition, six physicochemical properties of the extracted nut oils, namely acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index, density and specific gravity were evaluated. A high concentration of Se (36.1 +/- 0.4 microg g(- 1)) was found in the Brazil nuts only. With maximum and minimum limits being set by the almond and pecan nut samples, Cr ranging from 0.94 +/- 0.14-2.02 +/- 0.07 microg g(- 1) was detected in the nut samples. Generally, the order of the concentrations of the elements in all the nut samples is found to be Mg > Ca > Fe > Cu > Cr > As > Se. The concentrations of Mn and Zn showed greater variation amongst the different types of nuts. The extracted oils showed low acid values and high saponification values with the macadamia nut sample having the highest oil content (76.0 +/- 0.5 g per 100 g of sample), the lowest acid value (0.42 +/- 0.01 mg KOH per g of oil) and highest saponification value (193.7 +/- 2.4 mg KOH per g of oil). The present findings are useful in calculating the Dietary Reference Intakes of these nutrients. PMID:17562467

  11. Pedogeochemistry and micromorphology of oxisols - A basis for understanding etchplanation in the Araucárias Plateau (Southern Brazil) in the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; de Barros Corrêa, Antônio Carlos; Rech Rodrigues, Rafaela Ana

    2013-12-01

    Approximately five years ago, the Working Group on Ancient Surfaces and Long-Term Landscape Evolution was created to raise planed surfaces in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay with the aim of establishing regional correlations of planed surfaces after the formation of the Gondwanan rocks in South America. In Brazil, planed surfaces were recognized and classified between 1940 and 1960 and were given various designations and different age estimates based on regional morphostratigraphic correlation attempts. In the last twenty years, the assumptions of those attempts began to be questioned on a large scale by studies in which empirical observations, mediated by the use of new methodologies, did not indicate such a direct relationship between the paleosurfaces and their long-term erosive origin. We identified eight staggered surfaces in the Araucárias Plateau, Southern Brazil, between the Iguazu and Uruguay Rivers. Initially, we attempted to understand the planed surfaces as classic pediplains, but we found weathering profiles of different thicknesses with oxisols downstream of the knickpoints, instead of correlative deposits. We understand these surfaces as planed surfaces or paleosurfaces without erosive interrelation between them, resulting from the action of etchplanation processes. This idea contradicts the classical perspective of Brazilian geomorphology that attributes the cyclical alternation of Quaternary paleoclimates to the evolution of the model of the subtropical landscapes. The hypothesis begins from the assumption that the model evolved from the binomial morphogenesis/pedogenesis in phase with the glacial/interglacial cycles. In this study, we attempt to demonstrate that the climactic controls on morphogenesis/pedogenesis are mediated by the responses of the weathered mantle on the scale of its chemical and microstructural organization, which does not always validate previous theoretical assumptions. In this article, we use the chemical

  12. Nutrition, mental health and violence: from pregnancy to postpartum Cohort of women attending primary care units in Southern Brazil - ECCAGE study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Woman's nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, is a strong determinant of health outcomes in the mother and newborn. Gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention increases risk of overweight or obesity in the future and they depend on the pregestational nutritional status and on food consumption and eating behavior during pregnancy. Eating behavior during pregnancy may be the cause or consequence of mood changes during pregnancy, especially depression, which increases likelihood of postpartum depression. In Brazil, a study carried out in the immediate postpartum period found that one in three women experienced some type of violence during pregnancy. Violence and depression are strongly associated and both exposures during pregnancy are associated with increased maternal stress and subsequent harm to the infant. The main objectives of this study are: to identify food intake and eating behaviors patterns; to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and the experience of violence during and after pregnancy; and to estimate the association between these exposures and infant's health and development. Methods/Design This is a cohort study of 780 pregnant women receiving care in 18 primary care units in two cities in Southern Brazil. Pregnant women were first evaluated between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy at a prenatal visit. Follow-up included immediate postpartum assessment and around the fifth month postpartum. Information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, living circumstances, food intake, eating behaviors, mental health and exposure to violence, and on infant's development and anthropometrics measurements. Discussion This project will bring relevant information for a better understanding of the relationship between exposures during pregnancy and how they might affect child development, which can be useful for a better planning of health actions aiming to enhance available resources in primary health

  13. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This study provides the characteristics of the conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based production systems used in Southern Brazil, and its consequences on production and milk quality. C-HI farms had larger farms and herds, annual pasture with higher inputs and milk yield, whereas O-LI had smaller farms and herds, perennial pastures with lowest input and milk yields; C-LI was in between. O-LI farms may contribute to eco-system services, but low milk yield is a major concern. Hygienic and microbiological milk quality was poor for all farms and needs to be improved. Abstract Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day−1). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R2 = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  14. Causes of death and associated risk factors among climacteric women from Southern Brazil: a population based-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging and menopause are particular cardiovascular risk factors for women, due to estrogen deprivation at the time of menopause. Studies show that diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of female mortality in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality rate, causes of death and associated risk factors in a cohort of women from Brazil. Methods A longitudinal population-based study of menopausal status is currently underway in a city in South Brazil. In 2010, a third follow-up of this population was performed to assess cardiovascular risk and mortality rate between 1995 and 2011. For this analysis, 358 participants were studied. At baseline, participants had completed a standardized questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive characteristics. In addition to the contacts with relatives, mortality data were obtained through review of medical records in all city hospitals and the Center for Health Information (NIS/RS-SES). Multivariate-adjusted hazard risk (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. Results There were 17 (4.7%) deaths from all causes during the study period. Seven (41.2%) deaths were caused by CVD, including four cases of stroke and three cases of myocardial infarction. Six (35.3%) deaths were due to cancer, and four (23.5%) were due to other reasons. In the age and smoking-adjusted multivariate models, diabetes (HR 6.645, 95% CI: 1.938–22.79, p = 0.003), alcohol intake (HR 1.228, 95% CI: 1.014-1.487, p = 0.035) and postmenopausal status (HR = 6.216, 95% CI: 0.963–40.143, p = 0.055) were associated with all-cause mortality. A significant association was found between abdominal obesity (WHR ≥ 0.85) and mortality even after the adjustment for BMI

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency and its correlation with other risk factors in jaundiced newborns in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Clarissa Gutiérrez; Castro, Simone Martins; Santin, Ana Paula; Zaleski, Carina; Carvalho, Felipe Gutiérrez; Giugliani, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation between glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and neonatal jaundice. Methods Prospective, observational case-control study was conducted on 490 newborns admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre for phototherapy, who all experienced 35 or more weeks of gestation, from March to December 2007. Enzymatic screening of G6PD activity was performed, followed by PCR. Results There was prevalence of 4.6% and a boy-girl ratio of 3:1 in jaundiced newborns. No jaundiced neonate with ABO incompatibility presented G6PD deficiency, and no Mediterranean mutation was found. A higher proportion of deficiency was observed in Afro-descendants. There was no association with UGT1A1 variants. Conclusions G6PD deficiency is not related to severe hyperbilirubinemia and considering the high miscegenation in this area of Brazil, other gene interactions should be investigated. PMID:23569738

  16. A New Dicynodont (Therapsida: Anomodontia) from the Permian of Southern Brazil and Its Implications for Bidentalian Origins

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Alessandra D. S.; Kammerer, Christian F.; Schultz, Cesar L.; Soares, Marina B.; Ilha, Ana L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Dicynodonts were a highly successful group of herbivorous therapsids that inhabited terrestrial ecosystems from the Middle Permian through the end of the Triassic periods. Permian dicynodonts are extremely abundant in African deposits, but are comparatively poorly known from the other regions of Gondwana. Here we describe a new South American dicynodont, Rastodon procurvidens gen. et sp. nov., from the Boqueirão farm site of the Rio do Rasto Formation, Paraná Basin, Guadalupian/Lopingian of Brazil. Diagnostic features of R. procurvidens include uniquely anteriorly-curved maxillary tusks, well-developed ridges extending from the crista oesophagea anteriorly along the pterygoid rami, strong posterior angulation of the posterior pterygoid rami, and a bulbous, well-developed retroarticular process of the articular. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that R. procurvidens is the earliest and most basal member of Bidentalia, a cosmopolitan clade that includes Permian and Triassic dicynodonts whose dentition is usually reduced to a pair of maxillary tusks. PMID:27224287

  17. Natural Infection of Wild Canids (Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus) with the Intraendothelial Piroplasm Rangelia vitalii in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fredo, Gabriela; Bianchi, Matheus V; De Andrade, Caroline P; De Souza, Suyene O; Leite-Filho, Ronaldo V; Bandinelli, Marcele B; Amorim, Derek B; Driemeier, David; Sonne, Luciana

    2015-10-01

    Rangelia vitalii is a piroplasm that infects canines, causing lesions typical of a hemolytic disorder. Two wild canids, a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and a Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), were presented for necropsy in Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. On gross examination, both animals had pale mucosae and moderate tick infestation (Amblyomma aureolatum). There was severe splenomegaly, and the liver had a diffusely orange-reddish lobular pattern. The mesenteric lymph nodes were brownish and slightly enlarged. Structures compatible with R. vitalii were observed in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells in the liver, stomach, heart, kidney, lungs, lymph nodes, and bladder. The agent was characterized by PCR and genetic sequencing of liver samples and ticks. We show that parasitism with R. vitalii follows an epidemiologic cycle in which wild canids act as reservoirs. PMID:26251988

  18. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential. PMID:25813510

  19. A new species of Ituglanis Costa & Bockmann, 1993 (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) endemic to the Tramandaí-Mampituba ecoregion, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Juliano; Donin, Laura M; Malabarba, Luiz R

    2015-01-01

    Ituglanis boitata, new species, is described from the rio Tramandaí system and rio Mampituba and Araranguá basins, southern Brazil. This new species is distinguished from congeners with the exception of I. bambui, I. boticario,                       I. paraguassuensis and I. proops by the supraorbital canal of the cephalic laterosensory system interrupted between nasal and frontal sections and the presence of pore s2 (vs. supraorbital canal uninterrupted and pore s2 absent). Ituglanis boitata     differs from these species in osteological characters, measurements and body coloration. Ituglanis boitata presents a              noticeable endemism in the Tramandaí-Mampituba freshwater ecoregion, a recognized biogeographic unit for freshwater fishes including other 22 endemic species. A discussion about the intraspecific variation in the cephalic laterosensory system within Trichomycterinae is also provided. PMID:26624105

  20. At risk of population decline? An ecological and genetic approach to the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha (Arecaceae) of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nazareno, Alison G; dos Reis, Maurício S

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the risk of population decline for the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha, we investigated the patterns of demography, natural regeneration, herbivory, and the levels of genetic diversity using 9 microsatellite loci from both adults and seedlings sampled from 4 populations in Southern Brazil (n = 330). Our results indicate that cattle grazing in B. eriospatha population areas severely affect their demographic structure. Three B. eriospatha populations showed a bimodal age structure made up of adult plants and seedlings and high rates (>77%) of livestock herbivory. For 1 population, we describe and quantify for the first time the occurrence of 6 ontogenetic stages for this threatened palm species. Populations of B. eriospatha showed high levels of genetic differentiation (F ST adult plants = 0.287, F ST seedlings = 0.175). The amount of observed heterozygosity differed significantly between small (H O = 0.329) and large populations (H O = 0.461), indicating that small populations can be more susceptible to genetic drift. With no recruitment and a mortality rate of 2.0%, we show that the populations investigated in this study would be at an extremely high risk of local extinction, with a greater than 50% reduction in the effective population size, in the next 40 years. Although this study highlights the importance of analyzing both population ecology parameters and genetic data to better understand the level of risk facing threatened species, we emphasize that policy actions are urgently needed for effective conservation of this vulnerable biological resource. PMID:24078681

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites and prey items from a mass stranding of false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens, in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A L; Pinedo, M C; Barreto, A S

    2001-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of 14 false killer whales, 6 males and 8 females, stranded in June 1995 in southern Brazil, with total standard lengths from 338 to 507 cm, were analysed for endoparasites and food items. A pregnant female had a male foetus of 77.5 cm. Parasites were found in all 14 false killer whales. The nematode Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) was found in the stomach of 57% of the animals and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma capitatum (Linstow, 1889) Porta, 1908 was present in the intestine of all specimens and showed densities up to 600 m-1. An unidentified cestode (Tethrabothridae) was found also in the intestines of 14% of the individuals. The high infections of B. capitatum and A. simplex were not directly related with the cause of death. In the stomachs of four females, beaks of at least eight specimens of the oceanic and epipelagic species Ommastrephes bartramii (Lesueur, 1821) were found, with mantle lengths ranging from 189.8 to 360.9 mm. The distribution of O. bartramii in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul is consistent with false killer whales feeding in continental shelf waters. PMID:11340462

  2. Root colonization and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in distinct successional stages from an Atlantic rainforest biome in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zangaro, Waldemar; Rostirola, Leila Vergal; de Souza, Priscila Bochi; de Almeida Alves, Ricardo; Lescano, Luiz Eduardo Azevedo Marques; Rondina, Artur Berbel Lírio; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Carrenho, Rosilaine

    2013-04-01

    The influence of plant functional groups and moderate seasonality on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal status (root colonization and spore density) was investigated during 13 consecutive months in a chronosequence of succession in southern Brazil, consisting of grassland field, scrub vegetation, secondary forest and mature forest, in a region of transition from tropical to subtropical zones. AM root colonization and spore density decreased with advancing succession and were highest in early successional sites with grassland and scrub vegetation, intermediary in the secondary forest and lowest in the mature forest. They were little influenced by soil properties, but were sufficiently influenced by the fine root nutrient status and fine root traits among different functional plant groups. AM root colonization and spore density were higher during the favourable plant growth season (spring and summer) than during the less favourable plant growth season (autumn and winter). Spore density displayed significant seasonal variation at all sites, whilst root colonization displayed significant seasonal variation in grassland, scrub and secondary forest, but not in mature forest. The data suggest that (1) different plant functional groups display different relationships with AM fungi, influencing their abundance differentially; (2) plant species from early successional phases are more susceptible to AM root colonization and maintain higher AM sporulation than late successional species; (3) fine root traits and nutrient status influence these AM fungal attributes; and (4) higher AM spore production and root colonization is associated with the season of higher light incidence and temperature, abundant water in soil and higher plant metabolic activity. PMID:23053578

  3. Surveillance for Yellow Fever Virus in Non-Human Primates in Southern Brazil, 2001–2011: A Tool for Prioritizing Human Populations for Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Marco A. B.; Cardoso, Jader da C.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Cruz, Laura L.; Faraco, Fernando J. C.; Bercini, Marilina A.; Vettorello, Kátia C.; Porto, Mariana A.; Mohrdieck, Renate; Ranieri, Tani M. S.; Schermann, Maria T.; Sperb, Alethéa F.; Paz, Francisco Z.; Nunes, Zenaida M. A.; Romano, Alessandro P. M.; Costa, Zouraide G.; Gomes, Silvana L.; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, epizootics among New World monkey species may indicate circulation of yellow fever (YF) virus and provide early warning of risk to humans. Between 1999 and 2001, the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul initiated surveillance for epizootics of YF in non-human primates to inform vaccination of human populations. Following a YF outbreak, we analyzed epizootic surveillance data and assessed YF vaccine coverage, timeliness of implementation of vaccination in unvaccinated human populations. From October 2008 through June 2009, circulation of YF virus was confirmed in 67 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State; vaccination was recommended in 23 (34%) prior to the outbreak and in 16 (24%) within two weeks of first epizootic report. In 28 (42%) municipalities, vaccination began more than two weeks after first epizootic report. Eleven (52%) of 21 laboratory-confirmed human YF cases occurred in two municipalities with delayed vaccination. By 2010, municipalities with confirmed YF epizootics reported higher vaccine coverage than other municipalities that began vaccination. In unvaccinated human populations timely response to epizootic events is critical to prevent human yellow fever cases. PMID:24625681

  4. Identification of influential events concerning the Antarctic ozone hole over southern Brazil and the biological effects induced by UVB and UVA radiation in an endemic treefrog species.

    PubMed

    Passaglia Schuch, André; Dos Santos, Mauricio Beux; Mendes Lipinski, Victor; Vaz Peres, Lucas; Dos Santos, Caroline Peripolli; Zanini Cechin, Sonia; Jorge Schuch, Nelson; Kirsh Pinheiro, Damaris; da Silva Loreto, Elgion Lúcio

    2015-08-01

    The increased incidence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) due to ozone depletion has been affecting both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and it may help to explain the enigmatic decline of amphibian populations in specific localities. In this work, influential events concerning the Antarctic ozone hole were identified in a dataset containing 35 years of ozone measurements over southern Brazil. The effects of environmental doses of UVB and UVA radiation were addressed on the morphology and development of Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpole (Anura: Hylidae), as well as on the induction of malformation after the conclusion of metamorphosis. These analyzes were complemented by the detection of micronucleus formation in blood cells. 72 ozone depletion events were identified from 1979 to 2013. Surprisingly, their yearly frequency increased three-fold during the last 17 years. The results clearly show that H. pulchellus tadpole are much more sensitive to UVB than UVA light, which reduces their survival and developmental rates. Additionally, the rates of micronucleus formation by UVB were considerably higher compared to UVA even after the activation of photolyases enzymes by a further photoreactivation treatment. Consequently, a higher occurrence of malformation was observed in UVB-irradiated individuals. These results demonstrate the severe genotoxic impact of UVB radiation on this treefrog species and its importance for further studies aimed to assess the impact of the increased levels of solar UVB radiation on declining species of the Hylidae family. PMID:25957080

  5. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality.

    PubMed

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Filho, Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado

    2015-01-01

    Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day(-1)). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R² = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  6. A new interpretation for the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Peternel, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Andre; Heilbron, Mônica; Vinagre, Rodrigo; Duffles, Patrícia; Trouw, Camilo C.; Fontainha, Marcos; Kussama, Hugo H.

    2013-12-01

    In southeastern Brazil, the Neoproterozoic NNW-SSE trending southern Brasília belt is apparently truncated by the ENE-WSW central Ribeira belt. Different interpretations in the literature of the transition between these two belts motivated detailed mapping and additional age dating along the contact zone. The result is a new interpretation presented in this paper. The southern Brasília belt resulted from E-W collision between the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent, on the western side, now forming the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, with the passive margin of the São Francisco paleocontinent on the eastern side. The collision produced an east vergent nappe stack, the Andrelândia Nappe System, along the suture. At its southern extreme the Brasília belt was thought to be cut off by a shear zone, the "Rio Jaguari mylonites", at the contact with the Embu terrane, pertaining to the Central Ribeira belt. Our detailed mapping revealed that the transition between the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (Brasília belt) and the Embu terrane (Ribeira belt) is not a fault but rather a gradational transition that does not strictly coincide with the Rio Jaguari mylonites. A typical Cordilleran type magmatic arc batholith of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe with an age of ca. 640 Ma intrudes biotite schists of the Embu terrane and the age of zircon grains from three samples of metasedimentary rocks, one to the south, one to the north and one along the mylonite zone, show a similar pattern of derivation from a Rhyacian source area with rims of 670-600 Ma interpreted as metamorphic overgrowth. We dated by LA-MC-ICPMS laser ablation (U-Pb) zircon grains from a calc-alkaline granite, the Serra do Quebra-Cangalha Batholith, located within the Embu terrane at a distance of about 40 km south of the contact with the Socorro Nappe, yielding an age of 680 ± 13 Ma. This age indicates that the Embu terrane was part of the upper plate (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) by this time. Detailed mapping

  7. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

    2012-08-01

    Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human

  8. A review of paleogeographical and chronostratigraphical distribution of mesoeucrocodylian species from the upper Cretaceous beds from the Bauru (Brazil) and Neuquén (Argentina) groups, Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Martinelli, Agustín G.

    2006-11-01

    This article offers a detailed overview of mesoeucrocodylian assemblages recovered from the Late Cretaceous southern South America Bauru and Neuquén groups as a result of extensive research during the past 110 years. The Bauru (Brazil) and Neuquén (Argentina) groups yield numerous mesoeucrocodylian remains, mainly of Turonian-late Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) age. The majority of the discoveries were made in the Adamantina and Marília formations of Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, Brazil, and Candeleros and Bajo de la Carpa formations of Neuquén and Río Negro provinces, Argentina. Sixty formally described species of mesoeucrocodylians are recognized on the basis of disarticulated materials; among them, notosuchians, sebecosuchians, and peirosaurids are the best represented. At least one species is common to the Bauru and Neuquén groups, and close phylogenetic affinities are postulated for the remaining taxa. The fossil record of these two South American units shows three main peaks of diversity: in the Cenomanian of Argentina, the Santonian of Argentina and Brazil, and the Maastrichtian of Brazil. The absence of notosuchians and sebecosuchians in the late Campanian-Maastrichtian of Patagonia is coincident with the paleoenvironmental changes in that landmass by that time, as well as with the increase in diversity of several groups of theropod dinosaurs. In contrast, highly specialized carnivorous mesoeucrocodylians are abundant in the Maastrichtian of the Bauru group of Brazil, whereas other tetrapod carnivorous groups are scarcely represented.

  9. A new isosporoid coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae)from the southern house wren Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823 (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    doBomfim Lopes, Bruno; Rodrigues, Mariana Borges; da Silva, Lidiane Maria; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-06-01

    A new isosporoid coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is reported from the southern house wren Troglodytes musculus, a very well distributed species in South and Central America. Isospora corruirae sp. nov. oocysts are subspherical to ovoidal, 24.1 × 21.4 μm, with smooth, bilayered wall. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but small spherules and splinter-like granules are frequently present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to piriform, 14.0 × 9.5 μm. Stieda body is prominent knob-like and substieda body is delicate. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered fragments of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with posterior refractile bodies, anterior striations and a nucleus. This is the second description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting a New World wren. PMID:27078670

  10. Variations in ecosystem structure, carbon, and nutrient storage along a fertility gradient in tropical savanna of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; Lawrence, S.; Holt, K.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Brazilian savanna (cerrado) is composed of vegetation and soil types that are spatially variable, and links between cerrado physiognomy and soil properties are poorly understood. To reduce this uncertainty, we measured the plant community structure and carbon (C) and nutrient (N, P, K, and Ca) stocks in aboveground wood, foliage, and litter, and soil (0-50 cm) pools in a variety of cerrado vegetation types located in the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We hypothesized that aboveground and surface soil C and nutrient stocks would be correlated with soil fertility and vegetation structure (including tree species composition, density and tree species diversity). Our results indicate that aboveground woody (AGW), foliage, and soil C stocks were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with indices of soil fertility but not texture. Since AGWC was the largest C pool, total ecosystem C stocks increase significantly as a function of soil fertility. Similarly, AGWC and foliage C stocks were significantly correlated with tree species diversity (H'), but not soil texture. These data suggest that small-scale (m2-ha) variations in soil fertility are important controls on ecosystem C storage in Brazilian cerrado, and that ecosystem C and nutrient storage is positively related to tree species diversity. These results are qualitatively similar to those reported for tropical forests across regional fertility gradients in the Amazon Basin. These results have implications for the maintenance of soil C storage and fertility and tree species diversity in cerrado.

  11. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

  12. Postural education and behavior among students in a city in southern Brazil: student postural education and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Cíntia Detsch; Cardoso dos Santos, Antônio; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Noll, Matias; Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Corso, Carlos Otávio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of the spine and posture among adolescent female students and to determine if they had access to postural education in or outside school. [Subjects and Methods] This was an epidemiological survey of a representative sample of 495 female students aged 14 to 18 years attending a regular secondary school in São Leopoldo, RS, Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire. [Results] The results showed that 16.8% of teens did not know what a spine was, 8.3% had no knowledge of posture, and 61% reported receiving no posture education. Posture awareness was associated only with posture while using a computer, while having postural education class was not associated with any postural behavior. [Conclusion] The results showed that, although most students are familiar with the spine and posture, a sizable group is not, and over half had no postural education. These findings suggest that inclusion of postural education programs in schools should be encouraged in order to promote health and prevent diseases related to the spine. PMID:26504322

  13. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669

  14. SIXTEEN YEARS OF DERMATOMYCOSIS CAUSED BY Candida spp. IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEIDRICH, Daiane; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; VETTORATO, Gerson; AMARO, Taís Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The yeasts of the genus Candida infect skin, nails, and mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal and the genitourinary tract. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dermatomycoses caused by Candida spp., and their etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective study with data obtained from tertiary hospital patients, from 1996 to 2011, was performed. The analyzed parameters were date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesions, and the direct examination results. For all the statistical analyses, a = 0.05 was considered. Among positive results in the direct mycological examination, 12.5% of the total of 4,815 cases were positive for Candida spp. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.7%/ year, showing a decrease over the years. The genus Candida was more prevalent in women (15.9% of women versus 5.84% of men), and in addition, women were older than men (54 versus 47 years old, respectively). There was no difference between ethnic groups. The nails were more affected than the skin, with 80.37% of the infections in the nails (72.9% in fingernails and 7.47% in toenails). Our study corroborates the literature regarding the preference for gender, age, and place of injury. Moreover, we found a decrease in infection over the studied period. PMID:27007557

  15. Postural education and behavior among students in a city in southern Brazil: student postural education and behavior.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Cíntia Detsch; Cardoso Dos Santos, Antônio; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Noll, Matias; Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Corso, Carlos Otávio

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of the spine and posture among adolescent female students and to determine if they had access to postural education in or outside school. [Subjects and Methods] This was an epidemiological survey of a representative sample of 495 female students aged 14 to 18 years attending a regular secondary school in São Leopoldo, RS, Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire. [Results] The results showed that 16.8% of teens did not know what a spine was, 8.3% had no knowledge of posture, and 61% reported receiving no posture education. Posture awareness was associated only with posture while using a computer, while having postural education class was not associated with any postural behavior. [Conclusion] The results showed that, although most students are familiar with the spine and posture, a sizable group is not, and over half had no postural education. These findings suggest that inclusion of postural education programs in schools should be encouraged in order to promote health and prevent diseases related to the spine. PMID:26504322

  16. High prevalence of rheumatoid factor associated with clinical manifestations of rheumatic disease in Kaingang and Guarani Indians from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribas, João Luiz Coelho; Utiyama, Shirley Ramos da Rosa; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori; Boeira, Maristela; Reason, Iara Taborda de Messias

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a screening for rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-nuclear antibody in Kaingang, Guarani and Mestizos individuals from Mangueirinha Reservation, State of Paraná, Brazil, and associate it with demographic and clinical data. Serum samples from 321 aborigines (125 male and 196 female; 4-86 years old) and 180 non-Indians healthy individuals were analysed (62 male and 118 female; 2-81 years old). Antinuclear antibody (ANA) was tested by indirect immunofluorescence, and RF by agglutination in latex and turbidimetry. RF was higher in Kaingang when compared to Guarani (P = 0.009), Mestizos (P = 0.061) and non-Indians (P = 0.010). A significant increase of RF was observed in Kaingang women versus Kaingang men (P = 0.002) and, among the women, in Kaingang when compared to Mestizos and Guarani (P

  17. Evidence of Gondwana early rifting process recorded by Resende-Ilha Grande Dike Swarm, southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Eliane; Heilbron, Monica; de Morisson Valeriano, Claudio; de Almeida, Julio César Horta; Szatmari, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Continental flood basalts and dike swarm have been related to continental breakup process through geological time. The Resende - Ilha Grande Dike swarm (RIGDS) located in the southeast Brazil, is related the Gondwana breakup and composed of dikes/sills intruded in Precambrian gneiss. The dikes have three distinguish orientations: NNW more inland; NS-NNE in the central segment and NE orientation in the coast line, consistent with Precambrian structural lineaments. The swarm comprises high-TiO2 tholeiitic basalts divided into three suites based on REE and Sr and Nd isotope data. The Resende and Volta Redonda suites present higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.7077 and 0.7065, while Angra dos Reis suite presents values of 0.7066 to 0.7057. Geochemical and isotopic data support the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) as the main source for the high-TiO2 basalts. The suites heterogeneities are explained by different compositions of SCLM in accreted Precambrian terranes and/or different degree of partial melting and fractional. 40Ar/39Ar data indicate age interval between ca. 156 to 144 Ma for the swarm, older than the average for Gondwana breakup (ca. 130-120 Ma). The age interval places the RIGDS between the Karoo magmatism (181-178 Ma) and the Paraná-Etendeka magmatism (133-134 Ma) and indicates that extensional process affected the supercontinent prior the break-up.

  18. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI--a case study in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L; Rossi, Francine A; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions. PMID:21604151

  19. Integrated biomarker response in catfish Hypostomus ancistroides by multivariate analysis in the Pirapó River, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ghisi, Nédia C; Oliveira, Elton C; Mendonça Mota, Thais F; Vanzetto, Guilherme V; Roque, Aliciane A; Godinho, Jayson P; Bettim, Franciele Lima; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina da; Prioli, Alberto J

    2016-10-01

    Aquatic pollutants produce multiple consequences in organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems, affecting the function of organs, reproductive state, population size, species survival and even biodiversity. In order to monitor the health of aquatic organisms, biomarkers have been used as effective tools in environmental risk assessment. The aim of this study is to evaluate, through a multivariate and integrative analysis, the response of the native species Hypostomus ancistroides over a pollution gradient in the main water supply body of northwestern Paraná state (Brazil). The condition factor, micronucleus test and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA), comet assay, measurement of the cerebral and muscular enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and histopathological analysis of liver and gill were evaluated in fishes from three sites of the Pirapó River during the dry and rainy seasons. The multivariate general result showed that the interaction between the seasons and the sites was significant: there are variations in the rates of alterations in the biological parameters, depending on the time of year researched at each site. In general, the best results were observed for the site nearest the spring, and alterations in the parameters at the intermediate and downstream sites. In sum, the results of this study showed the necessity of a multivariate analysis, evaluating several biological parameters, to obtain an integrated response to the effects of the environmental pollutants on the organisms. PMID:27421103

  20. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  1. Fungal communities in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes in forest and cabruca agrosystems of southern Bahia State (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Reis, Bárbara Monique dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes. PMID:26615740

  2. Mutation rate estimates for 13 STR loci in a large population from Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mardini, Ana Carolina; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Schumacher, Simone; Chula, Fernanda Goulart Lanes; Michelon, Candice Tosi; Gastaldo, André Zoratto; Maciel, Lila Partichelli; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles

    2013-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms have been extensively used in forensic genetics analysis. Knowledge about the locus-specific mutation rates of STRs improves forensic probability calculations and interpretations of diversity data. To incorporate single-locus diversity information into autosomal STR mutation rate estimations, 13 STR loci were studied during 2007-2009 in 10,959 paternity investigation cases from Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, covering an overall number of 284,934 allelic transfers. A total of 355 mutations were identified; 348 repeats were gains or losses of one step, three were gains or losses of two steps, and four were gains or losses of not stepwise mutation. The mutation rates ranged from 4.6 × 10(-5) to 2.3 × 10(-3), and the overall mutation rate estimate was 1.2 × 10(-3). The average of the paternal mutation rate (1.8 × 10(-3)) was five times higher than the maternal rate (0.36 × 10(-3)). The observed mutational features for STRs have important consequences for forensic applications, including the definition of criteria for exclusion in paternity testing and the interpretation of DNA profiles in identification analysis. PMID:22072310

  3. [Geographic distribution and epidemiological features of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in old rural settlements in Paraná State, Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Neitzke, Herintha Coeto; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Moreira Costa; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2008-06-01

    This study analyzes the epidemiology of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of the Central North, Central West, and Northwest mesoregions of Paraná State, Brazil. Diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis cases was performed at the State University in Maringá from 1987 to 2004. According to the probable site of infection, cases were classified as autochthonous (infection inside the household domain) or allochthonous (outside the household domain). Municipalities with the most cases were Maringá (458), Doutor Camargo (126), São Jorge do Ivaí (121), Terra Boa (114), Cianorte (98), and Colorado (95). Of the total of 1,938 cases, 66.9% were male. Among the 667 autochthonous cases, similar numbers of men and women were infected, with cases in minors as young as five years of age, with the latter not occurring in the 794 allochthonous cases. Conditions favoring American tegumentary leishmaniasis were created in the processes involved in occupying the rural areas of these mesoregions, particularly in the agricultural settlement model and the crisis in coffee monoculture. PMID:18545755

  4. [Low back pain and associated factors in children and adolescents in a private school in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lemos, Adriana Torres de; Santos, Fábio Rosa Dos; Moreira, Rodrigo Baptista; Machado, Débora Teixeira; Braga, Fernando Cesar Camargo; Gaya, Adroaldo Cezar Araujo

    2013-11-01

    Studies have shown that children and adolescents with low back pain are also similarly affected when they reach adulthood, thus highlighting the importance of investigating causes of low back pain in school-age children. The study examined low back pain and associated factors in 770 schoolchildren 7 to 17 years of age in a private school in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Low back pain was defined as pain or discomfort in the lumbar region in the previous month, assessed by a questionnaire. Low back pain was found in 31.6% of the subjects and was more prevalent in girls (41.9%) than boys (21.4%). Factors associated with lumbar pain were female gender, age 9 to 17 years, hyperactivity (borderline and abnormal categories), and emotional symptoms (abnormal category). Mapping the occurrence of low back pain and associated factors is important for identifying children and adolescents at risk and for developing effective programs for primary prevention. PMID:24233033

  5. A multibiomarker evaluation of urban, industrial, and agricultural exposure of small characins in a large freshwater basin in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carolina A; Souza-Bastos, Luciana R; Chiesse, Juliana; Tincani, Flávio H; Piancini, Laercio D S; Randi, Marco A F; Prodocimo, Viviane; Cestari, Marta M; Silva-de-Assis, Helena C; Abilhoa, Vinícius; Vitule, Jean R S; Bastos, Leonardo P; de Oliveira-Ribeiro, Ciro A

    2015-09-01

    Iguaçu River is the second most polluted river of Brazil. It receives agrochemicals and contaminants of urban and industrial sources along its course. A multibiomarker approach was employed here to evaluate the health of a small characin (Astyanax spp.) at two sites along the river, sampled during a dry (autumn) and a rainy (spring) season. Biomarkers were condition factor and somatic indices (gonads and liver); genetic damage (comet assay and micronucleus test); enzyme activities such as hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), lipoperoxidation (LPO), branchial and renal carbonic anhydrase (CA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the muscle and the brain, histopathology of the liver and gills, and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile. There were no consistent differences in biomarker responses between the two study sites. Some biomarkers revealed greater potential impact in the rainy season, when increased amounts of contaminants are washed into the river (combined CAT inhibition and LPO increase, CA upregulation). Other biomarkers, however, revealed potential greater impact in the dry season, when contaminants potentially concentrate (GST induction, AChE inhibition, and liver histopathological alterations). Although of a complex nature, field experiments such as this provide rich data for monitoring protocols and assessment of general risk of exposure to pollutants of river systems. PMID:25940483

  6. Occurrence of antibodies anti -Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia de Sa; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; de Oliveira, Marcos Jose; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Silva, Lília Marcia Paulin; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Castro, Vanessa; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2015-01-01

    A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana) kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Antibodies against T. gondii (15.6%), N. caninum (6.2%) and L. interrogans serogroup Serjoe (3.1%) were detected. The serological results for all other infectious agents were negative. The deer were considered to be clinically healthy and asymptomatic regarding any disease. Compared with studies on free-ranging deer, the prevalences of the same agents tested among the captive deer kept at the Sanctuary were lower, thus indicating good sanitary conditions and high-quality management practices at the zoo. PMID:26689185

  7. Interspecific variation in leaf pigments and nutrients of five tree species from a subtropical forest in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bündchen, Márcia; Boeger, Maria Regina T; Reissmann, Carlos B; Geronazzo, Kelly M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the seasonal variation in the nutrient and pigment content of leaves from five tree species - of which three are perennial (Cupania vernalis, Matayba elaeagnoides and Nectandra lanceolata) and two are deciduous (Cedrela fissilis and Jacaranda micrantha) - in an ecotone between a Deciduous Seasonal Forest and a Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Leaf samples were collected in the four seasons of the year to determine the content of macronutrients (N, K, P, Mg, Ca, S) and photosynthetic pigments (Chla, Chlb, Chltot, Cartot, Chla:Chlb and Cartot:Chltot). The principal component analysis showed that leaf pigments contributed to the formation of the first axis, which explains most of the data variance for all species, while leaf nutrient contribution showed strong interspecific variation. These results demonstrate that the studied species have different strategies for acquisition and use of mineral resources and acclimation to light, which are determinant for them to coexist in the forest environment. PMID:26959320

  8. Isolation and genotyping of free-living environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. from bromeliads in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Landell, Melissa Fontes; Salton, Juliana; Caumo, Karin; Broetto, Leonardo; Rott, Marilise B

    2013-07-01

    Species of Acanthamoeba are frequently isolated from distinct environmental sources such as water, soil, dust and air. They are responsible to cause infections and disease in humans and animals. In addition, Acanthamoeba sp. are considered an important reservoir of bacteria, virus and fungi, which act as "Trojan horses" to protect these microorganisms of harsh environmental conditions. In this study, nine Acanthamoeba isolates from bromeliads phylloplane were identified based on the morphology of cyst and trophozoite forms. The genotype level was accessed by the sequence analysis of Acanthamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene. Genotypic characterization grouped five isolates in the genotype T2/T6, three in the T4 genotype and one in the genotype T16. The results obtained indicate that the genotype T2/T6 is common on phylloplane. To predict the pathogenic potential of the Acanthamoeba isolates, thermo and osmotolerance assays were employed, although all isolates were capable of surviving at temperatures of 37°C, other tests will be conducted in the future to determine the potential pathogenic of the isolates. Altogether, our results revealed the importance of the presence of Acanthamoeba associated with bromeliads in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the necessity for further studies to determine the environmental distribution and the role of these species. PMID:23562883

  9. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Non-Biting Midge Larvae Assemblages in Streams in a Mountainous Region in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Secretti, Elisangela; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina; Pires, Mateus Marques

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of non-biting midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae assemblages and some environmental factors that affect their distribution were analyzed in a montane river and its tributaries in a temperate climate region of southernmost Brazil. In total, 69 taxa were recorded after four seasonal samplings (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). The dominant taxa were Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, Rheotanytarsus sp. 2, Cricotopus sp. 2, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum) sp., although dominance varied among the four sampling sites. The variations in dominance, abundance, and richness among the different sites were affected by environmental characteristics, such as the presence of marginal vegetation and a heterogeneous substratum, and also by human activities. Strictly environmental factors, such as altitude, and factors related to annual weather patterns, such as mean temperature and precipitation, influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of certain taxa and the structure of faunal assemblages. The influence of the riparian vegetation and riverbed heterogeneity on the composition, richness, and abundance of the chironomid larvae assemblages indicates that human activities, such as deforestation and the construction of dams, constitute a serious threat to the conservation of these insects and to the fauna that depends on them for food. PMID:24784953

  10. Outbreak of Avian Malaria Associated to Multiple Species of Plasmodium in Magellanic Penguins Undergoing Rehabilitation in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K. M.; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O.; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C.; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M.; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian

  11. Investigation of Neospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in mares and in precolostral foals from Parana State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Locatelli-Dittrich, R; Dittrich, J R; Richartz, R R T B; Gasino Joineau, M E; Antunes, J; Pinckney, R D; Deconto, I; Hoffmann, D C S; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2006-02-18

    Antibodies to Neospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii were measured in mares and precolostral foals from a farm in Parana State, Brazil. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to determine specific antibodies. Three sampling points, 2003, 2004 and at parturition were included in the study, but not all horses are represented at a parturition time point. In 2003, antibodies to Neospora were detected in 17 mares (47%) at 1:50 dilution and in 5 mares (13.8%) at 1:100 dilution. In 2004, antibodies to Neospora were found in 11/36 (30%) horses with titers of 1:50 and in 6 mares (16.6%) at 1:100 dilution. The prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii was 2.7% in mares, either in 2003 and 2004. Evidence for the role of Neospora sp. in equine reproduction failure was not observed in the farm. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to Neospora were found in two of the nine precolostrum foals. Four seronegative foals were born from seronegative mothers, and three seronegative foals were born from seropositive mothers (1:50). Two seropositive precolostrum foals were born from seropositive mothers (1:50). The foals were born clinically normal, and T. gondii antibodies were not detected in their serum samples. The total immunoglobulins values detected on seronegative precolostrum foals were lower than the levels observed in the seropositive foals. This data warrants additional studies to differentiate N. hughesi and N. caninum serologically and determination if these parasites were associated with equine neurological disease and reproductive failure. PMID:16289863

  12. Long-term sediment yield from small catchment in southern Brazil affected by land use and soil management changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Merten, Gustavo; Alessandra Peixoto de Barros, Claudia; Dalbianco, Leandro; Ramon, Rafael; Schlesner, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. Despite this, there is a lack of information about the effects of the soil management on the hydrology and sediment yield at catchment scale. This study aimed to investigate the long-term relationship between the land use and sediment yield in a small catchment with significant changes in soil management, and its impacts on soil erosion and sediment yield. To account the anthropogenic and climatic effects on sediment yield were monitored precipitation, stream flow and suspended sediment concentration during thirteen years (2002 and 2014) at 10 minutes interval and the changes that occurred each year in the land use and soil management. Despite the influence of climate on the sediment yield, the results clearly show three distinct periods affected by the land use and soil management changes during this this period. In the first four years (2002-2004) the predominant land use was the tobacco with traditional soil management, where the soils are plough every year and without winter cover crop. In this period the sediment yield reached the order of 160 t.ha-1.y-1. In the period of 2005-2009, a soil conservation program introduced the adoption of minimum tillage in the catchment and the sediment yield decrease to 70 t.ha-1.y-1. In the last period (2010-2014) there was a partial return to the traditional soil management practices with an increase trend in sediment yield. However, there was also an increase in reforestation areas with positive effect in reducing erosion and sediment yield. The magnitude order of sediment yield in this period was 100 t.ha-1.y-1. The long term sediment yield data was able to demonstrate the impact of the improved management practices in reducing soil erosion and sediment yield. The results allowed a good understanding of the changing sediment dynamics and soil erosion at catchment scale.

  13. Childhood trauma and suicide risk in a sample of young individuals aged 14-35 years in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luana Porto; Quevedo, Luciana; da Silva, Giovanna Del Grande; Jansen, Karen; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Branco, Jerônimo; Lara, Diogo; Oses, Jean; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    Suicide is among the main causes of death of people aged between 15 and 44 years old. Childhood trauma is an important risk factor for suicide. Hence, the objective of this study was to verify the relationship between childhood trauma and current suicide risk (suicidal behavior and ideation) in individuals aged 14-35 years, in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Sample selection was performed by clusters. Suicide risk was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Moreover, the participants responded to a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic status, work, and substance use. The sample was composed of 1,380 individuals. The prevalence of suicide risk was 11.5%. The prevalence figures of childhood trauma were 15.2% (emotional neglect), 13.5% (physical neglect), 7.6% (sexual abuse), 10.1% (physical abuse), and 13.8% (emotional abuse). Suicide risk was associated (p<.001) with gender, work, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, and all types of childhood trauma. The odds of suicide risk were higher in women (OR=1.8), people who were not currently working (OR=2.3), individuals who presented alcohol abuse (OR=2.6), and among tobacco smokers (OR=3.4). Moreover, suicide risk was increased in all types of trauma: emotional neglect (OR=3.7), physical neglect (OR=2.8), sexual abuse (OR=3.4), physical abuse (OR=3.1), and emotional abuse (OR=6.6). Thus, preventing early trauma may reduce suicide risk in young individuals. PMID:24629481

  14. A Survey of Management Practices That Influence Performance and Welfare of Dairy Calves Reared in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hötzel, Maria J.; Longo, Cibele; Balcão, Lucas F.; Cardoso, Clarissa S.; Costa, João H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report dairy calf management practices used by 242 smallholder family farmers in the South of Brazil. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire with farmers, inspection of the production environment and an in-depth interview with a sample of 26 farmers. Herds had an average of 22.3 lactating cows and an average milk production of 12.7 L/cow/day. Calves were dehorned in 98% of the farms, with a hot iron in 95%. Male calves were castrated in 71% of the farms; methods were surgery (68%), emasculator (29%), or rubber rings (3%). No pain control was used for these interventions. In 51% of the farms all newborn male calves were reared, sold or donated to others; in 35% all newborn males were killed on the farm. Calves were separated from the dam up to 12 h after birth in 78% of the farms, and left to nurse colostrum from the dam without intervention in 55% of the farms. The typical amount of milk fed to calves was 4 L/day until a median age of 75 days. In 40% of the farms milk was provided in a bucket, in 49% with bottles, and in 11% calves suckled from a cow. Solid feeding in the milk-feeding period started at a median age of 10 days. Calves were housed individually in 70% of the farms; in 81% of the farms calves were housed in indoor pens, in 6% in outdoor hutches and in 13% they were kept on pasture. Diarrhoea was reported as the main cause of calf mortality in 71% of the farms. Farmers kept no records of calf disease, mortality, or use of medicines. Changing the scenario identified in this survey is essential to support the sustainable development of dairy production, an activity of great economic and social relevance for the region. PMID:25506692

  15. Outbreak of avian malaria associated to multiple species of Plasmodium in magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian

  16. Reproductive ecology of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) in a coastal area of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2016-01-01

    The predictability of certain environmental factors that affect the life cycle of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) was evaluated in a study of its reproductive biology in an area adjacent to Babitonga Bay, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Monthly sampling was conducted from July 2010 through June 2011 at depths of 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 m. 76 004 individuals were obtained, with a pronounced peak in absolute abundance in austral autumn (34 208), coinciding with the annual closed season from March to May. Grain size composition of the sediment showed the closest relationship to the distribution of individuals (multiple linear regression, P <0.05), related to their burying habit. The observed correlations between the abundance of reproductive males (bearing spermatophores) and females with spent gonads (cross-correlation, P <0.05), and between reproductive males and reproductive females (with a 1-month lag) suggest that the peak of reproductive males preceded the peak of female ones. This result agrees with the pattern expected for females, which copulate in post-ecdysis (spent gonads). Spawning seemed to take place at greater depths, as evidenced by the concentration of reproductive females in these areas. The reproductive activities observed here confirm that this species follows a tropical/subtropical reproductive pattern, spawning continuously throughout the year, with the highest peaks in spring and autumn. The data indicate that the juvenile recruitment period observed in August-September resulted from the reproductive output noted in April-May. Additionally, the reproductive period recorded in November led to the juvenile peak observed in March-May.

  17. A model to optimize public health care and downstage breast cancer in limited-resource populations in southern Brazil. (Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Caleffi, Maira; Ribeiro, Rodrigo A; Filho, Dakir L Duarte; Ashton-Prolla, Patrícia; Bedin, Ademar J; Skonieski, Giovana P; Zignani, Juliana M; Giacomazzi, Juliana; Franco, Luciane R; Graudenz, Márcia; Pohlmann, Paula; Fernandes, Jefferson G; Kivitz, Philip; Weber, Bernardete

    2009-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is a major public health problem, with rising incidence in many regions of the globe. Although mortality has recently dropped in developed countries, death rates are still increasing in some developing countries, as seen in Brazil. Among the reasons for this phenomenon are the lack of structured screening programs, a long waiting period between diagnosis and treatment, and lack of access to health services for a large proportion of the Brazilian population. Methods and design Since 2004, an intervention study in a cohort of women in Southern Brazil, denominated Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort, is being conducted in order to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a model for BC early detection and treatment. In this study, over 4,000 women from underserved communities aged 40 to 69 years are being screened annually with mammography and clinical breast examination performed by a multidisciplinary team, which also involves nutritional counseling and genetic cancer risk assessment. Risk factors for BC development are also being evaluated. Active search of participants by lay community health workers is one of the major features of our program. The accrual of new participants was concluded in 2006 and the study will last for 10 years. The main goal of the study is to demonstrate significant downstaging of BC in an underserved population through proper screening, attaining a higher rate of early-stage BC diagnoses than usually seen in women diagnosed in the Brazilian Public Health System. Preliminary results show a very high BC incidence in this population (117 cases per 100,000 women per year), despite a low prevalence of classical risk factors. Discussion This study will allow us to test a model of BC early diagnosis and treatment and evaluate its cost-effectiveness in a developing country where the mortality associated with this disease is very high. Also, it might contribute to the evaluation of risk factors in a

  18. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Canali, Tiago José; Oliveira, Sylvia Marina Soares de; Reduit, Deivid Montero; Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Feldens, Viviane Pessi

    2014-11-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%). Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study. PMID:25351322

  19. The effects of unpaved roads on suspended sediment concentration of third- to fifth-order streams- A case study from southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomaz, E. L.; Vestena, L. R.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Unpaved roads have earned a reputation of inducing adverse effects on downstream water resources by increasing suspended sediment concentration because they typically generate sediment at rates up to several orders of magnitude above background and because they may enhance the efficiency of sediment delivery to fluvial networks. Although much research has been conducted on road effects in forested landscapes, proper understanding of their hydro-geomorphic role in rural areas is still desired. Unpaved roads are fundamental in the agricultural systems employed for the cultivation of maize and black beans on topographically-steep, marginal lands of southern Brazil. Marginal lands generate a sizeable fraction of the agricultural production in the state of Paraná, one of Brazil's agricultural powerhouses. This study documents the localized impacts on suspended sediment concentration of seven unpaved road crossings in the Guarabiroba River Catchment, Paraná, Brazil. A total of 156 suspended sediment samples were manually collected both upstream and downstream of road-crossings between 22-Apr-09 and 26-Apr-10 during 14 rainfall events ranging between 16 and 96 mm in total rainfall. The average length of road directly delivering runoff to each crossing varied from 0.56 - 2.4 km, and the size of the catchment areas of the third to fifth order monitored streams ranged from 0.3 to 13.5 km2. In addition to stream samples, 78 samples representing unpaved road runoff were collected during the same rain events. Upstream and downstream mean concentration values were compared for each storm at every site based on a paired t-test analysis (0.05% level). Mean suspended sediment concentration at stream segments located upstream of road crossings was 0.04 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.05 mg L-1), while the mean downstream concentration was 0.11 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.14 mg L-1) or 2.9 times higher than upstream samples. Meanwhile, road runoff had an average concentration of 0.93 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.97 mg

  20. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo

  1. Land-use and land-cover dynamics monitored by NDVI multitemporal analysis in a selected southern Amazonian area (Brazil) for the last three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borini Alves, D.; Perez-Cabello, F.; Rodrigues Mimbrero, M.

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the dynamics of land-use and land-cover (LULC) in a selected southern Amazonian area (Brazil), monitoring and distinguishing trajectories in NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) variations for the last three decades. The area, with a total of 17336 km^2, has been subject to significant LULC changes associated with deforestation progress and use of fire. Considering available Landsat time series, it was selected an image per year from 1984 to 2013 (path/row -231/66), at a particular period of year, atmospherically corrected using LEDAPS tools. NDVIs values were generated for each selected image. Furthermore, the images of 1984 and 2010 still underwent a classification of LULC differentiate five categories: water, forest, secondary/degraded forest, savannah/pasture and crop/bare soil. The trajectories in NDVI variation values were analysed by R software, considering intersections of classified categories. The pixels identified as forests on the images of 1984 and 2010 displayed stable trajectories of NDVI values, with average value 0.824 and coefficient of variation 3.9%. While the pixels of savannah/pasture, which was periodically affected by fire, had an average NDVI value 0.585 and coefficient of variation 15,1%. The main regressive trajectory was the transition "forest to crop/bare soil", identifying 1999 as the starting point in the drop in NDVI values, associated with an increase of the deforested areas. Therefore, the results show distinct trajectories associated with NDVIs and LULC changes that assist in better understanding the dynamics of ecological processes and the human impacts operating in the area.

  2. Geochemical signatures of metasedimentary rocks of high-pressure granulite facies and their relation with partial melting: Carvalhos Klippe, Southern Brasília Belt, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioffi, Caue Rodrigues; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; da Rocha, Brenda Chung; Moraes, Renato; Henrique-Pinto, Renato

    2012-12-01

    High-grade metasedimentary rocks can preserve geochemical signatures of their sedimentary protolith if significant melt extraction did not occur. Retrograde reaction textures provide the main evidence for trapped melt in the rock fabrics. Carvalhos Klippe rocks in Southern Brasília Orogen, Brazil, present a typical high-pressure granulite assemblage with evidence of mica breakdown partial melting (Ky + Grt + Kfs ± Bt ± Rt). The metamorphic peak temperatures obtained by Zr-in-Rt and ternary feldspar geothermometers are between 850 °C and 900 °C. The GASP baric peak pressure obtained using grossular rich garnet core is 16 kbar. Retrograde reaction textures in which the garnet crystals are partially to totally replaced by Bt + Qtz ± Fsp intergrowths are very common in the Carvalhos Klippe rocks. These reactions are interpreted as a result of interactions between residual phases and trapped melt during the retrograde path. In the present study the geochemical signatures of three groups of Carvalhos Klippe metasedimentary rocks are analysed. Despite the high metamorphic grade these three groups show well-defined geochemical features and their REE patterns are similar to average compositions of post-Archean sedimentary rocks (PAAS, NASC). The high-pressure granulite facies Grt-Bt-Pl gneisses with immature arenite (wacke, arkose or lithic-arenite) geochemical signatures present in the Carvalhos Klippe are compared to similar rocks in amphibolite facies from the same tectonic framework (Andrelândia Nappe System). The similar geochemical signatures between Grt-Bt-Pl gneisses metamorphosed in high-pressure granulite facies and Grt-Bt-Pl-Qtz schists from the Andrelândia and Liberdade Nappes, with minimal to absent melting conditions, are suggestive of low rates of melt extraction in these high-grade rocks. The rocks with pelitic compositions most likely had higher melt extraction and even under such circumstances nevertheless tend to show REE patterns similar to

  3. Upper Clear Creek watershed aquatic chemistry and biota surveys, 2004-5, Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, Shasta County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulff, Marissa L.; May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, performed a comprehensive aquatic biota survey of the upper Clear Creek watershed, Shasta County, California, during 2004-5. Data collected in this study can provide resource managers with information regarding aquatic resources, watershed degradation, and regional biodiversity within Whiskeytown National Recreation Area. Surveys of water chemistry, bed-sediment chemistry, algae assemblages, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, aquatic vertebrate assemblages, in-stream habitat characteristics, and sediment heterogeneity were conducted at 17 stream sites during both 2004 and 2005, with an additional 4 sites surveyed in 2005. A total of 67 bed-sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace inorganic element concentrations. Forty-six water samples were analyzed for trace metals and nutrients. A total of 224 taxa of invertebrates were collected during these surveys. Eleven fish species, seven of which were native, and two species of larval amphibians, were collected. A total of 24 genera of soft algae and 159 taxa of diatoms were identified. To date, this survey represents the most comprehensive inventory of aquatic resources within Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, and this information can serve as a baseline for future monitoring efforts and to inform management decisions.

  4. Importance of LA-ICP-MS Zircon Geochronology and Geochemistry in Determining the History of Magmatic Systems: Insights from the Graciosa A-type Province, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S.; Gualda, G. A.; Bream, B. R.; Vlach, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Graciosa Province comprises more than 20 A-type granitic and syenitic plutons in southern Brazil. This province was emplaced during a period of tectonic change, with A-type magmatism post-dating syntectonic I- and S-type magmatism to the east. Dating the age of magmatism has proven challenging, with current published results showing a wide range of ages (550-590 Ma), most of which with low analytical resolution (2σ errors >15 Ma). We use Laser Ablation ICP-MS to determine U-Pb ages and trace element compositions of zircon crystals in-situ. We analyzed zircon from ten samples representative of the petrographic diversity observed in the 5 plutons located in the Serra da Graciosa region1, which include monzodiorites, granites, and alkali-feldspar granites and syenites. The graintoids include rocks with aluminous affinity (biotite-bearing), and others with alkaline affinity (sodic amphibole-bearing). Our results show three age populations with concordant ages at ~633±6, 581±3, and 539±4 Ma (all errors 2σ): - The oldest zircon ages come from analyses of zircon cores that display overgrowth and resorption textures. - The majority of zircon grains analyzed yield ages ~581 Ma. Zircons of this age can be found in all but two samples analyzed. Spots yielding these ages come from rim regions free of fractures or inclusions. REE patterns show enrichment in HREE, and pronounced positive Ce anomaly, as typically seen in magmatic zircons. - Strongly altered grains from alkali-feldspar granites with biotite dominate the youngest zircon population. These grains have myriad inclusions of thorite, REE fluorides (fluocerite, CeF3 - confirmed by EBSD), and REE phosphates. A few analyses in other rocks yield similar ages. REE patterns are much less steep for these zircons, and Ce anomalies are much more subdued, as characteristic of hydrothermal zircons. Further, these zircons are enriched in high field-strength elements such as Nb and Hf, as well as in Th and U. Based on

  5. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = −0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes

  6. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness at Age 30, Birth Weight, Accelerated Growth during Infancy and Breastfeeding: A Birth Cohort Study in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Rogério da Silva; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de Barros, Fernando Celso Lopes Fernandes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) at age 30 and birth characteristics, growth during infancy, and breastfeeding duration, among subjects who have been prospectively followed since birth. Methods and Results In 1982, all births in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and those children (n = 5,914) whose families lived in the urban area of the city have been followed and evaluated at several time points. The cohort participants were evaluated in 2012–13, and IMT was measured at the posterior wall of the right and left common carotid arteries in longitudinal planes using ultrasound imaging. We obtained valid IMT measurements for 3,188 individuals. Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at age 2 years, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at age 4, height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 4 years, WAZ at age 4 and relative conditional weight at 4 years were positively associated with IMT, even after controlling for confounding variables. The beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. WAZ at age 2 (compared to those with a <–1 s.d.) was 3.62 μm (95% CI 0.86 to 6.38). The beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. WHZ at 4 (in relation to <–1 s.d) was 3.83 μm (95% CI 0.24 to 7.42). For HAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient for ≥1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.19 μm (95% CI 1.14 to 7.25). For WAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient associated with ≥1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.28 μm (95% CI 1.59 to 6.97). The beta-coefficient associated with conditional weight gain at age 2–4 was 1.26 μm (95% CI 0.49 to 2.02). Conclusion IMT at age 30 was positively associated with WAZ at age 2 years, WHZ at age 4, HAZ at age 4, WAZ at age 4 and conditional weight gain at age 4 years. PMID:25611747

  7. Replacement of HA-MRSA by CA-MRSA Infections at an Academic Medical Center in the Midwestern United States, 2004-5 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    David, Michael Z.; Cadilla, Adriana; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We noted anecdotally that infections designated as health care-associated (HA-) MRSA by epidemiologic criteria seemed to be decreasing in incidence at the University of Chicago Medical Center (UCMC) after 2004. We compared MRSA patients seen at any site of clinical care at UCMC and the isolates that caused their infections in 2004-5 (n = 545) with those in 2008 (n = 135). The percent of patients with MRSA infections cultured > 2 days after hospital admission decreased from 19.5% in 2004-5 to 7.4% in 2008 (p = 0.001). The percent in 2004-5 compared with 2008 who had a hospitalization (49.1% to 26.7%, p = 0.001) or surgery (43.0% to 14.1%, p<0.001) in the previous year decreased. In 2008 a greater percent of patients was seen in the emergency department (23.1% vs. 39.3%) and a smaller percent both in intensive care units (15.6% vs. 6.7%) and in other inpatient units (40.7% vs. 32.6%) (p<0.001). The percent of patients with CA-MRSA infections by the CDC epidemiologic criteria increased from 36.5% in 2004-5 to 62.2% in 2008 (p<0.001). The percent of MRSA isolates sharing genetic characteristics of USA100 decreased from 27.9% (152/545) to 12.6% (17/135), while the percent with CA-MRSA (USA300) characteristics increased from 53.2% (290/545) to 66.7% (90/135). The percent of infections that were invasive did not change significantly. Our data suggest that HA-MRSA infections, both by epidemiologic and microbiologic criteria, relative to CA-MRSA, decreased between 2004-5 and 2008 at UCMC. PMID:24755631

  8. The gravimetric picture of magmatic and hydrothermal sources driving hybrid unrest on Tenerife in 2004/5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prutkin, Ilya; Vajda, Peter; Gottsmann, Jo

    2014-08-01

    We present results from the inversion of gravity changes observed at the central volcanic complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Canary Islands, between May 2004 and July 2005. Marking a period of elevated activity and a reawakening of the volcanic system, the data depict spatial and temporal variations in the sub-surface processes that defined this period of unrest at the Pico Viejo (PV)-Pico Teide (PT) complex, after the last volcanic eruption on Tenerife in 1909. An initial non-linear inversion, based on 3D line segments approximation, yielded three line segments at depths between 1 km a.s.l. and 2 km b.s.l. Our interpretation of the initial inversion results is that the line segments represent apparent composite sources, a superposition of deep and shallow seated sources. We therefore decomposed the gravity changes into shallow and deep parts (fields) using a procedure based on triple harmonic continuation. The shallow and deep fields could then be inverted separately, using the same inversion methodology. The deep field constrains two connected line segments at the depth of about 6 km b.s.l., in the center of the NW seismogenic zone of VT event swarm of the seismic unrest, that we interpret as magma input. The inversion of the shallow field images three weak line segments that are all situated at very shallow, near-surface depths. We interpret the weak segments as hydrothermal sources potentially excited by the deeper magma injection. Our results indicate no significant input into the shallow phonolitic plumbing system of the PV-PT complex, but rather a deeper-seated rejuvenation of the mafic feeder reservoir. The emerging picture from our analysis is that the 2004/5 unrest on Tenerife was of a hybrid nature due to the combination of a deep magma injection (failed eruption?) coupled with fluid migration to shallow depths. The identified causative link between deep and shallow unrest sources indicates the presence of permeable pathways for shallow fluid migration at the

  9. Ichnology of deglaciation deposits from the Upper Carboniferous Rio do Sul Formation (Itararé Group, Paraná Basin) at central-east Santa Catarina State (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, João Henrique Dobler; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Corrêa, Camila Graziele; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Corrêa

    2015-11-01

    Trace fossil assemblages dominated by arthropod trackways are common in sediments deposited during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Ichnofaunas preserved in glacially-influenced sedimentary successions were previously reported from Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. The ichnofauna of the Rio do Sul Formation preserved in the rhythmites exposed in Trombudo Central quarries (Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil) is revised in this paper. Cruziana problematica, Diplichnites gouldi, Diplopodichnus biformis, Glaciichnium liebegastensis, Gluckstadtella elongata isp. nov., Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Mermia carickensis, Protovirgularia dichotoma, Treptichnus pollardi and Umfolozia sinuosa were recorded. Two trace fossil suites were recognized. The undermat miners suite is dominated by H. tenuis, indicating the presence of surface grazers (insect larvae, isopods and amphipods). C. problematica, D. gouldi and U. sinuosa dominate the overmat grazers suite, as result of displacement of terrestrial and aquatic arthropods. The integrated sedimentological and ichnological data from Trombudo Central region suggests colonization of ephemeral, shallow water bodies filled by freshwater from glacier melting. The deposition of the rhythmites took place in a glaciolacustrine context represented by shallow ponds in marginal marine settings.

  10. Screening for germline BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and CHEK2 mutations in families at-risk for hereditary breast cancer identified in a population-based study from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Palmero, Edenir Inêz; Alemar, Bárbara; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia; Hainaut, Pierre; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Ewald, Ingrid Petroni; dos Santos, Patricia Koehler; Ribeiro, Patricia Lisbôa Izetti; de Oliveira, Cristina Brinkmann; Kelm, Florence Le Calvez; Tavtigian, Sean; Cossio, Silvia Liliana; Giugliani, Roberto; Caleffi, Maira; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Brazil, breast cancer is a public health care problem due to its high incidence and mortality rates. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer syndromes (HBCS) in a population-based cohort in Brazils southernmost capital, Porto Alegre. All participants answered a questionnaire about family history (FH) of breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer and those with a positive FH were invited for genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). If pedigree analysis was suggestive of HBCS, genetic testing of the BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHEK2 genes was offered. Of 902 women submitted to GCRA, 214 had pedigrees suggestive of HBCS. Fifty of them underwent genetic testing: 18 and 40 for BRCA1/BRCA2 and TP53 mutation screening, respectively, and 7 for CHEK2 1100delC testing. A deleterious BRCA2 mutation was identified in one of the HBOC probands and the CHEK2 1100delC mutation occurred in one of the HBCC families. No deleterious germline alterations were identified in BRCA1 or TP53. Although strict inclusion criteria and a comprehensive testing approach were used, the suspected genetic risk in these families remains unexplained. Further studies in a larger cohort are necessary to better understand the genetic component of hereditary breast cancer in Southern Brazil. PMID:27223485

  11. Screening for germline BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and CHEK2 mutations in families at-risk for hereditary breast cancer identified in a population-based study from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Edenir Inêz; Alemar, Bárbara; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia; Hainaut, Pierre; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Ewald, Ingrid Petroni; Santos, Patricia Koehler Dos; Ribeiro, Patricia Lisbôa Izetti; Oliveira, Cristina Brinkmann de Netto; Kelm, Florence Le Calvez; Tavtigian, Sean; Cossio, Silvia Liliana; Giugliani, Roberto; Caleffi, Maira; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2016-05-24

    In Brazil, breast cancer is a public health care problem due to its high incidence and mortality rates. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer syndromes (HBCS) in a population-based cohort in Brazils southernmost capital, Porto Alegre. All participants answered a questionnaire about family history (FH) of breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer and those with a positive FH were invited for genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). If pedigree analysis was suggestive of HBCS, genetic testing of the BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHEK2 genes was offered. Of 902 women submitted to GCRA, 214 had pedigrees suggestive of HBCS. Fifty of them underwent genetic testing: 18 and 40 for BRCA1/BRCA2 and TP53 mutation screening, respectively, and 7 for CHEK2 1100delC testing. A deleterious BRCA2 mutation was identified in one of the HBOC probands and the CHEK2 1100delC mutation occurred in one of the HBCC families. No deleterious germline alterations were identified in BRCA1 or TP53. Although strict inclusion criteria and a comprehensive testing approach were used, the suspected genetic risk in these families remains unexplained. Further studies in a larger cohort are necessary to better understand the genetic component of hereditary breast cancer in Southern Brazil. PMID:27223485

  12. Ethnobotany and ecological perspectives on the management and use of plant species for a traditional fishing trap, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flavia C; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2011-07-01

    The cerco-fixo is an artisanal fishing trap widely used by traditional communities in the estuarine region of the southern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The primary goal of the study was to investigate, through ethnobotanical and ecological approaches, the use of plant species by traditional fishermen to build the cerco-fixo at Cardoso Island State Park and Cananéia Island. Ethnobotanical data were collected through interviews, direct observation, plant collection and identification, and document analysis. An ecological evaluation was also done comparing five 20 × 20 m plots in a managed area to five 20 × 20 m plots in an unmanaged area, both within arboreal sandy soil vegetation called restinga arbórea, found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. This study involved 34 fishermen living at Cardoso and Cananéia Islands. The fishermen know more than 90 Atlantic Forest plant species that can be used to build the cerco-fixo. Tree species from the family Myrtaceae were the most quoted in the interviews. With respect to the ecological evaluation, the cluster analyses showed greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition (i.e. greater floristic dissimilarity) within the plots of the managed area. The analyses of diversity showed a slightly higher species richness and slightly lower values for Shannon, Simpson, Hurlbert's PIE and Evenness indices in the managed area (59 species; H' = 3.28; 1/D = 10.77; E = 0.80; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.91) compared to the unmanaged area (54 species; H' = 3.39; 1/D = 20.21; E = 0.85; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.95). The Hutcheson's t test showed no significant difference between both areas' Shannon diversity indices (t: -1.04; p: 0.30). These results are attributed to the greater dominance of the palm species Euterpe edulis Mart. in the managed area (28.2% of the trees sampled at this area; n = 118), which equals twice the percentage of individuals of the same species found for the unmanaged area (14.6% of the sampled

  13. Further evidence of 777 Ma subduction-related continental arc magmatism in Eastern Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil: The Chácara das Pedras Orthogneiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, E.; Porcher, C. C.; Pimentel, M. M.; Fernandes, L. A. D.; Vignol-Lelarge, M. L.; Oliveira, L. D.; Ramos, R. C.

    2016-07-01

    In this study new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data for the Chácara das Pedras Gneiss in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil are presented. They represent a small exposure of the crust which was intruded by a large volume of orogenic to anorogenic granitoids at ca. 618-562 m.y. in the Eastern Domain of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The Chácara das Pedras tonalitic orthogneiss has geochemical similarities with subduction-related magmatic rocks of continental arcs. They present high Sr initial ratios (∼0.712), negative ɛNd(t = 777) values (∼-6), TDM varying from 1.8 to 2.0 Ga. The igneous protoliths of these orthogneisses were previously considered to be Paleoproterozoic based on an upper intercept age of discordant zircon analyses. In the present study these orthogneisses were re-sampled and re-analyzed in an attempt to obtain more concordant analytical data. The U-Pb zircon analyses were carried out using the SHRIMP IIe at the Laboratório de Geocronologia de Alta Resolução of the Universidade de São Paulo. The U-Pb concordia age obtained for igneous textural domains of the zircon grains is 777 ± 4 Ma. A few analyses on zircon overgrowths give poorly defined late Cryogenian ages of ca. 650 Ma. Older ages, mostly discordant, were obtained in a few zircon cores, showing an upper intercept age of ca. 1.9 Ga. One sample of the Três Figueiras Granodiorite, which crosscut the orthogneiss in the same outcrop, was also investigated. The zircons of this granodiorite are, however, mostly metamitic, preventing the determination of a reliable age. Some concordant analyses from a few grains define ages ranging in the interval between ca. 603 and 1022 Ma. The youngest (ca. 603 Ma) may represent a maximum age for the granodiorite crystallization. Older ages, with discordance <10%, are of 745, 777, 836 and 1022 Ma. The 777 ± 4 Ma age obtained for the Chácara das Pedras orthogneiss is the first Early Cryogenian magmatic age determined for granitoids in the Porto Alegre region, although

  14. Vertical Profiles Of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th And {sup 40}K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Parana Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Parana sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 1.84 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 4.20 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations were determined for {sup 226}Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81{+-}0.22 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 4.21{+-}0.07 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 50

  15. Alien shrimps in evidence: new records of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 on the coast of São Paulo, southern Brazil (Caridea: Alpheidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Alexandre O.; Simões, Sabrina M.; Costa, Rogério C.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of two alien alpheid shrimps of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 [in Leach 1813-1814], the Indo-West Pacific A. dimorphus Ortmann, 1894 and the Eastern Atlantic A. nitescens (Leach, 1813 [in Leach 1813-1814]), on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is reported. The presence of A. dimorphus extends the range of this species in the western Atlantic farther to the south in Brazil, whereas A. nitescens is reported for the first time in the western Atlantic, representing the second alien alpheid species on this side of the Atlantic and the twenty-first decapod crustacean introduced in Brazil. We provide morphological accounts of the material examined and illustrate the most important diagnostic characters of both species. An overview of the possible mechanisms of their introduction on the coast of São Paulo is also provided.

  16. Extending the southern range of four shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidae, Hippolytidae and Alpheidae) in southwestern Atlantic (27o S) and confirming the presence of Mediterranean Stenopus spinosus Risso, 1827 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giraldes, Bruno Welter; Freire, Andrea Santarosa

    2015-01-01

    In subtidal zones, certain shrimp species with cryptic behaviour represent a gap in the biodiversity description in many places in the world. This study extends the southern limit of Stenopus hispidus (Oliver, 1811), Alpheus formosus Gibbes, 1850, Alpheus cf. packardii Kingsley, 1880 and Lysmata ankeri Rhyne & Lin, 2006 to Santa Catarina State-Brazil, 27oS. The results also confirm the new occurrence of Stenopus spinosus Risso, 1827 in Brazilian waters. All specimens were collected by scuba diving from rocky islands between 3 and 25 meters depth. We present for each species certain taxonomic features in colour images that will help to identify these decapods in situ in further monitoring programs. PMID:26249501

  17. The Open University System of Brazil: A Study of Learner Support Facilities in the Northern, North-Eastern and Southern Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Cruz Duran, Maria Renata; Da Costa, Celso José; Amiel, Tel

    2014-01-01

    Since June 2011, research on the Open University System of Brazil's (UAB's) official evaluation processes relating to learner support facilities has been carried out by the Teachers' Training, New Information, Communication and Technologies research group, which is linked to the Laboratory of New Technologies for Teaching at…

  18. Alpheid shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea) of the Trindade & Martin Vaz Archipelago, off Brazil, with new records, description of a new species of Synalpheus and remarks on zoogeographical patterns in the oceanic islands of the tropical southern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Tavares, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with shrimps of the family Alpheidae collected in the shallow waters around the remote Trindade & Martin Vaz Archipelago, situated 1200 km off the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A few additional samples came from dredges on top of the seamounts of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain. A total of 23 species in eight genera are reported, the vast majority representing new records for the area. One species is described as new, Synalpheus trinitatis sp. nov., based on the type material from Trindade Island. The new species clearly belongs to the Synalpheus brooksi Coutière, 1909 species complex, differing from all its other members by at least two morphological features. Four species represent new records for Brazil and the southwestern Atlantic: Alpheopsis aequalis Coutière, 1897 sensu lato, Alpheopsis chalciope de Man, 1910 sensu lato, Alpheus crockeri (Armstrong, 1941) and Prionalpheus gomezi Martínez-Iglesias & Carvacho, 1991; the two species of Alpheopsis are recorded from the Atlantic Ocean for the first time. The colour pattern of the recently described Alpheus rudolphi Almeida & Anker, 2011, a species endemic to Brazil, is shown for the first time and compared to the colour patterns of the four closely related species of the A. armatus Rathbun, 1901 complex from the Caribbean-Florida region. A brief zoogeographical analysis of the alpheid fauna of the oceanic islands of the tropical southern Atlantic (Trindade & Martin Vaz, Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, São Pedro & São Paulo, Ascension, Saint Helena, Cape Verde, São Tomé & Príncipe) is also provided. PMID:27470751

  19. Facies and depositional architecture according to a jet efflux model of a late Paleozoic tidewater grounding-line system from the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin), southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, Carolina Danielski; Buso, Victoria Valdez; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio; Milana, Juan Pablo; Paim, Paulo Sergio Gomes

    2016-04-01

    During the Late Paleozoic, the Gondwana supercontinent was affected by multiple glacial and deglacial episodes known as "The Late Paleozoic Ice Age" (LPIA). In Brazil, the evidence of this episode is recorded mainly by widespread glacial deposits preserved in the Paraná Basin that contain the most extensive record of glaciation (Itararé Group) in Gondwana. The Pennsylvanian to early Permian glaciogenic deposits of the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin) are widely known and cover an extensive area in southern Brazil. In the Doutor Pedrinho area (Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil), three glacial cycles of glacier advance and retreat were described. The focus of this article is to detail the base of the second glacial episodes or Sequence II. The entire sequence records a deglacial system tract that is represented by a proximal glacial grounding-line system covered by marine mudstones and shales associated with a rapid flooding of the proglacial area. This study deals with the ice proximal grounding-line systems herein interpreted according to lab model named plane-wall jet with jump. Detailed facies analysis allowed the identification of several facies ranging from boulder-rich conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones. No fine-grained deposits such as siltstone or shale were recorded. According to this model, the deposits are a product of a supercritical plane-wall outflow jet that changes to a subcritical jet downflow from a hydraulic jump. The hydraulic jump forms an important energy boundary that is indicated by an abrupt change in grain size and cut-and-fill structures that occur at the middle-fan. The sedimentary facies and facies associations show a downflow trend that can be subdivided into three distinct stages of flow development: (1) a zone of flow establishment (ZFE), (2) a zone of transition (ZFT), and (3) an established zone (ZEF). The proximal discharge is characterized by hyperconcentrated-to-concentrated flow due to the high energy and sediment

  20. Potential environmental and host gender influences on prevalence of Haemogregarina platessae (Adeleorina:Haemogregarinidae) and suspected Haemohormidium terraenovae (incertae sedis) in Brazilian flounder from the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Davies, Angela J; Amado, Lílian L; Cook, Richard T; Bianchini, Adalto; Eiras, Jorge C

    2008-09-01

    Flounder, Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes), were captured in polluted and non-polluted sites within the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, over four seasons. Blood films showed a high prevalence of infection with a haemogregarine, or mixed parasitaemias of this and an organism resembling Haemohormidium terraenovae So, 1972. Haemogregarine gamont stages conformed to existing descriptions of Desseria platessae (Lebailly, 1904) Siddall, 1995 from flatfishes, but intraerythrocytic division of meronts was observed, leading to the recommendation for nomenclatural correction, placing the haemogregarine in the genus Haemogregarina (sensu lato) Danilewsky, 1885. Statistical analyses suggested that although sample sizes were small, infections with meront stages, immature and mature gamonts were all influenced by site, and possibly therefore, by pollution. Season also appeared to determine likelihood of infection with meronts and immature gamonts, but not mature gamonts, while adult fish gender apparently affected infection with immature and mature gamonts, but not meronts. The H. terraenovae-like organism exhibited unusual extracellular forms and did not match closely with the type description of H. terraenovae; precise identification was therefore difficult. Data analyses suggested that parasitism by this organism was influenced by site and fish gender, since females and males from non-polluted water were infected, but only females from the polluted site. Season was also important and significantly more adult fish of both sexes were infected with this parasite in the Brazilian summer and autumn, compared with winter and spring. Finally, these appeared to be the first observations of Haemogregarina platessae, and possibly H. terraenovae, from the southern hemisphere. PMID:19202674

  1. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season. PMID:21479561

  2. Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km{sup 2} in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant and Watson Ltd. The concentrations of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and K (%) were converted to dose rates in air (nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}) by accounting for the contribution of each element's concentration. Regional variation was interpreted according to lithotypes and a synthesis was performed according to the basic geological units present in the area. Higher values of total dose were estimated for felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, with average values varying up to 119{+-}24 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}, obtained by Anitapolis syenite body. Sedimentary, metasedimentary and metamafic rocks presented the lower dose levels, and some beach deposits reached the lowest average total dose, 18.5{+-}8.2 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Thorium gives the main average contribution in all geological units, the highest value being reached by the nebulitic gneisses of Atuba Complex, 71{+-}23 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Potassium presents the lowest average contribution to dose rate in 53 of the 72 units analyzed, the highest contribution being obtained by intrusive alkaline bodies (28{+-}12 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}). The general pattern of geographic dose distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence

  4. Diversity of bees and their floral resources at altitudinal areas in the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vinícius A; Antonini, Yasmine; Araújo, Ana P A

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Espinhaço Range consists of large areas covered by quartzitic or metaliferous tropical altitudinal fields. The Espinhaço Range ecosystems are endangered by anthropic high impacts, particularly due to mining and urbanization. We conducted a one-year inventory of the bee flora and fauna at the quartzitic Ouro Branco Mountains and a two-year survey of the metaliferous Ouro Preto fields. The samples were collected twice a month, from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. The bees (677) belonged to 91 species, five families. The family Apidae was the richest and most abundant, followed by the Halictidae and Megachilidae. The bees visited 46 flowering plant species; the most visited plants were the Asteraceae (n = 220), the Malpighiaceae (n = 95), the Melastomataceae (n = 94), the Fabaceae (n = 78), and the Solanaceae (n = 63). Diversity was higher in Ouro Branco (H = 1.47) than in Ouro Preto (H = 1.17). The low richness and abundance of bees in our research site when compared to other Brazilian "Cerrado" areas can be due to the high altitude, low temperature, and low availability of flowers we found. "Canga" and rupestrian areas house fauna and flora species that are rare and threatened by extinction. The southern Espinhaço areas can, therefore, be given the status of permanent biodiversity preservation area. PMID:17352066

  5. Crystallization ages of the A-type magmatism of the Graciosa Province (Southern Brazil): Constraints from zircon U-Pb (ID-TIMS) dating of coeval K-rich gabbro-dioritic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlach, Silvio R. F.; Siga, Oswaldo; Harara, Ossama M. M.; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Vilalva, Frederico C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Zircon U-Pb (ID-TIMS) ages for gabbro-dioritic rocks and for a monzogranite from the Graciosa Province of A-type granites and syenites, southern Brazil, are presented. Two gabbro-dioritic samples gave concordant ages (580 ± 2, 583 ± 3 Ma), while less precise upper intercept ages were obtained for another one (584 ± 8 Ma) and the monzogranite (585 ± 12 Ma). The best results indicate crystallization ages of the basic-intermediate magmas around 580-583 Ma. Micro-structural evidences and structural relationships between the mafic-intermediate rocks and the much more abundant granites and syenites demonstrate that magmas mingled and partially mixed with one another during emplacement and crystallization. Therefore, the results are representative of the overall magmatism. The extensional A-type magmatism occurred ca. 10-30 Ma after (1) emplacement and crystallization of the high-K calc-alkaline syn- to late-collisional batholiths, (2) peak regional metamorphism, and (3) final amalgamation of the Luis Alves, Curitiba, and Paranaguá terrains. It is suggested that the whole magmatism occurred in a short time interval and there is no evidence of spatial or temporal migration of the magmatic foci. ID-TIMS zircon dating of coeval basic-intermediate rocks may yield better emplacement and crystallization ages than direct dating of granitic and syenitic rocks, which are more susceptible to inheritance and/or late- to post-magmatic disturbances.

  6. Anti-phytopathogen potential of endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Brazil, and characterization of Streptomyces sp. R18(6), a potential biocontrol agent.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Margaroni Fialho; da Silva, Mariana Germano; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2010-09-01

    Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) are highly susceptible to phytopathogen attack. The resulting intensive application of pesticides on tomato crops can affect the environment and health of humans and animals. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents among actinobacteria from tomato plants, in a search for alternative phytopathogen control. We evaluated 70 endophytic actinobacteria isolated from tomato plants in southern Brazil, testing their antimicrobial activity, siderophore production, indoleacetic acid production, and phosphate solubility. The actinomycete isolate with the highest antimicrobial potential was selected using the agar-well diffusion method, in order to optimize conditions for the production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. For this study, six growth media (starch casein-SC, ISP2, Bennett's, Sahin, Czapek-Dox, and TSB), three temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C) and different pH were tested. Of the actinobacteria tested, 88.6% showed antimicrobial activity against at least one phytopathogen, 72.1% showed a positive reaction for indoleacetic acid production, 86.8% produced siderophores and 16.2% showed a positive reaction for phosphate solubility. Isolate R18(6) was selected due to its antagonistic activity against all phytopathogenic microorganisms tested in this study. The best conditions for production were observed in the SC medium, at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolate R18(6) showed close biochemical and genetic similarity to Streptomyces pluricolorescens. PMID:20542109

  7. Hepatitis B virus infection in Haemodialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Predictive risk factors for infection and molecular epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, Flair J; Moraes, Cleusa R; Pinho, João RR; Mello, Isabel MVGC; Bertolini, Dennis A; Lemos, Marcílio F; Moreira, Regina C; Bassit, Leda C; Cardoso, Rita A; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Gabriela; Da Silva, Luiz C

    2004-01-01

    Background Patients under haemodialysis are considered at high risk to acquire hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Since few data are reported from Brazil, our aim was to assess the frequency and risk factors for HBV infection in haemodialysis patients from 22 Dialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, south of Brazil. Methods This study includes 813 patients, 149 haemodialysis workers and 772 healthy controls matched by sex and age. Serum samples were assayed for HBV markers and viraemia was detected by nested PCR. HBV was genotyped by partial S gene sequencing. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses with stepwise logistic regression analysis were carried out to analyse the relationship between HBV infection and the characteristics of patients and their Dialysis Units. Results Frequency of HBV infection was 10.0%, 2.7% and 2.7% among patients, haemodialysis workers and controls, respectively. Amidst patients, the most frequent HBV genotypes were A (30.6%), D (57.1%) and F (12.2%). Univariate analysis showed association between HBV infection and total time in haemodialysis, type of dialysis equipment, hygiene and sterilization of equipment, number of times reusing the dialysis lines and filters, number of patients per care-worker and current HCV infection. The logistic regression model showed that total time in haemodialysis, number of times of reusing the dialysis lines and filters, and number of patients per worker were significantly related to HBV infection. Conclusions Frequency of HBV infection among haemodialysis patients at Santa Catarina state is very high. The most frequent HBV genotypes were A, D and F. The risk for a patient to become HBV positive increase 1.47 times each month of haemodialysis; 1.96 times if the dialysis unit reuses the lines and filters ≥ 10 times compared with haemodialysis units which reuse < 10 times; 3.42 times if the number of patients per worker is more than five. Sequence similarity among the HBV S gene from isolates

  8. Upregulation of biotransformation genes in gills of oyster Crassostrea brasiliana exposed in situ to urban effluents, Florianópolis Bay, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessatti, Tomás B; Lüchmann, Karim H; Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Sasaki, Sílvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bícego, Márcia C; Dias Bainy, Afonso Celso

    2016-09-01

    The release of untreated sanitary sewage, combined with unplanned urban growth, are major factors contributing to degradation of coastal ecosystems in developing countries, including Brazil. Sanitary sewage is a complex mixture of chemicals that can negatively affect aquatic organisms. The use of molecular biomarkers can help to understand and to monitor the biological effects elicited by contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in transcript levels of genes related to xenobiotic biotransformation in the gills of oysters Crassostrea brasiliana transplanted and kept for 24h at three areas potentially contaminated by sanitary sewage (Bücheller river, BUC; Biguaçu river, BIG; and Ratones island, RAT), one farming area (Sambaqui beach, SAM) and at one reference site (Forte beach, FOR) in the North Bay of Santa Catarina Island (Florianópolis, Brazil). Transcript levels of four cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP2AU1, CYP3A-like, CYP356A1-like and CYP20A1-like), three glutathione S-transferase (GST alpha-like, GST pi-like and GST microsomal 3-like) and one sulfotransferase gene (SULT-like) were evaluated by means of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Chemical analysis of the sediment from each site were performed and revealed the presence of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and fecal sterols in the contaminated areas (BUC and BIG). Water quality analysis showed that these sites had the highest levels of fecal coliforms and other parameters evidencing the presence of urban sewage discharges. Among the results for gene transcription, CYP2AU1 and SULT-like levels were upregulated by 20 and 50-fold, respectively, in the oysters kept for 24h at the most contaminated site (BUC), suggesting a role of these genes in the detoxification of organic pollutants. These data reinforce that gills possibly have an important role in xenobiotic metabolism and highlight the use of C. brasiliana as a sentinel for monitoring

  9. Ultrastructural and molecular studies of Microgemma carolinus n. sp. (Microsporidia), a parasite of the fish Trachinotus carolinus (Carangidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Casal, G; Matos, E; Garcia, P; Al-Quraishy, S; Azevedo, C

    2012-11-01

    A new species of Microsporidia Microgemma carolinus n. sp. found in the marine teleost Trachinotus carolinus collected in Florianópolis, Brazil was described based on light, ultrastructural and phylogenetic studies. This parasite developed in the liver forming whitish xenomas that contained different developmental stages with monokaryotic nuclei. The periphery of the xenoma presented some vacuolization and possessed several small projections in the membrane. The mature spores, measuring 3·8 ± 0·4 μm in length and 2·4 ± 0·4 μm in width, were slightly pyriform to ellipsoidal and had rounded ends. The polaroplast was bipartite and the isofilar polar filament was coiled with 8 - 9 turns in a single or double row at the posterior end of the spore. The nucleus was voluminous and in a central position, measuring ~0·9 μm in diameter. A large posterior vacuole appeared as a pale area, occupying about a third of the spore length. The SSU rRNA gene was sequenced and analysed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. This study allowed us to conclude that this was a new species of the genus Microgemma, being the first description of this genus from among South America fauna. PMID:23036221

  10. Prevention of birth defects in the pre-conception period: knowledge and practice of health care professionals (nurses and doctors) in a city of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Flávia Romariz; Russo Akiba, Heloisa Regina; Júnior, Edward Araujo; Figueiredo, Elisabeth Niglio; Abrahão, Anelise Riedel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2) test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85). Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses. PMID:26644794

  11. The first recorded decline of the Malvinokaffric Devonian fauna in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil) and its cause; taphonomic and fossil evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosetti, Elvio Pinto; Grahn, Yngve; Horodyski, Rodrigo Scalise; Mauller, Paula Mendlowicz

    2012-08-01

    The first recorded decline of the Malvinokaffric Devonian fauna in the Paraná Basin, south Brazil, occurred between early and early late Emsian. The event is recognized on biostratigraphic implications, and it coincides with a regional hiatus resulting from tectonic activity during a Precordilleran epeirogeny. The Emsian beds, dated with palynomorphs, indicate a late Pragian - early Emsian (PoW Su spore Zone) age below, and an early late Emsian (upper FD - lower AP spore Zones) age above the hiatus. The extinctions that occurred between the late Pragian - early Emsian regression, and the initial transgression in the early late Emsian, were extensive and more dramatic than elsewhere on the globe. In the Paraná Basin invertebrates 4 classes, 25 families, 41 genera, and 54 species become extinct. The Emsian sedimentation in the Paraná Basin was realized under constant oscillation of sea level punctuated by storm events, probably due to Milankovitch orbital cycles. It is known that the eccentricity cycles are the most striking in regions at higher latitudes, which was the case of the ParanáBasin during the Emsian. This was, however, not a factor of major importance for the large decline of the fauna. The decline of the shelly fauna was an effect of the late Pragian - early Emsian regression, and the early late Emsian transgression introduced a reduced and less provincial shelly fauna.

  12. Palynofacies and organic geochemistry studies of organic matter from a wetland system of southern Brazil influenced by different hydrological regimes in the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadens-Marcon, Gabrielli Teresa; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Mendonça-Filho, João Graciano

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively characterize the sedimentary organic matter (OM) and demonstrate the usefulness of geochemistry and palynofacies analysis for obtaining paleoenvironmental data for the Holocene in southernmost Brazil. The results indicate that during the time interval from 10,586 cal yr BP to the present, the study area housed a wetland characterized by different hydrologic regimes. The basal peaty deposits correspond to a phase influenced mainly by the groundwater table, whereas the upper deposits composed of silty organic mud indicate fluvial influence related to river overflow events. In a similar manner, the TOC (total organic carbon) and TS (total sulfur) contents are higher in the basal portion of the profile, decreasing toward the top. These findings could be related to granulometry alterations that are linked to hydrologic regimes or anthropogenic interference in the landscape dynamics. Anomalous TS content observed in one of the samples might be due to an external source and perhaps related to the presence of thermal springs in the region. These types of areas have potential as a modern reference that can be applied in the reconstruction of past analogous environments such as coal deposits associated with fluvial paleoenvironments.

  13. Prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Broilers by Multiplex PCR in the Southern Region of Brazil on Two Hundred and Fifty Farms.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Julio Cesar; França, Marciél; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Bellato, Valdomiro; de Moura, Anderson Barbosa; de Lourdes Borba Magalhães, Maria; de Souza, Antonio Pereira; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Eimeria species are responsible for most economic losses in poultry production. Prevalence studies can adequately assist the design of prophylaxis strategies for disease control. Therefore, stool samples from 251 flocks of broilers from 28 to 48 days old were collected in 21 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, to detect and examine the prevalence of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria brunetti. The oocysts were recovered and quantified, and the species were identified by a multiplex PCR technique. Amplicons of seven Eimeria species originating from the PCR-positive samples were cloned. Microscopy studies demonstrated that 96% of the farms were positive for the Eimeria. Seven species were identified, as follows: E. maxima (63.7%) and E. acervulina (63.3%) were the most prevalent species, followed by E. tenella (54.6%), E. mitis (38.6%), E. praecox (25.1%), E. necatrix (24.3%), and E. brunetti (13.1%). The average number of species detected per farm was 2.96, and the most common were E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella (9.16%). The sequencing of the clones confirmed the specificity and effectiveness of multiplex PCR for the identification of seven species of Eimeria, so this tool can be useful in studying circulating species in poultry farms, thereby assisting prophylactic measures against coccidiosis. PMID:26473679

  14. Santa Bárbara Formation (Caçapava do Sul, southern Brazil): depositional sequences and evolution of an Early Paleozoic postcollisional basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Borba, André Weissheimer; Pimentel Mizusaki, Ana Maria

    2003-10-01

    The Santa Bárbara Formation, located in southernmost Brazil, comprises red-colored conglomerates, sandstones, and siltstones. It was deposited in the Early Paleozoic under continental conditions in a restricted, strike-slip basin (Santa Bárbara basin) in response to the postcollisional stresses of the Brasiliano/Pan-African cycle (900-500 Ma). Five facies associations are recognized: alluvial fans, fan-delta front, lacustrine, sandy braided, and gravel bed braided river deposits. The application of sequence stratigraphy enables the recognition of three depositional sequences. The two basal sequences (I and II) represent a coherent depositional pattern, with axial fluvial and fan-delta systems that deposit northeastward and lateral contribution from alluvial fans. Such coarse deposits are composed mainly of metamorphic clasts derived from the erosion of 'Caçapava high', the eastern steep margin of the Santa Bárbara basin. Sequence III lies unconformably over the basal subunits and reflects the inversion of the axial systems, in that the paleocurrents of the gravel bed deposits systematically point south/southwestward. The alluvial fan deposits of Sequence III also suggest a tectonic rearrangement of the basin, with partial erosion of the basal sequences and the presence of granitoid fragments, which reflects a deeper denudation stage for the Caçapava high and possibly a significant hiatus at the base of Sequence III.

  15. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter. PMID:25763017

  16. [Deaths from violent causes among adolescents and young adults in two cities of the Southern Cone: Córdoba (Argentina) and Porto Alegre (Brazil), 1990-2010].

    PubMed

    Rojas Cabrera, Eleonora Soledad

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze and compare the evolution of deaths from violent causes among adolescents and young adults in the cities of Cordoba (Argentina) and Porto Alegre (Brazil). It also seeks to establish if the results are consistent with those reported in previous national and local research. Based on official data, specific mortality rates (by sex, age and cause) are calculated for the 1990-92 and 2008-10 periods. In general, violent causes play a significant part in the total number of deaths especially among young men and as they get older. In line with the reality of the country, in Córdoba both non-traffic-related and also traffic-related deaths are most frequent. On the other hand, in Porto Alegre (where the level of deaths from violent causes is higher), homicides and traffic accidents are the most common cause of death. Beyond the actions taken so far, it is necessary to redouble efforts to counter the problem in question, both in the recording of information for decision-making and in regard to the decisions when they are put into practice. PMID:25650595

  17. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter. PMID:25763017

  18. Magnetostratigraphy and mid-palaeolatitude VGP dispersion during the Permo-Carboniferous Superchron: results from Paraná Basin (Southern Brazil) rhythmites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Daniel R.; Ernesto, Marcia; Ponte-Neto, Cosme F.; Hinnov, Linda A.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Fabris, José D.; Rosière, Carlos A.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed magnetostratigraphic and rock-magnetism study of two Late Palaeozoic rhythmite exposures (Itu and Rio do Sul) from the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin, Brazil) is presented in this paper. After stepwise alterning-field procedures and thermal cleaning were performed, samples from both collections show reversed characteristic magnetization components, which is expected for Late Palaeozoic rocks. However, the Itu rocks presented an odd, flat inclination pattern that could not be corrected with mathematical methods based on the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) distributions. Correlation tests between the maximum anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility axis (K1) and the magnetic declination indicated a possible mechanical influence on the remanence acquisition. The Rio do Sul sequence displayed medium to high inclinations and provided a high-quality palaeomagnetic pole (after shallowing corrections of f = 0.8) of 347.5°E 63.2°S (N = 119; A95 = 3.3; K = 31), which is in accordance with the Palaeozoic apparent wander pole path of South America. The angular dispersion (Sb) for the distribution of the VGPs calculated on the basis of both the 45° cut-off angle and Vandamme method was compared to the best-fit Model G for mid-latitudes. Both of the Sb results are in reasonable agreement with the predicted (palaeo) latitudinal S-λ relationship during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS), although the Sb value after the Vandamme cut-off has been applied is a little lower than expected. This result, in addition to those for low palaeolatitudes during the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron (PCRS) previously reported, indicates that the low secular variation regime for the geodynamo that has already been discovered in the CNS might have also been predominant during the PCRS.

  19. Frequency of prescriptions of off-label drugs and drugs not approved for pediatric use in primary health care in a southern municipality of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Marcele Giacomin; Heineck, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the frequency of prescriptions of off-label drugs and drugs not approved for pediatric use in primary health care in medium-sized municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection, which analyzed prescriptions issued to 326 patients from August to December/2012 in two basic health units in the city of Viamão, state of Rio Grande do Sul. It included all prescriptions of patients whose medical records or service records were available and complete in relation to the date of presence, weight and date of birth. Off-label prescriptions were those which, in relation to the drug leaflet, showed dose different the recommended range, frequency of prescription and/or different form of administration and younger age than the indicated range. Descriptive statistics with absolute frequencies, means and standard deviations were used. Results: During the study period, a total of 731 drug prescriptions were issued and the frequency of off-label medications prescribed was 31.7%, especially antihistamines and antiasthmatics (32.3% and 31.5%, respectively). The main type of off-label prescription was dose (38.8%), followed by age range (31.5%) and frequency of administration (29.3%). Regarding the dose off-label prescription, overdose was more frequent (93.3%) than the underdose (6.7%). Prescriptions of unapproved drugs were not identified. Conclusions: The study showed that off label prescription is common in both assessed units. The observed percentage of off label prescription was higher than that reported by European studies carried out in primary care. On the other hand, the prescription of drugs not approved for children was not observed. PMID:26530249

  20. The perception of students on the use of animals in higher education at the Federal University of Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Bernardo G F; Molento, Carla F M; de Souza, Carlos E P

    2012-05-01

    The use of animals in education and research is a controversial issue that involves ethical considerations. In Brazil, Act 11,794, which was approved in 2008, established the National Council on the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA) and a database of institutions that use animals for research and education (CIUCA). This legislation also set out the regulations for the use of animals. In this study, we have evaluated the ethical issues involved in the use of animals for educational purposes at the Federal University of Paraná, through a qualitative-quantitative analysis that relied on written questionnaires. Our objective was to find out the opinions of students and staff from different academic fields, and at different stages in their professional development, on the use of animals for educational purposes. The study involved 101 students and 20 lecturers (i.e. tenure-track professors and all those who teach the students) in Biology, Pharmacology, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. Approximately half of the students (45.5%) did not know the legislation that regulates the use of animals in education, and most of the lecturers believed that learning goals could not be achieved with alternative methods. Only 38.9% of the lecturers and 31.9% of the students trusted the usefulness of alternative methods. Furthermore, recent graduates were as unaware of the legislation, as were students in the first two years of their university courses. These results suggest that it is necessary to considerably expand the discussion on alternatives to animal use in the academic environment. PMID:22762192

  1. Genetic data and de novo mutation rates in father-son pairs of 23 Y-STR loci in Southern Brazil population.

    PubMed

    Da Fré, Nicole Nascimento; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gastaldo, André Zoratto; Hanson, Erin; Ballantyne, Jack; Alho, Clarice Sampaio

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated haplotype and allele frequencies, as well as statistical forensic parameters, for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) loci of the PowerPlex®Y23 system (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, Y-GATA-H4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS643) in a sample of 150 apparently healthy males, resident in South Brazil. A total of 150 different haplotypes were identified. The highest gene diversity (GD) was observed for the single locus marker DYS570 (GD = 0.7888) and for a two-locus system DYS385 (GD = 0.9009). We also examined 150 father-son pairs by the same system, and a total of 13 mutations were identified in the 3450 father-son allelic transfers, with an overall mutation rate across the 23 loci of 3.768 × 10(-3) (95% CI: 3.542 × 10(-3) to 3.944 × 10(-3)). In all cases there was only one locus mutated with gain/loss of repeats in the son (5 one-repeat gains, and 7 one-repeat and 1 two-repeat losses); we observed no instances of mutations involving a non-integral number of repeats. PMID:25391811

  2. Volcanic-sedimentary features in the Serra Geral Fm., Paraná Basin, southern Brazil: Examples of dynamic lava-sediment interactions in an arid setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petry, Karla; Jerram, Dougal A.; de Almeida, Delia del Pilar M.; Zerfass, Henrique

    2007-01-01

    The formation of volcanic-sedimentary interaction features in extreme arid environments is not a commonly described process. Specifically the occurrence of dynamically mixed sediments and juvenile igneous clasts as peperites, for water has been considered one major important factor in the processes of magma dismantling and mingling with unconsolidated sediment to form such deposits. The study area, located in south Brazil, shows a sequence of lava flows and intertrapic sandstone layers from the Paraná Basin, associated with the formation of clastic dykes, flow striations, peperite and 'peperite-like' breccias. Four processes are suggested for the genesis of the peperites: (a) fragmentation of the flow front and base; (b) sand injection; (c) dune collapse; (d) magma cascade downhill. The continued flow of a lava, while its outer crust is already cooling, causes it to break, especially in the front and base, fragments falling in the sand and getting mixed with it, generating the flow front 'peperite-like' breccia. The weight of the lava flow associated to shear stress at the base cause sand to be injected inwards the flow, forming injection clastic dykes in the cooled parts and injection peperite in the more plastic portions. The lava flow may partially erode the dune, causing the dune to collapse and forming the collapse 'peperite-like' breccia. The shear stress at the base of a flowing lava striates the unconsolidated sand, forming the flow striations. The sand that migrates over a cooled, jointed lava flow may get caught in the cavities and joints, forming the filling clastic dykes. These deposits are analogous to those found in the Etendeka, NW Namibia, and show that sediment-lava interactions in arid settings are widespread throughout the Paraná-Etendeka province during the onset of flood volcanism.

  3. Identical Assemblage of Giardia duodenalis in Humans, Animals and Vegetables in an Urban Area in Southern Brazil Indicates a Relationship among Them

    PubMed Central

    Colli, Cristiane Maria; Bezagio, Renata Coltro; Nishi, Letícia; Bignotto, Thaís Souto; Ferreira, Érika Cristina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis infects humans and other mammals by ingestion of cysts in contaminated water or food, or directly in environments with poor hygiene. Eight assemblages, designated A–H, are described for this species. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated by microscopy or by direct immunofluorescence technique the occurrence of G. duodenalis in 380 humans, 34 animals, 44 samples of water and 11 of vegetables. G. duodenalis cysts present in samples were genotyped through PCR-RFLP of β giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes and sequencing of gdh. The gdh gene was amplified in 76.5% (26/34) of the human faeces samples with positive microscopy and in 2.9% (1/34) of negative samples. In 70.4% (19/27) of the positive samples were found BIV assemblage. In two samples from dogs with positive microscopy and one negative sample, assemblages BIV, C, and D were found. Cysts of Giardia were not detected in water samples, but three samples used for vegetable irrigation showed total coliforms above the allowed limit, and Escherichia coli was observed in one sample. G. duodenalis BIV was detected in two samples of Lactuca sativa irrigated with this sample of water. BIV was a common genotype, with 100% similarity, between different sources or hosts (humans, animals and vegetables), and the one most often found in humans. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study in Brazil that reports the connection among humans, dogs and vegetables in the transmission dynamics of G. duodenalis in the same geographic area finding identical assemblage. BIV assemblage was the most frequently observed among these different links in the epidemiological chain. PMID:25761119

  4. New evidence of a magmatic arc in the southern Brasília Belt, Brazil: The Serra da Água Limpa batholith (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, Rodrigo; Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Duffles, Patrícia; Peternel, Rodrigo; Matos, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the Neoproterozoic Serra da Água Limpa batholith (SALB) and the interpretation of its genesis. The batholith, located along the border of the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, was involved in the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, a tectonic unit that integrates the southern Brasília Belt. The tectonic evolution of this nappe is related to the convergence and subsequent collision between the Paranapanema paleocontinent, representing the upper plate, with the São Francisco paleocontinent, resulting in the construction of the southern Brasília Belt. The active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent developed during the pre-collisional stage a magmatic arc composed of batholithic igneous bodies. The Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe represents this active margin and SALB is one of those bodies. U-Pb dating (Laser Ablation, LA-ICP-MS) in zircon was performed in five samples of SALB. The results are as follows: sample RDTM 62, 667 ± 10 Ma; RDPA 44, 645 ± 5 Ma; RDPA 46, 630 ± 12 Ma; VAC 10, 631 ± 7 Ma and RDIT 41, 635 ± 8 Ma. These ages indicate that the body crystallized between 670 and 630 Ma, with predominance of ages in the interval 645-630 Ma, demonstrating that the magmatic event that formed the arc lasted at least 40 myr. Younger ages, measured in rims of zircon grains, mainly in the range 625-600 Ma were interpreted as metamorphic ages. The lithogeochemical analyses indicate that the I-type rocks of the Serra da Água Limpa batholith belong to the high K calc-alkaline series, and are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Tectonic environment diagrams also indicate that the batholith was produced in a volcanic arc setting which is confirmed by negative anomalies of elements of high ionic potential (HFS) in multi-element diagrams. Whole rock Sm-Nd isotope analyses show highly negative εNd values (-12 to -7), indicating significant crustal contamination or origin of the magma by melting of enriched lower crust.

  5. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perilli, Miriam L. L.; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H. G.; Cavalcanti, Sandra M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits. PMID:27002524

  6. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Miriam L L; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits. PMID:27002524

  7. Magnetic fabric and zircon U Pb geochronology of the Itaoca pluton: Implications for the Brasiliano deformation of the southern Ribeira Belt (SE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Carlos A.; Archanjo, Carlos J.; Babinski, Marly; Liu, Dunyi

    2008-11-01

    The Itaoca pluton consists of porphyritic monzogranite that intruded the upper crust into low-grade metasedimentary rocks of the Apiaí Domain (Ribeira Belt). Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and zircon U-Pb (Shrimp) geochronology were combined to determine pluton emplacement mechanisms and its chronology relative to the collision structures of the Paranapiacaba (Brasiliano II) orogenic system. Magnetic susceptibility ranges between 4 and 38 × 10 -3 SI, and thermomagnetic measurements indicate multidomain magnetite is the main carrier of anisotropy. The pluton shows an "onion-skin" structure roughly elongated to the northeast with its hinge zone including kilometer-wide roof-pendants. Magnetic lineations are variable in orientation in consistency with the dominant oblate symmetry of the magnetic fabric. A distinct NE-trending point-maxima, however, indicates the mean lineation is parallel to the stretching direction of the transpressive deformation that affected the regional host rocks. Prismatic zircon from the monzogranite, both in the core and in the finely-zoned margins, yielded an age of 623 ± 10 Ma. These results suggest the magmatic fabric recorded the earlier strain increments of the regional shear deformation. It may correspond to the transition from continental arc to collision tectonics of the southern Ribeira Belt.

  8. Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae) nectar by parrots in a Tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netro, J

    2005-05-01

    Neotropical parrots forage for various food items such as seeds, fruit pulp, flowers, young leaves, and even arthropods. While foraging, many species wander over large areas that include both open and closed habitats. In this study, I examined parrot foraging activity during a brief synchronous and massive flowering in August 1998 in a tecoma savanna (dominated by Tabebuia aurea) in the southern Pantanal. Six parrot species, ranging from the small Brotogeris chiriri to the large Amazona aestiva, foraged for T. aurea nectar, but Nandayus nenday was by far the major nectar consumer, and the results of each of their visits, like those of the other species, was damage of a substantial proportion of the existing flower crop. Parrots foraged mostly during the afternoon, when nectar concentration tended to be higher. Nevertheless, compared to bird-pollinated flowers, which produce copious nectar, T. aurea had a smaller mean nectar volume per flower. Hence, presumably the amount of damage wreaked by these parrots resulted from their efforts to obtain part of their daily energy and water requirements. Thus, the synchronous and massive flowering occurring in such a brief period in the dry season may be related to, among other factors, the necessity of satiating predators such as parrots, which are still abundant in the Pantanal. PMID:16097737

  9. Population parameters of the endangered titi monkey, Callicebus coimbrai Kobayashi and Langguth, 1999, in the fragmented landscape of southern Sergipe, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, R R D; Ferrari, S F

    2011-08-01

    The recently-discovered titi, Callicebus coimbrai, is endemic to the coastal Brazilian Atlantic Forest south of the São Francisco River, a region with a long tradition of deforestation. While a number of C. coimbrai populations have now been identified, little is known about basic population parameters. Considering the importance of this information for conservation planning, the population of a site in southern Sergipe (with a total area of forest of approximately 500 ha) was surveyed between April and October 2008. Standard line transect procedures were used in the four largest fragments, and additional monitoring included the use of playback broadcasts for the observation of titi groups. The presence of titis was confirmed in all the forest fragments at the site, including one of only five hectares. Two other primates - Callithrix jacchus and Cebus xanthosternos - were also recorded at the site, but were less abundant than titis. A total transect walk of 476 km provided 164 sightings of primates, the majority of which (104) were of Callicebus coimbrai. Titi groups ranged in size between two and five individuals. The most reliable estimate of overall population density, derived from the combined data set, was 12.6 individuals per km²;, although density was much higher in smaller (more disturbed) fragments. The total population of Callicebus coimbrai at the site was estimated to be at least 50 individuals, which may represent a considerable proportion of the population of the species remaining in the wild. In addition to its apparent tolerance of habitat fragmentation, densities of C. coimbrai recorded at the site compare favourably with those of other Atlantic Forest titi species. PMID:21881780

  10. Prevalence of Leptospira interrogans antibodies in free-ranging Tayassu pecari of the Southern Pantanal, Brazil, an ecosystem where wildlife and cattle interact.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Tatiana P Tavares; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Eaton, Donald P; de Freitas, Emanuel Barbosa; Figueiredo, Aline; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Jacqueline M; Miranda, Flávia; Paes, Rita Cassia S; Monteiro, Leticia A R Carneiro; Lima, José Vergílio B; da C Neto, Aparecida A; Dutra, Valéria; de Freitas, Julio Cesar

    2010-12-01

    We surveyed a wild population of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in the Brazilian Pantanal for evidence of Leptospira interrogans. Serum samples from 71 free-ranging T. pecari were obtained between 2003 and 2005 in the southern Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state. We used microscopic microagglutination to test for antibodies against 14 L. interrogans serovars (antibody titers ≥ 1:100 were considered seropositive). Seventy percent of captured animals tested positive for leptospirosis antibodies. Antibodies against icterohaemorrhagiae and autumnalis serovars were the most prevalent. We used log-linear analyses to test for associations among seropositivity, age class, and sex of captured animals. Seropositivity was strongly associated with animal age class, but independent of sex. Forty-six percent of animals less than 2 years old, 63% of adults during peak reproductive years, and 100% of the oldest age class were seropositive. A nonparametric multivariate procedure (MRPP) showed that the composition of serovar antibody types changed with age, and ANOVA models demonstrated that antibody titers increased with age, suggesting long-term exposure to a greater number and variety (i.e., serovar types) of L. interrogans infections. This study presents the first quantitative survey of antibodies against L. interrogans serovars in a T. pecari population of the Pantanal. The high prevalence of leptospirosis antibodies in free-ranging white-lipped peccaries and the potential impacts on reproduction and population dynamics emphasize the need for further studies investigating the roles of Pantanal wildlife and livestock in the transmission and maintenance of L. interrogans in the environment. PMID:20596776

  11. SHRIMP U-Pb age and high temperature conditions of the collisional metamorphism in the Várzea do Capivarita Complex: Implications for the origin of Pelotas Batholith, Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Bom, Francisco Molina; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Junges, Sérgio Luiz; Zvirtes, Gustavo

    2016-03-01

    The Várzea do Capivarita Complex is composed of pelitic gneisses with subordinate calc-silicate rock, marble and rare quartzite. It is part of the neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt, in southern Brazil. The gneisses are associated to veins and tabular leucogranite bodies, which are the product of anatexis of the pelitic gneiss. The paragneisses of the Várzea do Capivarita Complex are tectonically juxtaposed to orthogneisses of the Arroio dos Ratos Complex. This complex is exposed as megaxenoliths in granites of the Encruzilhada do Sul Suite and as smaller fragments in the Quitéria and Cordilheira Granites, all part of the Pelotas Batholith. The metamorphic foliation is oriented to N30°W, with dips between 35 and 55° to the SW and mineral lineation is suborizontal with rake ranging from 15° to 30° and down dip to NW and SE, suggesting deformation associated with a transpressive system. Based on the paragenesis garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-biotite, metamorphism occurred at 720-820° C and pressure of 8-9 kbar, characterizing it as of intermediate pressure and high temperature series. Zircon grains of one sample of garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-biotite gneiss and one of peraluminous leucogranite was dated by the U-Pb SHRIMP method. The paragneiss metamorphic zircon yielded an age of 619 ± 4.3 Ma interpreted as an age of the main metamorphic event, whereas igneous zircon grains from the leucogranite indicates that magma crystallization took place at 620 ± 6.3 Ma. The main metamorphic foliation (S2) of the paragneiss and the leucogranite magmatic foliation (S0) are parallel to each other, indicating that they were formed during the same event. This suggests that anatexis of the paragneisses of the Várzea do Capivarite Complex generated the peraluminous leucogranites right after the climax of the collisional metamorphism.

  12. The Orosirian-Statherian banded iron formation-bearing sequences of the southern border of the Espinhaço Range, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, Vassily Khoury; Rosière, Carlos A.; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2016-01-01

    The Serra da Serpentina and the Serra de São José groups are two distinct banded iron formation-bearing metasedimentary sequences along the eastern border of the southern Espinhaço Range that were deposited on the boundary between the Orosirian and Statherian periods. The Serra da Serpentina Group (SSG) has an Orosirian maximum depositional age (youngest detrital zircon grain age = 1990 ± 16 Ma) and consists of fine clastic metasediments at the base and chemical sediments, including banded iron formations (BIFs), on the top, corresponding to the Meloso and Serra do Sapo formations, respectively, and correlating with the pre-Espinhaço Costa Sena Group. The SSG represents sedimentary deposition on an epicontinental-epeiric, slow downwarping sag basin with little tectonic activity. The younger Serra de São José Group (SJG) is separated from the older SSG by an erosional unconformity and was deposited in a tectonically active continental rift-basin in the early stages of the opening of the Espinhaço Trough. The Serra do São José sediments stretch along the north-south axis of the rift and comprise a complete cycle of transgressive sedimentary deposits, which were subdivided, from base to top, into the Lapão, Itapanhoacanga, Jacém and Canjica formations. The Itapanhoacanga Formation has a maximum depositional age of 1666 ± 32 Ma (Statherian), which coincides with the maximum depositional age (i.e., 1683 ± 11 Ma) of the São João da Chapada Formation, one of the Espinhaço Supergroup's basal units. The Serra de São José Rift and the Espinhaço Rift likely represent the same system, with basal units that are facies variations of the same sequence. The supracrustal rocks have undergone two stages of deformation during the west-verging Brasiliano orogeny that affected the eastern margin of the São Francisco Craton and generated a regional-scale, foreland N-S trending fold-thrust belt, which partially involved the crystalline basement. Thrust faults have

  13. The evolution of the neoproterozoic São Gabriel juvenile terrane, southern Brazil based on SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and ?18O data on detrital zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, L. O.; Pimentel, M. M.; Philipp, R. P.; Armstrong, R. A.; Sato, K.

    2013-12-01

    The São Gabriel terrane is a segment of juvenile crust exposed in the western part of the Dom Feliciano Belt in the southern Mantiqueira Province, southern Brazil. In this study, SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronological data for 171 detrital zircons of the Cambaizinho Complex are used to investigate the tectonic evolution of this juvenile terrain. Eighty-one grains were later selected for SIMS δ18O analyses. Ages ranged from 840 to 660 Ma, with a strong concentration between ca. 750 and 700 Ma. The age spectrum of the detrital zircon grains from this meta-sedimentary succession suggests that the original sediments were derived from the erosion of the arc, most likely in a short-lived syn-orogentic basin. Th/U ratios and internal structures of the zircon grains reveal that they were mostly eroded from the arc magmatic rocks, without any relevant contribution from their metamorphic counterparts, or from any other older source. The δ18O values varied from 3.2 to 9.6‰, indicating the coeval crystallization of both unaltered, pristine mantle magmas alongside altered mantle magmas, and strongly contaminated continental crustal magmas generated in both continental and oceanic arc setting. Three periods in the progressive evolution of the terrane were recognized: Period I is represented by the installation of an island-arc subduction zone. The data set suggest that this period started at ca. 840 Ma and went on until 750 Ma. In this period δ18O values varied between 3.2 to 5.5 ‰, suggesting the crystallization of normal mantle-derived magmas, and juvenile magmas with assimilation of hydrothermally altered crust. Period II took place between ca. 750-690 Ma, which represents the peak of magmatic activity suggested by the large abundance of detrital zircons in the probability density diagrams. Here, δ18O values ranged from 4.0 to 9.4 ‰. The wide range of δ18O values reveals the coexistence of magmas with continental, mantle, and altered mantle isotopic signatures

  14. A conspectus on the Canacidae (Diptera) of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Marinoni, Luciane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Species of Canacidae sensu lato of Brazil are reviewed, including the subfamilies Canacinae and Tethininae. Included are seven species in five genera with two species, Nocticanace austra and Nocticanace packhamorum, from southern Brazil being newly described. To facilitate identification, we have included keys and diagnose to taxa at all levels. PMID:22303126

  15. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...

  16. Southern Rains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...   View Larger image Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and ... for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar ...

  17. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  18. Evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin and lithosphere dynamic movement in Southern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krob, Florian; Stippich, Christian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Hackspacher, Peter C.

    2016-04-01

    Passive continental margins are important geoarchives related to mantle dynamics, the breakup of continents, lithospheric dynamics, and other processes. The main concern yields the quantifying long-term lithospheric evolution of the continental margin between São Paulo and Laguna in southeastern Brazil since the Neoproterozoic. We put special emphasis on the reactivation of old fracture zones running into the continent and their constrains on the landscape evolution. In this contribution, we represent already consisting thermochronological data attained by fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis on apatites and zircons. The zircon fission-track ages range between 108.4 (15.0) and 539.9 (68.4) Ma, the zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 72.9 (5.8) and 427.6 (1.8) Ma whereas the apatite fission-track ages range between 40.0 (5.3) and 134.7 (8.0) Ma, and the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 32.1 (1.52) and 92.0 (1.86) Ma. These thermochronological ages from metamorphic, sedimentary and intrusive rocks show six distinct blocks (Laguna, Florianópolis, Curitiba, Ilha Comprida, Peruibe and Santos) with different evolution cut by old fracture zones. Furthermore, models of time-temperature evolution illustrate the differences in Pre- to post-rift exhumation histories of these blocks. The presented data will provide an insight into the complex exhumation history of the continental margin based on the existing literature data on the evolution of the Paraná basin in Brazil and the latest thermochronological data. We used the geological model of the Paraná basin supersequences (Rio Ivaí, Paraná, Gondwana I-III and Bauru) to remodel the subsidence and exhumation history of our consisting thermochronological sample data. First indications include a fast exhumation during the early Paleozoic, a slow shallow (northern blocks) to fast and deep (Laguna block) subduction from middle Paleozoic to Mesozoic time and a extremely fast exhumation during the opening of the South Atlantic

  19. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  20. Persistent organic pollutants in juvenile Magellan penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) found on the northern shore of the state of São Paulo and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baldassin, Paula; Taniguchi, Satie; Gallo, Hugo; Silva, Reinaldo José; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in 25 livers from Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, found on the state of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The following concentrations of POPs (wet weight) were found: ∑ PCBs: 18.9-775.8 ng g(-1); ∑ DDTs: 2.3-275 ng g(-1); and ∑ HCHs: 1.0-11.8 ng g(-1). Among the PCBs, there was a predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (138 and 153) and heptachlorobiphenyls (180 and 187). Among the organochlorines, DDT predominated. Through histopathologic exams a positive correlation was found between HCB and cardiovascular failure (p=0.012), as HCB values (wet weight) were 6.33-96.49 ng g(-1) for positive animals and 2.45-19.63 ng g(-1) for negative animals. Studies on POPs in Magellan penguins contribute to a better understanding of the distribution and trends of these pollutants in the western South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:22910330

  1. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  2. Southern blotting.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  3. Genomic sequences of Piezodorus guildinii from the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorus guildinii, is native to Central and South America and a well-studied pest of soybeans in Brazil. Recently, it has been become economically important in the southern U.S. states, damaging soybeans from South Carolina to Texas. We cloned the partial genomic DNA from...

  4. Contrasted crustal sources as defined by whole-rock and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of neoproterozoic early post-collisional granitic magmatism within the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt, Camboriú, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florisbal, Luana Moreira; de Assis Janasi, Valdecir; de Fátima Bitencourt, Maria; Stoll Nardi, Lauro Valentim; Heaman, Larry M.

    2012-11-01

    The early phase of post-collisional granitic magmatism in the Camboriú region, south Brazil, is represented by the porphyritic biotite ± hornblende Rio Pequeno Granite (RPG; 630-620 Ma) and the younger (˜610 Ma), equigranular, biotite ± muscovite Serra dos Macacos Granite (SMG). The two granite types share some geochemical characteristics, but the more felsic SMG constitutes a distinctive group not related to RPG by simple fractionation processes, as indicated by its lower FeOt, TiO2, K2O/Na2O and higher Zr Al2O3, Na2O, Ba and Sr when compared to RPG of similar SiO2 range. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes require different sources. The SMG derives from old crustal sources, possibly related to the Paleoproterozoic protoliths of the Camboriú Complex, as indicated by strongly negative ɛNdt (-23 to -24) and unradiogenic Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 16.0-16.3; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.3-15.4) and confirmed by previous LA-MC-ICPMS data showing dominant zircon inheritance of Archean to Paleoproterozoic age. In contrast, the RPG shows less negative ɛNdt (-12 to -15) and a distinctive zircon inheritance pattern with no traces of post-1.6 Ga sources. This is indicative of younger sources whose significance in the regional context is still unclear; some contribution of mantle-derived magmas is indicated by coeval mafic dykes and may account for some of the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the least differentiated varieties of the RPG. The transcurrent tectonics seems to have played an essential role in the generation of mantle-derived magmas despite their emplacement within a low-strain zone. It may have facilitated their interaction with crustal melts which seem to be to a large extent the products of reworking of Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses from the Camboriú Complex.

  5. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  6. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  7. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  8. Southern Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03583 Southern Crater

    This crater is located south of Agassiz Crater. It is likely that the polar freeze/thaw/frost cycle is responsible for unusual appearance of the ejecta region around the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 76.2S, Longitude 247.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  10. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  11. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S N; Pesenti, T C; Cirne, M P; Müller, G

    2015-11-01

    During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25%). This is the first report of feather mites on Calidris fuscicollis in Brazil. PMID:26675921

  13. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  14. A review of the jumping tree bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Isometopinae) of Argentina and nearby areas of Brazil and Paraguay, with descriptions of nine new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine new species of jumping tree bugs, or Isometopinae, from Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil are described. The genus Aristotelesia is revised and the two new species A. fuscata (Brazil) and A. medialis (Argentina) are described, and the Argentine and Paraguayan species of Myiomma are revie...

  15. Two new species of the genus Centromacronema Ulmer 1905 (Hydropsychidae: Macronematinae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Everton S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2016-01-01

    Centromacronema is an endemic genus from the Neotropics, with distribution ranging from Mexico to southern Brazil. The genus comprises 15 described species, but only two of them have been recorded in Brazil: Centromacronema               auripenne (Rambur 1842) and C. obscurum (Ulmer 1905). Two new species are herein described and illustrated from   Brazil, C. pioneira n. sp. from Serra da Jiboia, Bahia state, including the first description of a female for the genus, and C. poyanawa n. sp. from Serra do Divisor, Acre state. PMID:27395747

  16. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil. PMID:27143143

  17. A review of the Southern Oscillation - Oceanic-atmospheric circulation changes and related rainfall anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kousky, V. E.; Kagano, M. T.; Cavalcanti, I. F. A.

    1984-01-01

    The region of South America is emphasized in the present consideration of the Southern Oscillation (SO) oceanic and atmospheric circulation changes. The persistence of climate anomalies associated with El Nino-SO events is due to strong atmosphere-ocean coupling. Once initiated, the SO follows a certain sequence of events with clearly defined effects on tropical and subtropical rainfall. Excessive rainfall related to the SO in the central and eastern Pacific, Peru, Ecuador, and southern Brazil, are complemented by drought in Australia, Indonesia, India, West Africa, and northeast Brazil. El Nino-SO events are also associated with dramatic changes in the tropospheric flow pattern over a broad area of both hemispheres.

  18. Noise in large cities in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2001-05-01

    Large cities' noise is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous pollution, preceded by air and water pollution. In urban centers, in general, and especially in developing countries such as Brazil, large populations are affected by excessive noise due mainly to traffic flow. The Brazilian Federal Government specifies noise limits, but each state can enforce its own set of noise limits, providing they are lower. The rapid economic growth, together with large migration of northern Brazilians to the developing southern urban areas in search of more lucrative jobs in construction and industrial sectors, resulted in a fast increase in activities such as vehicle and bus traffic, home construction, and development of all necessary infrastructures to support this growth. Urban noise in Brazil has been receiving the attention of national authorities only since 1990, when the Federal Government approved the first ``Program of Community Silence,'' based on ISO R 1996-1971. This paper highlights the noise situation in the five largest and most populated cities in Brazil: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Curitiba [Zannin et al., Appl. Acoust. 63, 351-358 (2002)].

  19. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  20. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  1. Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signoretti, R. P.; Sonoda, K. C.; Ferraz, E.

    2005-05-01

    As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage treatment station is a man-made wetland system, situated 30m nearby the Piracicaba River. It treats the sewage from an urban area with 3000 inhabitants. The sewage discharge varies from 133 to 186L/s/ha. The samples were taken on the ending of the rainy season with a D-frame net. The material was washed (210mm mesh size), sorted and preserved in 70% alcohol. Chironomidae had a low participation in the community, with 14.9% of the specimens. Goeldichironomus serratus (47.8% from total Chironomidae), G. holoprasinus (43.5%) and Chironomus decorus (8.7%) were identified. Those species are worldwide recognized as pollution-resistant, used as indicators of environmental water quality. The wetland studied showed low dissolved oxygen (1.5mg/L) on the sampling period and the presence of those Chironomidae species should be expected. The low diversity and high dominance are common features for those impacted environments.

  2. Sports-related dermatoses among road runners in Southern Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Leite, Neiva

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Road running is a growing sport. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sports-related dermatoses among road runners. METHODS Cross-sectional study of 76 road runners. Assessment was performed by means of a questionnaire, interview, and clinical examination. The chi-square and linear trend tests were used for analysis. RESULTS Most athletes were men (61%), aged 38±11 years, who ran mid- or long-distance courses (60.5%) for 45 to 60 minutes (79%), for a total of 25-64 km (42.1% ) or more than 65 km (18.4%) per week. The most prevalent injuries were blisters (50%), chafing (42.1%), calluses (34.2%), onychomadesis (31.5%), tinea pedis (18.4%), onychocryptosis (14.5%), and cheilitis simplex (14.5%). Among athletes running >64 km weekly, several conditions were significantly more frequent: calluses (p<0.04), jogger's nipple (p<0.004), cheilitis simplex (p<0.05), and tinea pedis (p<0.004). There was a significant association between the weekly running distance and the probability of skin lesions. Of the athletes in our sample, 57% trained before 10 a.m., 86% wore clothing and accessories for sun protection, 62% wore sunscreen, and 19.7% experienced sunburn. Traumatic and environmental dermatoses are common in practitioners of this outdoor sport, and are influenced by the weekly running distance. CONCLUSION In this group of athletes, rashes, blisters, sunburn, and nail disorders were recurrent complaints regardless of running distance. Calluses, athlete's foot, chapped lips, and jogger's nipple predominated in individuals who ran longer routes. PMID:25054745

  3. Bryozoans from rio grande do sul continental shelf, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Calliari, Lauro

    2015-01-01

    The continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is predominantly composed of unconsolidated sediments with a few hard substrates represented principally by beachrock. In this area there are elongate deposits of shell gravel material which are interpreted as indicators of the palaeo-shorelines. These Pleistocene deposits are overlapped by Holocene sediments (Recent), but are exposed during erosive events caused by extra-tropical cyclones, which provide the mixture of both sediments mainly during autumn and winter. The few studies on bryozoans made in this area previously recorded seven species, one fossil and the other six from Recent fluvial and marine environments. The aim of the present study was to describe the eight most abundant bryozoan species that occur in the inner RS shelf. Of these, four are new records for RS State (Arachnopusia aff. pusae, Hippomonavella brasiliensis, Turbicellepora pourtalesi, and Lifuella gorgonensis), and the other four are new to science (Chaperia taylori, Micropora nodimagna, Cellaria riograndensis, and Exochella moyani). PMID:25947873

  4. Wheezing in Tobacco Farm Workers in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Nadia Spada; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Miranda, Vanessa Iribarrem; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco workers are exposed to several respiratory occupational sensitizers. Methods A representative cross-sectional study was carried out on 2469 tobacco family farming growers. Gender-stratified multivariate analyses evaluated the association between wheezing and socio-demographic, behavioral and occupational variables. Results Wheezing prevalence was 11.0% with no difference between genders. Among men, age, smoking, strenuous work, pesticide use, contact with vegetable dust and dried tobacco dust, lifting sticks with tobacco leaves to the curing barns and green tobacco sickness (GTS) were risk factors for wheezing. Among women, family history of asthma, tying hands of tobacco, strenuous work, contact with chemical disinfectants and GTS were positively associated with wheezing. Harvesting lower tobacco leaves was a protective factor for the outcome in both genders. Conclusions Pesticides, dusts exposure and GTS were risk factors for wheezing. The synergic effect of these factors needs to be better evaluated to improve prevention. PMID:26471879

  5. Pterosauria from the Late Triassic of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaparte, J. F.; Schultz, C. L.; Soares, M. B.

    A few postcranial remains of a Late Triassic pterosaur from the early Coloradian Caturrita Formation of Rio Grande do Sul are communicated. The general morphology of the coracoid, proximal portion of the humerus, femur, tibia and fibula suggests that it is more primitive than the pterosaurs from the Norian of northern Italy. The morphology and proportions of the different bones support their assignment to a primitive pterosaur. An almost complete maxilla with three teeth is tentatively referred to the same taxon because it was collected at some distance from the postcrania cited above.

  6. Enterovirus meningitis in Brazil, 1998-2003.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Gina P L; Skraba, Irene; Oliveira, Denise; Lima, Ana A F; de Melo, Maria Mabel M; Kmetzsch, Claudete I; da Costa, Eliane V; da Silva, Edson E

    2006-01-01

    Acute viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) such as acute flaccid paralysis, meningitis, and encephalitis, are responsible for a high morbidity, particularly in children. Non-Polio enteroviruses (NPEV) are known to be responsible for over 80% of viral meningitis in which the etiologic agent is identified. In the present study, we show the frequency of enterovirus meningitis in Brazil from December 1998 to December 2003. Enterovirus were isolated from 162 (15.8%), of a total of 1,022 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens analyzed. Echovirus 30 was identified in 139 of these isolates (139/162-85.2%). Other identified enteroviruses were: Coxsackievirus B5 (3.7%), Echovirus 13 (3.7%), Echovirus 18 (3%), Echovirus 6 (1.2%), Echovirus 25 (1.2%), Echovirus 1 (0.6%), and Echovirus 4 (0.6%). Patients's age ranged from 28 days to 68 years old. The most frequent symptoms were fever (77%), headache (69.5%), vomiting (71.3%), neck stiffness (41.3%), convulsion (7.1%), and diarrhea (3.7%). Although, the majority of the patients recovered without any complication or permanent squeal, five deaths occurred. Throughout the surveillance period, five viral meningitis outbreaks were confirmed: four in the Southern Brazil and one in the Northeast Brazil. Echovirus 30 was responsible for four out of the five outbreaks while Echovirus 13 caused the fifth one. Besides the outbreaks, 734 sporadic cases were also identified during the study period and 59 of these were positive for virus isolation (8%). Echovirus 30 accounted for 70% of the isolates. Our results showed that Echovirus 30 was the most prevalent etiological agent of viral meningitis in Brazil, causing both outbreaks and sporadic cases. PMID:16299728

  7. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C

    2011-03-01

    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa. PMID:21437375

  8. Potential Geographic Distribution of Hantavirus Reservoirs in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin. PMID:24391989

  9. Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 3 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Bello, Gonzalo; Romero, Hector; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n=107) of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III) were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean), while the fourth one (BR-IV) was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998-2000) and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000-2002), respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance. PMID:22970331

  10. Origin and Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Hector; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n = 107) of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III) were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean), while the fourth one (BR-IV) was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998–2000) and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000–2002), respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance. PMID:22970331

  11. Educating Citizens for Participatory Democracy: A Case Study of Local Government Education Policy in Pelotas, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2006-01-01

    A case study was undertaken of Pelotas, a large town in southern Brazil, where a recent government of the Workers' Party (PT) implemented a range of social policy reforms. The study draws on interviews with key members of the Municipal Secretariat of Education and policy documents, analyzing them in relation to theoretical literature on…

  12. Congenital Mature Intracranial Teratoma in a Pampas Deer ( Ozotoceros bezoarticus ) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Costa, Thaís Corrêa; Marcasso, Rogério Anderson; Hilst, Carmen Lúcia S; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico R L; Di Santis, Giovana Wingeter

    2016-07-01

    We describe a congenital mature intracranial teratoma in a Pampas deer ( Ozotoceros bezoarticus ) in southern Brazil. We found an irregular, spongy, space-occupying mass in the brain. The tumor consisted of well-differentiated tissues that derived from all three germ layers. PMID:27310166

  13. E-Learning of Genetic Counseling and Basic Genetics for Psychologists in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustilnick, Renato; Correia-Neto, Jorge S.; Vilar, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development of a learning process of genetic counseling and basic genetics using an e-learning model and its application to a group of psychologists in the state of Parana in southern Brazil. The aim was to analyze the impact on the increase of knowledge in the presented subjects and the possibility of applying this…

  14. Identification and comparison of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) host strains in Brazil, Texas, and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm is a major economic pest throughout the western hemisphere. Studies of populations in the southern United States and the Caribbean demonstrated the existence of two morphologically identical but genetically distinct host strains. Fall armyworm populations in Brazil are geographically d...

  15. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 12559 (Mar. 1, 2012). On March 30, 2012, in accordance with section....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr..., 77 FR 25401 (Apr. 30, 2012). On May 11, 2012, Southern Gardens timely withdrew its request...

  16. Pearl southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...

  17. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  18. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  19. Brazil in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Fabiola

    1993-10-01

    Brazil's National Space Research Institute (INPE) was born out of the desire of a number of Brazilians to see their country participating in the conquest of space. On 3 August 1961, President Janio Quadros signed a decree, creating the Organising Group for the National Space Commission (GOCNAE) as a part of the National Research Council (CNPq). CNAE, as the institution became known later gave birth to INPE. The present activities of INPE - concentrated in the areas of Space and Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Observation, and Space Technology - and showing that space science and technology can exert an important influence on the quality of life of the general population, and on Brazil's future national development.

  20. Microturbellarians (Platyhelminthes and Acoelomorpha) in Brazil: invisible organisms?

    PubMed

    Braccini, J A L; Amaral, S V; Leal-Zanchet, A M

    2016-06-01

    Microturbellarians typically belong to the benthos and may occur in a wide variety of environments. They are abundant in freshwater and marine ecosystems and may occur in moist terrestrial habitats. However, turbellarians are seldom taken into account in studies of biodiversity. Most studies on Brazilian microturbellarians had taxonomical purposes and were done in the years 1940-1950. Thus, information on their occurrence and ecological aspects are dispersed throughout several papers. We intend here to summarize the biogeographical distribution and ecological aspects of microturbellarians recorded for Brazil, indicating the main gaps in their knowledge and possible actions to enhance studies on this group. There are 239 species of microturbellarians registered for Brazil, with records distributed in 12 states. However, just three states located in southern Brazil have records of 94% of microturbellarian species. Thus, knowledge on the systematics and geographical distribution of Brazilian microturbellarians clearly reflect the scientific activity over many years or decades in two states of southeastern and southern Brazil. Considering the scant information on this group in Brazil, which is also the situation of the Neotropical microturbellarians in general, some actions should be proposed. First, it would be necessary to sample in the diverse biomes, as well as in the various river and sea basins, based on standardized sampling protocols. Second, it would be necessary to encourage diverse research groups to include microturbellarians and/or turbellarians in general into biodiversity inventories and studies on community structure of invertebrates. Third, it is necessary to increase the number of research groups on microturbellarians, in order to augment the studies on their morphology, systematics, and ecology. Considering their abundance, species richness and ecological importance in aquatic environments, despite some peculiarities regarding their sampling, sorting

  1. Evaluation of Pyrethroid and Amitraz Mixtures for the Control of the Southern Cattle Tick Boophilus microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The control of the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), in Mexico and other countries relies on chemical acaricides. B. microplus has developed resistance to all major classes of acaricides. Tick strains from Mexico and Brazil demonstrated 49.4- to over 672.2-fold resistance to pe...

  2. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  3. Financing is next step in Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project. [Economic costs and benefits of a new natural gas pipeline project

    SciTech Connect

    Cajueiro Costa, A.S. )

    1993-11-01

    This paper reviews a new four billion dollar arrangement which would start a major gas network between Brazil and Bolivia. The proposed 2,200 mile long, 28 and 14 inch pipeline network would connect Bolivian reserves with the undeserved markets of southern Brazil. The paper briefly reviews the economic involvement and impacts on both countries and the current market for natural gas in Brazil. Because most of Brazil's energy is currently from hydroelectric power or petroleum, the new distribution network will have dramatic effects on industries which need this high-grade fuel source for operation. Financing of this project will be by Petrobras and 49 percent through stock options.

  4. Structural characteristics of chalcopyrite from a Cu(Au) ore deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Aparecida; Lima, Diana Quintão; Duarte, Hélio Anderson; Murad, Enver; Pereira, Márcio César; de Freitas Suita, Marcos Tadeu; Ardisson, José Domingos; Fabris, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    Mössbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction data show a chalcopyrite from the Cristalino Cu(Au) deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province in northern