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Sample records for 2005-2006 osa andmeid

  1. Update: Fusarium Keratitis - United States, 2005 - 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the results of a Fusarium keratitis outbreak investigation being conducted by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemiological data indicate that the 2005-2006 outbreaks of corneal infections within the United States are linked to the use of on...

  2. Student Charges and Financial Aid 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For the second consecutive year, the economy and state fiscal conditions continued to improve, offering some relief in student charges and financial aid at public colleges and universities in 2005-2006. Tuition increases have shrunk to single-digits, but concern is still high regarding enrollment growth, employee compensation and benefits and…

  3. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Acker, Thomas L.; Carlson, Thomas; Dauble, Dennis D.; Hall, Douglas G.

    2006-07-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications); and (4) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology).

  4. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2005-2006: Methodology and User Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of developing the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2005-2006 is to convert the 7,000+ foods in the Food and Nutrients Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 3.0 used for the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2005-2006, to USDA...

  5. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, Michael J; Cada, Glenn F; Acker, Thomas L.; Carlson, Thomas; Dauble, Dennis D.; Hall, Douglas G.

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program is part of the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Program's mission is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower. The Department's Hydropower Program activities are conducted by its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and by a number of industry, university, and federal research facilities. Programmatically, DOE Hydropower Program R&D activities are conducted in two areas: Technology Viability and Technology Application. The Technology Viability area has two components: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices) and (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis). The Technology Application area also has two components: (1) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications) and (2) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology). This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 under all four program areas. Major accomplishments include the following: Conducted field testing of a Retrofit Aeration System to increase the dissolved oxygen content of water discharged from the turbines of the Osage Project in Missouri. Contributed to the installation and field testing of an advanced, minimum gap runner turbine at the Wanapum Dam project in Washington. Completed

  6. Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance in northeast Montana, U.S.A., 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance was conducted on a National Wildlife Refuge in northeast Montana, 2005-2006, during which outbreaks of WNV in a colony of American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin) resulted in juvenile mortality rates of 30 and 31%. During both years, flood...

  7. Soil water signature of the 2005-2006 drought under tallgrass prairie at Fort Reno, Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined changes in the seasonal pattern of soil water content under a tall grass prairie in central Oklahoma as a result of the 2005-2006 drought. The seasonal pattern of soil water content in the top 50 cm of the soil profile was minimally impacted by the drought, as this portion of the...

  8. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006: Documentation and Data Files

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New nationwide dietary intake data were collected in What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2005-2006 and are now available for public use. Two days of dietary intake data are included for most participants. The dietary interview data ...

  9. 2005-2006 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 9-28

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and released 20 additional tables that add to the series of 8 summary tables of mea...

  10. Peak stepping cadence in free-living adults: 2005-2006 NHANES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) accelerometer data provides the descriptive epidemiology of peak 30-minute cadence (defined as the average steps/min recorded for the 30 highest, but not necessarily consecutive, minutes in a day) and peak 1-minute c...

  11. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  12. Wyoming Community College System Annual Enrollment Report. Academic Year 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides annualized enrollment information for the Wyoming community college system for the 2005-2006 academic year. During this year, credit headcount at Wyoming's community colleges increased by 6.1%, the largest annual enrollment increase during the last decade. The report also indicates that the difference between enrollments of…

  13. Domestic Violence in India: Insights from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimuna, Sitawa R.; Djamba, Yanyi K.; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Cherukuri, Suvarna

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence in India. The study uses the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) and focuses on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15 to 49 from all regions, who were administered the domestic violence module. The results show that 31% of respondents experienced…

  14. 2005-2006 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 29-36

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and released 8 new tables that add to the current series of 28 data tables already publ...

  15. 77 FR 42764 - Distribution of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Digital Audio Recording Technology Royalty Funds...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Distribution of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Digital Audio Recording Technology... the digital audio recording technology royalty fees in the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Musical Works... Judges issued an order granting certain claimants' (i.e., Broadcast Music, Inc., the American Society...

  16. Intermittent Hypoxemia and OSA

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, F. Javier; Somers, Virend K.

    2015-01-01

    OSA is a common chronic disorder that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality including cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive disease and increased cancer-related deaths. OSA is characterized by recurrent episodes of apneas and hypopneas associated with repetitive episodes of intermittent hypoxemia, intrathoracic pressure changes, and arousals. Intermittent hypoxemia (IH) is now being recognized as a potential major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of OSA-related comorbidities. OSA-related high-frequency IH is characterized by cycles of hypoxemia with reoxygenation that is distinctly different than sustained low-frequency hypoxia and contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Data from both animal and human studies support mechanistic links between IH and its adverse impact at the tissue level. IH promotes oxidative stress by increased production of reactive oxygen species and angiogenesis, increased sympathetic activation with BP elevation, and systemic and vascular inflammation with endothelial dysfunction that contributes to diverse multiorgan chronic morbidity and mortality affecting cardiovascular disease, metabolic dysfunction, cognitive decline, and progression of cancer. Data from observational studies in large population groups also support the role for hypoxia in the pathogenesis of OSA comorbidity. Treatment with CPAP to reverse OSA-related symptoms and comorbidities has been shown to provide variable benefit in some but not all patient groups. Early treatment with CPAP makes intuitive sense to promote maximal functional recovery and minimize residual injury. More studies are needed to determine the interacting effects of IH and obesity, differential effects of both short-term and long-term hypoxemia, and the effect of CPAP treatment. PMID:25560865

  17. Effect of the ash Fall on the Human Health at Colima Volcano During 2005-2006.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, A.; Martin, A. L.; Fonseca, R.; Garcia, M.

    2007-05-01

    Colima Volcano in western Mexico had several small ash emitting eruptions during 2005-2006. In this time period we studied the impact of the ash fall on human health through field observations, interviews and health data processing. The volcano was most active in May-June 2005. Data from 15.000 medical records of the Colima and Jalisco State Health Departments show two main health problems in humans during this time: Conjunctivitis was detected in 1,933 people and respiratory disease in 12,630 people in an area of 1,841,283 km2 which was affected by small amounts of ash fall near the volcano in 2005. Ash emissions from Colima Volcano correlate well with increased affections. When emissions increased so did the frequency of these health problems in the population.

  18. Impact of the 2005-2006 drought on soil water content under a tall grass prairie at Fort Reno, Oklahoma.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined changes in the seasonal pattern of soil water content under a tall grass prairie in central Oklahoma as a result of the 2005-2006 drought. The seasonal pattern of soil water content in the top 50 cm of the soil profile was minimally impacted by the drought, as this portion of the...

  19. 37th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2005-2006 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 37th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2005-06. Data highlights of the survey include: (1) In the 2005-2006 academic year, the states…

  20. Impact of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program in south Texas on predation of Lepidopteran eggs, 2005-2006.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predation on eggs of the lepidopteran pests (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) and Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) in cotton was monitored before and during the first two seasons of the Boll Weevil Eradication Program in south Texas (2005-2006). Mortality of eggs was reduced after malathion sprays for boll weevil...

  1. Domestic violence in India: insights from the 2005-2006 national family health survey.

    PubMed

    Kimuna, Sitawa R; Djamba, Yanyi K; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Cherukuri, Suvarna

    2013-03-01

    This article assesses the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence in India. The study uses the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) and focuses on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15 to 49 from all regions, who were administered the domestic violence module. The results show that 31% of respondents experienced physical violence in the past 12 months before the survey; the corresponding figure for sexual violence was 8.3%. The multivariate logistic regression results show key determinants of physical and sexual violence. Some of the most salient findings are that urban residence, household wealth, affiliation with Christian religious denominations, wife's age at marriage and education are associated with lower risk of physical and sexual violence. In contrast, being employed and being the wife of a man who drank alcohol increased the odds of experiencing both physical and sexual violence. Moreover, respondents who believed that wife-beating was justified under certain circumstances were more likely to experience domestic violence. These results and significant regional differences observed in this study suggest that gender role conditioning and cultural norms both contribute to domestic violence. Interventions, therefore, need to go beyond the institutional and legal levels to include cultural capital, which addresses partner and relationship issues. PMID:22935947

  2. Registration of fatal occupational injuries in Costa Rica, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana Maria; Mora-Mora, Maria Gabriela; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Data on fatal occupational injuries (FOIs) for Latin America are controversial. Costa Rican national rates are inconsistent with estimates extrapolated from other countries. We reviewed the files for all possible FOIs in Costa Rica for 2005-2006 at the National Insurance Institute and at the Center of Forensic Sciences by formality/informality of work, sex, age, economic activity, occupation, and cause of death. The national mortality rate was estimated at 9.5/100,000 person-years (342 deaths). The informal/formal rate ratio was 1.06. Men's rates were over 10 times higher than women's and increased with age. The highest rates were found for transport, storage, and communication (32.1/100,000 person-years), and, by occupation, for messengers and delivery men (91.4). Leading causes of death were traffic injuries and gunshots. Recalculated rates are probably underestimates. Data limitations include the absence of systematic identification and registration among informal sector workers and other groups such as children and farm workers. PMID:21905393

  3. Genetic characterization of dengue virus type 1 isolated in Brunei in 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Osman, Osmali; Fong, Mun Yik; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2009-03-01

    The full-length genomes of two DENV-1 viruses isolated during the 2005-2006 dengue incidents in Brunei were sequenced. Twenty five primer sets were designed to amplify contiguous overlapping fragments of approximately 500-600 base pairs spanning the entire sequence of the genome. The amplified PCR products were sent to a commercial laboratory for sequencing and the nucleotides and the deduced amino acids were determined. Sequence analysis of the envelope gene at the nucleotide and amino acid levels between the two isolates showed 92 and 96 % identity, respectively. Comparison of the envelope gene sequences with 68 other DENV-1 viruses of known genotypes placed the two isolates into two different genotypic groups. Isolate DS06/210505 belongs to genotype V together with some of the recent isolates from India (2003) and older isolates from Singapore (1990) and Burma (1976), while isolate DS212/110306 was clustered in genotype IV with the prototype Nauru strain (1974) and with some of the recent isolates from Indonesia (2004) and the Philippines (2002, 2001). In the full-length genome analysis at the nucleotide level, isolate DS06/210505 showed 94 % identity to the French Guyana strain (1989) in genotype V while isolate DS212/110306 had 96 % identity to the Nauru Island strain (1974) in genotype IV. This work constitutes the first complete genetic characterization of not only Brunei DENV-1 virus isolates, but also the first strain from Borneo Island. This study was the first to report the isolation of dengue virus in the country. PMID:19218214

  4. Monitoring of land subsidence and ground fissures in Xian, China 2005-2006: Mapped by sar Interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, C.Y.; Zhang, Q.; Ding, X.-L.; Lu, Zhiming; Yang, C.S.; Qi, X.M.

    2009-01-01

    The City of Xian, China, has been experiencing significant land subsidence and ground fissure activities since 1960s, which have brought various severe geohazards including damages to buildings, bridges and other facilities. Monitoring of land subsidence and ground fissure activities can provide useful information for assessing the extent of, and mitigating such geohazards. In order to achieve robust Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) results, six interferometric pairs of Envisat ASAR data covering 2005-2006 are collected to analyze the InSAR processing errors firstly, such as temporal and spatial decorrelation error, external DEM error, atmospheric error and unwrapping error. Then the annual subsidence rate during 2005-2006 is calculated by weighted averaging two pairs of D-InSAR results with similar time spanning. Lastly, GPS measurements are applied to calibrate the InSAR results and centimeter precision is achieved. As for the ground fissure monitoring, five InSAR cross-sections are designed to demonstrate the relative subsidence difference across ground fissures. In conclusion, the final InSAR subsidence map during 2005-2006 shows four large subsidence zones in Xian hi-tech zones in western, eastern and southern suburbs of Xian City, among which two subsidence cones are newly detected and two ground fissures are deduced to be extended westward in Yuhuazhai subsidence cone. This study shows that the land subsidence and ground fissures are highly correlated spatially and temporally and both are correlated with hi-tech zone construction in Xian during the year of 2005-2006. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  5. Breastfeeding in England: time trends 2005-2006 to 2012-2013 and inequalities by area profile.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Laura L; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Renfrew, Mary J; Quigley, Maria A

    2016-07-01

    Breastfeeding rates in England have risen steadily since the 1970s, but rates remain low and little is known about area-based trends. We report an ecological analysis of time trends in area breastfeeding rates in England using annual data on breastfeeding initiation (2005-2006 to 2012-2013) and any breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks (2008-2009 to 2012-2013) for 151 primary care trusts (PCTs). Overall, breastfeeding initiation rose from 65.5% in 2005-2006 to 72.4% in 2012-2013 (average annual absolute increase 0.9%). There was a statistically significantly higher (interaction P < 0.001) annual increase in initiation in PCTs in the most deprived (1.2%) compared with the least deprived tertile (0.7%), and in PCTs with low baseline breastfeeding initiation (2005-2006; 1.4%) compared with high baseline initiation (0.6%). Similar trends were observed when PCTs were stratified by the proportion of teenage mothers and maternal smoking, but not when stratified by ethnicity. Although breastfeeding prevalence at 6-8 weeks also increased significantly over the observed time period (41.2% in 2008-2009, 43.7% in 2012-2013; annual increase 0.7%), there was no difference in the average increase by deprivation profile, ethnicity, teenage mothers and maternal smoking. However, PCTs with low baseline prevalence in 2008-2009 saw a significantly larger annual increase (0.8%) compared with PCTs with high baseline prevalence (0.07%). In conclusion, breastfeeding initiation and prevalence have seen higher increases in areas with low initial breastfeeding, and for initiation, more disadvantaged areas. Although these results suggest that inequalities in breastfeeding have narrowed, rates have plateaued since 2010-2011. Sustained efforts are needed to address breastfeeding inequalities. PMID:25422164

  6. [The benefit provided by new medicinal products in 2005-2006--the viewpoint of the French National Authority for Health].

    PubMed

    Bouvenot, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The French National Authority for Health (HAS) assesses the actual benefit provided by medicinal products within a defined legal framework. It provides an independent scientific opinion. It aims to ensure equity, taking into account a variety of points of view as a result of close collaboration with health professionals. In 2005-2006, the mean time to process requests by the Transparency Committee was 100 days (median 77 days) and faster than in previous years. Over 30% of new medicinal products undergoing a first assessment or an assessment for an extension to indications were deemed to provide added value. This added value was marked for 25% of the products (i.e. an improvement in actual benefit ("ASMR") of I to III). Many of these products were orphan drugs and/or biotechnology products. PMID:18206101

  7. Closing Doors of Opportunity? Trends in Enrollment, College Costs, and Direct Grant Aid at Community Colleges in the United States, 2000-2001 to 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennamer, Michael A.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Hardy, David E.; Roessler, Billy

    2010-01-01

    This study had two major purposes. The first purpose was to compare federal, state, and institutional direct grant aid, unmet needs, and headcount in 2000-2001 and 2005-2006. The second was to assess if any changes found related to the presence or absence of two key factors identified by experts as important to understanding the community college…

  8. The active tropical cyclone season of 2005 2006 over Northwest Australia: Operational model performance and high resolution case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. W.; Leslie, L. M.; Leplastrier, M.; Qi, L.

    2007-08-01

    There are three main aims of this study. First, the main features of the active 2005 2006 Australian region tropical cyclone (TC) season are summarized, with particular emphasis on the northwest Australian region. Second, an assessment is made of the skill of the available operational global and regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) models for three of the most significant TCs (TCs Clare, Glenda and Hubert), each of which made landfall on the northwest coast of Australia. Third, high-resolution numerical modelling simulations of these same three TCs are described in detail. The numerical weather prediction (NWP) model used here was developed at the University of Oklahoma, and in this study it utilises initial and boundary conditions obtained from archived analyses and forecasts provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, as well as a 4D-Var data assimilation scheme to ingest all available satellite data. The high-resolution numerical model is multiply two-way nested, with the innermost domain having a resolution of 5 km. It was found that unlike the operational models, which were restricted by relatively low resolution and less data, the high resolution model was able to capture most of the major features of all three TC lifecycles including development from initial tropical depressions, intensification, and their tracks, landfall, and associated rainfall and wind fields.

  9. Mammography use for breast cancer screening in Portugal: results from the 2005/2006 National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, Fernanda; Carreira, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the patterns of mammography use is essential to promote the participation in breast cancer screening. Objectives: To describe the patterns of screening mammography use in Portugal. Methods: As part of the fourth National Health Survey (2005/2006), 3045 women were evaluated in face-to-face interviews. The previous use of mammography for screening was classified as never or ever, and the latter was further grouped according to the time elapsed since the latest mammography. Having undergone the latest mammography >2 years before was considered underuse. We assessed the determinants of never having been screened by mammography and, among those who had been tested, the determinants of mammography underuse, through age- and education-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Among women aged 45–49 and 50–69 years, 86.3% and 88.0%, respectively, underwent a screening mammography before, and most of them were tested in the previous 2 years. The lowest risk of never having been screened was in Norte (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.21–0.80) and the highest in Açores (OR = 4.04, 95% CI: 2.37–6.92), in comparison with Centro (the region with organized screening for a longer time). Participants with <4 years of formal education were more likely to have never been screened than the more educated (OR = 4.27, 95% CI: 1.67–10.89). Women with private health insurance (OR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.04–0.65), as well as those who had undergone cervical cytology screening before (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30–0.85), had a lower risk of underuse. Conclusions: This study provides useful information to improve the allocation of resources to breast cancer screening. PMID:22874736

  10. Prevalence of serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae among isolates from U.S. children in 2005-2006 and activity of faropenem.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Ian A; Jacobs, Michael R; Brown, Steven D; Traczewski, Maria M; Tillotson, Glenn S; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2008-07-01

    Of 393 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from U.S. children collected in 2005-2006, nonvaccine serotypes accounted for 89.1%, with serotype 19A the most prevalent, representing 30.5% of all isolates. The MIC(90) of faropenem against serotype 19A isolates was 1 mug/ml, compared to > or =8 microg/ml against amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefdinir, cefuroxime axetil, and azithromycin. PMID:18443117

  11. Prevalence of Serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae among Isolates from U.S. Children in 2005-2006 and Activity of Faropenem▿

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Ian A.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Brown, Steven D.; Traczewski, Maria M.; Tillotson, Glenn S.; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2008-01-01

    Of 393 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from U.S. children collected in 2005-2006, nonvaccine serotypes accounted for 89.1%, with serotype 19A the most prevalent, representing 30.5% of all isolates. The MIC90 of faropenem against serotype 19A isolates was 1 μg/ml, compared to ≥8 μg/ml against amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefdinir, cefuroxime axetil, and azithromycin. PMID:18443117

  12. Paving the seafloor: Volcanic emplacement processes during the 2005-2006 eruptions at the fast spreading East Pacific Rise, 9°50‧N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fundis, A. T.; Soule, S. A.; Fornari, D. J.; Perfit, M. R.

    2010-08-01

    The 2005-2006 eruptions near 9°50'N at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) marked the first observed repeat eruption at a mid-ocean ridge and provided a unique opportunity to deduce the emplacement dynamics of submarine lava flows. Since these new flows were documented in April 2006, a total of 40 deep-towed imaging surveys have been conducted with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's (WHOI) TowCam system. More than 60,000 digital color images and high-resolution bathymetric profiles of the 2005-2006 flows from the TowCam surveys were analyzed for lava flow morphology and for the presence of kipukas, collapse features, faults and fissures. We use these data to quantify the spatial distributions of lava flow surface morphologies and to investigate how they relate to the physical characteristics of the ridge crest, such as seafloor slope, and inferred dynamics of flow emplacement. We conclude that lava effusion rate was the dominant factor controlling the observed morphological variations in the 2005-2006 flows. We also show that effusion rates were higher than in previously studied eruptions at this site and varied systematically along the length of the eruptive fissure. This is the first well-documented study in which variations in seafloor lava morphology can be directly related to a well documented ridge-crest eruption where effusion rate varied significantly.

  13. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhavna P; Ns, Kodandaram

    2015-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  14. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhavna P

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  15. Timing, Distribution, and Character of Tephra Fall from the 2005-2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K. L.; Neal, C.; McGimsey, G.

    2006-12-01

    The 2005-2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano produced tephra-fall deposits during four eruptive phases. The island setting, deposition of thin, fine-grained fall deposits onto the snowpack, and subsequent reworking by high winds and surface-water flow has removed much of the original proximal fall record. During the late precursory phase (December 2005), small phreatic explosions produced very light, localized tephra fall. Tephra from one such event is composed of altered and fresh, possibly juvenile, glass shards. The greatest volume of tephra fall was produced during the explosive phase (January 11 - 28) when 13 discrete explosive events generated plumes between 3 -14 km ASL during a period of dome building and collapse. Associated strong seismicity lasted 1-11 min (avg 4 min), closely matching the duration of plume generation followed by detachment from the vent and distribution by local winds. On January 11, explosions generated two plumes to ~9 km ASL and deposited trace amounts of ash on communities surrounding Lake Iliamna W and NW of Augustine. Tephra from this event are not well preserved and were likely small in volume, but proximal and distal samples collected during the eruption are composed mainly of older dense dome fragments and crystals with little to no juvenile material. On January 13 and 14, six discrete explosions produced plumes to 9 - 11 km ASL that dispersed to the N-NE and deposited < 1mm of ash on Homer, Seldovia, Nanwelek and Port Graham. Coarse proximal fall deposits are composed mainly of olive- green, scoriaceous, low-silica andesite; subordinate black, dense, porphyritic low-silica andesite; white, variably vesicular high-silica andesite; and accidental lithic fragments. During this time, low-silica andesite dome extrusion was occurring. An explosion on January 17 produced a plume to ~14 km ASL that dispersed to the W-NW and deposited 1 mm of ash on communities surrounding Lake Iliamna. Coarse proximal fall deposits contain the same

  16. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John; Hatch, Douglas R.

    2006-12-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a natural life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Estimated rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the current expression of repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of four study groups (in river release, direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 7 March to 8 June 2006. In total, 348 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 17.0% (348 of 2,002) of the entire 2005-2006 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially (first 2

  17. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  18. Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  19. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  20. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial. PMID:25979511

  1. National and Regional Assessment of Antimicrobial Resistance among Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Pathogens Identified in a 2005-2006 U.S. Faropenem Surveillance Study▿

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Ian A.; Brown, Steven D.; Traczewski, Maria M.; Tillotson, Glenn S.; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2007-01-01

    Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to β-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. β-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 μg/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 μg/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 μg/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections caused

  2. National and regional assessment of antimicrobial resistance among community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens identified in a 2005-2006 U.S. Faropenem surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Ian A; Brown, Steven D; Traczewski, Maria M; Tillotson, Glenn S; Janjic, Nebojsa

    2007-12-01

    Surveillance studies conducted in the United States over the last decade have revealed increasing resistance among community-acquired respiratory pathogens, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, that may limit future options for empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the scope and magnitude of the problem at the national and regional levels during the 2005-2006 respiratory season (the season when community-acquired respiratory pathogens are prevalent) in the United States. Also, since faropenem is an oral penem being developed for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, another study objective was to provide baseline data to benchmark changes in the susceptibility of U.S. respiratory pathogens to the drug in the future. The in vitro activities of faropenem and other agents were determined against 1,543 S. pneumoniae isolates, 978 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 489 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 104 U.S. laboratories across six geographic regions during the 2005-2006 respiratory season. Among S. pneumoniae isolates, the rates of resistance to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and cefdinir were 16, 6.4, and 19.2%, respectively. The least effective agents were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and azithromycin, with resistance rates of 23.5 and 34%, respectively. Penicillin resistance rates for S. pneumoniae varied by region (from 8.7 to 22.5%), as did multidrug resistance rates for S. pneumoniae (from 8.8 to 24.9%). Resistance to beta-lactams, azithromycin, and SXT was higher among S. pneumoniae isolates from children than those from adults. beta-Lactamase production rates among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were 27.4 and 91.6%, respectively. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.5 mug/ml for S. pneumoniae, 1 mug/ml for H. influenzae, and 0.5 mug/ml for M. catarrhalis, suggesting that faropenem shows promise as a treatment option for respiratory infections

  3. Enhanced Collection of Laboratory Data in HIV Surveillance Among 5 States with Confidential Name-based HIV Infection Reporting, 2005-2006

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kristen Mahle; Kajese, Tebitha; Crandell-Alden, Erin; Anderson, Bridget J; Wendell, Debbie; Crutchfield, Allison; Jackson, Terry; Hall, H. Irene

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory data reported through HIV surveillance can provide information about disease severity and linkage to care; however these measures are only as accurate as the quality and completeness of data reported. Using data from five states that implemented enhanced collection of laboratory data in HIV surveillance from 2005-2006, we determined completeness of reporting, stage of disease at diagnosis, the most common opportunistic illnesses (OI) at diagnosis, and linkage to medical care. Methods to enhance laboratory reporting included increasing active surveillance efforts, identifying laboratories not reporting to HIV surveillance, increasing electronic reporting, and using laboratory results from auxiliary databases. Of 3,065 persons ≥13 years of age diagnosed with HIV, 35.5% were diagnosed with stage 3 (AIDS) and 37.7% progressed to stage 3 within 12-months after diagnosis. Overall, 78.5% were linked to care within 3 months; however, a higher proportion of persons with ≥1 CD4 or viral load test was found among whites compared with blacks/African Americans (82.1% vs 73.6%, p<0.001). Few (12.3%) had an OI within 3 months of diagnosis. The completeness of laboratory data collected through surveillance was improved with enhanced reporting and provided a more accurate picture of stage of disease and gaps in linkage to care. Additional interventions are needed to meet the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy on linkage to care and the reduction of HIV-related disparities. PMID:23056161

  4. Recruiting Trends, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Almost 900 employers responded to this year's "Recruiting Trends" survey, the largest response in the history of this project. Hiring of college graduates is expected to increase by single digits minimally, or double digits if certain geographic sectors are excluded (between 6% and 14%). This growth follows a robust 20% increase in hiring reported…

  5. Principals' Salaries, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alicia R.

    2006-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? How have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? To provide answers to…

  6. Indoor mildew odour in old housing was associated with adult allergic symptoms, asthma, chronic bronchitis, vision, sleep and self-rated health: USA NHANES, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-09-01

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis has shown the effect of indoor mildew odour on allergic rhinitis risk, but its relation to other common chronic health outcomes in adults has not been investigated. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationship of indoor mildew odour and common health outcomes in adults in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2006, including the available information on demographics, housing characteristics, self-reported health conditions and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals. T test, chi-squared test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of all American adults (n = 4979), 744 (15.1%) reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell in their households. People who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also reported poorer self-rated health, sleep complaints, chronic bronchitis, asthma attack, itchy rash, sneezing and poor vision. In addition, people who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also tended to reside in older housing that were built 20 years earlier. However, there were no significant statistical associations found between indoor mildew odour or musty smell and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals, which was also found to be associated with old housing. People who lived in older housing with indoor mildew odour or musty smell tended to have chronic health problems. To protect occupants in old housing from chronic illnesses associated with indoor mildew odour, elimination of the odour sources should be explored in future research and therefore public health and housing programs. Graphical abstract Pathway from old housing to musty smell, environmental chemicals and then health outcomes. PMID:25971810

  7. IgE antibodies and urinary trimethylarsine oxide accounted for 1-7% population attributable risks for eczema in adults: USA NHANES 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-12-01

    Population attributable risks from serum IgE and dust miteallergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema are unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine serum IgE and allergen concentrations and environmental chemicals for eczema in adults and to calculate population attributable risks in a national and population-based setting. Data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006, was analyzed. Information on demographics and self-reported ever eczema was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (sub-sample) were also collected during the interview. Adults aged 20-85 were included. Statistical analyses were using chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of all the included American adults (n = 4979), 310 (6.2%) reported ever eczema. Moreover, more eczema cases were observed in female adults but fewer cases in people born in Mexico. There were no significant associations observed between commonly known biomarkers (including vitamin D) and eczema or between dust mite allergens and eczema. Serum D. Farinae (PAR 1.0%), D. Pteronyssinus (PAR 1.1%), cat (PAR 1.8%), dog (PAR 1.6%), and muse (PAR 3.2%) IgE antibodies were associated with eczema. Adults with ever eczema were found to have higher levels of urinary trimethylarsine oxide concentrations (PAR 7.0%) but not other speciated arsenic concentrations. There were no clear associations between other environmental chemicals including heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, parabens, pesticides, nitrate, perchlorate, polycyclic hydrocarbons and eczema as well. Elimination of environmental risks might help delay or stop eczema up to 7% in the adult population. PMID:26233738

  8. Awareness of Federal Dietary Guidance in persons aged 16 years and older: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jacqueline D; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2011-02-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 included questions on awareness of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), the Food Guide Pyramid, and the 5 A Day for Better Health Program. Prevalence of awareness of federal dietary guidance was estimated and differences were tested across demographic traits, health characteristics, and diet-related attitudes and behavior. The continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey uses a nationally representative cross-sectional sample design. The analytic sample consisted of 5,499 persons aged 16 years and older with complete data. Among persons aged 16 years and older, 83.8% had heard of at least one of the initiatives: 49.2% had heard of the DGA, 80.6% had heard of the Food Guide Pyramid, and 51.2% had heard of the 5 A Day program. There was a linear trend of decreasing awareness of at least one of the guidance efforts with increasing age. Differences by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income were also observed. Differences by body mass index were not statistically significant; however, significant differences were seen with fatalistic beliefs about body weight. Differences by smoking, self-assessed diet quality, and eating out frequency were not statistically significant after adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and income. These results may be useful in promotion of the upcoming edition of the DGA and to suggest population groups that may benefit from strengthened and more innovative education efforts at the public health program level and at the clinic level. PMID:21272706

  9. People with diabetes, respiratory, liver or mental disorders, higher urinary antimony, bisphenol A, or pesticides had higher food insecurity: USA NHANES, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the prevalence of food insecurity and what social, health, and environmental characteristics could constitute such situation in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported ever medical conditions in the past and self-reported food security conditions in the last 12 months calculated on the household level was obtained by household interview. Bloods and urines (subsample) were collected at the interview as well. Only adults aged 20 years and above (n = 4979) were included for statistical analysis in the present study. Chi-square test, t test, and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling were performed. Three thousand eight hundred thirty-four (77.9%) people were with full food security, 466 (9.5%) people were with marginal food security and 624 (12.7%) people were with low or very low food security. Being younger, having higher ratios of family income to poverty thresholds (due to low level of education or lack of financial support), having prior asthma, arthritis, chronic bronchitis, depression, diabetes, eczema, emphysema or liver problems, having higher levels of serum cotinine, urinary antimony, bisphenol A, pesticides, or having lower levels of urinary Benzophenone-3 were associated with food insecurity. In addition to socioeconomic and smoking conditions, evidence on people with several prior health conditions and being exposed to environmental chemicals and food insecurity is further provided. Future social, health and environmental policy, and programs protecting people from food insecurity by considering both health and environmental factors mentioned above would be suggested. PMID:26517997

  10. Geochemistry of the 2005-2006 East Pacific Rise Eruption: Chemical Changes and Possible Petrogenetic Relationships to the 1991-1992 Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, B. E.; Perfit, M. R.; Ridley, W. I.; Soule, S. A.; Fornari, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    The first opportunity to study a well-documented temporal sequence of eruptions at one mid-ocean ridge (MOR) locality presented itself when a second eruption was discovered in 2006 on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) around 9 °50 'N, 15 years after an eruption was witnessed in 1991-1992. Major and trace element analyses of glass samples from the 2005-2006 eruption indicate that the flows are largely aphyric, relatively homogeneous N-type MORB but exhibit some geochemical variability outside of analytical uncertainties. Relative to the more than 1200 basalts that have been analyzed from this section of the Integrated Study Site (ISS), samples from the 2005-06 eruption are moderately evolved (7.5 to 8.3 weight percent MgO), and are more evolved than the basalts erupted in 1991-92 (8.3 to 8.9 weight percent MgO). However, both the 2005- 06 and 1991-92 eruptions appear to have originated from the same incompatible element-depleted mantle source. Modeling of the observed chemical variability suggests the 2005-06 flows could be related to the most primitive 1991-92 lava by up to ~10 percent low-pressure fractional crystallization. The compositions of the new flows fall along a liquid line of descent predicted by the crystallization of olivine and plagioclase in ratios that range, respectively, from approximately 6:1 to 1:2, and at crystallization temperatures that range from approximately 1200 °C to 1140 °C. Some gabbroic crystal clots enclosed in the young lavas support this model but others suggest complex crystal-melt interactions in the subaxial magma chamber. Additionally, chemical and spatial data from the 2005-06 eruption may indicate chemical differentiation of the lava along axis during the eruptive process. Although the data are consistent with small amounts of crystal fractionation of the 1991-92 parent over the past 15 years, it is possible the elemental trends were created by mixing between the parental melt and a more evolved magma from another part of the

  11. Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  12. Education Cost Study, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Produced every four years by the Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, the education cost study provides detailed instructional cost information for the state's public two-year and four-year institutions. The cost analysis is based on expenditures drawn from two sources: state Near-General Fund appropriations and tuition revenue. By…

  13. Mathematical Objects through the Lens of Two Different Theoretical Perspectives: APOS and OSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Font Moll, Vicenç; Trigueros, María; Badillo, Edelmira; Rubio, Norma

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a networking of two theories, the APOS Theory and the ontosemiotic approach (OSA), to compare and contrast how they conceptualize the notion of a mathematical object. As context of reflection, we designed an APOS genetic decomposition for the derivative and analyzed it from the point of view of OSA. Results of this study show…

  14. Using an OSAE to Learn about Life in Two New Delhi Hutments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Kay E.

    2005-01-01

    This manuscript is a description of personal observations of two hutments in New Delhi, India. Data was gathered from my hotel window using the OSAE method of landscape observation. The OSAE is the method I use to understand processes that can be seen when studying a landscape. It is the most useful tool I have ever used when teaching geography.…

  15. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: or is it OSA and obesity?

    PubMed

    Carter, Robert; Watenpaugh, Donald E

    2008-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) consists of repetitive choking spells due to sleep-induced reduction of upper airway muscle tone. Millions of adults and children live unaware of this condition, which can have a profound affect on their health and quality of life. Obesity, gender, genetic, and hormonal factors mediate risk for OSA and interact in a multifaceted manner in the pathogenesis of this disease. Obesity is the most established and primary risk factor given that body mass index, visceral fat, and neck circumference are major predictors in the clinical expression of OSA. Many studies have shown weight loss or gain significantly impacts OSA severity. More recently, accumulating evidence indicates OSA promotes weight gain, obesity, and type II diabetes in a variety of ways, such that obesity and OSA form multiple interleaved vicious cycles. Thus, creative strategies to increase physical activity, improve diet, and otherwise facilitate weight management become particularly vital given the epidemics of obesity and OSA in the United States. In this regard, the American College of Sports Medicine recently launched the "Exercise is Medicine" (initiative exerciseismedicine.org). In the future, medications may emerge to treat obesity, OSA, and their sequelae with minimal side effects. However, there are effective ways to approach these problems now without waiting for "the magic pill". PMID:18573643

  16. Osa-containing Brahma chromatin remodeling complexes are required for the repression of Wingless target genes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Russell T.; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2000-01-01

    The Wingless signaling pathway directs many developmental processes in Drosophila by regulating the expression of specific downstream target genes. We report here that the product of the trithorax group gene osa is required to repress such genes in the absence of the Wingless signal. The Wingless-regulated genes nubbin, Distal-less, and decapentaplegic and a minimal enhancer from the Ultrabithorax gene are misexpressed in osa mutants and repressed by ectopic Osa. Osa-mediated repression occurs downstream of the up-regulation of Armadillo but is sensitive both to the relative levels of activating Armadillo/Pangolin and repressing Groucho/Pangolin complexes present and to the responsiveness of the promoter to Wingless. Osa functions as a component of the Brahma chromatin-remodeling complex; other components of this complex are likewise required to repress Wingless target genes. These results suggest that altering the conformation of chromatin is an important mechanism by which Wingless signaling activates gene expression. PMID:11124806

  17. Use of food labels, awareness of nutritional programmes and participation in the special supplemental program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2013-07-01

    Use of nutritional labels in choosing food is associated with healthier eating habits including lower fat intake. Current public health efforts are focusing on the revamping of nutritional labels to make them easier to read and use for the consumer. The study aims to assess the frequency of use of nutritional labels and awareness of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional programmes by low-income women including those participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) as surveyed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Many low-income women do not regularly use the nutrition facts panel information on the food label and less than half had heard of the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans (38.9%). In multivariate logistic regression, we found that WIC participation was associated with reduced use of the nutrition facts panel in choosing food products [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.91], the health claims information (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.28) and the information on carbohydrates when deciding to buy a product (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.97) in comparison with WIC eligible non-participants. Any intervention to improve use of nutritional labels and knowledge of the USDA's nutritional programmes needs to target low-income women, including WIC participants. Future studies should evaluate possible reasons for the low use of nutrition labels among WIC participants in comparison with eligible non-participants. PMID:22171961

  18. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ANTIBIOTICS IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN A SECONDARY CARE SETTING FROM 2005-2006 AND 2010-2011, IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL: DATA FROM 11,943 URINE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Érique José Peixoto De; Oliveira, Gerson Sobrinho Salvador De; Roque, Felício Lopes; Santos, Sílvia Regina Dos; Olmos, Rodrigo Diaz; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) has a high incidence and recurrence, therefore, treatment is empirical in the majority of cases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the urine cultures performed at a secondary hospital, during two periods, 2005-2006 and 2010-2011, and to estimate the microbial resistance. Patients and methods: We analyzed 11,943 aerobic urine cultures according to basic demographic data and susceptibility to antibiotics in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) for Vitek 1 and 2. Results: Most of our cohort consisted of young adult females that were seen at the Emergency Department. E. coli was the most frequent (70.2%) among the 75 species isolated. Resistance of all isolates was ≥ 20% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, cefazolin and nalidixic acid. Although E. coli was more susceptible (resistance ≥ 20% for TMP/SMX and nalidixic acid) among all of the isolates, when classified by the number and percentage of antibiotic resistance. Global resistance to fluoroquinolones was approximately 12%. Risk factors for E. coli were female gender and an age less than 65 years. Men and patients older than 65 years of age, presented more resistant isolates. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were identified in 173 out of 5,722 Gram-negative isolates (3.0%) between 2010 and 2011. Conclusion: E. coli was the most frequent microbe isolated in the urine cultures analyzed in this study. There was a significant evolution of bacterial resistance between the two periods studied. In particular, the rise of bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones was concerning. PMID:25076433

  19. The WOPR Domain Protein OsaA Orchestrates Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Alkahyyat, Fahad; Ni, Min; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Orchestration of cellular growth and development occurs during the life cycle of Aspergillus nidulans. A multi-copy genetic screen intended to unveil novel regulators of development identified the AN6578 locus predicted to encode a protein with the WOPR domain, which is a broadly present fungi-specific DNA-binding motif. Multi-copy of AN6578 disrupted the normal life cycle of the fungus leading to enhanced proliferation of vegetative cells, whereas the deletion resulted in hyper-active sexual fruiting with reduced asexual development (conidiation), thus named as osaA (Orchestrator of Sex and Asex). Further genetic studies indicate that OsaA balances development mainly by repressing sexual development downstream of the velvet regulator VeA. The absence of osaA is sufficient to suppress the veA1 allele leading to the sporulation levels comparable to veA+ wild type (WT). Genome-wide transcriptomic analyses of WT, veA1, and ΔosaA veA1 strains by RNA-Seq further corroborate that OsaA functions in repressing sexual development downstream of VeA. However, OsaA also plays additional roles in controlling development, as the ΔosaA veA1 mutant exhibits precocious and enhanced formation of Hülle cells compared to WT. The OsaA orthologue of Aspergillus flavus is able to complement the osaA null phenotype in A. nidulans, suggesting a conserved role of this group of WOPR domain proteins. In summary, OsaA is an upstream orchestrator of morphological and chemical development in Aspergillus that functions downstream of VeA. PMID:26359867

  20. Audiologic profile of OSAS and simple snoring patients: the effect of chronic nocturnal intermittent hypoxia on auditory function.

    PubMed

    Martines, Francesco; Ballacchino, Antonella; Sireci, Federico; Mucia, Marianna; La Mattina, Eleonora; Rizzo, Serena; Salvago, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of nocturnal intermittent hypoxia on auditory function of simple snoring patients and subjects affected by OSAS; we compared the audiologic profile with the severity of OSAS to detect early signs of cochlear damage. One hundred-sixty patients underwent overnight polysomnography, micro-otoscopy, multi-frequency audiometry, acufenometry, TEOAE recording and d-ROMs test. All subjects were divided in four groups, based on presence/absence of AHI (simple snoring without OSAS, mild OSAS, moderate OSAS, severe OSAS). Sixty (37.5 %) patients were not affected by OSAS, 58 (36.25 %) presented a mild OSAS, 18 (11.25 %) a moderate OSAS and 24 (15 %) a severe OSAS; the 57.14 % of moderate to severe OSAS suffered from tinnitus with respect to the 31.03 % of mild OSAS (P = 0.024). A higher percentage (41.66 %) of hearing loss was found among individuals with moderate to severe degree of OSAS (P < 0.0001). All groups were characterized by a mean hearing threshold <25 dB HL for 0.25-3 kHz frequencies and a progressive decrease in hearing sensitivity, particularly for 6-16 kHz frequencies (P < 0.05). The analysis of otoacoustic emissions SNR mean values evidenced a significant difference between simple snoring and severe OSAS individuals for 3 and 4 kHz frequencies (P < 0.05). d-ROM levels resulted higher in patients with severe OSAS with respect to simple snoring subjects (P = 0.004). Our data underline the key role of chronic nocturnal intermittent hypoxia in the development of an early cochlear damage and a more marked high-frequency hearing loss in case of severe OSAS (P < 0.05). PMID:26164293

  1. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA)-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State.

    PubMed

    Matos, María; Marefati, Ali; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Wahlgren, Marie; Rayner, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w) oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable. PMID:27479315

  2. Development of emulsifying property in Persian gum using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, S; Abbasi, S; Scanlon, M G

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, the influence of octenyle succinic anhydride (OSA),gum concentration, pH, temperature and reaction time on esterification of Persian gum (PG), and its soluble (SFPG) and insoluble (IFPG) fractions, were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM) in order to optimize the reaction conditions based on the degree of substitution (DS). The individual effect of all independent variables as well as the interactive effects of temperature-OSA concentration, and OSA-PG concentrations on DS was significant. However, the latter interactive effect (OSA-SFPG) was not significant in case of SFPG. The IFPG did not have any esterification reaction with OSA. The highest DS for PG and SFPG were 0.0285 and 0.0303 at the optimal conditions, respectively. The FTIR spectrums also confirmed the carbonyl group attachment in OSA-PG and OSA-SFPG. The enhancement of emulsifying capability was also confirmed by ECI and EAI values, microscopic images as well as rheological measurements. PMID:27138859

  3. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA)-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State

    PubMed Central

    Marefati, Ali; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Wahlgren, Marie; Rayner, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w) oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable. PMID:27479315

  4. Pediatric OSAS: Oximetry can provide answers when polysomnography is not available.

    PubMed

    Kaditis, Athanasios; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2016-06-01

    Overnight polysomnography is the gold standard tool for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in habitually snoring children, but it is expensive and not always available. Nocturnal oximetry has been proposed as an abbreviated and low-cost testing modality for the diagnosis of OSAS. In this systematic review, 25 original articles were evaluated to: (i) summarize reference values of nocturnal oximetry parameters in healthy children; (ii) identify abnormal oximetry patterns that predict OSAS in habitually snoring children; (iii) delineate abnormalities in oximetry that can predict responses to treatment interventions for OSAS and potential complications. Nocturnal SpO2 drops <90%, more than two clusters of desaturation events (≥4%) and oxyhemoglobin desaturation (≥4%) index (ODI4) >2.2 episodes/h are unusual in children without OSAS. At least three clusters of desaturation events, and at least three SpO2 drops below 90% in a nocturnal oximetry recording are indicative of moderate-to-severe OSAS. An ODI4 >2 episodes/h combined with OSAS symptoms also exhibits high positive predictive value for apnea-hypopnea index >1 episode/h. Children without clusters of desaturation events have low risk of major respiratory complications following adenotonsillectomy. Thus, nocturnal oximetry emerges as a valuable tool that can facilitate treatment decisions when polysomnography is not available. PMID:26146027

  5. The investigation of the sludge reduction efficiency and mechanisms in oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process.

    PubMed

    Demir, Özlem; Filibeli, Ayşe

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a full understanding of the sludge reduction mechanisms in the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process and presents an evaluation of the sludge reduction efficiencies and sludge characteristics in this process compared to the conventional activated sludge process. Fifty-eight percent reduction in observed yield in the OSA process was achieved compared to the control system at the end of the operational period with no deterioration of effluent quality. The settleability of sludge in the OSA process was also found to be better than that of the control system in terms of sludge volume index. In long-term operation, capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration values confirmed that the OSA process showed good filterability characteristics. The results of batch experiments showed that higher endogenous respiration in the systems might lead to lower sludge production and that energy uncoupling had only a limited impact on sludge reduction. PMID:27191551

  6. Impact of OSA on Biological Markers in Morbid Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salord, Neus; Gasa, Mercè; Mayos, Mercedes; Fortuna-Gutierrez, Ana Maria; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Barceló, Antonia; Barbé, Ferran; Vilarrasa, Núria; Monasterio, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: There is compelling evidence that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can affect metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk, but the intermediate mechanisms through which it occurs have not been well defined. We explored the impact of OSA in morbidly obese patients with MetS on adipokines, pro-inflammatory markers, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis markers. Methods: We included 52 morbidly obese patients in an observational study matched for age, gender and central obesity in 3 groups (OSA-MetS, Non-OSA-MetS, and Non OSA-non-MetS). Anthropometrical, blood pressure, and fasting blood measurements were obtained the morning after an overnight polysomnography. VEGF, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, adiponectin, and chemerin were determined in serum by ELISA. OSA was defined as apnea/ hypopnea index ≥ 15 and MetS by NCEP-ATP III. Results: Cases and control subjects did not differ in age, BMI, waist circumference, and gender (43 ± 10 years, 46 ± 5 kg/m2, 128 ± 10 cm, 71% females). The cases had severe OSA with 47 (32-66) events/h, time spent < 90% SpO2 7% (5%-31%). All groups presented similar serum cytokines, adipokines, VEGF, and sCD40L levels. Conclusions: In a morbidly obese population with established MetS, the presence of OSA did not determine any differences in the studied mediators when matched by central obesity. Morbidly obese NonOSA-NonMetS had a similar inflammatory, adipokine VEGF, and sCD40L profile as those with established MetS, with or without OSA. Obesity itself could overwhelm the effect of sleep apnea and MetS in the studied biomarkers. Citation: Salord N; Gasa M; Mayos M; Fortuna-Gutierrez AM; Montserrat JM; Sánchez-de-la-Torre M; Barceló A; Barbé F; Vilarrasa N; Monasterio C. Impact of OSA on biological markers in morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):263-270. PMID:24634623

  7. Executive Dysfunction in OSA Before and After Treatment: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Olaithe, Michelle; Bucks, Romola S.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a frequent and often underdiagnosed condition that is associated with upper airway collapse, oxygen desaturation, and sleep fragmentation leading to cognitive dysfunction. There is meta-analytic evidence that subdomains of attention and memory are affected by OSA. However, a thorough investigation of the impact of OSA on different subdomains of executive function is yet to be conducted. This report investigates the impact of OSA and its treatment, in adult patients, on 5 theorized subdomains of executive function. Design: An extensive literature search was conducted of published and unpublished materials, returning 35 studies that matched selection criteria. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize the results from studies examining the impact of OSA on executive functioning compared to controls (21 studies), and before and after treatment (19 studies); 5 studies met inclusion in both categories. Measurements: Research papers were selected which assessed 5 subdomains of executive function: Shifting, Updating, Inhibition, Generativity, and Fluid Reasoning. Results: All 5 domains of executive function demonstrated medium to very large impairments in OSA independent of age and disease severity. Furthermore, all subdomains of executive function demonstrated small to medium improvements with CPAP treatment. Discussion: Executive function is impaired across all five domains in OSA; these difficulties improved with CPAP treatment. Age and disease severity did not moderate the effects found; however, further studies are needed to explore the extent of primary and secondary effects, and the impact of age and premorbid intellectual ability (cognitive reserve). Citation: Olaithe M; Bucks RS. Executive dysfunction in OSA before and after treatment: a meta-analysis. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1297-1305. PMID:23997362

  8. Cloning and characterization of hELD/OSA1, a novel BRG1 interacting protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hurlstone, Adam F L; Olave, Ivan A; Barker, Nick; van Noort, Mascha; Clevers, Hans

    2002-01-01

    A highly conserved multisubunit enzymic complex, SWI/SNF, participates in the regulation of eukaryote gene expression through its ability to remodel chromatin. While a single component of SWI/SNF, Swi2 or a related protein, can perform this function in vitro, the other components appear to modulate the activity and specificity of the complex in vivo. Here we describe the cloning of hELD/OSA1, a 189 KDa human homologue of Drosophila Eld/Osa protein, a constituent of Drosophila SWI/SNF. By comparing conserved peptide sequences in Eld/Osa homologues we define three domains common to all family members. A putative DNA binding domain, or ARID (AT-rich DNA-interacting domain), may function in targetting SWI/SNF to chromatin. Two other domains unique to Eld/Osa proteins, EHD1 and EHD2, map to the C-terminus. We show that EHD2 mediates binding to Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), a human homologue of yeast Swi2. EHD1 and EHD2 also appear capable of interacting with each other. Using an antibody raised against EHD2 of hELD/OSA1, we detected Eld/Osa1 in endogenous SWI/SNF complexes derived from mouse brain. PMID:11988099

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) Increases Pedestrian Injury Risk in Children

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Kristin T.; Gamble, Karen L.; Schwebel, David C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate pedestrian behavior, including reaction time, impulsivity, risk-taking, attention, and decision-making, in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) compared with healthy controls. Study design Using a case control design, sixty 8- to 16-year-olds with newly diagnosed and untreated OSAS engaged in a virtual reality pedestrian environment. Sixty-one healthy children matched using a yoke-control procedure by age, race, gender and household income served as controls. Results Children with OSAS were riskier pedestrians than healthy children of the same age, race, and sex. Children with OSAS waited less time to cross (p<.01). The groups did not differ in looking at oncoming traffic or taking longer to decide to cross. Conclusions Results suggest OSAS may have significant consequences on children’s daytime functioning in a critical domain of personal safety, pedestrian skills. Children with OSAS appeared to have greater impulsivity when crossing streets. Results highlight the need for heightened awareness of the consequences of untreated sleep disorders and identify a possible target for pediatric injury prevention. PMID:25444002

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): a cephalometric analysis of severe and non-severe OSA patients. Part II: A predictive discriminant function analysis.

    PubMed

    Tangugsorn, V; Krogstad, O; Espeland, L; Lyberg, T

    2000-01-01

    One hundred male obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients were classified into 2 groups on the basis of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as severe (AHI > or = 50) and non-severe (AHI < 50). A comprehensive cephalometric analysis of cervicocraniofacial skeletal and upper airway soft tissue morphology was performed in 51 non-severe and 49 severe OSA patients. In addition, a multivariate statistical method (principal component, analysis and predictive discriminant analysis) was performed to identify the components that could correctly differentiate the severe from the non-severe OSA patients. Eight principal components (PCs) of cervicocraniofacial skeletal morphology, 4 PCs of hyoid bone position and head posture, and 7 PCs of upper airway soft tissue morphology, together with the selected demographic variables, were deduced to formulate a linear canonical discriminant function. The equation of a 9-variable model was generated as follows: PDF score = 4.127 - 0.144 (Body Mass Index) - 0.376 (PC1.1) + 0.311 (PC1.4) + 0.214 (PC1.5) + 0.075 (PC 2.1) - 1.309 (PC2.3) + 0.708 (PC3.2) - 0.059 (PC3.3) + 0.609 (PC3.6). The cutoff score was -0.03899. The overall rate of correct classification was 83%. The results showed that Body Mass Index and 8 other PCs contributed significantly to the OSA severity. These analyses are proven to be a useful adjunctive diagnostic tool to select optimal treatment regimens for OSA patients with varying degrees of severity. PMID:11307197

  11. The effect of allergic rhinitis on the degree of stress, fatigue and quality of life in OSA patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol Eon; Shin, Seung Youp; Lee, Kun Hee; Cho, Joong Saeng; Kim, Sung Wan

    2012-09-01

    Both allergic rhinitis (AR) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are known to increase stress and fatigue, but the result of their coexistence has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of stress and fatigue when AR is combined with OSA. One hundred and twelve patients diagnosed with OSA by polysomnography were enrolled. Among them, 37 patients were diagnosed with AR by a skin prick test and symptoms (OSA-AR group) and 75 patients were classified into the OSA group since they tested negative for allergies. We evaluated the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), stress score, fatigue score, ability to cope with stress, and rhinosinusitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ) with questionnaires and statistically compared the scores of both groups. There were no significant differences in BMI and sleep parameters such as LSAT, AHI, and RERA between the two groups. However, the OSA-AR group showed a significantly higher ESS score compared to the OSA group (13.7 ± 4.7 vs. 9.3 ± 4.8). Fatigue scores were also significantly higher in the OSA-AR group than in the OSA group (39.8 ± 11.0 vs. 30.6 ± 5.4). The OSA-AR group had a significantly higher stress score (60.4 ± 18.6 vs. 51.2 ± 10.4). The ability to cope with stress was higher in the OSA group, although this difference was not statistically significant. RQLQ scores were higher in the OSA-AR group (60.2 ± 16.7 compared to 25.1 ± 13.9). In conclusion, management of allergic rhinitis is very important in treating OSA patients in order to eliminate stress and fatigue and to minimize daytime sleepiness and quality of life. PMID:22207526

  12. Italian recommendations on dental support in the treatment of adult obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Sacchi, Franco; Milano, Francesca; Polimeni, Antonella; Cozza, Paolo; Bernkopf, Edoardo; Segù, Marzia; Zucconi, Marco; Vicini, Claudio; Brunello, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of the present article is to present a set of proposed clinical recommendations aimed at Italian dentists involved in the management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or snoring. Methods With the purpose of creating a study group, some of the most important Italian scientific societies operating in fields relevant to the issue of sleep medicine in dentistry were asked to appoint a representative. Each member of the study group was required to answer questions regarding the clinical management of OSAS and snoring. Results Oral appliances can be used to treat: - simple snoring, in patients who do not respond to, or do not appear to be suitable candidates for behavioral measures such as weight loss or positional therapy; - mild or moderate OSAS, in patients who prefer OAs to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or who are not suitable candidates for CPAP, because of its failure or failure of behavioral approaches like weight loss or positional therapy; - severe OSAS, in patients who do not respond to or do not tolerate CPAP and in whom no indication for either maxillofacial or ENT surgery appears applicable. Conclusions The application of oral appliances is highly desirable in cases of simple snoring or mild to moderate OSAS, whereas considerable caution is warranted when treating severe OSAS. It is fundamental to ensure that the patient understands his problem and, at the same time, to present all the various treatment options. PMID:26941893

  13. Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with tonsil colonisation by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Viciani, Elisa; Montagnani, Francesca; Tavarini, Simona; Tordini, Giacinta; Maccari, Silvia; Morandi, Matteo; Faenzi, Elisa; Biagini, Cesare; Romano, Antonio; Salerni, Lorenzo; Finco, Oretta; Lazzi, Stefano; Ruggiero, Paolo; De Luca, Andrea; Barocchi, Michèle A.; Manetti, Andrea G. O.

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of pathogenic bacteria in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has yet to be elucidated. We investigated the possible role of group A streptococcus (GAS) in OSAS pathogenesis. In 40 tonsillectomized patients affected by OSAS and 80 healthy controls, significant (p < 0.0001) association of GAS with paediatric OSAS was found. Supernatant from streptolysin O (SLO)-producing GAS induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) in tonsil mononuclear cells (TMCs). CysLTs-treated TMCs showed significant (p < 0.05) proliferation of CD4+ T, CD19+ and CD19+CD27+CD38+ B lymphocytes. We discovered a SLO-dependent activation of CysLTs production through a pathway involving TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and p38 MAP Kinase. In conclusion, we hypothesise that GAS may contribute to paediatric tonsillar hyperplasia through CysLTs production induced by SLO, and this might explain its association with OSAS. PMID:26860261

  14. The chromatin-remodeling protein Osa interacts with CyclinE in Drosophila eye imaginal discs.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jawaid; Chanut, Francoise; Kornberg, Thomas B; Klebes, Ansgar

    2010-03-01

    Coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation is essential during organogenesis. In Drosophila, the photoreceptor, pigment, and support cells of the eye are specified in an orchestrated wave as the morphogenetic furrow passes across the eye imaginal disc. Cells anterior of the furrow are not yet differentiated and remain mitotically active, while most cells in the furrow arrest at G(1) and adopt specific ommatidial fates. We used microarray expression analysis to monitor changes in transcription at the furrow and identified genes whose expression correlates with either proliferation or fate specification. Some of these are members of the Polycomb and Trithorax families that encode epigenetic regulators. Osa is one; it associates with components of the Drosophila SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Our studies of this Trithorax factor in eye development implicate Osa as a regulator of the cell cycle: Osa overexpression caused a small-eye phenotype, a reduced number of M- and S-phase cells in eye imaginal discs, and a delay in morphogenetic furrow progression. In addition, we present evidence that Osa interacts genetically and biochemically with CyclinE. Our results suggest a dual mechanism of Osa function in transcriptional regulation and cell cycle control. PMID:20008573

  15. Blood Pressure Increases in OSA due to Maintained Neurovascular Sympathetic Transduction: Impact of CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Tamisier, Renaud; Tan, Can Ozan; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Levy, Patrick; Taylor, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that greater resting sympathetic activity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome would not induce a lesser sympathetic neurovascular transduction. Design: Case-controlled cohort study. Participants: 33 patients with newly diagnosed OSA without comorbidities and 14 healthy controls. Interventions: 6 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for OSA patients and follow-up for 9 healthy controls. Measurements and Results: We assessed resting sympathetic outflow and sympathetic neurovascular transduction. Sympathetic activity was directly measured (microneurography) at rest and in response to sustained isometric handgrip exercise. Neurovascular transduction was derived from the relationship of sympathetic activity and blood pressure to leg blood flow during exercise. Despite an elevated sympathetic activity of ∼50% in OSA compared to controls, neurovascular transduction was not different (i.e., absence of tachyphylaxis). After six months of CPAP, there were significant declines in diastolic pressure, averaging ∼4 mm Hg, and in sympathetic activity, averaging ∼20% with no change in transduction. Conclusions: Greater sympathetic activity in obstructive sleep apnea does not appear to be associated with lesser neurovascular transduction. Hence, elevated sympathetic outflow without lesser transduction may underlie the prevalent development of hypertension in this population that is well controlled by continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Citation: Tamisier R, Tan CO, Pepin JL, Levy P, Taylor JA. Blood pressure increases in OSA due to maintained neurovascular sympathetic transduction: impact of CPAP. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1973–1980. PMID:26039959

  16. MR image analytics to characterize upper airway architecture in children with OSAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.; Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms leading to Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) in obese children are not well understood. We previously analyzed polysomnographic and demographic data to study the anatomical characteristics of the upper airway and body composition in two groups of obese children with and without OSAS, where object volume was evaluated. In this paper, in order to better understand the disease we expand the analysis considering a variety of features that include object-specific features such as size, surface area, sphericity, and image intensity properties of fourteen objects in the vicinity of the upper airway, as well as inter-object relationships such as distance between objects. Our preliminary results indicate several interesting phenomena: volumes and surface areas of adenoid and tonsils increase statistically significantly in OSAS. Standardized T2-weighted MR image intensities differ statistically significantly between the two groups, implying that perhaps intrinsic tissue composition undergoes changes in OSAS. Inter-object distances are significantly different between the two groups for object pairs (skin, oropharynx), (skin, fat pad), (skin, soft palate), (mandible, tongue), (oropharynx, soft palate), (left tonsil, oropharynx), (left tonsil, fat pad) and (left tonsil, right tonsil). We conclude that treatment methods for OSAS such as adenotonsillectomy should respect proportional object size relationships and spatial arrangement of objects as they exist in control subjects.

  17. Operative Management of OSAS in a Complex Case of Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cantone, Elena; Cavaliere, Michele; Castagna, Giovanni; Marino, Anna; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Iengo, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder in childhood with high prevalence in syndromic subjects with craniofacial malformations. Proteus Syndrome (PS) is a rare hamartoneoplastic disorder associated with disproportionate and asymmetric overgrowth of body parts and hypertrophy or malformation of lymphatic tissues, such as palatine tonsils. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with Proteus Syndrome (PS) and suffering from OSAS due to asymmetric palatine tonsillar hypertrophy, treated with partial resection of left tonsil. To avoid the risk of a general anesthesia and remove only the obstructive portion of the palatine tonsil bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy (RFITT) under local anesthesia was performed. Recovery of the obstructive respiratory disease was obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of partial tonsillar resection performed in a patient with PS suffering from OSAS under local anesthesia. PMID:26199778

  18. 48 CFR 3033.102-90 - Protests on classified solicitations (OSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protests on classified... PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Protests 3033.102-90 Protests on classified solicitations (OSA). To ensure that classified information is protected and appropriate security measures are coordinated as...

  19. 48 CFR 3033.102-90 - Protests on classified solicitations (OSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Protests on classified... PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Protests 3033.102-90 Protests on classified solicitations (OSA). To ensure that classified information is protected and appropriate security measures are coordinated as...

  20. 48 CFR 3033.102-90 - Protests on classified solicitations (OSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protests on classified... PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Protests 3033.102-90 Protests on classified solicitations (OSA). To ensure that classified information is protected and appropriate security measures are coordinated as...

  1. Is There a Relationship Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Hearing Loss?

    PubMed

    Ekin, Selami; Turan, Mahfuz; Arısoy, Ahmet; Gunbatar, Hulya; Sunnetcioglu, Aysel; Asker, Selvi; Yıldız, Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder with an estimated prevalence in the general population of 2-5%. Its main clinical features are loud snoring and breathing stoppage during sleep. Ischemia could be a consequence of noise-induced hearing loss because cochlear oxygen tension is reduced during and after noise exposure. In this study, we evaluated auditory function in patients affected by OSA and simple snoring. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 66 participants (male to female ratio: 40:26) were included in the study, of which 21 were in the control group, 18 were in the simple snoring group, and 27 were in the OSA patient group. Polysomnography and audiometric examination were performed in all participants. RESULTS The mean ages of the participants in the control, simple snoring, and OSA groups were 39.14±9.9, 37.28±8.2, and 41.56±8.99 years, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among groups regarding age or sex; however, there were statistically significant differences among groups in body mass index, apnea-hypopnea index scores, mean saturation, and duration under 90% saturation. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between the patient group and the control and simple snoring groups concerning the mean saturation, duration under 90% saturation, and the extended high frequency of hearing. CONCLUSIONS These data show that snoring may cause hearing loss at extended high frequencies. PMID:27588548

  2. OSAS Surgery and Postoperative Discomfort: Phase I Surgery versus Phase II Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Giulio; Pelo, Sandro; Foresta, Enrico; Boniello, Roberto; Romandini, Mario; Cervelli, Daniele; Azzuni, Camillo; Marianetti, Tito Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study aims to investigate the reasons that discourage the patients affected by OSAS to undergo orthognathic surgery and compares the postoperative discomfort of phase I (soft tissue surgery) and phase II (orthognathic surgery) procedures for treatment of OSAS. Material and Methods. A pool of 46 patients affected by OSAS was divided into two groups: “surgery patients” who accepted surgical treatments of their condition and “no surgery patients” who refused surgical procedures. The “surgery patients” group was further subdivided into two arms: patients who accepted phase I procedures (IP) and those who accepted phase II (IIP). To better understand the motivations behind the refusal of II phase procedures, we asked the patients belonging to both the IP group and “no surgery” group to indicate the main reason that influenced their decision to avoid II phase procedures. We also monitored and compared five parameters of postoperative discomfort: pain, painkiller assumption, length of hospitalization, foreign body sensation, and diet assumption following IP and IIP procedures. Results. The main reason to avoid IIP procedures was the concern of a more severe postoperative discomfort. Comparison of the postoperative discomfort following IP versus IIP procedures showed that the former scored worse in 4 out of 5 parameters analyzed. Conclusion. IIP procedures produce less postoperative discomfort. IIP procedures, namely, orthognathic surgery, should be the first choice intervention in patients affected by OSAS and dentoskeletal malformation. PMID:25695081

  3. A novel integrated, compact OSA and ASE source for increased fober optic sensing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Linda; Eigen, Daryl J.; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo

    2003-11-01

    Typical fiber Bragg sensing systems, in the 1500nm to 1600nm wavelength range, use gratings spaced approximately 5nm apart. This large spacing is preferred since optical power illuminating the gratings is limited and monitoring systems often have low performance and hence have difficulty in differentiating between closely spaced gratings. In this paper, we present a high power ASE source in combination with an extremely high performance Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA), that allows sensing gratings to be closely spaced so many sensing elements can be monitored while maintaining very good wavelength and power detection. The integrated unit can be provided on a PCI card, in a box or as an OEM module to enable a robust, handheld unit. The OSA is built around proprietary Compliant Micro Electro Mechanical (CMEMs) tunable filters, primarily developed for very densely populated Telecommunications applications. The OSA is wavelength calibrated and can be matched to the ASE source to compensate for any spectral power characteristic of the source. This integrated OSA and ASE source will allow the sensing industry to increase grating array sizes while maintaining low cost.

  4. Blood pressure effects of CPAP in nonresistant and resistant hypertension associated with OSA: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a rather common chronic disorder, associated with increased prevalence of hypertension. The pathophysiological mechanisms for hypertension in OSA are at least in part linked to intermittent hypoxia developed during nightly hypopneas and apneas. Hypoxemia stimulates sympathetic overactivity, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. However, it appears that intermittent hypoxemia is not the only factor in the development of hypertension in OSA. Supplemental oxygen therapy that improved oxyhemoglobin saturation to similar levels to those achieved with CPAP treatment did not reduce BP. In this scenario, it could be proposed that hypoxemia acts as a trigger of sympathetic overdrive, which when set is the main factor in the development of hypertension in OSA. This review appraises evidence provided by randomized controlled trials on the BP-lowering effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA patients with nonresistant and resistant hypertension. It suggests that CPAP treatment is more effective in treating resistant hypertension than nonresistant hypertension. A possible explanation is that sympathetic overactivity and altered vascular reactivity in OSA could be more severe in resistant hypertension than in nonresistant hypertension. An intricate interaction among compliance, adherence, and their interaction with demographic characteristics, genetic factors, and comorbidities of the population included might explain the differences found between trials on their influence over the antihypertensive effectiveness of CPAP. Further long-term trials are needed in hypertensive OSA patients to assess whether CPAP treatment in OSA patients consistently restores physiological nocturnal BP fall and adjusts resting and circadian heart rate. PMID:27159803

  5. The USC-OSA Student Chapter: goals and benefits for the optics community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Varela, A. I.; Gargallo, Ana; González Núñez, Héctor; Delgado-García, Tamara; Almaguer-Gómez, Citlalli; Cambronero-López, F.; Flores-Arias, M. T.

    2014-07-01

    The USC-OSA Student Chapter has been constituted in March 2013 by members of the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) in Spain and sponsored by The Optical Society of America (OSA). It is formed by five graduate and one undergraduate students with the common interest in Optics and Photonics research and a professor of the USC is also involved as a faculty advisor. We decided to start this group with the aim of involving kids, precollege and undergraduate students in the world of Optics and Photonics. The activities that the USC-OSA Student Chapter members intend to realize are mainly educational tasks for the spreading of knowledge in Photonics by means of basic experiments, demonstrations and lectures by leading researchers and teachers. Most of the needed resources to accomplish these activities are provided by the OSA, such as educational posters and a portable kit for demonstrating Optics to students. At this moment the USC-OSA Student Chapter is carrying out several activities, as educational journeys at the Santiago de Compostela University Hospital Complex (CHUS), where hospitalized children can approach to Optics through some simple experiments and games. A teaching program is also being organized in collaboration with Galician secondary schools in order to show students the importance and uses of Optics and Photonics and to arouse their interest in this field, as well as encouraging them to develop their scientific thinking. Another activity will take place in November during the Science Week, which includes a program of lectures targeted to undergraduate students and an exposition of several demonstrations

  6. Expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty for the treatment of OSA: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Kenny P; Pang, Edward B; Win, Ma Thin Mar; Pang, Kathleen A; Woodson, B Tucker

    2016-09-01

    This study seeks to determine the success rates of the expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty and its variants on the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two independent searches of MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews to identify publications relevant to OSA and expansion pharyngoplasty. All relevant studies published before 31 March 2015 were included. Five studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The numbers of patients in each paper ranged from 10 to 85 (total = 155), and mean age ranged from 8 to 56 years. Substantial and consistent improvement in PSG outcomes were observed post-expansion pharyngoplasty patients, with or without multilevel surgery groups. The results showed that the expansion pharyngoplasty technique has significantly lower AHI than control group [Standardised mean difference -7.32, 95 %CI (-11.11, -3.52), p = 0.0002]; however, substantial heterogeneity between these studies were observed. The mean pre-operative AHI (in the five papers) improved from 40.0 ± 12.6 to 8.3 ± 5.2 post-operatively. The overall pro-rated pooled success rate for all the patients was 86.3 %. The expansion pharyngoplasty is effective in the management of patients with OSA. PMID:26541714

  7. Orbital Signature Analyzer (OSA): A spacecraft health/safety monitoring and analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Steven; Degeorges, Charles; Bush, Joy; Shendock, Robert; Mandl, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Fixed or static limit sensing is employed in control centers to ensure that spacecraft parameters remain within a nominal range. However, many critical parameters, such as power system telemetry, are time-varying and, as such, their 'nominal' range is necessarily time-varying as well. Predicted data, manual limits checking, and widened limit-checking ranges are often employed in an attempt to monitor these parameters without generating excessive limits violations. Generating predicted data and manual limits checking are both resource intensive, while broadening limit ranges for time-varying parameters is clearly inadequate to detect all but catastrophic problems. OSA provides a low-cost solution by using analytically selected data as a reference upon which to base its limits. These limits are always defined relative to the time-varying reference data, rather than as fixed upper and lower limits. In effect, OSA provides individual limits tailored to each value throughout all the data. A side benefit of using relative limits is that they automatically adjust to new reference data. In addition, OSA provides a wealth of analytical by-products in its execution.

  8. Valuation of OSA process and folic acid addition as excess sludge minimization alternatives applied in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Martins, C L; Velho, V F; Ramos, S R A; Pires, A S C D; Duarte, E C N F A; Costa, R H R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA)-process and the folic acid addition applied in the activated sludge process to reduce the excess sludge production. The study was monitored during two distinct periods: activated sludge system with OSA-process, and activated sludge system with folic acid addition. The observed sludge yields (Yobs) were 0.30 and 0.08 kgTSS kg(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), control phase and OSA-process (period 1); 0.33 and 0.18 kgTSS kg(-1) COD, control phase and folic acid addition (period 2). The Yobs decreased by 73 and 45% in phases with the OSA-process and folic acid addition, respectively, compared with the control phases. The sludge minimization alternatives result in a decrease in excess sludge production, without negatively affecting the performance of the effluent treatment. PMID:26901714

  9. A 3-week dietary safety study of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch in neonatal farm piglets.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Brinda; Thorsrud, Bjorn A; Brorby, Gregory P; Ferguson, Heather E

    2014-10-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch functions as both an emulsifier and emulsion stabilizer in foods, and is intended for use in infant formula, follow-on formula, and formulae for special medical purposes. These formulae predominantly include extensively hydrolyzed protein or free amino acids, rather than intact protein, which otherwise would provide emulsifying functionality. The study objectives were to evaluate (1) the safety of OSA-modified starch after three weeks of administration to neonatal farm piglets, beginning 2 days after birth and (2) the impact of OSA-modified starch on piglet growth. OSA-modified starch was added to formula at concentrations of 2, 4, and 20 g/L. The vehicle control, low-dose, and mid-dose diets were supplemented with Amioca™ Powder to balance the nutritional profiles of all formulations. There were no test article-related effects of any diet containing OSA-modified starch on piglet growth and development (clinical observations, body weight, feed consumption), or clinical pathology parameters (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis). In addition, there were no adverse effects at terminal necropsy (macro- and microscopic pathology evaluations). Therefore, dietary exposure to OSA-modified starch at concentrations up to 20 g/L was well tolerated by neonatal farm piglets and did not result in adverse health effects or impact piglet growth. PMID:25019245

  10. Recognition of upper airway and surrounding structures at MRI in pediatric PCOS and OSAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, J. K.; Odhner, D.; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is common in obese children with risk being 4.5 fold compared to normal control subjects. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has recently been shown to be associated with OSAS that may further lead to significant cardiovascular and neuro-cognitive deficits. We are investigating image-based biomarkers to understand the architectural and dynamic changes in the upper airway and the surrounding hard and soft tissue structures via MRI in obese teenage children to study OSAS. At the previous SPIE conferences, we presented methods underlying Fuzzy Object Models (FOMs) for Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) based on CT images of the thorax and the abdomen. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the AAR approach is applicable to a different body region and image modality combination, namely in the study of upper airway structures via MRI. FOMs were built hierarchically, the smaller sub-objects forming the offspring of larger parent objects. FOMs encode the uncertainty and variability present in the form and relationships among the objects over a study population. Totally 11 basic objects (17 including composite) were modeled. Automatic recognition for the best pose of FOMs in a given image was implemented by using four methods - a one-shot method that does not require search, another three searching methods that include Fisher Linear Discriminate (FLD), a b-scale energy optimization strategy, and optimum threshold recognition method. In all, 30 multi-fold cross validation experiments based on 15 patient MRI data sets were carried out to assess the accuracy of recognition. The results indicate that the objects can be recognized with an average location error of less than 5 mm or 2-3 voxels. Then the iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC) algorithm was adopted for delineation of the target organs based on the recognized results. The delineation results showed an overall FP and TP volume fraction of 0.02 and 0.93.

  11. Brain stem activity changes associated with restored sympathetic drive following CPAP treatment in OSA subjects: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Lundblad, Linda C; Fatouleh, Rania H; McKenzie, David K; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significantly elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to hypertension and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Although little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoexcitation, we have recently shown that the elevated MSNA in OSA is associated with altered neural processing in various brain stem sites, including the dorsolateral pons, rostral ventrolateral medulla, medullary raphe, and midbrain. Given the risk associated with elevated MSNA, we aimed to determine if treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would reduce the elevated MSNA and reverse the brain stem functional changes associated with the elevated MSNA. We performed concurrent recordings of MSNA and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity of the brain stem, using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, in 15 controls and 13 subjects with OSA, before and after 6 mo CPAP treatment. As expected, 6 mo of CPAP treatment significantly reduced MSNA in subjects with OSA, from 54 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 bursts/min and from 77 ± 7 to 36 ± 3 bursts/100 heart beats. Importantly, we found that MSNA-coupled changes in BOLD signal intensity within the dorsolateral pons, medullary raphe, and rostral ventrolateral medulla returned to control levels. That is, CPAP treatment completely reversed brain stem functional changes associated with elevated MSNA in untreated OSA subjects. These data highlight the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in reducing one of the most significant health issues associated with OSA, that is, elevated MSNA and its associated elevated morbidity. PMID:25995345

  12. Brain stem activity changes associated with restored sympathetic drive following CPAP treatment in OSA subjects: a longitudinal investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Linda C.; Fatouleh, Rania H.; McKenzie, David K.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significantly elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to hypertension and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Although little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoexcitation, we have recently shown that the elevated MSNA in OSA is associated with altered neural processing in various brain stem sites, including the dorsolateral pons, rostral ventrolateral medulla, medullary raphe, and midbrain. Given the risk associated with elevated MSNA, we aimed to determine if treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would reduce the elevated MSNA and reverse the brain stem functional changes associated with the elevated MSNA. We performed concurrent recordings of MSNA and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity of the brain stem, using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, in 15 controls and 13 subjects with OSA, before and after 6 mo CPAP treatment. As expected, 6 mo of CPAP treatment significantly reduced MSNA in subjects with OSA, from 54 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 bursts/min and from 77 ± 7 to 36 ± 3 bursts/100 heart beats. Importantly, we found that MSNA-coupled changes in BOLD signal intensity within the dorsolateral pons, medullary raphe, and rostral ventrolateral medulla returned to control levels. That is, CPAP treatment completely reversed brain stem functional changes associated with elevated MSNA in untreated OSA subjects. These data highlight the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in reducing one of the most significant health issues associated with OSA, that is, elevated MSNA and its associated elevated morbidity. PMID:25995345

  13. Characterization of Antibiotic-Loaded Alginate-Osa Starch Microbeads Produced by Ionotropic Pregelation

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Gizele Cardoso; Calado, Verônica Maria Araújo; Rossi, Alexandre Malta; da Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena Miguez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the penicillin-loaded microbeads composed of alginate and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch prepared by ionotropic pregelation with calcium chloride and to evaluate their in vitro drug delivery profile. The beads were characterized by size, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential, swelling behavior, and degree of erosion. Also, the possible interaction between penicillin and biopolymers was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The SEM micrograph results indicated a homogeneous drug distribution in the matrix. Also, based on thermal analyses (TGA/DSC), interactions were detected between microbead components. Although FTIR spectra of penicillin-loaded microbeads did not reveal the formation of new chemical entities, they confirmed the chemical drug stability. XRD patterns showed that the incorporated crystalline structure of penicillin did not significantly alter the primarily amorphous polymeric network. In addition, the results confirmed a prolonged penicillin delivery system profile. These results imply that alginate and OSA starch beads can be used as a suitable controlled-release carrier for penicillin. PMID:23862146

  14. Liver Steatosis and Fibrosis in OSA patients After Long-term CPAP Treatment: A Preliminary Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Buttacavoli, Maria; Gruttad'Auria, Claudia I; Olivo, Mirko; Virdone, Roberto; Castrogiovanni, Alessandra; Mazzuca, Emilia; Marotta, Anna Maria; Marrone, Oreste; Madonia, Salvatore; Bonsignore, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    In cases of morbid obesity, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was associated with biopsy-proven liver damage. The role of non-invasive techniques to monitor liver changes during OSA treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is unknown. We used non-invasive ultrasound techniques to assess liver steatosis and fibrosis in severe OSA patients at diagnosis and during long-term CPAP treatment. Fifteen consecutive patients with severe OSA (apnea hypopnea index 52.5 ± 19.1/h) were studied by liver ultrasound and elastography (Fibroscan) at 6-mo (n = 3) or 1-y (n = 12) follow-up. Mean age was 49.3 ± 11.9 y, body mass index (BMI) was 35.4 ± 6.4 kg/m(2). Adherence to CPAP was ≥5 h/night. At baseline, most patients had severe liver steatosis independent of BMI; at follow-up, liver steatosis was not statistically different, but a relationship between severity of steatosis and BMI became apparent (Spearman's rho: 0.53, p = 0.03). Significant fibrosis as assessed by Fibroscan was absent at diagnosis or follow-up (failure or unreliable measurements in four markedly obese patients). Therefore, ultrasound liver assessment is feasible in most OSA patients, and CPAP treatment may positively affect liver steatosis. PMID:26385053

  15. Oryza sativa H+-ATPase (OSA) is Involved in the Regulation of Dumbbell-Shaped Guard Cells of Rice.

    PubMed

    Toda, Yosuke; Wang, Yin; Takahashi, Akira; Kawai, Yuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamaji, Naoki; Feng Ma, Jian; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-06-01

    The stomatal apparatus consists of a pair of guard cells and regulates gas exchange between the leaf and atmosphere. In guard cells, blue light (BL) activates H(+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane through the phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine, mediating stomatal opening. Although this regulation is thought to be widely adopted among kidney-shaped guard cells in dicots, the molecular basis underlying that of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocots remains unclear. Here, we show that H(+)-ATPases are involved in the regulation of dumbbell-shaped guard cells. Stomatal opening of rice was promoted by the H(+)-ATPase activator fusicoccin and by BL, and the latter was suppressed by the H(+)-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Using H(+)-ATPase antibodies, we showed the presence of phosphoregulation of the penultimate threonine in Oryza sativa H(+)-ATPases (OSAs) and localization of OSAs in the plasma membrane of guard cells. Interestingly, we identified one H(+)-ATPase isoform, OSA7, that is preferentially expressed among the OSA genes in guard cells, and found that loss of function of OSA7 resulted in partial insensitivity to BL. We conclude that H(+)-ATPase is involved in BL-induced stomatal opening of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocotyledon species. PMID:27048369

  16. Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abma, Inger L; van der Wees, Philip J; Veer, Vik; Westert, Gert P; Rovers, Maroeska

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review summarizes the evidence regarding the quality of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) validated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We performed a systematic literature search of all PROMs validated in patients with OSA, and found 22 measures meeting our inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was assessed using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments (COSMIN) checklist. The results showed that most of the measurement properties of the PROMs were not, or not adequately, assessed. For many identified PROMs there was no involvement of patients with OSA during their development or before the PROM was tested in patients with OSA. Positive exceptions and the best current candidates for assessing health status in patients with OSA are the sleep apnea quality of life index (SAQLI), Maugeri obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (MOSAS) questionnaire, Quebec sleep questionnaire (QSQ) and the obstructive sleep apnea patient-oriented severity index (OSAPOSI). Even though there is not enough evidence to fully judge the quality of these PROMs as outcome measure, when interpreted with caution, they have the potential to add value to clinical research and clinical practice in evaluating aspects of health status that are important to patients. PMID:26433776

  17. Oryza sativa H+-ATPase (OSA) is Involved in the Regulation of Dumbbell-Shaped Guard Cells of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Yosuke; Wang, Yin; Takahashi, Akira; Kawai, Yuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamaji, Naoki; Feng Ma, Jian; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    The stomatal apparatus consists of a pair of guard cells and regulates gas exchange between the leaf and atmosphere. In guard cells, blue light (BL) activates H+-ATPase in the plasma membrane through the phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine, mediating stomatal opening. Although this regulation is thought to be widely adopted among kidney-shaped guard cells in dicots, the molecular basis underlying that of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocots remains unclear. Here, we show that H+-ATPases are involved in the regulation of dumbbell-shaped guard cells. Stomatal opening of rice was promoted by the H+-ATPase activator fusicoccin and by BL, and the latter was suppressed by the H+-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Using H+-ATPase antibodies, we showed the presence of phosphoregulation of the penultimate threonine in Oryza sativa H+-ATPases (OSAs) and localization of OSAs in the plasma membrane of guard cells. Interestingly, we identified one H+-ATPase isoform, OSA7, that is preferentially expressed among the OSA genes in guard cells, and found that loss of function of OSA7 resulted in partial insensitivity to BL. We conclude that H+-ATPase is involved in BL-induced stomatal opening of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocotyledon species. PMID:27048369

  18. The Osa-containing SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates stem cell commitment in the adult Drosophila intestine

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiankun; Lin, Xinhua; Hou, Steven X.

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of stem cells versus differentiated progeny is well balanced to maintain tissue homeostasis, which in turn depends on the balance of the different signaling pathways involved in stem cell self-renewal versus lineage-specific differentiation. In a screen for genes that regulate cell lineage determination in the posterior midgut, we identified that the Osa-containing SWI/SNF (Brahma) chromatin-remodeling complex regulates Drosophila midgut homeostasis. Mutations in subunits of the Osa-containing complex result in intestinal stem cell (ISC) expansion as well as enteroendocrine (EE) cell reduction. We further demonstrated that Osa regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation into enterocytes by elaborating Notch signaling, and ISC commitment to differentiation into EE cells by regulating the expression of Asense, an EE cell fate determinant. Our data uncover a unique mechanism whereby the commitment of stem cells to discrete lineages is coordinately regulated by chromatin-remodeling factors. PMID:23942514

  19. Kalispel Resident Fish Project, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd

    2006-07-01

    In 2005 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) monitored its current enhancement projects for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi). Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) enhancement projects were also monitored. Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in East River and several of its tributaries.

  20. Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Years 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Virginia L. Finley

    2010-01-25

    Contained in the following report are data for radioactivity in the environment collected and analyzed by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's Princeton Environmental, Analytical, and Radiological Laboratory (PEARL). The PEARL is located on-site and is certified for analyzing radiological and non-radiological parameters through the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection's Laboratory Certification Program, Certification Number 12471. Non-radiological surface and ground water samples are analyzed by NJDEP certified subcontractor laboratories - QC, Inc. and Accutest Laboratory. To the best of our knowledge, these data, as contained in the "Annual Site Environmental Report for 2005 and 2006," are documented and certified to be correct.

  1. Patterns of stepping cadence in the 2005-2006 NHANES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies of adult walking behavior have consistently found that a cadence of 100 steps/min is a reasonable threshold for moderate intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine cadence patterns in free-living adults, and in particular, time spent at increasing cadence increments, in...

  2. 2005-2006 MINERAL PROCESSING AND MINING NATIONAL PRIORITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US-EPA Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) has implemented a national initiative for the mineral processing and mining industry. As part of the initiative, US-EPA Region 4 inspected and conducted sampling at nine of these facilities during this reporting pe...

  3. Parabolic Trough VSHOT Optical Characterization in 2005-2006 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelin, T.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation regarding parabolic trough VSHOT optical characterization describes trough deployment and operation phases including: development, manufacture/installation, and maintenance/operation.

  4. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie

    2008-11-10

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2005 through March 2006 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 22095. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2005 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  5. Delaware Education State Report Card, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report, submitted to the U.S. Department of Education, contains summary details of Delaware students' growth in the areas of reading, mathematics, writing, science and social studies. The results reported herein are part of a long-term effort to gather data on Delaware students' educational progress and use the data to inform decisions about…

  6. Arkansas Department of Education Home School Report, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents data on home schooling in the state of Arkansas that covers: students withdrawn from home school; home school student count by county, district, and grade level; and home school enrollments by grade and gender. The report contains the texts of the Arkansas Code Annotated Section 6-15-501 through Section 6-15-508 Home School…

  7. Guide to NYC Small High Schools, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Visions for Public Schools, 2005

    2005-01-01

    New Visions for Public Schools has put together "The New York City Guide to Small High Schools" to describe new opportunities in the public high school system: over 200 small secondary schools created over the last five years. These small schools are part of the Department of Education's efforts to create more choices for thousands of students…

  8. Appeal Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    APPEAL (Asia Pacific Programme of Education for All) Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) was initiated in May 1997 at the Technical Working Group Meeting organized by APPEAL in cooperation with the Indian Institute of Education (IIE) to provide technical support and assistance to the work of APPEAL among the Member States. This booklet is a…

  9. Illinois Community College Board Biennial Report, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB), as the state coordinating board for community colleges, is to administer the Public Community College Act in a manner that maximizes the ability of the community colleges to serve their communities, promotes cooperation within the system, and accommodates those State of Illinois…

  10. New Mexico Student Dropout Report, 2005-2006. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medrano, Marlene; Borgrink, Henry

    2007-01-01

    The New Mexico Dropout Report is published annually to provide information for educators, parents, legislators, and other interested parties on the status of education in New Mexico. This report describes the extent and nature of the school dropout dilemma in the state, providing information on the numbers and percentages of dropouts by grade,…

  11. MCPS Special Education at a Glance 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "MCPS Special Education at a Glance" is a direct result of the work of the Special Education Continuous Improvement Team (SECIT), an advisory group to the Montgomery County Public Schools Board of Education Special Education Ad Hoc Subcommittee. During the 2004-2005 school year, the SECIT developed, in collaboration with special…

  12. Multiwavelength observations of Markarian 421 in 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, D.; Acciari, V. A.; Bradury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Smith, A. W.; Hays, E.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2005 September, the Whipple 10 m Gamma-ray Telescope has been operated primarily as a blazar monitor. The five northern hemisphere blazars that have already been detected at the Whipple Observatory, Markarian 421 (Mrk 421), H1426+428, Mrk 501, 1ES 1959+650, and 1ES 2344+514, are monitored routinely each night that they are visible. We report on the Mrk 421 observations taken from 2005 November to 2006 June in the gamma-ray, X-ray, optical, and radio bands. During this time, Mrk 421 was found to be variable at all wavelengths probed. Both the variability and the correlations among different energy regimes are studied in detail here. A tentative correlation, with large spread, was measured between the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, while no clear correlation was evident among the other energy bands. In addition to this, the well-sampled spectral energy distribution of Mrk 421 (1101+384) is presented for three different activity levels. The observations of the other blazar targets will be reported separately.

  13. Soil Water Trends During the 2005 - 2006 Drought in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water depletion is an early consequence of a meteorological drought, with the latter defined as a precipitation deficit lasting a few months to several years. Soil water in the upper soil profile (approximately first meter) is limited and highly variable because of its rapid response to precipi...

  14. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DuCharme, Lynn

    2006-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through many of these areas if cost-effective recovery efforts are to be implemented. In order to adequately address the issues, other segments of society and other (non-BPA) funding sources must be incorporated into the solution. As stated in the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (section 7.7), ''Comprehensive watershed management should enhance and expedite implementation of actions by clearly identifying gaps in programs and knowledge, by striving over time to resolve conflicts, and by keying on activities that address priorities''. A watershed coordinator helps to initiate and facilitate efforts for addressing the issues mentioned above and pulling together a plan for mitigation. Local support is essential before local governments and individual citizens are going to allow government initiatives to be implemented.

  15. Impact of CPAP on Activity Patterns and Diet in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

    PubMed Central

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L.; Drescher, Amy A.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Simon, Richard D.; Smith, Terry W.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Methods: Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ≥ 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Results: Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m2, and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p < 0.05). The BMI was higher among women in both CPAP and Sham groups. However, compared to women, men had higher AHI only in the CPAP group (50 vs. 34). Similarly, the arousal index was higher among men in CPAP group. Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p < 0.05), there also were no changes in activity patterns. Conclusion

  16. Promoter methylation regulates the abundance of osa-miR393a in contrasting rice genotypes under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Dey, Narottam; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important molecules that regulate gene expression under salinity stress. Despite their evolutionary conservation, these regulatory elements have been shown to behave differently in different plant species under a particular environmental stress. In this study, we investigated the behavior of salt responsive osa-miR393a and its target gene (TIR1, LOC_Os05g05800) in salt-tolerant (FL478) and salt-sensitive (IR29) rice genotypes. It was found that the mature and precursor sequences of osa-miR393a as well as its cleavage site in TIR1 were conserved among salt tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Promoters of different salt-responsive miRNAs were also found to be less variable between salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible genotypes. Analysis of gene expression, promoter methylation, and cis-element abundance showed that osa-miR393a behaves differently in FL478 and IR29. Salt stress altered the expression pattern of osa-miR393a-TIR1 module in a time-dependent manner in the roots and shoots of two genotypes. Promoter methylation of this regulatory module was also altered at different time points under salt stress. Expression analysis in two genotypes indicated the overall down-regulation of osa-miR393a and up-regulation of TIR1 in FL478 and their reciprocal regulation in IR29. The expression results were complemented by the differential promoter methylation and cis-element abundance of this regulatory module. Together, the results of transcript abundance and promoter methylation of osa-miR393a-TIR1 module signified the association between these two processes which is reported for the first time in plants to the best of our knowledge. PMID:26319531

  17. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Philip; Asner, Gregory; Dahlin, Kyla; Anderson, Christopher; Knapp, David; Martin, Roberta; Mascaro, Joseph; Chazdon, Robin; Cole, Rebecca; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Malavassi, Edgar; Vilchez-Alvarado, Braulio; Townsend, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD) varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH) and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH) reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors contribute to ACD

  18. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip; Asner, Gregory; Dahlin, Kyla; Anderson, Christopher; Knapp, David; Martin, Roberta; Mascaro, Joseph; Chazdon, Robin; Cole, Rebecca; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Malavassi, Edgar; Vilchez-Alvarado, Braulio; Townsend, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD) varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH) and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH) reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors contribute to ACD

  19. Improved stability and controlled release of CLA with spray-dried microcapsules of OSA-modified starch and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    He, Huizi; Hong, Yan; Gu, Zhengbiao; Liu, Guodong; Cheng, Li; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-08-20

    The objective of this investigation was to improve the stability of CLA and to allow for its controlled release by encapsulating it with combinations of octenyl-succinic anhydride (OSA) starch and xanthan gum (XG) in three ratios (OSA/XG: 60/1, 80/1, and 100/1, w/w). The wall material was examined using FTIR and TGA. The microcapsules were characterized by laser particle size analysis (LPS) and SEM. Oxidation of the microcapsules was monitored by headspace method. The results revealed that microcapsules created with an OSA/XG ratio of 60/1 provided superior protection to CLA against oxidation. When CLA-microcapsules were subjected to conditions simulating those in the human gastrointestinal system, 12.1%-50.1% of the CLA was released. CLA encapsulation in spray-dried microcapsules of OSA/XG appears to be an effective technique that provides good protection against oxidation and could be useful in the targeted delivery of functional lipids or other bioactive components to the small intestine. PMID:27178930

  20. Phenolic compounds of 'Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa' olive oils along early ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Peres, Fátima; Martins, Luisa L; Mourato, Miguel; Vitorino, Conceição; Antunes, Paulo; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the lipophilic and hydrophilic phenol composition of virgin olive oils (VOO) obtained from olives from two of the most important Portuguese cultivars ('Galega Vulgar' and 'Cobrançosa'), harvested at different ripening stages and under two irrigation schemes (rain fed and irrigated), was evaluated. Phenolic alcohols (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), phenolic acids and derivatives and flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin), as well as tocopherols were quantified. Lipophilic (>300mgkg(-1)) and hydrophilic phenols (>600mgkg(-1)) were present in high contents in both VOO, for early ripening stages. Gamma-tocopherol content is higher in 'Galega Vulgar' VOO. Total phenols showed a decrease between ripening index 2.5 and 3.5. The dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), also known as oleacein, was the major phenolic compound identified in both oils. The concentration of free hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in both VOO is very low while their esterified derivatives, like 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, are much more abundant. PMID:27283606

  1. Topographic Distributions of Emergent Trees in Tropical Forests of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzotti, C.; Asner, G. P.; Taylor, P.; Cole, R. J.; Osborne, B. B.; Cleveland, C. C.; Porder, S.; Townsend, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical rainforests are reservoirs of terrestrial carbon and biodiversity. Large and often emergent trees store disproportionately large amounts of aboveground carbon and greatly influence the structure and functioning of tropical rainforests. Despite their importance, controls on the abundance and distribution of emergent trees are largely unknown across tropical landscapes. Conventional field approaches are limited in their ability to characterize patterns in emergent trees across vast landscapes with varying environmental conditions and floristic composition. Here we used a high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor, aboard the Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (CAO-AToMS), to examine the abundance and distribution of tall emergent tree canopies (ETC) relative to surrounding tree canopies (STC), across the Osa Peninsula, a geologically and topographically diverse region of Costa Rica. The abundance of ETC was clearly influenced by fine-scale topographic variation, with distribution patterns that held across a variety of geologic substrates. Specifically, the density of ETC was much greater on lower slopes and in valleys, compared to upper slopes and ridges. Furthermore, using the CAO high-fidelity imaging spectrometer, ETC had a different spectral signature than that of the STC. Most notably, ETC had lower foliar N than STC, which was verified with an independent field survey of canopy leaf chemistry. The underlying mechanisms to explain the topographic-dependence of ETCs and linkages to canopy N are unknown, and remain an important area of research.

  2. Program for catenary-pantograph analysis, PrOSA statement of methods and validation according EN 50318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finner, Lars; Poetsch, Gero; Sarnes, Bernhard; Kolbe, Michael

    2015-03-01

    DB Systemtechnik is a high-performing, customer-driven service provider that, as well as authoritatively serving the Deutsche Bahn Group by dint of its specialist knowledge is also increasingly active on the global railway market. Development and testing of pantograph models and catenary systems have been part of the company's essential activity fields from the beginning. Therefore, an efficient and high-performing simulation tool is indispensable. That is why DB Systemtechnik spent high efforts to develop the program PrOSA in cooperation with the Heinz-Nixdorf-Institut (HNI) of the university Paderborn to simulate the interaction of pantograph and catenary. This article gives an overview of the most relevant properties of PrOSA. Furthermore, it is described how the benchmark requirements were implemented and processed.

  3. Protective Effect of Long-Term CPAP Therapy on Cognitive Performance in Elderly Patients with Severe OSA: The PROOF Study

    PubMed Central

    Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Dauphinot, Virginie; Saint Martin, Magali; Tardy, Magali; Gonthier, Régis; Barthelemy, Jean Claude; Roche, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) leads to a deterioration in cognitive functions, with regard to memory and executive functions. However, few studies have investigated the impact of treatment on these cognitive functions in elderly subjects. Methods: The study was conducted in a large cohort of subjects aged 65 years or older (the PROOF cohort). Subjects were not diagnosed or treated for OSA. Subjects underwent a polygraphic recording. Cognitive performance was assessed in all OSA subjects at baseline and 10 years later, whether or not they were receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Results: A group of 126 patients were analyzed. Only 26% of them were treated, with therapy initiated at the discretion of the primary care physician. Among treated subjects, self-reported compliance with therapy was good (> 6 h/night on average), and 66% of them reported an improvement in their quality of life. Patients receiving CPAP treatment had a higher apneahypopnea index (p = 0.006), a higher oxygen desaturation index (p < 0.001), and experienced more pronounced daytime repercussions (p = 0.004). These patients showed a statistically significant improvement in mental agility (similarities test; p < 0.0001) and memory performance (Grober and Buschke delayed free recall; p = 0.02). Conclusion: CPAP treatment is associated with the maintenance of memory performance over time. Citation: Crawford-Achour E, Dauphinot V, Saint Martin M, Tardy M, Gonthier R, Barthelemy JC, Roche F. Protective effect of long-term CPAP therapy on cognitive performance in elderly patients with severe OSA: the PROOF study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):519–524. PMID:25700873

  4. Breath-by-breath detection of apneic events for OSA severity estimation using non-contact audio recordings.

    PubMed

    Rosenwein, T; Dafna, E; Tarasiuk, A; Zigel, Y

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder, characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway obstructions during sleep. We hypothesize that breath-by-breath audio analysis of the respiratory cycle (i.e., inspiration and expiration phases) during sleep can reliably estimate the apnea hypopnea index (AHI), a measure of OSA severity. The AHI is calculated as the average number of apnea (A)/hypopnea (H) events per hour of sleep. Audio signals recordings of 186 adults referred to OSA diagnosis were acquired in-laboratory and at-home conditions during polysomnography and WatchPat study, respectively. A/H events were automatically segmented and classified using a binary random forest classifier. Total accuracy rate of 86.3% and an agreement of κ=42.98% were achieved in A/H event detection. Correlation of r=0.87 (r=0.74), diagnostic agreement of 76% (81.7%), and average absolute difference AHI error of 7.4 (7.8) (events/hour) were achieved in in-laboratory (at-home) conditions, respectively. Here we provide evidence that A/H events can be reliably detected at their exact time locations during sleep using non-contact audio approach. This study highlights the potential of this approach to reliably evaluate AHI in at home conditions. PMID:26738073

  5. Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure Devices (Provent) for OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Muhammad; Certal, Victor; Nigam, Gaurav; Abdullatif, Jose; Zaghi, Soroush; Kushida, Clete A; Camacho, Macario

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the effectiveness of nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (nasal EPAP) devices or Provent as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods. PubMed and six other databases were searched through November 15, 2015, without language limitations. Results. Eighteen studies (920 patients) were included. Pre- and post-nasal EPAP means ± standard deviations (M ± SD) for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in 345 patients decreased from 27.32 ± 22.24 to 12.78 ± 16.89 events/hr (relative reduction = 53.2%). Random effects modeling mean difference (MD) was -14.78 events/hr [95% CI -19.12, -10.45], p value < 0.00001. Oxygen desaturation index (ODI) in 247 patients decreased from 21.2 ± 19.3 to 12.4 ± 14.1 events/hr (relative reduction = 41.5%, p value < 0.00001). Lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) M ± SD improved in 146 patients from 83.2 ± 6.8% to 86.2 ± 11.1%, MD 3 oxygen saturation points [95% CI 0.57, 5.63]. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) M ± SD improved (359 patients) from 9.9 ± 5.3 to 7.4 ± 5.0, MD -2.5 [95% CI -3.2, -1.8], p value < 0.0001. Conclusion. Nasal EPAP (Provent) reduced AHI by 53.2%, ODI by 41.5% and improved LSAT by 3 oxygen saturation points. Generally, there were no clear characteristics (demographic factors, medical history, and/or physical exam finding) that predicted favorable response to these devices. However, limited evidence suggests that high nasal resistance could be associated with treatment failure. Additional studies are needed to identify demographic and polysomnographic characteristics that would predict therapeutic success with nasal EPAP (Provent). PMID:26798519

  6. Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure Devices (Provent) for OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad; Certal, Victor; Nigam, Gaurav; Abdullatif, Jose; Zaghi, Soroush; Kushida, Clete A.; Camacho, Macario

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the effectiveness of nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (nasal EPAP) devices or Provent as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods. PubMed and six other databases were searched through November 15, 2015, without language limitations. Results. Eighteen studies (920 patients) were included. Pre- and post-nasal EPAP means ± standard deviations (M ± SD) for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in 345 patients decreased from 27.32 ± 22.24 to 12.78 ± 16.89 events/hr (relative reduction = 53.2%). Random effects modeling mean difference (MD) was −14.78 events/hr [95% CI −19.12, −10.45], p value < 0.00001. Oxygen desaturation index (ODI) in 247 patients decreased from 21.2 ± 19.3 to 12.4 ± 14.1 events/hr (relative reduction = 41.5%, p value < 0.00001). Lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) M ± SD improved in 146 patients from 83.2 ± 6.8% to 86.2 ± 11.1%, MD 3 oxygen saturation points [95% CI 0.57, 5.63]. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) M ± SD improved (359 patients) from 9.9 ± 5.3 to 7.4 ± 5.0, MD −2.5 [95% CI −3.2, −1.8], p value < 0.0001. Conclusion. Nasal EPAP (Provent) reduced AHI by 53.2%, ODI by 41.5% and improved LSAT by 3 oxygen saturation points. Generally, there were no clear characteristics (demographic factors, medical history, and/or physical exam finding) that predicted favorable response to these devices. However, limited evidence suggests that high nasal resistance could be associated with treatment failure. Additional studies are needed to identify demographic and polysomnographic characteristics that would predict therapeutic success with nasal EPAP (Provent). PMID:26798519

  7. Automatic anatomy recognition in post-tonsillectomy MR images of obese children with OSAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2015-03-01

    Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) is a recently developed approach for the automatic whole body wide organ segmentation. We previously tested that methodology on image cases with some pathology where the organs were not distorted significantly. In this paper, we present an advancement of AAR to handle organs which may have been modified or resected by surgical intervention. We focus on MRI of the neck in pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). The proposed method consists of an AAR step followed by support vector machine techniques to detect the presence/absence of organs. The AAR step employs a hierarchical organization of the organs for model building. For each organ, a fuzzy model over a population is built. The model of the body region is then described in terms of the fuzzy models and a host of other descriptors which include parent to offspring relationship estimated over the population. Organs are recognized following the organ hierarchy by using an optimal threshold based search. The SVM step subsequently checks for evidence of the presence of organs. Experimental results show that AAR techniques can be combined with machine learning strategies within the AAR recognition framework for good performance in recognizing missing organs, in our case missing tonsils in post-tonsillectomy images as well as in simulating tonsillectomy images. The previous recognition performance is maintained achieving an organ localization accuracy of within 1 voxel when the organ is actually not removed. To our knowledge, no methods have been reported to date for handling significantly deformed or missing organs, especially in neck MRI.

  8. Fatigue, Tiredness, and Lack of Energy Improve with Treatment for OSA

    PubMed Central

    Chotinaiwattarakul, Wattanachai; O'Brien, Louise M.; Fan, Ludi; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Many patients with obstructive sleep apnea complain of fatigue, tiredness, or lack of energy in addition to sleepiness, or instead of sleepiness. We explored whether self-defined fatigue, tiredness, and lack of energy improve, like sleepiness, after treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP). Methods: We conducted a prospective survey of adults referred to a University-based sleep disorders center and confirmed to have obstructive sleep apnea on polysomnography. Surveys were mailed to 1539 patients 6 months to 3 years after they were prescribed PAP for home use. Results: Participants (n = 313) included 183 who reported using PAP ≥ 5 hours per night, 96 who were considered inadequately treated because they had no active treatment or used PAP < 5 hours per night, and 34 treated by surgery or other means and therefore excluded from subsequent analysis. At follow-up in comparison to baseline, subjects adherent to PAP reported less fatigue, tiredness, lack of energy, and sleepiness (p < 0.05 for each). Improvement of each symptom except for lack of energy was significantly better (p < 0.05) among PAP-adherent subjects than among inadequately treated subjects. Conclusions: Patients' complaints of fatigue, tiredness, and lack of energy, like sleepiness, can improve substantially with good adherence to PAP for obstructive sleep apnea. Therefore, patients who prefer a range of common, related terms other than sleepiness to describe their problem may benefit from investigation and treatment for any underlying sleep-disordered breathing. Citation: Chotinaiwattarakul W; O'Brien LM; Fan L; Chervin RD. Fatigue, tiredness, and lack of energy improve with treatment for OSA. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):240-245. PMID:19960642

  9. Identification of impact damage in sandwich structures by application of high speed MEMS-OSA to FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Y.; Minakuchi, S.; Takeda, N.

    2005-05-01

    In this research, the authors developed various detection techniques for particular damages, such as debonding and impact damage, in sandwich panels consisting of composite face-sheets and aluminum honeycomb core with small-diameter optical fiber sensors. First, two methods for debonding detection were established taking advantage of the behavior of fillets formed on the adhesive layer between the core and the skin. One method uses the fracture of optical fibers, and the other one uses the shape recovery of the reflection spectrum from a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor because of the release of thermal residual stress in the fillets. Secondly, as for impact damages, chirped FBG sensors were applied to monitor the change in strain distribution of the face-sheet due to the dent caused by the impact loadings. Furthermore, a newly developed MEMS-optical spectrum analyzer (MEMS-OSA) was introduced to identification of impact points and damages. This system could measure the reflection spectrum at very high speed. The change in the form of the reflection spectrum during the impact loading was found to be different depending on the impact energy and the impact location, and this tendency was confirmed by theoretical simulations using the change in the strain distribution obtained by foil strain gauges. These results show that the high speed measurement of the reflection spectrum by MEMS-OSA has a potential to identify the impact location and damage magnitude through the comparison with theoretical simulations.

  10. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, L; Solís, M

    2008-06-01

    Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (< 100 m) and slope (< 10%), and locate the key breeding and nursing habitat of the species within the continental shelf domains. Proposed Marine Protected Areas (MPA's) network plans should consider connectivity of Cafio Island-Drake Bay and the extension of Corcovado National Park maritime borders. PMID:19256430

  11. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) nest characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Guittar, John L; Dear, Fiona; Vaughan, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals) has undergone considdrable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica's only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals), remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%), Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%), Ceibapentandra (n=7, 14.0%) and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%). We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw's long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. PMID:19637716

  12. Rice microRNA osa-miR1848 targets the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene OsCYP51G3 and mediates the biosynthesis of phytosterols and brassinosteroids during development and in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kuaifei; Ou, Xiaojing; Tang, Huadan; Wang, Ren; Wu, Ping; Jia, Yongxia; Wei, Xiaoyi; Xu, Xinlan; Kang, Seung-Hye; Kim, Seong-Ki; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-11-01

    Phytosterols are membrane components or precursors for brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. As they cannot be transported long distances, their homeostasis is tightly controlled through their biosynthesis and metabolism. However, it is unknown whether microRNAs are involved in their homeostatic regulation. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants transformed with microRNA osa-miR1848 and its target, the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene, OsCYP51G3, were used to investigate the role of osa-miR1848 in the regulation of phytosterol biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 directs OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage to regulate phytosterol and BR biosynthesis in rice. The role of OsCYP51G3 as one of the osa-miR1848 targets is supported by the opposite expression patterns of osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 in transgenic rice plants, and by the identification of OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage sites. Increased osa-miR1848 and decreased OsCYP51G3 expression reduced phytosterol and BR concentrations, and caused typical phenotypic changes related to phytosterol and BR deficiency, including dwarf plants, erect leaves, semi-sterile pollen grains, and shorter cells. Circadian expression of osa-miR1848 regulated the diurnal abundance of OsCYP51G3 transcript in developing organs, and the response of OsCYP51G3 to salt stress. We propose that osa-miR1848 regulates OsCYP51G3 expression posttranscriptionally, and mediates phytosterol and BR biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 might have potential applications in rice breeding to modulate leaf angle, and the size and quality of seeds. PMID:26083975

  13. Upper Plate Deformation in Response to Aseismic Ridge Subduction along a Convergent Margin - the Piano Player Model: Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, T. W.; Fisher, D. M.; Morell, K. D.; Cupper, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    The Osa Peninsula, an outer forearc high ~20 km inboard of the Middle America Trench, is deforming in response to short wavelength variations in the bathymetry on the subducting aseismic Cocos Ridge, an elongate region of thickened crust ( up to 40% thicker) created by motion of the Cocos plate across the Galapagos Hotspot. Plate convergence is nearly orthogonal to the trench at ~90 mm/yr and the plate interface occurs at a depth ~5 km under the peninsula. Relief on the Cocos Ridge locally exceeds 1 km with the dominant topography expressed as two nearly parallel, but locally offset ridges separated by an axial graben. The strike of these features is sub-parallel to the convergence vector. Modern topography of the Osa Peninsula, elevation of the basement rocks (Early to Middle Tertiary Osa Mélange), elevations of late Quaternary marine deposits, and distribution of late Quaternary deformation rates directly mirror the bathymetry on the Cocos Ridge just outboard of the MAT. New geologic mapping, radiometric dating and fission track analysis constrain distribution and rates of deformation on the Osa Peninsula. The Osa Peninsula is fragmented into a complex set of blocks that vary in size from several kms on a side to <10 kms on a side. These blocks, which closely match the size, distribution and shape of bathymetric features on the incoming Cocos Ridge, are bounded by trench parallel and trench perpendicular, high angle, normal and reverse faults that extend to the plate interface, allowing for grossly different deformation histories over short distances. Fission track analyses of 4 sandstone samples from the Osa Mélange suggest that the basement rocks reached maximum burial temperatures of 60-80 ° C indicating burial depths of ~3-4 kms assuming a reasonable geothermal gradient of ~20 °/km. This suggests a very thin margin wedge prior to late Neogene unroofing. Rates of late Quaternary deformation are constrained by over 30 radiocarbon and 5 Optically Stimulated

  14. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  15. The Effect of the Transition to Home Monitoring for the Diagnosis of OSAS on Test Availability, Waiting Time, Patients' Satisfaction, and Outcome in a Large Health Provider System

    PubMed Central

    Etzioni, Tamar; Fliss, Dan; Pillar, Giora; Shapira, Chen

    2014-01-01

    During 2009, the Haifa district of Clalit Health Services (CHS) has switched from in-lab polysomnography (PSG) to home studies for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We assessed the effects of this change on accessibility, waiting time, satisfaction, costs, and CPAP purchase by the patients. Data regarding sleep studies, CPAP purchase, and waiting times were collected retrospectively from the computerized database of CHS. Patients' satisfaction was assessed utilizing a telephone questionnaire introduced to a randomized small sample of 70 patients. Comparisons were made between 2007 and 2008 (in-lab PSGs) and 2010 and 2011 (when most studies were ambulatory). Of about 650000 insured individuals in the Haifa district of CHS, 1471 sleep studies were performed during 2007-2008 compared to 2794 tests during 2010-2011. The average waiting time was 9.9 weeks in 2007-2008 compared to 1.1 weeks in 2010-2011 (P < 0.05). 597 CPAPs were purchased in 2007-2008 compared to 831 in 2010-2011. The overall patients' satisfaction was similar, but discomfort tended to be higher in the in-laboratory group (4.1 vs 2.7 in a scale of 0–10; P = 0.11). Switching to ambulatory diagnosis improved the test accessibility and reduced the waiting times. Patients' satisfaction remained similarly high. The total direct cost of OSA management was reduced. PMID:24876974

  16. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C.; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  17. EdTrAc Teacher Education Program: First-Year Implementation Evaluation (2005-2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Brian; Shelton, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The Educational Training Academy (EdTrAc) is an NSF-funded project of Normandale Community College to increase the number, diversity, and skills of students preparing to be elementary and middle school teachers with a specialty in math and science. Overall, this evaluation indicates that the EdTrAc implementation is on track after its first year…

  18. Combined electromagnetic, geochemical and thermal surveys of Taal volcano (Philippines) during the period 2005-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnicki, J.; Sasai, Y.; Toutain, J. P.; Villacorte, E. U.; Bernard, A.; Sabit, Julio P.; Gordon, Juan M.; Corpuz, Ernesto G.; Harada, M.; Punongbayan, J. T.; Hase, H.; Nagao, T.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1572, 33 phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptions have occurred on Taal volcano (Philippines), some of them causing several hundred casualties. Considering the time delay between two consecutive eruptions, there is an 88% probability that Taal volcano should have already erupted. Since 1992, several phases of seismic activity have been recorded accompanied by ground deformation, opening of fissures, and surface activity. The volcanic activity of Taal appears to be controlled by dike injections and magma supply, buffered by a hydrothermal system that releases fluids and heat through boiling and subsequent steaming. In early 2005, a multidisciplinary project was launched for studying the hydrothermal activity. To map the hydrothermal system, combined surveys were carried out to investigate self-potential, total magnetic field, ground temperature and carbon dioxide soil degassing, along with satellite thermal imaging of the Main Crater Lake. The elevated temperatures and high concentrations of carbon dioxide, as well as electromagnetic anomalies, indicate large-scale hydrothermal degassing. This process is enhanced along the tectonic features (e.g., crater rim and faults) of the volcano, while active fissures opened along the E-W northern flank during the 1992-1994 seismic activity. Heat and fluids from the hydrothermal system are essentially released in the northern part of the crater, which is bounded to the South by a suspected NW-SE fault along which seismicity seems to take place, and dikes are thought to be intruded. During the January 2005 surveys, a new seismic crisis started, and the felt earthquakes prompted spontaneous evacuation of hundreds of inhabitants living on the volcano. Repeated surveys show changes of self-potential, total magnetic field, and ground temperature with time, without any noticeable spatial enlargement. These observations suggest that the northern flank located between the crater rim and the 1992-1994 fissures is connected with a deep thermal source in Main crater and is reactivated during seismic crises. This sector could be subjected to flank failure.

  19. [Chikungunya, La Réunion and Mayotte, 2005-2006: an epidemic without a story?].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine; Aumont, Gilles; Boisson, Véronique; de Lamballerile, Xavier; Favier, François; Fontenille, Didier; Gaüzère, Bernard-Alex; Journeaux, Sophie; Lotteau, Vincent; Paupy, Christophe; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Setbon, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Many triggering factors for onset of emerging infectious diseases are now recognised, such as: globalisation, demographic increase, population movements, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate changes, loss in biodiversity, and extreme life conditions such as poverty, famine and war. Epidemic burden is often leading to disasters, in terms of human losses, as well as economic, political or social consequences. These outbreaks may jeopardize within a few weeks or months, industry, trade, or tourism. While dengue and its most severe forms (hemorrhagic and shock syndrome) is spreading all over the tropical world, another arbovirosis, chikungunya disease dramatically spread in Indian Ocean islands where 30 to 75% of population were infected in 2005 and 2006, and then extended its progression towards India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives islands with more than a million people infected with the East-African strain, replacing the former Asian strain which was known to prevail more than 30 years ago in India. Patients experience sequelae with disability, work loss, and rarely severe outcome recently identified in La Réunion and Mayotte (French overseas territories). No country, no part of the world may consider itself as protected against such events. However, consequences of emerging or re-emerging diseases are more and more unacceptable when they impact the poorest countries of the world. Viruses, bacteria, as well as wild animals, birds, or arthropods are not stopped by borders. It is time now to promote barriers against infectious diseases, including prevention, anticipation, disease surveillance and research. This is not only for humanitarian reasons, but also for contributing to a sustainable development with equity for worldwide population. This report presents comprehensive actions taken in 2006 for tracing the epidemic and mobilise research, as requested to the task force set up by the Prime Minister by March 20, 2006. PMID:17929405

  20. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research. PMID:17645111

  1. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan; Mueller, Robert; Murray, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and tule fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by WDFW biologists in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and near Ives Island. Limited surveys of spawning ground were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands from 1994 through 1997. Based on those surveys, it is believed that fall Chinook salmon are spawning successfully in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1800 to 5200 fish. Chum salmon also have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon were listed as threatened under the ESA in March 1999. At present there is a need to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning areas, and the flows necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Ongoing discussions regarding the minimum and maximum flows will result in optimal spawning habitat usage and survival of embryos of both species. Collection of additional data as part of this project will ensure that established flow guidelines are appropriate and provide adequate protection for the species of concern. This is consistent with the high priority placed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Independent Scientific Advisory Board and the salmon managers on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Thus, there is a need to better understand the physical habitat variables used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was asked to participate in the cooperative study during FY 2000. Since then, we have focused on (1) investigating the interactions between groundwater and surface water near fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning areas; (2) providing in-season hyporheic temperature data and assisting state agencies with emergence timing estimates; (3) locating and mapping deep-water fall Chinook salmon spawning areas; and (4) providing support to the WDFW for analysis of stranding data. Work conducted during FY 2006 addressed these same efforts. This report documents the studies and tasks performed by PNNL during FY 2006. Chapter 1 provides a description of the searches conducted for deepwater redds--adjacent to Pierce and Ives islands for fall Chinook salmon and near the Interstate 205 bridge for chum salmon. The chapter also provides data on redd location, information about habitat associations, and estimates of total spawning populations. Chapter 2 documents the collection of data on riverbed and river temperatures and water surface elevations, from the onset of spawning to the end of emergence, and the provision of those data in-season to fisheries management agencies to assist with emer

  2. Monitoring of Downstream Salmon and Steelhead at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Rick D.; Kovalchuk, Gregory M.; Ballinger, Dean

    2006-04-01

    2005 was an average to below average flow year at John Day and Bonneville Dams. A large increase in flow in May improved migration conditions for that peak passage month. Spill was provided April through August and averaged about 30% and 48% of river flow at John Day and Bonneville Dams, respectively. Water temperature graphs were added this year that show slightly lower than average water temperature at John Day and slightly higher than average temperatures at Bonneville. The number of fish handled at John Day decreased from 412,797 in 2004 to 195,293 this year. Of the 195,293 fish, 120,586 (61.7%) were collected for researchers. Last year, 356,237 (86.3%) of the fish sampled were for researchers. This dramatic decline is the result of (1) fewer research fish needed (2) a smaller, lighter tag which allowed for tagging of smaller fish, and (3) a larger average size for subyearling chinook. These factors combined to reduce the average sample rate to 10.8%, about half of last year's rate of 18.5%. Passage timing at John Day was similar to previous years, but the pattern was distinguished by larger than average passage peaks for spring migrants, especially sockeye. The large spike in mid May for sockeye created a very short middle 80% passage duration of just 16 days. Other spring migrants also benefited from the large increase in flow in May. Descaling was lower than last year for all species except subyearling chinook and below the historical average for all species. Conversely, the incidence of about 90% of the other condition factors increased. Mortality, while up from last year for all species and higher than the historical average for all species except sockeye, continued to be low, less than 1% for all species. On 6 April a slide gate was left closed at John Day and 718 fish were killed. A gate position indicator light was installed to prevent reoccurrences. Also added this year was a PIT tag detector on the adult return-to-river flume. For the first time this year, we successfully held Pacific lamprey ammocetes. The number of fish sampled at Bonneville Dam was also down this year to 260,742, from 444,580 last year. Reasons for the decline are the same as stated above for John Day. Passage timing at Bonneville Dam was quite similar to previous years with one notable exception, sockeye. Sockeye passage was dominated by two large spikes in late May that greatly condensed the passage pattern, with the middle 80% passing Bonneville in just 18 days. Unlike John Day, passage for the rest of the species was well disbursed from late April through early June. Fish condition was good, with reductions in descaling rates for all species except unclipped steelhead and sockeye. Sockeye mortality matched last year's rate but was considerably lower for all other species. Rare species sampled at Bonneville this year included a bull trout and a eulachon.

  3. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross, Doug

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by average water temperatures, below average flows, above average spill, low levels of debris and the record number of smolts collected compared to the previous five years. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above LGR, we cannot accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. For the purposes of this report we will designate fish as clipped and unclipped. This season a total of 13,030,967 juvenile salmonids were collected at LGR. Of these, 12,099,019 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 12,032,623 by barge and 66,396 by truck. An additional 898,235 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways, barges or trucks and for research purposes. This was the first season of summer spill at LGR. Spill was initiated at 12:01am June 20 as directed by the ruling set forth by Judge James Redden of the United States District Court (Order CV 01-640-RE). In addition, the Lower Granite project also conducted a summer spill test alternating spill and spill patterns between spill to the gas cap without the removable spillway weir (RSW) and spill with up to 20 kcfs utilizing the RSW. Because of the forecast low flow this year, most hatchery reared subyearling fall chinook were released up to three weeks early. With the unexpected high flows in late May and early June, more than 90% of the subyearling chinook were collected prior to the initiation of the court ordered summer spill program. Collection number fluctuations reflect river flow and project operations for any given year. For example, low flow years (2001, 2004 and 2005) result in higher collection numbers. Court ordered spill throughout the summer migration will directly affect collection of fall subyearling chinook collection numbers. The editors of this report urge the reader to use caution when comparing fish collection numbers between years, considering both annual river flows and annual project operations, because both affect fish migration and collection.

  4. PBS TeacherLine National Survey of Teacher Professional Development, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel Associates (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    PBS TeacherLine, an initiative funded under the U.S. Department of Education's Ready To Teach program, is designed to provide high-quality online professional development for K-12 teachers. Through the first five-year grant cycle, ending in 2005, PBS TeacherLine produced approximately 100 online facilitated courses in reading, mathematics,…

  5. The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This student guide provides financial aid information for high school seniors and college students. The first few pages of this guide are a quick reference to federal student aid programs and how to apply. Most student financial aid comes from the federal government programs, which the U.S. Department of Education's Federal Student Aid (FSA)…

  6. Professional Development. The Evaluation Exchange. Volume 11, Number 4, Winter 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDeo, Carrie-Anne, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This issue hones in on professional development in four key sectors affecting children, youth, and families--K-12 education, early childhood education, child welfare, and youth development. Though these sectors face many of the same professional development challenges, each has its own unique issues, strengths, and goals. The staffing shortage in…

  7. Patterns of adult stepping cadence in the 2005-2006 NHANES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies of adult walking behavior have consistently found that a cadence of 100 steps/min is a reasonable threshold for moderate intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine cadence patterns in free-living adults, and in particular, time spent at increasing cadence increments inc...

  8. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-11-06

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days per month for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were again found during nighttime periods and lowest during the day. Fish detection rates were low during high discharges throughout the spring and summer and highest during low discharges in September and November. High discharge during drawdowns for anadromous fish flows in July and August again resulted in low detection rates and susceptibility to entrainment. Index counts of spawning kokanee in four tributary streams totaled 12,742 fish. This data fits the previously developed relationship between spawner counts and adult kokanee abundance in the reservoir.

  9. Prehospital and hospital delays after stroke onset--United States, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-05-18

    Each year approximately 700,000 persons in the United States have a new or recurrent stroke; of these persons, 15%-30% become permanently disabled, and 20% require institutionalization during the first 3 months after the stroke. The severity of stroke-related disability can be reduced if timely and appropriate treatment is received. Patients with ischemic stroke may be eligible for treatment with intravenous thrombolytic (i.e., tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA]) therapy within 3 hours of symptom onset. Receipt of this treatment usually requires patients to recognize stroke symptoms and receive prompt transport to a hospital emergency department (ED), where timely evaluation and brain imaging (i.e., computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) can take place. For patients eligible for t-PA, evidence suggests that the earlier patients are treated after the onset of symptoms the greater the likelihood of a more favorable outcome. In 2001, Congress established the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry to measure and track the quality of care provided to acute stroke patients. To assess prehospital delays from onset of stroke symptoms to ED arrival and hospital delays from ED arrival to receipt of brain imaging, CDC analyzed data from the four states participating in the national stroke registry. The results of that analysis indicated that fewer than half (48.0%) of stroke patients for whom onset data were available arrived at the ED within 2 hours of symptom onset, and prehospital delays were shorter for persons transported to the ED by ambulance (i.e., emergency medical services) than for persons who did not receive ambulance transport. The interval between ED arrival and brain imaging also was significantly reduced for those arriving by ambulance. More extensive public education is needed regarding early recognition of stroke and the urgency of telephoning 9-1-1 to receive ambulance transport. Shortening prehospital and hospital delays will increase the proportion of ischemic stroke patients who are eligible to receive t-PA therapy and reduce their risk for severe disability from stroke. PMID:17510611

  10. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavens, Kate

    2006-11-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2005-September 2006. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in 2005 and 2006 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Twenty-six turtles were placed at the Woodland Park Zoo and 62 at the Oregon Zoo in fall 2005. These turtles joined two that were held back from release in summer 2005 due to their small size. All 90 juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2006. Twenty-eight juvenile turtles were released at the Klickitat ponds, 22 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 19 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 944; 285 for the Klickitat ponds, 158 for the Klickitat lake, 227 for the Skamania pond complex, and 274 at Pierce NWR. In 2006, 20 females from the Klickitat population were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Fifteen nests were located and protected; these produced 55 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and transported to the Oregon and Woodland Park zoos for rearing in the head-start program. One wild hatchling captured in spring 2006 was placed in the head-start program to attain more growth in captivity. During the 2006 field season trapping effort, 414 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 374 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 179 individual painted turtles captured in 2006 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population.

  11. Guidelines for Charter School Annual Reports, 2005-2006 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Report is a critical document in charter school accountability; it is intended to be a clear, concise report regarding school performance and its success in meeting Accountability Plan goals. The formatting for each school's report may be unique; however, there are required elements set forth in this document that must be included in…

  12. Profiles of For-Profit Education Management Organizations: Eighth Annual Report, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David R.; Bartlett, Margaret; O'Neill, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    This annual report, in its eighth edition, found that after several years of growth, the EMO (Education Management Organization) industry appears to be entering a period of reconfiguration. In this year's "Profiles", the number of companies listed and the number of schools they manage are down slightly; student enrollment in EMO-managed schools…

  13. 7 CFR 760.817 - Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Crop Disaster Program § 760..., assistance will be made available to participants determined eligible under this section for crop quality losses of 25 percent or greater of the value that all affected production of the crop would have had...

  14. 7 CFR 760.817 - Quality losses for 2005, 2006, and 2007 crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Crop Disaster Program § 760..., assistance will be made available to participants determined eligible under this section for crop quality losses of 25 percent or greater of the value that all affected production of the crop would have had...

  15. Arkansas Department of Education Programs for Language Minority Students, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Families whose native language is not English have been arriving in Arkansas seeking employment in agriculture-related and other industries. School-age children from these families are relatively new to most of Arkansas school districts, and the educational programs necessary to meet their needs in many school districts are relatively new. Over…

  16. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006. Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes a study relating to California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. These counties are required to report six outcome measures to the California State Legislature on an annual basis to measure the success of the program. These outcome measures are (1) successful…

  17. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2005-2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA), formerly named the Board of Corrections, the administrator of funding. California counties receiving state funds for Juvenile Justice…

  18. The Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools. Annual Report, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools (CYFS) is to conduct research that improves our understanding of optimal ways that parents, teachers and other service providers in family, school and community contexts can promote the intellectual and socio-emotional development and behavioral adjustment of…

  19. 2005-2006 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 1-8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA, conducts the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) survey, the dietary interview component of the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES). In the survey, dietary intakes are collected yearly from a nationwide s...

  20. Looking for Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in Florida: Results of Biotype sampling from 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March 2005, Arizona scientists identified the Q biotype of Bemisia tabaci from Poinsettia plants that originated from California. Soon after, Florida began forming a plan for surveying, identifying and dealing with the Q biotype. Efforts for surveying began immediately in March 2005 and have cont...

  1. Ground-Water Quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, J.E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 community water system wells and 15 private domestic wells throughout the Genesee River Basin in New York State (downstream from the Pennsylvania border) from October 2005 through March 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water in the basin. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a representative sampling from the 2,439 square-mile basin area in New York. Samples were analyzed for five physical properties and 226 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. The results show that ground water used for drinking water is generally of good quality in the Genesee River Basin, although concentrations of seven constituents exceeded drinking water standards. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; the anions that were detected in the greatest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, and nitrate concentrations were greater in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock aquifers. The trace elements barium, boron, cobalt, copper, and nickel were detected in every sample; the highest concentrations were barium, boron, chromium, iron, manganese, strontium, and lithium. Fourteen pesticides including seven pesticide degradates were detected in water from 12 of the 22 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in six samples, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Seven chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were present in concentrations that exceeded Federal and New York State water-quality standards, which are typically identical. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in three samples; the chloride SMCL (250 mg/L) was exceeded in one sample. Sodium concentrations exceeded the USEPA Drinking Water Health Advisory of 60 mg/L in five samples. The SMCL for iron (300 ug/L) was exceeded in 11 filtered samples; the USEPA SMCL for manganese (50 ug/L) was exceeded in 10 filtered samples, and the New York State MCL (300 ug/L) was exceeded in 1 filtered sample. The MCL for aluminum (200 ug/L) was exceeded in 1 sample, and the MCL for arsenic (10 ug/L) was exceeded in 1 sample. Radon-222 exceeded the proposed USEPA MCL of 300 picocuries per liter in 16 samples. Any detection of total coliform or fecal coliform bacteria is considered a violation of New York State health regulations; in this study, total coliform was detected in eight samples; fecal coliform was detected in two samples, and Escherichia coli was detected in one sample.

  2. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the unavailability of equipment, the collapse or failure of equipment, or apparatus used in the honey operation; (3) Resulting from storage of honey after harvest; (4) To honey production because of bee feeding... of buildings or structures. (d) Qualifying losses under this part for honey, where the...

  3. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the unavailability of equipment, the collapse or failure of equipment, or apparatus used in the honey operation; (3) Resulting from storage of honey after harvest; (4) To honey production because of bee feeding... of buildings or structures. (d) Qualifying losses under this part for honey, where the...

  4. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the unavailability of equipment, the collapse or failure of equipment, or apparatus used in the honey operation; (3) Resulting from storage of honey after harvest; (4) To honey production because of bee feeding... of buildings or structures. (d) Qualifying losses under this part for honey, where the...

  5. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the unavailability of equipment, the collapse or failure of equipment, or apparatus used in the honey operation; (3) Resulting from storage of honey after harvest; (4) To honey production because of bee feeding... of buildings or structures. (d) Qualifying losses under this part for honey, where the...

  6. 7 CFR 760.810 - Qualifying 2005, 2006, or 2007 quantity crop losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the unavailability of equipment, the collapse or failure of equipment, or apparatus used in the honey operation; (3) Resulting from storage of honey after harvest; (4) To honey production because of bee feeding... of buildings or structures. (d) Qualifying losses under this part for honey, where the...

  7. Brief report: investigation into recalled human tissue for transplantation--United States, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    2006-05-26

    On September 29, 2005, a human tissue-processing company discovered inaccuracies in donor records forwarded from a tissue-recovery firm and notified the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). An FDA investigation determined that the recovery firm, Biomedical Tissue Services, Ltd. (BTS) (Fort Lee, New Jersey), recovered tissues from human donors who might not have met donor eligibility requirements and who were not screened properly for certain infectious diseases. In October 2005, BTS and the five processors that had received the tissues, working with FDA, issued a recall for all tissues recovered by BTS. The continuing FDA investigation determined that information for some donors (e.g., cause, place, or time of death) was not consistent with death certificate data obtained from the states where the deaths occurred. The investigation also determined that BTS had failed to recover tissues in a manner that would prevent contamination or cross-contamination and failed to control environmental conditions adequately during tissue recovery. These failures were violations of the Current Good Tissue Practice Rules (effective May 25, 2005), which require manufacturers to recover, process, store, label, package, and distribute human cells, tissue, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps) to prevent introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases. In January 2006, FDA ordered BTS to cease manufacturing and to retain all HCT/Ps. PMID:16723969

  8. Snacking Patterns of U.S. Adolescents: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to track changes in snacking frequency over time, determine whether snacking is associated with food energy intake and body mass index (BMI), and measure the contribution of snacks to overall intakes of nutrients and MyPyramid food groups. Twenty-four hour dietary recall...

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report Wanaket Wildlife Area, Techical Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2006-02-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Wildlife Program staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Wanaket Wildlife Management Area in June 2005. The 2005 HEP investigation generated 3,084.48 habitat units (HUs) for a net increase of 752.18 HUs above 1990/1995 baseline survey results. The HU to acre ratio also increased from 0.84:1.0 to 1.16:1.0. The largest increase in habitat units occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type (California quail and western meadowlark models), which increased from 1,544 HUs to 2,777 HUs (+43%), while agriculture cover type HUs were eliminated because agricultural lands (managed pasture) were converted to shrubsteppe/grassland. In addition to the agriculture cover type, major changes in habitat structure occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type due to the 2001 wildfire which removed the shrub component from well over 95% of its former range. The number of acres of all other cover types remained relatively stable; however, habitat quality improved in the riparian herb and riparian shrub cover types. The number and type of HEP species models used during the 2005 HEP analysis were identical to those used in the 1990/1995 baseline HEP surveys. The number of species models employed to evaluate the shrubsteppe/grassland, sand/gravel/mud/cobble, and riparian herb cover types, however, were fewer than reported in the McNary Dam Loss Assessment (Rassmussen and Wright 1989) for the same cover types.

  10. 78 FR 50113 - Distribution of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Cable Royalty Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... September 16, 2013. ADDRESSES: Participants must submit an original, five paper copies, and an electronic..., music, etc.). For broadcast years 2006 through 2009, the parties settled their controversies. The...

  11. The Condition of Higher Education in New Mexico, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document reports on data collected by the New Mexico Higher Education Department, providing the status of higher education as of the Fall 2005 semester and makes comparisons to prior year data to calculate change rates. The emphasis of the New Mexico Higher Education Department is to create policy to improve access to educational…

  12. Fluid milk consumption in the United States: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to describe fluid milk consumption patterns of the U.S. population and to determine the impact of fluid milk on daily nutrient intakes. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from 8,145 children and adults 2 years of age and older participating in What We Eat In America (...

  13. Dengue virus 3 genotype I in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and eggs, Brazil, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Ana P P; Figueiredo, Leandra B; dos Santos, João R; Eiras, Alvaro E; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-06-01

    Dengue virus type 3 genotype I was detected in Brazil during epidemics in 2002-2004. To confirm this finding, we identified this virus genotype in naturally infected field-caught Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and eggs. Results showed usefulness of virus investigations in vectors as a component of active epidemiologic surveillance. PMID:20507754

  14. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. During this contract period work was completed on two culvert replacement projects; Doe Creek and a tributary to Meadow Creek. Additionally construction was also completed for the ditch restoration project within McComas Meadows. Monitoring for project effectiveness and trends in watershed conditions was also completed. Road decommissioning monitoring, as well as stream temperature, sediment, and discharge were completed.

  15. Clearwater Focus Watershed; Nez Perce Tribe, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ira; McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division, approaches watershed restoration with a goal to protect, restore, and enhance a connected network of functioning habitat types capable of supporting all fish life stages. The key objective of the Nez Perce Tribe Focus Coordinator position is to overcome fragmentation within the basin by managing communications with the subbasin, providing an overall framework and process for coordinated fisheries restoration and managing the planning, assessment, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation process. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Clearwater River Subbasin in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the sub-basin by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing stream banks, decommissioning roads, restoring fish passage, as well as other watershed restoration projects. Coordination of these projects is critical to the success of the restoration of the sub-basin. Coordination activities also includes: inter and intra-department coordination, sub-basin assessment and planning, involving government and private organizations, and treaty area coordination.

  16. Occurrence of azoxystrobin, propiconazole, and selected other fungicides in US streams, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Fungicides are used to prevent foliar diseases on a wide range of vegetable, field, fruit, and ornamental crops. They are generally more effective as protective rather than curative treatments, and hence tend to be applied before infections take place. Less than 1% of US soybeans were treated with a fungicide in 2002 but by 2006, 4% were treated. Like other pesticides, fungicides can move-off of fields after application and subsequently contaminate surface water, groundwater, and associated sediments. Due to the constant pressure from fungal diseases such as the recent Asian soybean rust outbreak, and the always-present desire to increase crop yields, there is the potential for a significant increase in the amount of fungicides used on US farms. Increased fungicide use could lead to increased environmental concentrations of these compounds. This study documents the occurrence of fungicides in select US streams soon after the first documentation of soybean rust in the US and prior to the corresponding increase in fungicide use to treat this problem. Water samples were collected from 29 streams in 13 states in 2005 and/or 2006, and analyzed for 12 target fungicides. Nine of the 12 fungicides were detected in at least one stream sample and at least one fungicide was detected in 20 of 29 streams. At least one fungicide was detected in 56% of the 103 samples, as many as five fungicides were detected in an individual sample, and mixtures of fungicides were common. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (45% of 103 samples) followed by metalaxyl (27%), propiconazole (17%), myclobutanil (9%), and tebuconazole (6%). Fungicide detections ranged from 0.002 to 1.15 μ/L. There was indication of a seasonal pattern to fungicide occurrence, with detections more common and concentrations higher in late summer and early fall than in spring. At a few sites, fungicides were detected in all samples collected suggesting the potential for season-long occurrence in some streams. Fungicide occurrence appears to be related to fungicide use in the associated drainage basins; however, current use information is generally lacking and more detailed occurrence data are needed to accurately quantify such a relation. Maximum concentrations of fungicides were typically one or more orders of magnitude less than current toxicity estimates for freshwater aquatic organisms or humans; however, gaps in current toxicological understandings of the effects of fungicides in the environment limit these interpretations.

  17. John Day River Subbasin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Russ M.; Alley, Pamela D.; Delano, Kenneth H.

    2006-03-01

    Work undertaken in 2005 included: (1) Four new fence projects were completed thereby protecting 7.55 miles of stream with 9.1 miles of new riparian fence (2) Fence removal 1.7 miles of barbed wire. (3) Completed three spring developments (repair work on two BLM springs on Cottonwood Creek (Dayville), 1 solar on Rock Creek/ Collins property). (4) Dredge tail leveling completed on 0.9 miles of the Middle Fork of the John Day River (5) Cut, hauled and placed 30 junipers on Indian Creek/Kuhl property for bank stability. (6) Collected and planted 1500 willow cuttings on Mountain Creek/Jones property. (7) Conducted steelhead redd counts on Lake Cr./Hoover property and Cottonwood Cr./Mascall properties (8) Seeded 200 lbs of native grass seed on projects where the sites were disturbed by fence construction activities. (9) Maintenance of all active project fences (72.74 miles), watergaps (60), spring developments (30) were checked and repairs performed. (10) Since the initiation of the Fish Habitat Program in 1984 we have installed 156.06 miles of riparian fence on leased property protecting 88.34 miles of anadromous fish bearing stream. With the addition of the Restoration and Enhancement Projects from 1996-2001, where the landowner received the materials, built and maintained the project we have a total of 230.92 miles of fence protecting 144.7 miles of stream and 3285 acres of riparian habitat.

  18. HIV-related behaviors among men who have sex with men in China: 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Ming; Tse, Yee Kit; Gu, Jing; Tsui, Hi Yi; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Feng

    2009-08-01

    Respectively, 387 and 316 men who have ever had anal or oral sex with men (MSM) in Kunming, China, were interviewed in 2005 and 2006. In both surveys, over 85% reported having had anal sex with noncommercial male sex partners; around 60% had ever had female sex partners; and about 16% engaged in commercial anal sex in the last 6 months. The prevalence of unprotected anal sex decreased over time (last episode of anal sex with noncommercial MSM partner: 37.7% (2005) versus 21.9% (2006) (Adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.43); last episode of anal sex with commercial MSM partner, 20.8% (2005) versus 10.8% (2006) (Adjusted OR = 0.50). Some behavioral changes may have occurred. Multivariate analyses showed that study year (OR = 2.24), age (OR = 1.64), marital status (OR = 2.07), and perceived infectivity related to unprotected sex with people living with HIV/AIDS (OR = 0.3) were associated with condom use in the last episode of anal sex with noncommercial MSM partners. PMID:19670968

  19. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Menski, Fred

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) was characterized by average water temperatures, below average flows, above average spill, low levels of debris and the record number of smolts collected compared to the previous five years. With the continued release of unclipped supplementation chinook and steelhead above LGR, we cannot accurately distinguish wild chinook, steelhead, and sockeye/kokanee in the sample. For the purposes of this report we will designate fish as clipped and unclipped. This season a total of 13,030,967 juvenile salmonids were collected at LGR. Of these, 12,099,019 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 12,032,623 by barge and 66,396 by truck. An additional 898,235 fish were bypassed to the river due to over-capacity of the raceways, barges or trucks and for research purposes. This was the first season of summer spill at LGR. Spill was initiated at 12:01am June 20 as directed by the ruling set forth by Judge James Redden of the United States District Court (Order CV 01-640-RE). In addition, the Lower Granite project also conducted a summer spill test alternating spill and spill patterns between spill to the gas cap without the removable spillway weir (RSW) and spill with up to 20 kcfs utilizing the RSW. Because of the forecast low flow this year, most hatchery reared subyearling fall chinook were released up to three weeks early. With the unexpected high flows in late May and early June, more than 90% of the subyearling chinook were collected prior to the initiation of the court ordered summer spill program. Collection number fluctuations reflect river flow and project operations for any given year. For example, low flow years (2001, 2004 and 2005) result in higher collection numbers. Court ordered spill throughout the summer migration will directly affect collection of fall subyearling chinook collection numbers. The editors of this report urge the reader to use caution when comparing fish collection numbers between years, considering both annual river flows and annual project operations, because both affect fish migration and collection.

  20. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operation and Maintenance, 2005-2006 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sellman, Jake; Dykstra, Tim

    2009-05-11

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance (DV Fisheries) project is an ongoing resident fish program designed to enhance both subsistence fishing, educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes, and recreational fishing facilities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View, Lake Billy Shaw, and Sheep Creek Reservoirs, the program also intends to afford and maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, to provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and to offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period are divided into operations and maintenance plus monitoring and evaluation. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs and stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles and equipment, and outhouses. Monitoring and evaluation activities included creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, control of encroaching exotic vegetation, and community outreach and education. The three reservoirs are monitored in terms of water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir was the least productive as a result of high turbidity levels and constraining water quality parameters. Lake Billy Shaw trout were in poorer condition than in previous years potentially as a result of water quality or other factors. Mountain View Reservoir trout exhibit the best health of the three reservoirs and was the only reservoir to receive constant flows of water.

  1. Frictional properties of sediments entering the Costa Rica subduction zone offshore the Osa Peninsula: implications for fault slip in shallow subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Yuka; Tsutsumi, Akito; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Kameda, Jun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the frictional properties of sediments on the Cocos plate offshore the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica, and explored variations in the intrinsic frictional properties of the sediment inputs to the Costa Rica subduction zone. Sediment samples were collected at Site U1381A during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 334, and include hemipelagic clay to silty clay material (Unit I) and pelagic silicic to calcareous ooze (Unit II). The frictional properties of the samples were tested at a normal stress of 5 MPa under water-saturated conditions and with slip velocities ranging from 0.0028 to 2.8 mm/s for up to 340 mm of displacement. The experimental results reveal that the steady-state friction coefficient values of clay to silty clay samples are as low as ~0.2, whereas those of silicic to calcareous ooze samples are as high as 0.6 to 0.8. The clay to silty clay samples show a positive dependence of friction on velocity for all tested slip velocities. In contrast, the silicic to calcareous ooze samples show a negative dependence of friction on velocity at velocities of 0.0028 to 0.28 mm/s and either neutral or positive dependence at velocities higher than 0.28 mm/s. Given the low frictional coefficient values observed for the clay to silty clay samples of Unit I, the décollement at the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project transect offshore the Osa Peninsula likely initiates in Unit I and is initially very weak. In addition, the velocity-strengthening behavior of the clay to silty clay suggests that faults in the very shallow portion of the Costa Rica subduction zone are stable and thus behave as creeping segments. In contrast, the velocity-weakening behavior of the silicic to calcareous ooze favors unstable slip along faults. The shallow seismicity occurred at a depth as shallow as ~9 km along the Costa Rica margin offshore the Osa Peninsula (Mw 6.4, June 2002), indicating that materials characterized by velocity-weakening behavior constitute the fault

  2. [Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of anemia in the elderly of the municipality of Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Milagres, Clarice Santana; de Moraes, Keila Bacelar Duarte; Franceschini, Sylvia Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira Rocha; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2015-12-01

    Anemia is the most common hematological problem encountered in the elderly population. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with anemia in the elderly in Viçosa (State of Minas Gerais). Data were collected by means of a household survey and conducting biochemical tests on 349 elderly between June and December 2009. The prevalence of anemia was 11.7% (95% CI 8.3% -15.1%) and was found to be higher among men (15.4%) among those aged 80 years and older (30%) and those who practiced polypharmacy (16.8%). The results obtained indicate anemia determinants similar to those observed in developed countries. The real need of polypharmacy should be evaluated in health care for the elderly, in order to prevent iatrogenic complications, of which anemia is one such complication. PMID:26691798

  3. Interplate seismicity at the CRISP drilling site: The 2002 Mw 6.4 Osa Earthquake at the southeastern end of the Middle America Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Ivonne G.; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Ranero, Cesar R.; von Huene, Roland

    2014-07-01

    investigate potential relations between variations in seafloor relief and age of the incoming plate and interplate seismicity. Westward from Osa Peninsula in Costa Rica, a major change in the character of the incoming Cocos Plate is displayed by abrupt lateral variations in seafloor depth and thermal structure. Here a Mw 6.4 thrust earthquake was followed by three aftershock clusters in June 2002. Initial relocations indicate that the main shock occurred fairly trenchward of most large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench off central Costa Rica. The earthquake sequence occurred while a temporary network of OBH and land stations ˜80 km to the northwest were deployed. By adding readings from permanent local stations, we obtain uncommon P wave coverage of a large subduction zone earthquake. We relocate this catalog using a nonlinear probabilistic approach within both, a 1-D and a 3-D P wave velocity models. The main shock occurred ˜25 km from the trench and probably along the plate interface at 5-10 km depth. We analyze teleseismic data to further constrain the rupture process of the main shock. The best depth estimates indicate that most of the seismic energy was radiated at shallow depth below the continental slope, supporting the nucleation of the Osa earthquake at ˜6 km depth. The location and depth coincide with the plate boundary imaged in prestack depth-migrated reflection lines shot near the nucleation area. Aftershocks propagated downdip to the area of a 1999 Mw 6.9 sequence and partially overlapped it. The results indicate that underthrusting of the young and buoyant Cocos Ridge has created conditions for interplate seismogenesis shallower and closer to the trench axis than elsewhere along the central Costa Rica margin.

  4. A pilot study to compare the cerebral hemodynamics between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) during nocturnal sleep with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Hügli, Gordana; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement in sleep syndrome (PLMS) are two common sleep disorders. Previous studies showed that OSA and PLMS share common features, such as increased cardio-vascular risk, both apnea events and limb movements occur periodically, they are usually associated with cortical arousals, and both of them can induce declines in peripheral oxygen saturation measured with pulse oximetry. However, the question whether apnea events and limb movements also show similar characteristics in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation has never been addressed. In this pilot study, we will first time compare the cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by apnea events and limb movements in patients with OSA (n=4) and PLMS (n=4) with NIRS. In patients with OSA, we found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, and blood volume induced by apnea/hypopnea events, HbO2 and HHb showed reverse changing trends. By contrast, the periodic oscillations linked to limb movements were only found in HbO2 and blood volume in patients with PLMS. These findings of different cerebral hemodynamics patterns between apnea events and limb movements may indicate different regulations of nervous system between these two sleep disorders.

  5. [Implementation and impact of the National Iron Supplementation Program in the city of Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Silva, Luciana Saraiva da; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Cássia Lanes Ribeiro, Rita de

    2011-10-01

    The scope of this work was to evaluate the implementation of the National Iron Supplementation Program (NISP) in Viçosa in the State of Minas Gerais and its impact on 6- to 18-month-old non-anemic infants assisted by the Family Health Teams. Interviews were conducted with the professionals and with the children's mothers/guardians. The non-anemic children who didn't receive the earlier supplementation (n=133) were given ferrous sulphate syrup for six months. Hemoglobin dosage, anthropometric evaluation and a socioeconomic survey were conducted before and after the six-month period. Children who ingested 75% or more of the prescribed dosage were classified as high adhesion, while the others were classified as low adhesion, according to the mothers' testimonials. With respect to the implementation in the city, the distribution system was not always available to the priority group and there was a lack of training and motivation on the part of most Community Health Agents. The lack of promotion of NISP among the priority group was detected, apart from a mothers' awareness drive. Regarding diet supplementation, children showed low adhesion and the dosage wasn't effective in preventing anemia. Therefore, important operational barriers to implementation were observed. PMID:22031130

  6. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matioli, André L; Pallini, Angelo; Tavares, Mara G

    2009-01-01

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifi cations were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute (+/- 360 microm long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the first molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. PMID:19488517

  7. Retinal Atherosclerosis, Ophthalmologically Reported and Documented with OSA in 1987, is now Totally Reversed, and Recorded, Photographically. The Supposition then was that Equivalent Cortical Damage could Respond to the same Healing Protocol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Paul N.; O., D.; Mc Leod, David M.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-10-01

    Documented retinal atherosclerosis, ``silver streaking'' of retinal capillaries, was reported and documented with OSA, in October 1987. That retinal damage, despite claims it usually progresses and is nonreversible, is now completely cleared. The original OSA presentation proposed that equivalent cortical damage was probably present throughout the brain at that time, as attested by failing short-term memory performance and transient ischemic attacks, TIAs, brief vision strokes. The supposition then was that ophthalmologic access to the retina, by some accounts the progenitor of all brain evolution, could provide a means of monitoring the actual circulatory state of inaccessible parts of the brain. To the extent that retinal health was naturopathically restored, and memory performance seems also to have significantly kept pace, is it a tenable premise that such protocols have rather general importance? Can applied optics help establish more appropriate diagnoses, and evaluate treatments for dementia and Alzheimer's disease?

  8. Pre- and in-therapy predictive score models of adult OSAS patients with poor adherence pattern on nCPAP therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yeying; Geater, Alan F; Chai, Yanling; Luo, Jiahong; Niu, Xiaoqun; Hai, Bing; Qin, Jingting; Li, Yongxia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify patterns of adherence to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) use in the first 3 months of therapy among newly diagnosed adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) and their predictors. To develop pretherapy and in-therapy scores to predict adherence pattern. Methods Newly diagnosed adult OSAS patients were consecutively recruited from March to August 2013. Baseline clinical information and measures such as Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at baseline and at the end of 3rd-week therapy were collected. Twelve weeks’ adherence data were collected from the nCPAP memory card, and K-means cluster analysis was used to explore adherence patterns. Predictive scores were developed from the coefficients of cumulative logit models of adherence patterns using variables available at baseline and after 3 weeks of therapy. Performance of the score was validated using 500 bootstrap resamples. Results Seventy six patients completed a 12-week follow-up. Three patterns were revealed. Patients were identified as developing an adherence pattern that was poor (n=14, mean ± SD, 2.3±0.9 hours per night), moderate (n=19, 5.3±0.6 hours per night), or good (n=43, 6.8±0.3 hours per night). Cumulative logit regression models (good → moderate → poor) revealed independent baseline predictors to be ESS (per unit increase) (OR [95% CI], 0.763 [0.651, 0.893]), SDS (1.461 [1.238, 1.724]), and PSQI (2.261 [1.427, 3.584]); and 3-week therapy predictors to be ESS (0.554 [0.331, 0.926]), PSQI (2.548 [1.454, 4.465]), and the changes (3rd week–baseline data) in ESS (0.459 [0.243, 0.868]), FSS (3.556 [1.788, 7.070]), and PSQI (2.937 [1.273, 6.773]). Two predictive score formulas for poor adherence were developed. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for baseline and 3

  9. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption. PMID:24697652

  10. Physical property and Textural transition across the Unconformity and Major Seismic Reflectors in the Upper plate of the Costa Rica Subduction zone offshore Osa Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamahashi, M.; Screaton, E.; Tanikawa, W.; Hashimoto, Y.; Martin, K. M.; Saito, S.; Kimura, G.

    2014-12-01

    At the Costa Rica subduction zone offshore Osa Peninsula, the Cocos plate and Cocos Ridge subduct under the Caribbean plate along the Middle America Trench, creating active seismicity. In this region, the Caribbean plate is characterized by a well-consolidated, high velocity framework material beneath the slope sediments, but the nature of the upper plate material is yet unknown. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 334 and 344, the unconformity between the slope sediments (Unit 1) and upper plate material (Units 2 and 3) consisting of lithic sedimentary units was penetrated at mid-slope Site 1380. In the current study, to characterize the compaction behavior of the upper plate material, we investigate the physical properties, texture and composition of the sediments at Site 1380 by conducting microstructural observations, resistivity measurements, particle size analyses, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction analyses. The microstructures of sediments observed through the microscope tend to develop dense and cohesive textures in low porosity sediments, and particle size changes across several unconformities. In particular, the small particle-sized lithic fragments compose larger bodies and form cohesive structures. The cross correlation between measured particle size and shipboard porosity show negative correlation especially at Unit 2, indicating that larger sized particles form smaller or fewer pores. From the results of XRF and XRD analyses, we found that Al, K, Ti tend to concentrate in the higher porosity sediments of Unit 1, whereas Si, Ca, P, Mg, Na, and Mn concentrate in the lower porosity sediments of Unit 2 and 3. The higher concentration in Mg, Na, Mn, Si may be due to minerals such as chlorite, serpentine, amphibole, and sodium manganese. The crossplots between porosity and element concentration show negative correlations in Mg, Na, and Mn with porosity, suggesting that the minerals rich in these elements may relate with the

  11. The impact of pasture conversion on nutrient cycles of tropical streams on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: a paired catchment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringhurst, K.; Jordan, P.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in nutrient and hydrologic cycles caused by land disturbance typically lead to detrimental changes to ecosystems. This study utilized a paired, small-catchment approach to examine the effect of deforestation on nutrient transfer and hydrological discharge and the resulting impact on soils and streams of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. Two first order streams were chosen, the first catchment had been cleared for pasture and the second consisted of undisturbed tropical wet forest. Soil concentrations of organic matter, total and soil available P were higher in the forested catchment with decreases of >33% of each in the deforested catchment. The effect of deforestation on stream discharge was a 59% increase in flow during the wet season and an increase in the Q5:Q95 ratio showing that the deforested stream was flashier. The deforested catchment loss of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) increased 95% over the forested catchment. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) showed an increase in load of 43% in the deforested catchment compared to the forested catchment. The molar N:P ratios were lower than the Redfield ratio and both streams were well below the level at which N-limitation of lotic algal growth has been reported, therefore it is hypothesized that N is the limiting nutrient in streams in the study area. Soil nutrient depletion in the deforested catchment, accelerated by a changed hydrologic regime, is the likely trajectory of soil-water interactions in this tropical ecosystem. This will likely be among the secondary impacts should deforestation become widespread along this stretch of the Pacific coastline, with associated eutrophication of receiving transitional and coastal waters.

  12. Temporal variations of temperature, salinity and circulation in the Peruípe river estuary (nova Viçosa, BA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Andutta, Fernando; de Miranda, Luiz Bruner; França Schettini, Carlos Augusto; Siegle, Eduardo; da Silva, Mario Pereira; Massaki Izumi, Vitor; Murai Chagas, Felipe

    2013-11-01

    Eulerian profiles of thermohaline properties and currents have been sampled in the Peruípe River Estuary (Nova Viçosa, BA), southern region of the Caravelas-Peruípe Rivers Estuarine System. One station was located near the mouth (C) and other one up the estuary (E). The Hansen-Rattray diagram classification of the upper reaches of the Peruípe river estuary in the wet season changed from Type 2b (partially mixed and highly stratified—ν=0.88) to Type 1b (highly stratified—ν˜1.00) due to the fortnightly tidal modulation. This region was mainly forced by river discharge (RiE=5.7 and RiE=4.1) and characterized by high (RiL>20) and low stabilities (RiL<20) in the neap and spring tidal cycles. However, near the mouth stratification was strongly modulated by the tide, and its classification alternates from being highly stratified (Type 2b—ν=0.92) in the neap tide to being well mixed with low stratification (Type 1a—ν=1.00); the mouth was dominated by fresh water discharge (RiE=12.9) and tidal stirring (RiE=0.6) in the neap and spring tide, respectively, and were associated with high and low stabilities. The classical steady-state salinity and velocity profiles show good agreement (Skill˜1.0) with the corresponding observational profiles when simulated with a classical analytical model. The main characteristics of the nearly steady-state bidirectional (with a weak barolinic signal) and unidirectional velocity profiles were in good agreement with the estuarine quantitative classifications (Types 2b, 1a and 1b). The rate of change of the potential energy due to fortnightly tidal modulation was slightly higher near the mouth (6.1 J m-3 s-1) than in the upper reaches of the estuary (5.2 J m-3 s-1). However, this was not strong enough to generate halocline erosion in the transitional neap to spring tidal cycle, and the estuary classification remained Type 1b. The main conclusions are summarized as follows: (i) Two stations sampled along the Peruípe river

  13. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima and Touchet River Basins, 2005-2006 Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie; Abernethy, C.; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated 25 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima and Touchet river basins. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performs these evaluations for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to determine whether the fish screening devices meet National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. Evaluations consist of measuring velocities in front of the screens, using an underwater camera to look at the condition and environment in front of the screens, and noting the general condition and operation of the sites. Results of the evaluations in 2005 include the following: (1) Most approach velocities met the NMFS criterion of less than or equal to 0.4 fps. Less than 13% of all approach measurements exceeded the criterion, and these occurred at 10 of the sites. Flat-plate screens had more problems than drum screens with high approach velocities. (2) Bypass velocities generally were greater than sweep velocities, but sweep velocities often did not increase toward the bypass. The latter condition could slow migration of fish through the facility. (3) Screen and seal materials generally were in good condition. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well-greased and operative. (5) Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) generally operate and maintain fish screen facilities in a way that provides safe passage for juvenile fish. (6) In some instances, irrigators responsible for specific maintenance at their sites (e.g., debris removal) are not performing their tasks in a way that provides optimum operation of the fish screen facility. New ways need to be found to encourage them to maintain their facilities properly. (7) We recommend placing datasheets providing up-to-date operating criteria and design flows in each sites logbox. The datasheet should include bypass design flows and a table showing depths of water over the weir and corresponding bypass flow. This information is available at some of the sites but may be outdated. These data are used to determine if the site is running within design criteria. (8) Modifying use of debris control plates at Gleed helped minimize the extreme fluctuations in flow, but approach velocities are still too high. Other ways to reduce the approach velocities need to be tried, possibly including redesign of the site. (9) Alternatives to a screen site at Taylor should be considered. A lot of effort was spent trying to increase water to the site, but it still was unable to operate within NMFS criteria for most of the year and may be a hazard to juvenile salmonids. We conclude that the conditions at most of the Phase II fish screen facilities we evaluated in 2005 would be expected to provide safe passage for juvenile fish. For those sites where conditions are not always optimum for safe fish passage, PNNL researchers will try to coordinate with the WDFW and USBR in 2006 to find solutions to the problems. Some of those problems are consistently high approach velocities at specific sites, including Congdon, Naches-Selah, Union Gap, and Yakima-Tieton. We would like to be able to monitor changes in velocities as soon as operations and maintenance personnel adjust the louvers or porosity boards at these sites. This will give them immediate feedback on the results of their modifications and allow additional adjustments as necessary until the conditions meet NMFS criteria. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has performed evaluations at many of these sites over the past 8 years, providing information WDFW and USBR personnel can use to perform their operations and maintenance more effectively. Consequently, overall effectiveness of the screens facilities has improved over time.

  14. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Notice Requesting Comments, 70 FR 46193 (Aug. 9, 2005), Docket 2005-2 CRB SD 2001-2003; Notice Requesting Comments, 73 FR 5597 (Jan. 30, 2008), Docket 2008-5 CRB SD 1999-2000; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 4423 (Jan. 27, 2010) Docket 2010-2 CRB SD 2004-2007; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 66799 (Oct....

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control data resulted in censoring of less than 1 percent of the detections of constituents measured in ground-water samples. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable drinking-water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to the treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and other health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns by CDPH. Two VOCs were detected above health-based thresholds: 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), and benzene. DBCP was detected above the U.S. Environmental Protections Agency's maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) in three grid wells and five understanding wells. Benzene was detected above the CDPH's maximum contaminant level (MCL-CA) in one grid well. All pesticide detections were below health-based thresholds. Perchlorate was detected above its maximum contaminate level for California in one grid well. Nitrate was detected above the MCL-US in six samples from understanding wells, of which one was a public supply well. Two trace elements were detected above MCLs-US: arsenic and uranium. Arsenic was detected above the MCL-US in four grid wells and two understanding wells; uranium was detected above the MCL-US in one grid well and one understanding well. Gross alpha radiation was detected above MCLs-US in five samples; four of them understanding wells, and uranium isotope activity was greater than the MCL-US for one understanding well

  16. Evaluations of fungicides and fungicide timing for the control of soybean rust at Zimbabwe, 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SC Siesta soybean seeds were planted at Rattray Arnold Research Station in Enterprise Land near Harare, Zimbabwe on 10 Dec 2005 in four row plots, 20 ft. long, with 30 in row spacing and two rows of border. the experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treat...

  17. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns in a specified land unit. These RMS plans are developed using a nine step planning process that acts to balance natural resource issues with economic and social needs. Soil, Water, Air, Plants, Animals, and Human resource concerns are the core focus in developing a framework for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation activities in a given planning unit, while working within the guidelines set forth by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA), National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and other federal, state, and local laws. Implementation of this project has provided technical and implementation assistance for numerous on the ground projects, including 119 WASCBs, 74,591 feet of terraces, 3 spring developments, 24,839 feet of riparian or pasture cross fencing, 1,072 acres of direct seed trials, 14 landowners implementing 34 CREP contracts, and the development of 5 additional CREP contracts slated for enrollment at the beginning of FY07. Within the past contract year in Sherman County, 1898.3 acres of CREP have been enrolled protecting approximately 52 miles of riparian or intermittent stream channel habitat. In addition to the increase in on the ground projects, coordination and outreach to solicit conservation projects in Sherman County has increased due to the additional staffing provided by BPA funds. As a result there is an abundance of potential conservation projects for water quality and riparian management improvement. With the sustained availability of coordination and technical assistance provided through this grant, BPA personnel funds will translate to a much higher dollar figure applied on the ground. This project has been very successful in keeping up with the demand for conservation projects within Sherman County.

  18. 76 FR 14117 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005-2006 Porsche Carrera (997...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted to the Docket: You... of this standard. Standard No. 208 Occupant Crash Protection: Inspection of all vehicles...

  19. 78 FR 38442 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005-2006 Mercedes Benz SLR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to... does not already conform. Standard No. 208 Occupant Crash Protection: Reprogramming the...

  20. Celebrating 50 Years of Advancing Independent Higher Education: Council of Independent Colleges 2005-2006 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Independent Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Many new Council of Independent Colleges (CIC) programs and services are highlighted in this special anniversary Annual Report, amount them American Graduate Fellowships and "Ancient Greece in the Modern College Classroom." Other CIC initiatives continue to help campus leaders enhance their decision-making capacity, leadership expertise,…

  1. WISE 2005-2006: 60-days of Head-Down Bed Rest Increases the Incidence of Menstrual Cycle Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Charles

    Objective: It has been suggested that acute bed rest of short duration (11 days) disrupts the menstrual cycle of healthy subjects. Furthermore, use of countermeasures such as heavy exercise or dietary manipulations may adversely effect the menstrual cycle. We hypothesized that bed rest of 60 days and the use of countermeasures would increase the incidence of disruption of the menstrual cycle (MC). Methods: Twenty-four healthy subjects with a mean age of 32±0.8 yr, body mass of 59±0.8 kg and MC lengths of 25-32 days were enrolled. Three months prior to the study subjects did not use hormonal birth control methods. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups (n=8 per group): control, exercise countermeasures, and dietary countermeasures. MC lengthening was defined as an increase in duration of 10 or more days. Analysis was performed accounting for the effects of bedrest as well as treatment group. Results: Effects of countermeasures were not significant in the present analysis. After the conclusion of the study, subjects were classified as either normal (N; n=16) or oligomenorrhea (O; n=8) as determined by MC length during the pre-bed rest (PB) and bed rest (BR) periods. During the control period prior to bed rest one subject (4%) had an increase MC length. During the control period the average MC length was 31±0.8 days with a leutinizing hormone (LH) surge 12±0.8 days prior to menses. The duration of menses was 4±0.4 days. During BR there was an increase to 33% (p¡0.05) in the number of subjects having MC lengthening. In these subjects the mean length was increased from 31±0.9 to 62±8.2 days (p¡0.05). There was no change in the period from the LH surge prior to the next menses, 11±0.8 days, or duration of menses, 4±0.2 days. Plasma LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolacin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), aldosterone (Aldo), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were measured during PB, BR, early post bed rest (day 0-day 60;EPBR) and late post bed rest (day 60-day 367;LPBR). Plasma PRG was significantly higher (p¡0.02) in the N group before BR and continued throughout the BR period. A significant difference in E2 was observed in the N group between PB and BR, BR and EPBR, and EPBR and LPBR (p¡0.01). E2 was significantly different between N and O during BR (p¡0.02). No differences were observed in the other plasma measurements. Daily urine samples demonstrated no changes in C or Aldo over the course of the study. At 6 and 12 months following completion of the study all subjects reported normal MC. Conclusion: The lengthening of menstrual cycle during bed rest is a result of a delay in ovulation due to the absence of a LH surge (ovulation) associated with lower PRG and E2 levels. In females, changes in menstrual cycles may be a contributing factor to the adverse responses to bed rest such as loss of bone mass, reductions in blood volume and decreased work performance.

  2. Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Bacteria, Antibiotics, and Mercury in Surface Waters of Oakland County, Michigan, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony-forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic-resistance genes (class I integrons) were detected in several samples, indicating that the resistance carried by these organisms may be transferable to other bacteria, including disease-causing bacteria.

  3. American Council of Learned Societies Annual Report for the Years 2006-2007 and 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Learned Societies, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) provides the humanities and related social sciences with leadership, opportunities for innovation, and national and international representation. The American Council of Learned Societies was created in 1919 to represent the United States in the Union Academique Internationale. Its mission is "the…

  4. Evaluations of fungicides and fungicide timing for the control of soybean rust at Pirapo, Paraguay, 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 8500 soybean seeds were planted at Bella Vista, Paraguay on 7 Feb 2005 in four row plots, 24 ft long, with 18-in row spacing and two rows of border. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates. Treatments consisted of Headline 2.09EC, Folicur 3.6F, Quilt 1.67S...

  5. Evaluations of fungicides and fungicide timing for the control of soybean rust at Bella Vista, Paraguay, 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 8000 soybean seeds were planted at Bella Vista, Paraguay on 12 Nov 2005 in four row plots, 24 ft long, with 18 in. row spacing and two rows of border. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of Headline 2.09EC, Folicur 3.6F, ...

  6. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chikungunya Virus Infection in Mayotte, Indian Ocean, 2005-2006: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sissoko, Daouda; Moendandze, Amrat; Malvy, Denis; Giry, Claude; Ezzedine, Khaled; Solet, Jean Louis; Pierre, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 2006, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has re-emerged as an important pathogen of global concern. However, individual and household factors associated with the acquisition and the magnitude of clinically silent CHIKV infections remain poorly understood. In this present study, we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence, estimate the proportion of symptomatic illness and identify the risk factors for CHIKV infection in the primo-exposed population of Mayotte. Methods/ Principal Findings We conducted a household-based cross sectional serosurvey in Mayotte in November and December 2006 using complex multistage cluster sampling. To produce the results representative of the island population aged 2 years or older, sample data were adjusted with sample weights. Explanatory and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between CHIKV infection seropositivity (presence of IgM and/or IgG to CHIKV by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay) and risk factors. A total of 1154 individuals were analyzed. The overall seroprevalence of CHIKV infection was 37·2% (95% CI = 33·9–40·5), 318 (72·3%) of the seropositive participants reported symptoms consistent with a CHIKV infection during the epidemic period. Risk factors for CHIKV seropositivity among adults (aged 15 years and older) were male gender, low socioeconomic index, schooling ≤6 years and living in makeshift housing. Conclusions Our findings indicate that roughly one out of four CHIKV infections is asymptomatic. Conditions associated with poverty may be considered as critical in CHIKV acquisition. Thus, these conditions should be taken into account in the development of future prevention strategies of CHIKV disease. PMID:18725980

  7. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Genetic Studies; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Busack, Craig A.; Fritts, Anthony L.; Kassler, Todd

    2006-05-01

    This report covers one of many topics under the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's Monitoring and Evaluation Program (YKFPME). The YKFPME is funded under two BPA contracts, one for the Yakama Nation and the other for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (Contract number 22370, Project Number 1995-063-25). A comprehensive summary report for all of the monitoring and evaluation topics will be submitted after all of the topical reports are completed. This approach to reporting enhances the ability of people to get the information they want, enhances timely reporting of results, and provides a condensed synthesis of the whole YKFPME. The current report was completed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  8. Outbreak of meningococcal disease in and around New Delhi, India, 2005-2006: a report from a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Nair, D; Dawar, R; Deb, M; Capoor, M R; Singal, S; Upadhayay, D J; Aggarwal, P; DAS, B; Samantaray, J C

    2009-04-01

    The first of several cases of meningococcal meningitis was reported in April 2005, in New Delhi, India. Subsequent to this the Government declared an outbreak, which persisted for two periods, from April-July 2005 and January-March 2006. The National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) recommended using WHO criteria for diagnosis of disease. During the outbreak 380 clinically suspected cases were investigated. Of 55 cases diagnosed as confirmed/probable the mortality rate was 14.6%. Meningitis was reported in 60% of cases and meningococcaemia in 40%. Microscopy of petechial rash was positive in 87.5%, CSF Gram stain positive in 68.3%, and latex agglutination test of CSF positive in 64.9% of samples. Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup A) was isolated from 37.7% of cases, 57.7% from CSF. Blood culture was positive in 10.4% of cases. CrgA polymerase chain reaction for N. meningitidis confirmed the isolates. All isolates were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin and rifampicin, with increasing resistance to ceftriaxone. Penicillin resistance was encountered in 15.4% of strains. Resistance to quinolones was very high at 100% for levofloxacin, 84.6% for ofloxacin and 65.4% for ciprofloxacin. All patients with penicillin-resistant organisms (4) or intermediate sensitivity (4) succumbed to the disease. These patients also had a higher minimum inhibitory concentration to ceftriaxone. PMID:18840317

  9. Determing Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution, and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River, Oregon, Subbasin; 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jennifer C.; Brun, Christopher V.

    2006-05-01

    Information about lamprey species composition, distribution, life history, abundance, habitat requirements, and exploitation in the lower Deschutes River Subbasin is extremely limited. During 2002, we began a multi-year study to assess the status of lamprey in the Deschutes River subbasin. The objectives of this project are to determine ammocoete (larval lamprey) distribution and associated habitats; Lampretra species composition; numbers of emigrants; adult escapement and harvest rates at Sherars Falls. This report describes the preliminary results of data collected during 2005. We continued documenting ammocoete (larval) habitat selection by surveying four perennial eastside tributaries to the Deschutes River (Warm Springs River, Badger, Beaver and Shitike creeks) within the known ammocoete distribution. The results of 2003-2005 sampling indicate that positive relationships exist between: presence of wood (P = < 0.001), depositional area (P = < 0.001), flow (P = < 0.001), and fine substrate (P = < 0.001). Out-migrants numbers were not estimated during 2005 due to our inability to recapture marked larvae. In Shitike Creek, ammocoete and microphthalmia out-migration peaked during November 2005. In the Warm Spring River, out-migration peaked for ammocoetes in April 2006 and December 2005 for microphthalmia. Samples of ammocoetes from each stream were retained in a permanent collection of future analysis. An escapement estimate was generated for adult Pacific lamprey in the lower Deschutes River using a two event mark-recapture experiment during run year 2005. A modified Peterson model was used to estimate the adult population of Pacific lamprey at 3,895 with an estimated escapement of 2,881 during 2005 (95% CI= 2,847; M = 143; C = 1,027 R = 37). A tribal creel was also conducted from mid-June through August. We estimated tribal harvest to be approximately 1,015 adult lamprey during 2005 (95% CI= +/- 74).

  10. Evaluation of Structural Best Management Practices for Highway Runoff in Beaufort and Colleton Counties, South Carolina, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Kevin; Journey, Celeste

    2009-01-01

    As part of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program mandated in the Clean Water Act, the South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) is required to address the quality of stormwater runoff from state-maintained roadways. From 2005 to 2006, the SCDOT and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked cooperatively in Beaufort and Colleton Counties, South Carolina (SC), to evaluate the performance of four different structural devices that served as best management practices (BMPs). These structural devices were installed to lessen the potential effects of stormwater runoff on water quality in waterways near state roads. The purpose of this Fact Sheet is to summarize results published in the USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5150. The report documents the ability of these four BMP devices to remove suspended sediment, metals, nutrients, and organics compounds in stormwater runoff. The quantity of rainfall and stormflow and quality of stormwater entering and leaving the BMPs were monitored during 12-13 storms over a 21-month period. The results provide the SCDOT with quantitative information to evaluate whether or not the BMPs effectively enhanced stormwater quality. This information can be used by the SCDOT and other State, local, and Federal agencies in the selection of appropriate BMPs for future installation.

  11. Annual primary production in Antarctic sea ice during 2005-2006 from a sea ice state estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Benjamin T.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-06-01

    Using the data-bounded Sea Ice Ecosystem State (SIESTA) model, we estimate total Antarctic sea ice algal primary production to be 23.7 Tg C a-1 for the period July 2005-June 2006, of which 80% occurred in the bottom 0.2 m of ice. Simulated sea ice primary production would constitute 12% of total annual primary production in the Antarctic sea ice zone, and ˜1% of annual Southern Ocean primary production. Model sea ice algal growth was net nutrient limited, rather than light limited, for the vast majority of the sunlit season. The seasonal distribution of integrated ice algal biomass matches available observations. The vertical algal distribution was weighted toward the ice bottom compared to observations, indicating that interior ice algal communities may be under-predicted in the model, and that nutrient delivery via gravity-induced convection is not sufficient to sustain summertime algal biomass. Bottom ice algae were most productive in ice of 0.36 m thickness, whereas interior algal communities were most productive in ice of 1.10 m thickness. Sensitivity analyses that tested different atmospheric forcing inputs, sea ice parameterizations, and nutrient availability caused mean and regional shifts in sea ice state and ice algal production even when sea extent and motion was specified. The spatial heterogeneity of both ice state and algal production highlight the sensitivity of the sea ice ecosystem to physical perturbation, and demonstrate the importance of quality input data and appropriate parameterizations to models of sea ice and associated biology.

  12. European Standards and Guidelines in a Nordic Perspective: Joint Nordic Project 2005-2006. ENQA Occasional Papers 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinther-Jorgensen, Tue, Ed.; Hansen, Signe Ploug, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of the joint 2005-06 project of the Nordic Quality Assurance Network in Higher Education (NOQA). The project focused on the European standards and guidelines for quality assurance agencies, examining them in a Nordic perspective. The project aimed at interpreting and clarifying the European standards and guidelines…

  13. Escherichia coli Concentrations in Recreational Streams and Backcountry Drinking-Water Supplies in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Although fecal contamination of streams is a problem of national scope, few investigations have been directed at relatively pristine streams in forested basins in national parks. With approximately 1.8 million visitors annually, Shenandoah National Park in Virginia is subject to extensive recreational use. The effects of these visitors and their recreational activities on fecal indicator bacteria levels in the streams are poorly understood and of concern for Shenandoah National Park managers. During 2005 and 2006, streams and springs in Shenandoah National Park were sampled for Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations. The first study objective was to evaluate the effects of recreational activities on E. coli concentrations in selected streams. Of the 20 streams that were selected, 14 were in basins with extensive recreational activity, and 6 were in control basins where minimal recreational activities occurred. Water-quality sampling was conducted during low-flow conditions during the relatively warm months, as this is when outdoor recreation and bacterial survivorship are greatest. Although most sampling was conducted during low-flow conditions, approximately three stormflow samples were collected from each stream. The second study objective was to evaluate E. coli levels in backcountry drinking-water supplies throughout Shenandoah National Park. Nineteen drinking-water supplies (springs and streams) were sampled two to six times each by Shenandoah National Park staff and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey for this purpose. The water-quality sampling results indicated relatively low E. coli concentrations during low-flow conditions, and no statistically significant increase in E. coli concentrations was observed in the recreational streams relative to the control streams. These results indicate that during low-flow conditions, recreational activities had no significant effect on E. coli concentrations. During stormflow conditions, E. coli concentrations increased by nearly a factor of 10 in both basin types, and the Virginia instantaneous water-quality standard for E. coli (235 colonies per 100 milliliters) frequently was exceeded. The sampling results from drinking-water supplies throughout Shenandoah National Park indicated relatively low E. coli concentrations in all springs that were sampled. Several of the streams that were sampled had slightly higher E. coli concentrations relative to the springs, but no E. coli concentrations exceeded the instantaneous water-quality standard. Although E. coli concentrations in all the drinking-water supplies were relatively low, Shenandoah National Park management continues to stress that all hikers must treat drinking water from all streams and springs prior to consumption. After determining that recreational activities in Shenandoah National Park did not have a statistically significant effect on low-flow E. coli concentrations, an additional concern was addressed regarding the quality of the water releases from the wastewater-treatment plants in the park. Sampling of three wastewater-treatment plant outfalls was conducted in 2006 to evaluate their effects on water quality. Samples were analyzed for E. coli and a collection of wastewater organic compounds that may be endocrine disruptors. Relatively elevated E. coli concentrations were observed in 2 of the 3 samples, and between 9 and 13 wastewater organic compounds were detected in the samples, including 3 known and 5 suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds.

  14. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for fingerprint pattern recognition in olive oils produced by two different techniques in Portuguese olive varieties Galega Vulgar, Cobrançosa e Carrasquenha.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Freire, L Torres; da Silva, M D R Gomes; Freitas, A M Costa

    2009-02-01

    For olive oil production a metal hammer-decanter olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press line, a discontinuous method which, if properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega, Carrasquenha and Cobrançosa olives (traditional Portuguese varieties) were studied. The analysis of the aroma compounds was performed after headspace-solid phase micro extraction. The analytical results obtained after comprehensive gas chromatography in tandem with time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/ToFMS) for these three different olive oil varieties, from a single year harvest and processed with two different extraction technologies, were compared using statistical image treatment, by means of ImageJ software, for fingerprint recognitions and compared with principal component analysis when the area data of each chromatographic spot of the contour plots were considered. The differences used to classify the olive oils studied under different groups after principal component analysis were observed independently of the treatment used (peak areas or the sum of the pixels counts). When the individual peak areas were considered, more then 75.7% of the total variance is explained by the first two principal components while in the case where the data were subjected to image treatment 84.0% of the total variance is explained by the first two principal components. In both cases the first and second principal components present eigenvalues higher then 1.0. Fingerprint image monitoring of the aroma compounds of the olive oil allowed a rapid differentiation of the three varieties studied as well as the extraction methods used. The volatile compounds responsible for their characterization were tentatively identified in a bi-dimensional polar/non-polar column set in the GCxGC/Tof-MS apparatus. This methodology allowed the reduction of the number of compounds needed for matrices characterization, preserving the efficiency of the discrimination, when

  15. A Matter of Judgment: Deciding the Future of Family Court in NYC. Child Welfare Watch. Volume 12, Winter 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Andrew, Ed.; Katz, Alyssa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    New York City has for far too long tolerated a severe imbalance in the delivery of legal services in child welfare cases. Although the Administration for Children's Services (ACS), the Legal Aid Society and Lawyers for Children all are given a significant annual budget which allows these agencies to represent petitioners and children in Family…

  16. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven G.; Muir, William D.; Marsh, Douglas M.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the thirteenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 18,439 hatchery steelhead, 5,315 wild steelhead, and 6,964 wild yearling Chinook salmon at Lower Granite Dam in the Snake River. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and at sites within the hydropower system in both the Snake and Columbia Rivers. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, Ice Harbor, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''single-release model''). Primary research objectives in 2005 were: (1) Estimate reach survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss. (2) Evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions. (3) Evaluate the survival estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2005 for PIT-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Additional details on the methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here.

  17. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knedsen, Curtis M.; Schroder, Steven L.; Johnston, Mark V.

    2006-05-01

    This report covers three of many topics under the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's Monitoring and Evaluation Program (YKFPME) and was completed by Oncorh Consulting as a contract deliverable to the Yakama Nation and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The YKFPME (Project Number 1995-063-25) is funded under two BPA contracts, one for the Yakama Nation (Contract No. 00022449) and the other for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (Contract No. 22370). A comprehensive summary report for all of the monitoring and evaluation topics will be submitted after all of the topical reports are completed. This approach to reporting enhances the ability of people to get the information they want, enhances timely reporting of results, and provides a condensed synthesis of the whole YKFPME.

  18. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.; Johnson, Robert; McKinstry, C.

    2006-03-01

    The construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams on the Columbia River resulted in the complete extirpation of the anadromous fishery upstream of these structures. Today, this area is totally dependent upon resident fish resources to support local fisheries. The resident fishing is enhanced by an extensive stocking program for target species in the existing fishery, including kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). The kokanee fishery in Lake Roosevelt has not been meeting the return goals set by fisheries managers despite the stocking program. Investigations of physical and biological factors that could affect the kokanee population found predation and entrainment had a significant impact on the fish population. In 1999 and 2000, walleye (Sander vitreum) consumed between 15% and 9%, respectively, of the hatchery kokanee within 41 days of their release, while results from a study in the late 1990s estimated that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam could account for up to 30% of the total mortality of the stocked fish. To address the entrainment loss, the Bonneville Power Administration commissioned a study to determine if fish would avoid areas illuminated by strobe lights in the forebay of the third powerplant. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes). From 2002 through 2004, six strobe lights were suspended in the center of the opening to the third powerplant forebay during summer months. Results from those studies indicated that fish appeared to be attracted to the illuminated area but only at night and when flow conditions within the third powerplant forebay were minimal. However, small but consistent results from these studies indicated that under high flow conditions, fish might be avoiding the lights. The 2005 study was designed to examine whether, under high flow conditions near the penstock openings, fish would avoid the lighted regions. Four omnidirectional strobe lights were deployed on the one trash rack directly in front of one turbine penstock. Seven splitbeam transducers were deployed to monitor fish approaching three penstock openings either from in front of the trash racks or moving down the dam behind the trash racks. Four key results emerged from the 2005 study. The results provide insight into the current level of entrainment and how fish respond to strobe lights under high flow conditions. First, very few fish were detected inside the trash racks. Of the more than 3,200 targets identified by the data processing, less than 100 were detected inside the trash racks. Only 23 fish were found inside the trash racks behind the strobe lights. Of those 21 fish, 13 were detected when the lights were on. Most of the fish detected behind the trash racks were above the turbine penstock but were headed downward. No fish were detected at night when minimal flows occurred between midnight and 4:00 a.m. Second, significantly more fish (P < 0.001) were detected in front of the trash racks when the lights were on at night. On a count-per-hour basis, the difference between lights off and lights on was apparent in the early morning hours at depths between 25 m and 50 m from the transducers. The lights were approximately 34 m below the splitbeam transducers, and fish detected at night with lights on were found at a median depth of approximately 35 m, compared to a median depth of from 20.6 to 23.5 m when the lights were off. The differences in depth between lights on and off at night were also significant (P < 0.001). Additionally, the increase in fish occurred only in front of the trash rack where the strobe lights were mounted; there was no increase in the number of detections by the transducers aimed away from the lights. Third, fish clearly manifested a behavioral response to the strobe lights during the day. When the lights were on, fish detected by three of the four transducers generally were swimming north, parallel to the face of the dam. Howeve

  19. The role of parental, school, and peer factors in adolescent bullying involvement: results from the Turkish HBSC 2005/2006 study.

    PubMed

    Erginoz, Ethem; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Ercan, Oya; Uysal, Omer; Alp, Zeynep; Ocak, Suheyla; Oktay Tanyildiz, Gulsah; Ekici, Baris; Yucel, Ilker Kemal; Albayrak Kaymak, Deniz

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between involvement in bullying behaviors and school, family, and peer factors. Health Behavior in School Age Children survey questionnaire was used. Of the students surveyed, 20% were both bully and victim, 11% were bully, and 21% were victim. Being male, poor parental support, and poor monitoring by the father were found to be risk factors for being both bully and victim. Poor academic achievement, having peers at different ages, poor quality of friendship, poor communication with parents, and not being isolated by peers were found to be risk factors for being bully. Not liking school, feeling pressured by school work, poor quality of friendship, poor monitoring by the father, close bonding with mother, and poor status of the peer group were found to be risk factors for being victim. These findings highlight the importance that bullying intervention programs should include country-specific and culture-specific influences for success. PMID:23359869

  20. Public outreach and communications of the Alaska Volcano Observatory during the 2005-2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano: Chapter 27 in The 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adleman, Jennifer N.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Snedigar, Seth F.; Neal, Christina A.; Wallace, Kristi L.

    2010-01-01

    The AVO Web site, with its accompanying database, is the backbone of AVO's external and internal communications. This was the first Cook Inlet volcanic eruption with a public expectation of real-time access to data, updates, and hazards information over the Internet. In March 2005, AVO improved the Web site from individual static pages to a dynamic, database-driven site. This new system provided quick and straightforward access to the latest information for (1) staff within the observatory, (2) emergency managers from State and local governments and organizations, (3) the media, and (4) the public. From mid-December 2005 through April 2006, the AVO Web site served more than 45 million Web pages and about 5.5 terabytes of data.

  1. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific riverbed elevation and providing minimum spawning flows that have the greatest chance of being maintained through egg incubation and fry emergence. However, managing the lower Columbia River for a stable tailwater elevation does not provide much operational flexibility at Bonneville Dam, which has little storage capacity. When river discharges increase due to rain events, the traditional approach has been to pass excess water at night to maintain stable tailwater elevations during the daytime. The underlying assumption of this strategy, referred to as reverse load following, is that fish do not spawn at night. However, Tiffan et al. (2005) showed that this assumption is false by documenting nighttime spawning by chum salmon in the Ives Island area. Similarly, McMichael et al. (2005) reported nighttime spawning by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Columbia River, indicating that diel spawning may be a common occurrence in Pacific salmon. During the latter portion of the chum spawning period in December 2003 and 2004, discharges from Bonneville Dam increased from an average of 3,398 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 3.5 m above mean sea level) during the day to over 5,664 m3/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 5.1 m) at night, with peak discharges of 7,080 m{sup 3}/s (tailwater elevation {approx} 6.1 m). This caused concern among fishery managers regarding the potential effects of these high discharges on this population of spawning chum salmon, which is listed under the Endangered Species Act (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1999). We hypothesized that increased water velocities associated with elevated tailwaters might alter chum salmon spawning behavior if water velocities at redd locations increased beyond the range of suitability (>0.8 m/s; Salo 1991). In 2005, we investigated the movement and behavioral responses of spawning chum salmon at Ives Island to increased tailwater elevations at Bonneville Dam. We used acoustic telemetry to determine if the higher velocities associated with increased tailwater elevations caused fish to leave their re

  2. Data Overview for Sensor Fish Samples Acquired at Ice Harbor, John Day, and Bonneville II Dams in 2005, 2006, and 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2008-03-12

    The purpose of this work was to acquire Sensor Fish data on turbine passage at Bonneville II, John Day, and Ice Harbor dams for later analysis and use. The original data sets have been entered into a database and are being maintained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory pending delivery to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers when requested. This report provides documentation for the data sets acquired and details about the operations of the Sensor Fish and interpretation of Sensor Fish data that will be necessary for later use of the acquired data. A limited review of the acquired data was conducted to assess its quality and to extract information that might prove useful to its later use.

  3. Analysis of FY 2005/2006 Hydrologic Testing and Sampling Results for Well ER-12-4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Fryer

    2006-09-01

    This report documents the analysis of data collected for ER-12-4 during the fiscal year (FY) 2005 Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain well development and hydraulic testing program (herein referred to as the ''testing program'') and hydraulic response data from the FY 2006 Sampling Program. Well ER-12-4 was constructed and tested as a part of the Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Phase I drilling program during FY 2005. These activities were conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject. As shown on Figure 1-1, ER-12-4 is located in central Rainier Mesa, in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Figure 1-2 shows the well location in relation to the tunnels under Rainier Mesa. The well was drilled to a total depth (TD) of 3,715 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs) (surface elevation 6,883.7 ft above mean sea level [amsl]) in the area of several tunnels mined into Rainier Mesa that were used historically for nuclear testing (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The closest nuclear test to the well location was MIGHTY OAK (U-12t.08), conducted in the U-12t Tunnel approximately 475 ft north of the well site. The MIGHTY OAK test working point elevation was located at approximately 5,620 ft amsl. The MIGHTY OAK test had an announced yield of ''less than 20 kilotons'' (DOE/NV, 2000). The purpose of this hydrogeologic investigation well is to evaluate the deep Tertiary volcanic section below the tunnel level, which is above the regional water table, and to provide information on the section of the lower carbonate aquifer - thrust plate (LCA3), located below the Tertiary volcanic section (SNJV, 2005b). Details on the drilling and completion program are presented in the ''Completion Report for Well ER-12-4 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain'' (NNSA/NSO, 2006). Participants in ER-12-4 testing activities were: Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), Bechtel Nevada (BN), Desert Research Institute (DRI), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture served as the lead contractor responsible for providing site supervision, development and testing services, and waste management services; BN provided construction and engineering support services; DRI provided well logging services and participated in groundwater sampling and laboratory analyses; LANL and LLNL participated in groundwater sampling and laboratory analyses; and the USGS performed laboratory analyses. Analyses of data from the ER-12-4 testing program presented in this document were performed by SNJV except as noted. These same contractors participated in the FY 2006 Sampling Program.

  4. 2005-2006 Highly Qualified Teacher Reporting Materials. How Will I know if I Meet the Federal Definition of a Highly Qualified Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which took effect in 2002 and requires that all teachers be highly qualified in the core academic content area(s) they teach, places major emphasis upon teacher quality as a factor in improving achievement for all students. This emphasis grows out of the research showing that teachers' mastery of the…

  5. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the two southern San Joaquin Valley study units, 2005-2006 - California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley was investigated from October 2005 through March 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. There are two study units located in the southern San Joaquin Valley: the Southeast San Joaquin Valley (SESJ) study unit and the Kern County Subbasin (KERN) study unit. The GAMA Priority Basin Project in the SESJ and KERN study units was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifers. The status assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 and 2006 by the USGS from 130 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Data was collected from an additional 19 wells for the understanding assessment. The aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the CDPH database for the SESJ and KERN study units. The status assessment of groundwater quality used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources within the primary aquifers in the SESJ and KERN study units, not the quality of drinking water delivered to consumers. Although the status assessment applies to untreated groundwater, Federal and California regulatory and non-regulatory water-quality benchmarks that apply to drinking water are used to provide context for the results. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater. A relative-concentration greater than 1.0 indicates a concentration greater than the benchmark and is classified as high. The relative-concentration threshold for classifying inorganic constituents as moderate or low was 0.5; for organic constituents the threshold between moderate and low was 0.1. Aquifer-scale proportion was used as the primary metric for assessing the quality of untreated groundwater for the study units. High aquifer-scale proportion is defined as the areal percentage of the primary aquifers with a high relative-concentration for a particular constituent or class of constituents. Moderate and low aquifer-scale proportions were defined as the areal percentage of the primary aquifers with moderate and low relative-concentrations, respectively. Two statistical approaches—grid-based and spatially weighted—were used to evaluate aquifer-scale proportions for individual constituents and classes of constituents. Grid-based and spatially weighted estimates were comparable for the two study units in the southern San Joaquin Valley (within 90 percent confidence intervals). The status assessment showed that inorganic constituents were more prevalent than organic constituents and that relative-concentrations were higher for inorganic constituents than for organic constituents. For inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks, the relative-concentration of at least one constituent in the SESJ study unit was high in 30 percent of the primary aquifers. In the KERN study unit, the relative-concentration of at least one constituent was high in 23 percent of the primary aquifers. In the SESJ and KERN study units, the inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks detected at high relative-concentrations in more than 2 percent of the primary aquifers were arsenic, boron, vanadium, nitrate, uranium, and gross alpha radioactivity. Additional constituents with human-health benchmarks&mdas

  6. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community, Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006. Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  7. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community, Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006. Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  8. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community, Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006. Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  9. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community, Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006 Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Thomas F.; Klees, Heather; Moertel, Cheryl; Weibel, John

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  10. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006. Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  11. Winona State University Graduate Education Learning Community, Rochester, Minnesota 2005-2006 Anthology of K-12 Action Research Papers. [Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Thomas F.; Klees, Heather; Moertel, Cheryl; Weibel, John

    2005-01-01

    These papers are partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Science Degree in Education at Winona State University in Winona, Minnesota. The cohort included a variety of licensure areas that represent most levels and content areas of K-12 education. The students were encouraged to keep their questions and hypothesis directed at…

  12. How Are We Doing? A Self-Assessment of the Quality of Services andSystems at NERSC, 2005-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William T.C.; Hules, John

    2007-03-13

    This is the sixth self-assessment of the systems andservices provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's National EnergyResearch Scientific Computing Center, describing many of the efforts ofthe NERSC staff to support advanced computing for scientific discovery.The report is organized along the 10 goals set by our staff and outlineshow we are working to meet those goals. Our staff applies experience andexpertise to provide world-class systems and unparalleled services forNERSC users. At the same time, members of our organization are leadingcontributors to advancing the field of high-performance computing throughconference presentations, published papers, collaborations withscientific researchers and through regular meetings with members ofsimilar institutions. In the fast-moving realm of high-performancecomputing, adopting the latest technology while reliably deliveringcritical resources can be a challenge, but we believe that thisself-assessment demonstrates that NERSC continues to excel on bothcounts.

  13. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking-United States, 2005-2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to o...

  14. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N.; Knudsen, C.M.

    2006-05-01

    Reproductive success in wild- and first generation hatchery-origin spring Chinook males was examined by allowing the fish to compete for spawning opportunities in two sections of an observation stream. Behavioral observations were used to characterize the frequency of aggression and courting activities. Microsatellite DNA from each male and fry collected from the observation stream were used in pedigree analyses to estimate reproductive success. The coefficient of variation in male reproductive success equaled 116 and 86% in the two populations. No differences were detected in reproductive success due to hatchery or wild origin. Nor were any behavioral differences found between hatchery and wild males. Although statistical power was low due to intrinsic variation a great deal of overlap existed in the reproductive success values of hatchery and wild males. Significant disparities existed among the males on their ability to produce offspring. Males achieving high reproductive success mated with numerous females, were socially dominant, aggressive, and tended to stay in localized areas, courting and spawning with females that were adjacent to one another.

  15. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2005-2006 Annual Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Terra Lang; Wilson, Wayne H.; Ruzycki, James R.

    2009-04-10

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations, however, remain depressed relative to historic levels. Between the completion of the life history and natural escapement study in 1984 and the start of this project in 1998, spring Chinook spawning surveys did not provide adequate information to assess age structure, progeny-to-parent production values, smolt-to-adult survival (SAR), or natural spawning escapement. Further, only very limited information is available for steelhead life history, escapement, and productivity measures in the John Day subbasin. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival have also been implemented in the basin and are in need of effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed background information for developing context for project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts. To meet the data needs as index stocks, to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects, and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age structure, SAR, egg-to-smolt survival, smolt-per-redd ratio, and freshwater habitat use are essential. We have begun to meet this need through spawning ground surveys initiated for spring Chinook salmon in 1998 and smolt PIT-tagging efforts initiated in 1999. Additional sampling and analyses to meet these goals include an estimate of smolt abundance and SAR rates, and an updated measure of the freshwater distribution of critical life stages. Because Columbia Basin managers have identified the John Day subbasin spring Chinook population as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin (Schaller et al. 1999) we continue our ongoing studies. This project is high priority based on the high level of emphasis the NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program, Subbasin Summaries, NMFS, and the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds have placed on monitoring and evaluation to provide the real-time data to guide restoration and adaptive management in the region. By implementing the proposed program we have been able to address many of the goals for population status monitoring, such as defining areas currently used by spring Chinook for holding and spawning habitats and determining range expansion or contraction of summer rearing and spawning populations. The BiOp describes these goals as defining population growth rates (adult monitoring), detecting changes in those growth rates or relative abundance in a reasonable time (adult/juvenile monitoring), estimating juvenile abundance and survival rates (juvenile/smolt monitoring), and identifying stage-specific survival (adult-to-smolt, smolt-to-adult).

  16. The occurrence of glyphosate, atrazine, and other pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent streams in Washington, DC, Maryland, Iowa, and Wyoming, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Battaglin, William A; Rice, Karen C; Focazio, Michael J; Salmons, Sue; Barry, Robert X

    2009-08-01

    Vernal pools are sensitive environments that provide critical habitat for many species, including amphibians. These small water bodies are not always protected by pesticide label requirements for no-spray buffer zones, and the occurrence of pesticides in them is poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of glyphosate, its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid, and additional pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent flowing waters. Most sampling sites were chosen to be in areas where glyphosate was being used either in production agriculture or for nonindigenous plant control. The four site locations were in otherwise protected areas (e.g., in a National Park). When possible, water samples were collected both before and after glyphosate application in 2005 and 2006. Twenty-eight pesticides or pesticide degradation products were detected in the study, and as many as 11 were identified in individual samples. Atrazine was detected most frequently and concentrations exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard of 1.8 micrograms per liter (microg/l) in samples from Rands Ditch and Browns Ditch in DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge. Glyphosate was measured at the highest concentration (328 microg/l) in a sample from Riley Spring Pond in Rock Creek National Park. This concentration exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard for glyphosate of 65 microg/l. Aminomethylphosphonic acid, triclopyr, and nicosulfuron also were detected at concentrations greater than 3.0 microg/l. PMID:18677547

  17. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events-United States, 2005-2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to waterborne-d...

  18. Atmospheric Deposition and Surface-Water Chemistry in Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks, U.S.A., Water Years 2000 and 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald H.

    2008-01-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems in Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks are highly sensitive to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur. Thin, rocky soils promote fast hydrologic flushing rates during snowmelt and rain events, limiting the ability of basins to neutralize acidity and assimilate nitrogen deposited from the atmosphere. Potential effects of nitrogen and sulfur deposition include episodic or chronic acidification of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In addition, nitrogen deposition can cause eutrophication of water bodies and changes in species composition in lakes and streams. This report documents results of a study performed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, of the effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur on surface-water chemistry in Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks. Inorganic nitrogen in wet deposition was highest in the vicinity of North Cascades National Park, perhaps due to emissions from human sources and activities in the Puget Sound area. Sulfur in wet deposition was highest near the Pacific coast, reflecting the influence of marine aerosols. Dry deposition generally accounted for less than 30 percent of wet plus dry inorganic nitrogen and sulfur deposition, but occult deposition (primarily fog) represents a potentially substantial unmeasured component of total deposition. Trend analyses indicate inorganic nitrogen in wet deposition was relatively stable during 1986-2005, but sulfur in wet deposition declined substantially during that time, particularly after 2001, when emissions controls were added to a large powerplant in western Washington. Surface-water sulfate concentrations at the study site nearest the powerplant showed a statistically significant decrease between 2000 and 2005-06, but there was no statistically significant change in alkalinity, indicating a delayed response in surface-water alkalinity. Seasonal patterns in surface-water chemistry and streamflow are strongly influenced by melting of seasonal snowpacks, which release large amounts of dilute, slightly acidic water to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, alkalinity, and base cations in surface water declined rapidly during snowmelt, then gradually recovered during summer and fall. Preferential elution of acidic solutes from the snowpack at the beginning of snowmelt may cause episodic acidification in small alpine streams; evidence is provided by a stream sample collected at one of the sites during spring 2006 that was acidic (pH = 4.8, alkalinity = -18 microequivalents per liter) and had high concentrations of nitrate and sulfate and low concentrations of weathering products. Rain-on-snow events caused sharp declines in specific conductance, which was measured continuously using an in-stream sensor. A strong correlation was observed between measured specific conductance and measured alkalinity (r2 = 0.76), permitting estimation of alkalinity from specific-conductance data using a regression equation. Estimated alkalinity declined by an order of magnitude during the rain-on-snow events, in one case to 8 microequivalents per liter. Actual declines in alkalinity might be greater because the regression equation accounts only for dilution effects; at low concentrations, the relation between specific conductance and alkalinity is likely to be nonlinear and have a negative intercept (negative alkalinity). Thus, episodic acidification is possible during rain-on-snow events. The scale of episodic acidification is unknown, but if it occurs, it could have detrimental effects on aquatic life and amphibians. Historical lake-survey data indicate that most lakes are oligotrophic and have low nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Nitrogen limitation is more common in lakes in Mount Rainier National Park than in North Cascades National Park due to higher nitrate concentrations at North Cascades. T

  19. The Effect of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Obesity, Diabetes, High BP and Heart Disease Among Canadians: Evidence from 2000/2001 to 2005/2006.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Sisira; Devlin, Rose Anne; Gilliland, Jason; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Although studies have looked at the effect of physical activity on obesity and other health outcomes, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. We fill this gap by investigating the impact of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and work-related physical activity (WRPA) on obesity and chronic conditions in Canadians aged 18-75 using instrumental variable and recursive bivariate probit approaches. Average local temperatures surrounding the respondents' interview month are used as a novel instrument to help identify the causal relationship between LTPA and health outcomes. We find that an active level of LTPA (i.e., walking ≥1 h/day) reduces the probability of obesity by five percentage points, which increases to 11 percentage points if also combined with some WRPA. WRPA exhibits a negative effect on the probability of obesity and chronic conditions. PMID:25251451

  20. Reconnaissance of Soil, Ground Water, and Plant Contamination at an Abandoned Oilfield-Service Site near Shawnee, Oklahoma, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, began a reconnaissance study of a site in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, in 2005 by testing soil, shallow ground water, and plant material for the presence of trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Chemical analysis of plant material at the site was investigated as a preliminary tool to determine the extent of contamination at the site. Thirty soil samples were collected from 15 soil cores during October 2005 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Five small-diameter, polyvinyl-chloride-cased wells were installed and ground-water samples were collected during December 2005 and May 2006 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Thirty Johnsongrass samples and 16 Coralberry samples were collected during September 2005 and analyzed for 53 constituents, including trace elements. Results of the soil, ground-water, and plant data indicate that the areas of trace element and semivolatile organic compound contamination are located in the shallow (A-horizon) soils near the threading barn. Most of the trace-element concentrations in the soils on the study site were either similar to or less than trace-element concentrations in background soils. Several trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Levels 2007 for Tap Water, Residential Soils, Industrial Indoor Soils, and Industrial Outdoor Soils. There was little or no correlation between the plant and soil sample concentrations and the plant and ground-water concentrations based on the current sample size and study design. The lack of correlation between trace-element concentrations in plants and soils, and plants and ground water indicate that plant sampling was not useful as a preliminary tool to assess contamination at the study site.

  1. Expanding Access and Increasing Success in Postsecondary Education for Arizonans. Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education (ACPE) Fiscal Year 2005-2006 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The work of the Arizona Commission for Postsecondary Education (ACPE) is guided by a 5-year strategic plan. The purpose of the plan is to provide focus for the activity of this small agency and its seven staff members in order to increase productivity and impact in the areas of its statutory authority. The mission and goals were accepted by…

  2. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Phase II Fish Screen Operation and Maintenance; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schille, Patrick C.

    2006-05-01

    The goal of this project is to assure that the benefits of BPA's capital investment in Yakima Basin Phase II fish screen facilities are realized by performing operations that assure optimal fish protection and long facility life through a rigorous preventative maintenance program, while helping to restore ESA listed fish stocks in the Yakima River Basin.

  3. Presence of Medical Home and School Attendance: An Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willits, Kathryn A.; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith L.; Nies, Mary A.; Racine, Elizabeth F.; Platonova, Elena; Harris, Henry L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN) tend to miss more school because of illness. Medical homes are a model of primary health care that coordinate services to better meet the needs of the child. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between presence of medical home and missed school days among CSHCN.…

  4. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations; Nursery Bridge Fishway and Garden City/Lowden II Sites, 2005-2006 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, Mickie

    2006-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated two fish screen facilities in the Walla Walla River basin in 2005 and early 2006. The Garden City/Lowden screen site was evaluated in April and June 2005 to determine whether the fish screens met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to provide safe passage for juvenile salmonids. Louvers behind the screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway were modified in fall 2005 in an attempt to minimize high approach velocities. PNNL evaluated the effects of those modifications in March 2006. Results of the Garden City/Lowden evaluations indicate the site performs well at varying river levels and canal flows. Approach velocities did not exceed 0.4 feet per second (fps) at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder in March but not in June. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. At Nursery Bridge, results indicate all the approach velocities were below 0.4 fps under the moderate river levels and operational conditions encountered on March 7, 2006. Sweep did not consistently increase toward the fish ladder, but the site generally met the criteria for safe passage of juvenile salmonids. Modifications to the louvers seem to allow more control over the amount of water moving through the screens. We will measure approach velocities when river levels are higher to determine whether the louver modifications can help correct excessive approach velocities under a range of river levels and auxiliary water supply flows.

  5. Predictors of incident and recurrent participation in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit among young methamphetamine users in Chiang Mai Province Thailand, 2005-2006

    PubMed Central

    Latimore, Amanda D.; Rudolph, Abby; German, Danielle; Sherman, Susan G.; Srirojn, Bangorn; Aramrattana, Apinun; Celentano, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite Thailand’s war on drugs, methamphetamine (“yaba” in Thai) use and the drug economy both thrive. This analysis identifies predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the sale or delivery of drugs for profit among young Thai yaba users. Methods Between April 2005 and June 2006, 983 yaba users, ages 18-25, were enrolled in a randomized behavioral intervention in Chiang Mai Province (415 index and 568 of their drug network members). Questionnaires administered at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up visits assessed socio-demographic factors, current and prior drug use, social network characteristics, sexual risk behaviors and drug use norms. Exposures were lagged by three months (prior visit). Outcomes included incident and recurrent drug economy involvement. Generalized linear mixed models were fit using GLIMMIX (SAS v9.1). Results Incident drug economy involvement was predicted by yaba use frequency (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]:1.05; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.10), recent incarceration (AOR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.07, 5.25) and the proportion of yaba-using networks who quit recently (AOR: .34; 95%CI: .15, .78). Recurrent drug economy involvement was predicted by age (AOR: 0.81; 95% CI: .68, .96), frequency of yaba use (AOR: 1.06; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.09), drug economy involvement at the previous visit (AOR: 2.61; CI: 1.59, 4.28), incarceration in the prior three months (AOR: 2.29; 95%CI: 1.07, 4.86), and the proportion of yaba-users in his/her network who quit recently (AOR: .38; 95%CI: .20, .71). Conclusion Individual drug use, drug use in social networks and recent incarceration were predictors of incident and recurrent involvement in the drug economy. These results suggest that interrupting drug use and/or minimizing the influence of drug-using networks may help prevent further involvement in the drug economy. The emergence of recent incarceration as a predictor for both models highlights the need for more appropriate drug rehabilitation programs and demonstrates that continued criminalization of drug users may fuel Thailand’s yaba epidemic. PMID:21689916

  6. Temporal trends in vent fluid iron and sulfide chemistry following the 2005/2006 eruption at East Pacific Rise, 9°50'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, Mustafa; Luther, George W.

    2013-04-01

    The chemistry of vent fluids that emanate to the seafloor undergoes dramatic changes after volcanic eruptions. Data on these changes are still limited, but the best studied example is the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9°50'N, where the temporal evolution of the vent fluid chemistry after the 1991/1992 eruption was documented. The area underwent another eruption sequence during late 2005/early 2006, and here we show that a similar evolution is recurring in the iron and sulfide contents of the high-temperature fluids sampled in June 2006, January 2007, and June 2008. The vents have had increasing dissolved iron and decreasing acid-volatile sulfide (free sulfide plus FeS) concentrations with 1 order of magnitude variation. In addition, chromium reducible sulfide (mainly pyrite) also had fivefold decreasing concentrations over the 3 years. Our results confirm a pattern that was noted only once before for 9°50'N EPR and emphasize the dramatic yearly variability in the concentrations of iron-sulfur species emanating from vents.

  7. The occurrence of glyphosate, atrazine, and other pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent streams in Washington, DC, Maryland, Iowa, and Wyoming, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Rice, K.C.; Focazio, M.J.; Salmons, S.; Barry, R.X.

    2009-01-01

    Vernal pools are sensitive environments that provide critical habitat for many species, including amphibians. These small water bodies are not always protected by pesticide label requirements for no-spray buffer zones, and the occurrence of pesticides in them is poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of glyphosate, its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid, and additional pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent flowing waters. Most sampling sites were chosen to be in areas where glyphosate was being used either in production agriculture or for nonindigenous plant control. The four site locations were in otherwise protected areas (e.g., in a National Park). When possible, water samples were collected both before and after glyphosate application in 2005 and 2006. Twenty-eight pesticides or pesticide degradation products were detected in the study, and as many as 11 were identified in individual samples. Atrazine was detected most frequently and concentrations exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard of 1.8 micrograms per liter (??g/l) in samples from Rands Ditch and Browns Ditch in DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge. Glyphosate was measured at the highest concentration (328 ??g/l) in a sample from Riley Spring Pond in Rock Creek National Park. This concentration exceeded the freshwater aquatic life standard for glyphosate of 65 ??g/l. Aminomethylphosphonic acid, triclopyr, and nicosulfuron also were detected at concentrations greater than 3.0 ??g/l. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  8. Treatment of patients with OSAS using Nd-YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukwa, Andrzej; Tulibacki, Marek P.; Zajac, Andrzej; Dudziec, Katarzyna

    2000-06-01

    The authors present their clinical experience regarding the possibilities of application of Nd:YAG and Ho:YAG lasers for the treatment of disorders in the are of the upper respiratory tract. The patients with symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Aphnoe Syndrom need a various operations techniques. Lasers techniques makes it possible to perform a number of procedures in local anesthesia which considerably improves the economic effectiveness of the treatment. The surgeries performed using laser beam enabled very good effect of treatment.

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic iter in paediatric OSAS: personal experience.

    PubMed

    Piumetto, E; Sammartano, A M; Meinardi, G; Dagna, F; Gervasio, F C; Albera, R

    2011-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in a child is characterized by prolonged episodes of obstructive hypopnoea and/or apnoea of upper airway leading to morbidity. The most common risk factor is adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome diagnosis is based on clinical ENT evaluation and an instrumental approach, such as pulse oximetry or the gold standard overnight polysomnography. The aim is to establish, in a population of children with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, the frequency of this disorder, the effect of adenotonsillectomy and the risk of post-operative complications. A total of 481 patients (297 male, 184 female) with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (aged 2-14 years) were evaluated between March 2007 and April 2010 and divided into 3 morphological phenotypes: classic, adult and congenital. All patients underwent ENT assessment and a pulse oximetry with 4 channels cardiopulmonary monitoring. The examination following the Brouillette criteria was defined as negative, positive or inconclusive; when positive, adenotonsillectomy was the first therapeutic approach. At 6 months after surgery, all patients underwent check-up pulse oximetry. Of the overall sample, 96% of the patients had a classical phenotype, 3% an adult type and 1% a congenital type. The monitoring resulted pathological in 19% (17% of them were at increased post-operative risk), negative in 61% and inconclusive in 20%. All 5 patients with congenital phenotype were positive. Of the positive patients, 86% underwent adenotonsillectomy and a control pulse oximetry 6 months thereafter, 96% resulted negative. Pulse oximetry was efficient in order to avoid incorrect surgery indications, improving appropriateness and safety of adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Adenotonsillectomy showed a success rate of 96% and there were no episodes of post-surgery complications in particular in those patients at increased risk. PMID:22058592

  10. Cancer and OSA: Current Evidence From Human Studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Miguel Ángel; Campos-Rodriguez, Francisco; Barbé, Ferrán

    2016-08-01

    Despite the undeniable medical advances achieved in recent decades, cancer remains one of the main causes of mortality. It is thus extremely important to make every effort to discover new risk factors for this disease, particularly ones that can be treated or modified. Various pathophysiologic pathways have been postulated as possible causes of cancer or its increased aggressiveness, and also of greater resistance to antitumoral treatment, in the presence of both intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation (both inherent to sleep apnea). Thus far, these biological hypotheses have been supported by various experimental studies in animals. Meanwhile, recent human studies drawing on preexisting databases have observed an increase in cancer incidence and mortality in patients with a greater severity of sleep-disordered breathing. However, the methodologic limitations of these studies (which are mostly retrospective and lack any measurement of direct markers of intermittent hypoxia or sleep fragmentation) highlight the need for controlled, prospective studies that would provide stronger scientific evidence regarding the existence of this association and its main characteristics, as well as explore its nature and origin in greater depth. The great epidemiologic impact of both cancer and sleep apnea and the potential for clinical treatment make this field of research an exciting challenge. PMID:27164292