Science.gov

Sample records for 2007-2008 red latinoamericana

  1. Protect and Restore Red River Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-04

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Red River Watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2001. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. From completing a watershed assessment to two NEPA efforts and a final stream restoration design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Red River to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Another major, and extremely, important component of this project is the Red River Meadow Conservation Easement. We have begun the process of pursuing a conservation easement on approximately 270 acres of prime meadow habitat (Red River runs through this meadow and is prime spawning and rearing habitat).

  2. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  3. ARL Statistics 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    "ARL Statistics 2007-2008" is the latest in a series of annual publications that describe collections, staffing, expenditures, and service activities for the 123 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Of these, 113 are university libraries; the remaining 10 are public, governmental, and nonprofit research libraries. Data reported…

  4. ARL Annual Salary Survey 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp; Young, Mar, Comp.; Barber, Jason, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2007-2008" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,983…

  5. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Les, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that 109 ARL libraries purchased 32,329,187 electronic books. In 2007-2008, there was a median of 28,319 acquisitions of electronic books by ARL libraries (this includes one institution that…

  6. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents data that describe collections, expenditures, personnel, and services in 64 medical libraries at Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions throughout North America. In 2007-2008, the reporting health sciences libraries held a median of 240,955 volumes, spent a total of $240,019,298, and employed 2,304…

  7. Southeastern Wisconsin School District Rankings, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brochure displays the following data for seven counties in southeastern Wisconsin for the 2007-2008 school year: (1) Total operations expenditures; (2) Property tax revenue; (3) Total enrollment; (4) One-year change in enrollment; (5) Minority enrollment; (6) Free or reduced lunch; (7) Graduation rate; (8) 3rd, 4th, 8th and 10th grade…

  8. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Bland, Les, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents results of the 2007-2008 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 74 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections (2-parts), including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased,…

  9. Handbook of Procedures for the Graduation Program 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 2007-2008 manual, "Handbook of Procedures for the Graduation Program," has been approved by the British Columbia Minister of Education on July 18, 2007 for the purpose of setting out graduation requirements. The handbook outlines procedures for efficiently sharing student data between schools and the Ministry of Education, and answers…

  10. WMO Role In The International Polar Year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarukhanian, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Fourteenth World Meteorological Congress in May 2003 had approved the idea of holding an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. The ICSU Executive Board in February 2004 decided to establish an IPY in 2007-2008 and invited WMO to jointly sponsor the IPY. In June 2004, ICSU and WMO agreed to act as cosponsors for the IPY. WMO contributions to the IPY would be focused on the areas of activities that are closely related to five themes of IPY Science Plan. One of the most important areas is the enhancement of observing components in Polar Regions. It includes re-activation of existing or establishing of new meteorological stations, increase the number of drifting buoys, ships and aircraft in Polar Regions. The existing satellites and new operational satellites with observational capabilities for Polar Regions will be used. In the atmospheric research area WMO plans to enhance integrated monitoring of the ozone layer, using ground-based optical remote sensing instrumentation and ozone sondes aircraft and satellites. It is also planned to intensify integrated measurement and modelling of the transport of greenhouse gases and aerosols. The period of IPY will overlap with the timeframe of Global Atmosphere Research Programme /(THORPEX/) carried out by WMO. Its implementation in Polar Regions is considered as part of IPY that would increase knowledge of global to regional influences on the initiation, evolution and predictability of high-impact weather, and contribute to the design and demonstration of interactive forecast system that allow information to flow between users, numerical modellers, data assimilation system and observations to maximize forecast skill and enhance the utility of forecasts. In the area of climate assessment WMO is intended to participate in the development of an IPY data management plan and coordinate establishment of a database of historical polar climate and related data, investigate teleconnections between polar regions and the lower

  11. Geoeffectiveness of Stream Interaction Regions during 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Ontiveros, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    The Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) are generated in the interplanetary medium when a fast solar wind stream overtakes a slower one. If these large-scale phenomena interact with the Earth's magnetosphere they can give rise to geomagnetic storms (GSs). In this study we analyze the degree of geoeffectiveness of 20 events that were generated by SIRs. The events were observed during the 2007-2008 period that comprising the extended downward phase of solar cycle 23. The degree of geoeffectivity is measured using magnetic indices from different latitudes: PCN (Polar cap north), PCS (polar cap south), AA (antipodal amplitude), AE (Auroral Electrojet), Kp (estimated global index) and Dst (Disturbance storm time). We discuss some results on the correlation of these magnetic indices with the characteristics of shocks associated with the SIRs observed by STEREO-A/B, WIND and ACE spacecraft. All the 20 SIRs events generated GSs with Dst values in ranging from -86 nT up to -12 nT. Moreover, 6 out of the 20 events presented storm sudden commencement (SSC). We also discuss on the characteristics of the SIR-associated shocks and the intensity of the GSs.

  12. Flavonoid Values for USDA Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008: Provisional Flavonoid Addendum, FNDDS 4.1 and Flavonoid Intake Data, WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This release of the Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2008 makes possible, for the first time, calculation of flavonoid intakes based on all foods and beverages reported in national surveys. This release has two components. The first component is an addendum to USDA’s Food and N...

  13. Establishing the Baseline Height and Weight Status of New Hampshire Head Start Children, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, David D.; Flynn, Regina T.; Martin, Nancy R.; Anderson, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    We report on a standardized survey of height and weight status of children attending the New Hampshire Head Start Program during the 2007-2008 school year. Baseline prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are needed for obesity prevention activities and intervention. We selected a random one-stage cluster sample and screened 629 children…

  14. 2007-2008 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 1-36

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed dietary data from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and released 36 summary data tables for the current 2-year survey release. The tab...

  15. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence, School Year 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Code of Virginia" requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2007-2008, with selected comparisons to prior…

  16. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Mission Resource Requirements (MRR), FY 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Resource Requirement (MRR) represents the level of funding necessary for an institution given its mission, size, and complexity of programs, based on regional and national norms, and the amount of the previous year's appropriation. This document is the MRR for the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education for Fiscal Year 2007-2008.…

  17. International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Service, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication presents changes and modifications for 2007-2008 to the "International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs." It is written to guide fair directors, teachers, scientists, parents, and adult volunteers as they pursue their work of encouraging students to explore and investigate their…

  18. 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey Employers of Alberta High School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007/2008 Employer Satisfaction Survey was commissioned by Alberta Education and Alberta Advanced Education and Technology. Data collection for the survey was conducted by CCI Research Inc. between December 1st, 2007 and January 11th, 2008. The objective of the survey was to assess employer satisfaction with recent graduates from Alberta's…

  19. Facing Race: Illinois Legislative Report Card on Racial Equity, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Josina; Keleher, Terry

    2008-01-01

    This publication reviews 56 bills introduced in the 95th General Assembly that, if signed into law by the Governor, would have the most direct positive and negative impacts on communities of color. The "2007-2008 Illinois Legislative Report Card on Racial Equity" evaluates the Governor and legislators on their responses to these initiatives.…

  20. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008: Documentation and Data Files

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New nationwide dietary intake data were collected in What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2007-2008 and are now available for public use. Two days of dietary intake data are included for most participants. The dietary interview data ...

  1. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  2. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  3. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  4. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  5. 7 CFR 982.255 - Free and restricted percentages-2007-2008 marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Free and Restricted Percentages § 982.255 Free and... merchantable hazelnuts for the 2007-2008 marketing year shall be 8.1863 and 91.8137 percent, respectively. (b) On May 1, 2008, the final free and restricted percentages for merchantable hazelnuts for the...

  6. The International Polar Year 2007-2008: a Preliminary Overview of Proposed Research Activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, I.; Beland, M.; Members, J.

    2005-05-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY 2007-2008), co-sponsored by the International Council for Science and the World Meteorological Organization, will be an intensive and internationally coordinated campaign of high quality research and observations in the polar regions. It will have an interdisciplinary emphasis, with active inclusion of the social sciences as well as natural science. The IPY 2007-2008 is intended to lay the foundation for major scientific advances in knowledge and understanding of the polar regions and their role in the functioning of the planet. IPY 2007-2008 will address six broad research themes. These are the present environmental status of the polar regions; change in the polar regions; the links and interactions between polar regions and the rest of the globe; frontiers of science in the polar regions; the polar regions as a unique vantage point to observe processes from the interior of the Earth, to the Sun and the cosmos beyond; and the culture, history, and sociology of human societies in polar regions. Details of the IPY science plan and its implementation are available in the IPY Framework document at www.ipy.org, A large number of proposals for potential IPY activities were received in January 2005 in response to a preliminary call for "Expressions of Intent". Those projects meeting the IPY criteria have been identified and are presently being developed more fully and, where appropriate, consolidated into larger projects. This presentation will provide an outline of the major scientific initiatives that are developing under the IPY 2007-2008 vision. Opportunities for participation in the developing IPY projects will be noted, as will those projects seeking additional input from new collaborators.

  7. A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Rapley, C.; Elfring, C.; Allison, I.; Bindschadler, R.; Chown, S.; Duhaime, G.; Kotlyakov, V.; Orheim, O.; Zhang, Z.; Kuhn, M.; Schalke, H.; Pandey, P.; Petersen, H. K.; Casassa, G.

    2003-12-01

    Planning is underway to hold an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. IPY 2007-2008 stands to be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007-2008 is envisioned to be an intense, international campaign of coordinated polar observations and analysis, which will be bipolar in focus, multidisciplinary in scope, and truly international in participation. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their roles in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007 - 2008 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups. Earlier this year, the International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) which met for the first time at the end of July. The Planning Group discussed ways to create an open process that encourages broad input from the international community. The Planning Group began to describe the desired goals of IPY 2007-2008, which should address compelling science issues through multi-national programs, enable scientific programs which would not otherwise occur, attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, and engage the public. The Planning Group has identified three overarching themes that we hope can serve as the foundation for IPY 2007-2008: Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, Decoding the Role of the Poles in Global Change Understanding Polar Processes. The Planning Group envisions focused research activities under each of these major themes. For example, a program to explore the sub-ice environment of East Antarctica would fit under the theme Exploring the Earth's Icy Domains, a program of Integrated

  8. L'apparizione di Marte 2007-2008: il volto mutevole del pianeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.

    2010-02-01

    Results of visual observations and CCD imaging of Mars during the 2007-2008 are presented. The aspect of the planet was greatly influenced by an encircling dust storm starting in June 2007. The atmosphere remained dusty for several months, lowering the contrast of albedo markings. The albedo spots themselves have been modified on a large scale, producing the most relevant surface changes of the last apparitions.

  9. Role of the Polar Research Board in Facilitating Planning for IPY 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfring, C.

    2003-12-01

    IPY 2007-2008 has the potential to be a valuable burst of scientific activity that adds to our understanding of polar regions and their role in the global system, and it stands to engage a new generation of scientists and the public in an exciting way. IPY 2007-2008 will be truly international and broadly multidisciplinary. But how is something of this scale planned and implemented? Where are the opportunities for input from the science community? How do we reconcile the differences in the American system of supporting science with approaches used in other nations, when attempting to work jointly? How can the large, diverse polar science community be satisfied that IPY reflects their priorities, given the necessity of making choices about how to focus IPY activities? The National Academy of Sciences played a key role in organizing the International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958. In this mode, the Polar Research Board, a unit of the National Academies (which includes the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine), is attempting to play a role in facilitating IPY 2007-2007 planning. The Polar Research Board is a nongovernmental body composed of volunteers from the polar science community. Its mission is to promote excellence in polar science and provide advice to agencies and the nation on issues of importance in the Arctic, Antarctic, and cold regions in general. The PRB represents US interests in two international nongovernmental polar science organizations - the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The PRB's status as an independent body gives it a special role in organizing IPY 2007-2008 at both the national and international levels. At the national level, it has attempted to provide opportunities for dialog on what US scientists would like IPY to be, and to have a relatively open process so that bottom-up ideas can be considered. At the

  10. In situ Observations of CIRs on STEREO, Wind, and ACE During 2007 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, G. M.; Desai, M. I.; Mall, U.; Korth, A.; Bucik, R.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Simunac, K. D.

    2009-05-01

    During the 2007 and 2008 solar minimum period, STEREO, Wind, and ACE observed numerous Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) over spatial separations that began with all the spacecraft close to Earth, through STEREO separation angles of ˜ 80 degrees in the fall of 2008. Over 35 CIR events were of sufficient intensity to allow measurement of He and heavy ion spectra using the IMPACT/SIT, EPACT/STEP and ACE/ULEIS instruments on STEREO, Wind, and ACE, respectively. In addition to differences between the spacecraft expected on the basis of simple corotation, we observed several events where there were markedly different time-intensity profiles from one spacecraft to the next. By comparing the energetic particle intensities and spectral shapes along with solar wind speed we examine the extent to which these differences are due to temporal evolution of the CIR or due to variations in connection to a relatively stable interaction region. Comparing CIRs in the 1996 - 1997 solar minimum period vs. 2007 - 2008, we find that the 2007 - 2008 period had many more CIRs, reflecting the presence of more high-speed solar wind streams, whereas 1997 had almost no CIR activity.

  11. TEMAS PARA UNA BIOETICA LATINOAMERICANA

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo reflexiona sobre el fundamento filosófico de la bioética como disciplina, método y movimiento desde su contexto histórico y en relación con el contexto social y cultural de la vivencia latinoamericana. PMID:20209030

  12. Science Communication during the International Polar Year 2007-2008: Successes and Recommendations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. J.; Ipy Education, Outreach; Communication Committee

    2010-12-01

    This IPY (International Polar Year 2007-2008) represented one of the largest international scientific research efforts ever undertaken. It stimulated the active engagement of thousands of teachers, students, and citizens around the globe through international collaboration and cooperation, careful cultivation of a global community of enthusiastic professional science communicators and educators, and creative use of free technologies. From music performances in Alaska to tree planting in Malaysia, hundreds of events and activities around the world demonstrated the public enthusiasm and the broad impact of IPY. This paper describes the core concepts and tangible activities developed and implemented by the IPY international Education, Outreach, and Communication (EOC) Committee and community and the International Programme Office (IPO) between March 2006 and December 2009. We present methods and accomplishments and address two questions: 1) How did these activities come about? 2) How do the ideas, tools, experiences, and successes from this IPY apply more broadly to science communication?

  13. The Development of Interconnection Standards in Six States In 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, Jason B.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the process of developing standards for the interconnection of photovoltaic systems and other generators under ten megawatts to the electric grid. State utility commission rulemakings in 2007-2008 in Florida, New Mexico, North Carolina, Maryland, Illinois and Utah provide the basis for analysis of what is and should be considered in the development of standards, and how the process can be improved. State interconnection standards vary substantially, and many utilities have discretion to establish additional or different requirements, creating literally hundreds of sets of rules. This lack of uniformity imposes a significant cost on project developers and installers to track and comply with applicable rules. As well, burdensome provisions and uncertain costs and timelines present formidable barriers to entry, which advocates have limited resources to challenge. For a better process, the author proposes: establishing federal standards as a baseline, involving solar advocates, and developing a utility cost-recovery mechanism.

  14. Uses of Formal and Informal Assessments of English Language Learners in a Language Experience Class, School Year 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will compare the uses of selected formal and informal assessments of English language learners (ELLs) in the Language Experience class [TRANSLANGEXP7(&8)-008] at Kimball Middle School, Illinois School District U-46, Elgin, Illinois, during school year 2007- 2008. See figure 1 (page 14) for a graphic display of these assessments and…

  15. Examination of Case Law (2007-2008) regarding Autism Spectrum Disorder and Violations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-nine court cases from the "LexisNexis" database regarding students, ages 3-21, with various forms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were examined for the years 2007-2008. Procedural and substantive violations to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the provision of a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) were…

  16. NASA Battery Working Group - 2007-2008: Battery Task Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides a summary of the 2007-2008 NASA Battery Working Group efforts completed in support of the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC). The effort covered a series of pro-active tasks that address the following: Binding Procurements -- guidelines related to requirements for the battery system that should be considered at the time of contract award Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries -- issues/strategies for effective storage and impact of long-term storage on performance and life Generic Guidelines for Lithium-ion Safety, Handling and Qualification -- Standardized approaches developed and risk assessments (1) Lithium-ion Performance Assessment -- survey of manufacturers and capabilities to meet mission needs. Guidelines document generated (2) Conditions Required for using Pouch Cells in Aerospace Missions -- focus on corrosion, thermal excursions and long-term performance issues. Document defining requirements to maintain performance and life (3) High Voltage Risk Assessment -- focus on safety and abuse tolerance of battery module assemblies. Recommendations of features required for safe implementation (4) Procedure for Determination of Safe Charge Rates -- evaluation of various cell chemistries and recommendation of safe operating regimes for specific cell designs

  17. Multifractal analysis of Asian markets during 2007-2008 financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Rashid; Mohammad, Salim M.

    2015-02-01

    2007-2008 US financial crisis adversely affected the stock markets all over the world. Asian markets also came under pressure and were differently affected. As markets under stress could reveal features that remain hidden under normal conditions, we use MF-DFA technique to investigate the multifractal structure of the US and seven Asian stock markets during the crisis period. The overall period of study, from 01 July 2002 to 31 December 2013, is divided into three sub-periods: pre-crisis period, crisis period and post-crisis period. We find during the crisis period markets of the US, Japan, Hong Kong, S. Korea and Indonesia show very strong non-linearity for positive values of the moment q. We calculate the singularity spectra, f(α) for the three sub-periods for all markets. During the crisis period, we observe that the peaks of the f(α) spectra shift to lower values of α and markets of the US, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea and Indonesia exhibit increased long range correlations of large fluctuations in index returns. We also study the impact of the crisis on the power law exponent in the tail region of the cumulative return distribution and find that by excluding the crisis period from the overall data sets, the tail exponent increases across all markets.

  18. The IPY 2007-2008 data legacy - creating open data from IPY publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, A.; Grobe, H.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grüttemeier, H.; Schumacher, S.; Sieger, R.

    2015-09-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 was a synchronized effort to simultaneously collect data from polar regions. Being the fourth in a series of IPYs, the demand for interdisciplinarity and new data products was high. However, despite all the research done on land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere and the large amount of data collected, no central archive or portal was created for IPY data. In order to improve the availability and visibility of IPY data, a concerted effort between PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, the International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data System (WDS), and the International Council for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) was undertaken to extract data resulting from IPY publications for long-term preservation. Overall, 1380 IPY-related references were collected. Of these, only 450 contained accessible data. All data were extracted, quality checked, annotated with metadata and uploaded to PANGAEA. The 450 articles dealt with a multitude of IPY topics - plankton biomass, water chemistry, ice thickness, whale sightings, Inuit health, alien species introductions by travellers or tundra biomass change, to mention just a few. Both the Arctic and the Antarctic were investigated in the articles, and all realms (land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere) and a wide range of countries were covered. The data compilation can now be found with the identifier http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.150150, and individual parts can be searched using the PANGAEA search engine (http://www.pangaea.de) and adding "+project:ipy". With this effort, we hope to improve the visibility, accessibility and long-term storage of IPY data for future research and new data products.

  19. IPY 2007-2008 data legacy - a ong story cut short

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, A.; Grobe, H.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grüttemeier, H.; Schumacher, S.; Sieger, R.

    2015-06-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 was a synchronized effort to simultaneously collect data from polar regions. Being the fourth in a row of IPYs, the demand for interdisciplinarity and new data products was high. However, despite of all the research done on land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere and the large amount of data collected, no central archive or portal was created for IPY data. In order to address these issues, a concerted effort between PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, the ICSU World Data System (WDS), and the International Council for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) was undertaken to extract data resulting from IPY publications for long-term preservation. 1380 IPY-related references were collected. Out of these, only 450 contained accessible data. All data was extracted, quality checked, annotated with metadata and uploaded to PANGAEA. The 450 articles dealt with a multitude of IPY topics - plankton biomass, water chemistry, ice thickness, whale sightings, Inuit health, alien species introductions by travelers or tundra biomass change - to mention just a few. Both, the Arctic and the Antarctic were investigated in the articles, and all realms (land, people, ocean, ice and atmosphere) and a wide range of countries were covered. The data compilation can now be found with the identifier doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.150150 and individually searched for using the PANGAEA search engine (www.pangaea.de) and adding "+project:ipy". With this effort, we hope to improve the visibility, accessibility and long-term storage of IPY data for future research and new data products.

  20. Civil unrest and birthweight: an exploratory analysis of the 2007/2008 Kenyan Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Prata, Ndola; Lahiff, Maureen; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2012-05-01

    For decades, Africa has been plagued by political and ethnic conflict, the health ramifications of which are often not investigated. A crisis occurred recently in Kenya following the 2007 presidential election. Ethnic violence ensued, targeting the incumbent President Kibaki's Kikuyu people. The violence occurred primarily in Nairobi and the Rift Valley of Kenya. We sought to examine the association between exposure to the 2007/2008 Kenyan Crisis and birthweight. Using the 2008/2009 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), we compared birthweights of infants in utero or not yet conceived during the 15 months after the political turmoil following the 2007 presidential election (exposed) to those who were born before the crisis (unexposed). There were 663 "exposed" and 687 "unexposed" infants. Multivariate regression was used. We examined the possibility of two-way and three-way interactions between exposure status, ethnicity (Kikuyu versus non-Kikuyu), and region (violent region versus not). Overall, exposure to the Kenyan Crisis was associated with lower birthweight. Kikuyu women living in a violent region who were exposed during their 2nd trimester had the greatest difference in birthweight in comparison to all unexposed infants: 564.4g lower (95% CI 285.1, 843.6). Infants of Kikuyu exposed during the 2nd trimester and living in a violent region weighed 603.6g less (95% CI 333.6, 873.6) than Kikuyu infants born during the unexposed period. Political unrest may have implications for the birthweight of infants, particularly among targeted populations. Given the adverse sequelae associated with lowered birthweight, these results suggest that particular attention should be paid to pregnant women and targeted ethnic groups following such events. PMID:22410269

  1. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-07-09

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007-2008

  2. Gravity wave activity during stratospheric sudden warmings in the 2007-2008 Northern Hemisphere winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Alexander, M. Joan

    2009-09-01

    We use temperature retrievals from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC)/Formosa Satellite Mission 3 (FORMOSAT-3) and Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) radio occultation profiles and independent temperature retrievals from the EOS satellite High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) aboard the TIMED satellite to investigate stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events and the accompanying gravity wave (GW) temperature amplitudes in the 2007-2008 Northern Hemisphere winter. We identify four SSW events (including a major one) occurring from late January to late February in 2008. We detect enhanced GW amplitudes in the stratosphere and subdued GW amplitudes in the lower mesosphere during the warming events. The timing of GW enhancement/suppression and warming/cooling events was generally close (within a couple days). We also find that stratospheric GW amplitudes were generally larger at the polar vortex edge and smaller in the vortex core and outside of the vortex and that stratospheric GW amplitudes were generally small over the North Pacific. Using a simplified GW dispersion relation and a GW ray-tracing experiment, we demonstrate that the enhanced GW amplitudes in the stratosphere during SSWs could be explained largely by GW propagation considerations. The existence of GW critical levels (the level at which the background wind is the same as the GW phase speed) near the stratopause during SSWs would block propagation of GWs into the mesosphere and thus could lead to the observed subdued GW activity in the lower mesosphere. Since this is the first study to analyze the COSMIC and CHAMP GPS temperature retrievals up to 60 km in altitude, we compare the GPS analysis with those from HIRDLS and SABER measurements. We find that the temporal variability of zonal mean temperatures derived from the GPS data is

  3. A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapley, C.; Bell, R.

    2004-05-01

    Planning is underway for an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. (IPY 2007/8) which will be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007/8 will be an international programme of coordinated, interdisciplinary, scientific research in the Earth's polar regions to explore new frontiers, to increase our ability to detect changes at the Earth's poles and to deepen our understanding of polar processes and their global linkages. A crucial component of the IPY 2007/8 will be to attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, engineers and leaders and to capture the interest of the public and decision-makers. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their role in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007/8 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups both internationally and nationally. To date 18 nations have formed national committees who are coordinating IPY activities nationally. The International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) to stimulate, encourage and organize a debate on the International Polar Year 2007/8, formulate a set of objectives and develop a high level Science Plan. The Planning Group has sought input from the international science community and to date has received 138 ideas from over 22 nations. This input from the international community covers both poles, global processes and a diverse spectrum of disciplines. To date the input from the science community has identified key questions and proposed projects within the three major themes proposed by the ICSU IPY Planning Group

  4. Determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke among Vietnamese adults: California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Webber, Whitney L; van Erp, Brianna; Stoddard, Pamela; Tsoh, Janice Y

    2014-01-01

    Because smoking rates are high among Vietnamese men, we used data from the 2007-2008 California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey to estimate secondhand smoke exposure and associated risk factors among Vietnamese nonsmokers. Thirty percent of nonsmokers were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, 8% at work, 52% in bars, and 67% on a college campus. At home, odds of SHS exposure were greater for women than for men and for adults aged less than 40 years than for older adults. Odds of SHS exposure were higher for former smokers at work (among employed men) and among men when in bars. Future interventions should consider sex, age, and smoking history in efforts to prevent SHS exposure among Vietnamese adults. PMID:24831285

  5. Activity of telavancin and comparator antimicrobial agents tested against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from hospitalised patients in Europe (2007-2008).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-10-01

    The activity of telavancin was evaluated against Staphylococcus spp. collected from European hospitals as part of an international surveillance study (2007-2008). A total of 7534 staphylococcal clinical isolates [5726 Staphylococcus aureus and 1808 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)] were included. Isolates were tested for susceptibility according to reference methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2010 and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) 2009 criteria. Telavancin breakpoints approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were applied. Telavancin activity was evaluated against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) displaying several antibiogram resistance patterns, including multidrug-resistant isolates. Telavancin was active against S. aureus [MIC(50/90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively)=0.12/0.25mg/L; 100.0% susceptible] and CoNS (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L), inhibiting all isolates at < or =0.5mg/L. Similar results were observed when S. aureus were stratified by year or country of origin (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L). When MRSA isolates were clustered according to 48 different resistance patterns, telavancin showed consistent MIC(90) values (0.25mg/L) regardless of multidrug resistance. Amongst CoNS, telavancin was slightly more active against Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus xylosus (MIC(50)=0.12 mg/L) compared with Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus warneri (MIC(50)=0.25mg/L). Overall, telavancin exhibited MIC(90) results two- to eight-fold lower than comparators (daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin and linezolid). Based upon MIC(90) values, telavancin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a contemporary (2007-2008) collection of Staphylococcus spp

  6. Effects of Traditional and Nontraditional Forms of Parental Involvement on School-Level Achievement Outcome: An HLM Study Using SASS 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jianping; Washington, Alandra L.; Bierlein Palmer, Louann; Xia, Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined parental involvement's (PI) impact on school performance. The hierarchical linear modeling method was applied to national Schools and Staffing Survey 2007-2008 data. They found that PI variables explained significant variance for the outcomes of (a) meeting adequate yearly progress (AYP) and (b) being free from sanctions.…

  7. A Study of Support Services in Schools and Their Relationship with School Effectiveness in American Public Schools: Findings from the School and Staffing Survey (Sass) 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Diane J.

    2012-01-01

    This study inquires into support services in schools and their relationship to school effectiveness by using data from the National Center for Education Statistics 2007-2008 School and Staffing Survey (SASS). Students' ability to learn is impacted by their physical and mental health. It is more difficult to measure the influence of…

  8. Ground and shipboard measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury over the Yellow Sea region during 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc Luong; Kim, Jin Young; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Zhang, Xiao-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The first ever shipboard measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over the Yellow Sea were carried out. Ground measurements were also performed at background and urban sites surrounding the Yellow Sea during 2007-2008. The GEM mean concentrations obtained from ground measurements at Ningbo, Chengshantou, and Deokjeok, and from shipboard measurements for the routes of Incheon-Qingdao, Incheon-Weihai, and Incheon-Jeju were 3.79 ± 1.29, 2.07 ± 0.91, 1.79 ± 0.80, 1.82 ± 0.51, 2.03 ± 0.66, and 2.43 ± 0.59 ng m -3, respectively. Compared with the GEM background concentration in the northern hemisphere, the slightly higher GEM regional background concentration of 2.08 ± 0.85 ng m -3 over the Yellow Sea region, based on shipboard measurements and ground measurements at background sites, gave implications for the impact of anthropogenic mercury sources surrounding the Yellow Sea. Shipboard measurements over the Yellow Sea showed a decrease of mercury concentration compared with aircraft measurements during ACE-ASIA campaign in 2001, though it was still generally higher than those from other seas or oceans around the world. The contrasting patterns in seasonal and diurnal variations of GEM concentration between background and urban sites were apparent due to the influence of different sources; for example, natural sources, such as vegetative and foliar emissions in background area, and local anthropogenic sources, such as coal combustion in urban area. The significantly elevated GEM concentrations at Deokjeok, a Korean background site, during the spring of 2008 were attributed to the long-range transport from the southern part of Liaoning province, one of the heaviest mercury-polluted areas in China.

  9. OBS records of Whale vocalizations from Lucky-strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, A.; Rai, A.; Singh, S. C.; Crawford, W. C.; Escartin, J.; Cannat, M.

    2009-12-01

    Passive seismic experiments to study seismicity require a long term deployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs). These instruments also record a large amount of non-seismogenic signals such as movement of large ships, air-gun shots, and marine mammal vocalizations. We report a bi-product of our passive seismic experiment (BBMOMAR) conducted around the Lucky-strike hydrothermal field of the slow-spreading mid-Atlantic ridge. Five multi-component ocean-bottom seismometers (recording two horizontal, one vertical and one pressure channel) were deployed during 2007-2008. During 13 months of deployment, abundant vocalizations of marine mammals have been recorded by all the five equipments. By analyzing the frequency content of data and their pattern of occurrence, we conclude that these low-frequency vocalizations (~20-40 Hz) typically corresponds to blue and fin-whales. These signals if not identified, could be mis-interpreted as underwater seismic/hydrothermal activity. Our data show an increase in the number of vocalizations recorded during the winter season relative to the summer. As part of the seismic monitoring of the Lucky-strike site, we anticipate to extend this study to the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 periods, after the recovery and deployment of the array during the BATHYLUCK09 cruise. Long-term and continuous records of calls of marine mammals provide valuable information that could be used to identify the species, study their seasonal behaviour and their migration paths. Our study suggestes that passive experiments such as ocean-bottom seismometers deployed at key locations, could provide useful secondary infromation about oceanic species besides recording seismicity, which is otherwise not possible without harming or interfering with their activity.

  10. Occurrence and intake of deoxynivalenol in cereal-based products marketed in Korea during 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ok, H E; Chang, H-J; Choi, S-W; Cho, T Y; Oh, K S; Chun, H S

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) was investigated in 514 cereal-based products (corn-based, n = 125; barley-based, n = 96; wheat-based, n = 94; rice-based, n = 199) marketed in Korea during 2007-2008, and estimates of DON intake were determined. Samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet light (UV) detection after immunoaffinity clean-up. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 2.2 and 5.6 µg kg(-1), respectively. Recoveries and repeatability expressed as coefficients of variation (CV) were 82.3-100% and 2.4-15.3% in beer, bread and dried corn. The incidences and mean levels of DON were 56% and 68.9 µg kg(-1) for corn-based products, 49% and 24.1 µg kg(-1) for wheat-based products, 43% and 7.5 µg kg(-1) for barley-based products, and 16% and 3.4 µg kg(-1) for rice-based products, respectively. The estimated daily intake of DON from the consumption of rice-based, wheat-based, barley-based and corn-based products were 0.0038 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 0.0032 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), 0.0015 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) and 0.0002 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. These values represent 0.38%, 0.32%, 0.25% and 0.01% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 1 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1). These results indicate that rice-based products are major contributors to DON exposure in Korea, even though the current exposure level is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. PMID:24785178

  11. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian regions, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Tapsall, J W; Limnios, E A; Abu Bakar, Hjh Mahani Hj; Darussalam, Brunei; Ping, Yin Yue; Buadromo, E M; Kumar, P; Singh, S; Lo, J; Bala, M; Risbud, A; Deguchi, T; Tanaka, M; Watanabe, Y; Lee, K; Chong, Y; Noikaseumsy, S; Phouthavane, T; Sam, I-Ching; Tundev, O; Lwin, K M; Eh, P H; Goarant, C; Goursaud, R; Bathgate, T; Brokenshire, M; Latorre, L; Velemu, E; Carlos, C; Leano, S; Telan, E O; Goh, S S; Koh, S T; Ngan, C; Tan, A L; Mananwatte, S; Piyanoot, N; Lokpichat, S; Sirivongranson, P; Fakahau, M; Sitanilei, H; Hung, Le Van

    2010-03-01

    Long-term surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been conducted in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) to optimise antibiotic treatment of gonococcal disease since 1992. In 2007 and 2008, this Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) was enhanced by the inclusion of data from the South East Asian Region (SEAR) and recruitment of additional centres within the WPR. Approximately 17,450 N. gonorrhoeae were examined for their susceptibility to one or more antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhoea by external quality controlled methods in 24 reporting centres in 20 countries and/or jurisdictions. A high proportion of penicillin and/or quinolone resistance was again detected amongst isolates tested in North Asia and the WHO SEAR, but much lower rates of penicillin resistance and little quinolone resistance was present in most of the Pacific Island countries. The proportion of gonococci reported as 'resistant', 'less susceptible' or 'non-susceptible' gonococci to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone lay in a wide range, but no major changes were evident in cephalosporin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) patterns in 2007-2008. Altered cephalosporin susceptibility was associated with treatment failures following therapy with oral third-generation cephalosporins. There is a need for revision and clarification of some of the in vitro criteria that are currently used to categorise the clinical importance of gonococci with different ceftriaxone and oral cephalosporin MIC levels. The number of instances of spectinomycin resistance remained low. A high proportion of strains tested continued to exhibit a form of plasmid mediated high level resistance to tetracyclines. The continuing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant gonococci in and from the WHO WPR and SEAR supports the need for gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs such as GASP to be

  12. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008 Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2009-05-26

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are listed below: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during

  13. Magma mixing and forced exsolution of CO2 during the explosive 2007-2008 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosshard-Stadlin, Sonja A.; Mattsson, Hannes B.; Keller, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai is probably most famous for being the only active volcano on Earth which is erupting natrocarbonatitic magma. However, the mildly explosive natrocarbonatitic activity is alternating with highly explosive, nephelinitic eruptions of which the most recent episode occurred in September 2007 (and lasted until April 2008). Here we present petrographic observations, mineral chemistry as well as major- and trace element analyses of samples covering the evolution of the eruption with time. In the early phases of the eruption, the phenocryst assemblages are dominated by the carbonate minerals nyerereite and gregoryite, but as the eruption progresses the mineralogy becomes dominated by silicate minerals like nepheline, pyroxene, garnet, alumoåkermanite, combeite and wollastonite. The observed major- and trace element variations during the 2007-2008 eruption indicate mixing between a natrocarbonatitic magma and a combeite-wollastonite-bearing nephelinitic magma (CWN), with higher portions of natrocarbonatite in the early stages of the eruption. Euhedral and uncorroded clinopyroxene crystals are abundant in the late 2007 deposits but quickly start to break-down and corrode as the eruption continues, indicating that the natrocarbonatite and the CWN are not in fact conjugate magmas derived from a single magma reservoir, but must have evolved separately in the crust from the point of immiscibility. When these magmas interact beneath the volcano, a hybrid silicate magma forms (where clinopyroxene is no longer stable) and the composition of this hybrid causes the overall solubility of CO2 in the system to decrease drastically. This results in rapid exsolution of CO2 (g) which is allowed to expand during ascent, and we conclude that this is most likely the reason behind the unexpected vigor in the explosive eruptions of Oldoinyo Lengai. This massive release of CO2 during ascent may also explain the petrographic features of the pyroclasts as these are dominated by

  14. ‘Antarctic biology in the 21st century - Advances in, and beyond the international polar year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) has provided an opportunity for biology to show itself as an important part of Antarctic science in a manner in which it was not seen during earlier Polar Years. Of the 15 endorsed biological projects in Antarctica, 7 included more than 20 scientists and could be deemed truly international. Four were conducted in the marine environment, and one each in the fields of biological invasions, microbial ecology, and terrestrial ecology, and one was SCAR’s over-arching ‘Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic’. The marine projects have left a robust legacy of data for future research into the consequences of environmental change, and into future decisions about marine protected areas. Studies on introductions of exotic organisms reveal an ever-present threat to the warmer parts of the high-latitude Southern Ocean, or parts which might become warmer with climate change. Studies on microbial ecology reveal great complexity of ecosystems with high numbers of unknown species. Terrestrial research has shown how vulnerable the Antarctic is to accidental introductions, and how productive the soils can be under changed climate conditions. Antarctic biology has come-of-age during IPY 2007-2008 and the campaign has set the scene for future research.

  15. Upper-ocean hydrography of the Nordic Seas during the International Polar Year (2007-2008) as observed by instrumented seals and Argo floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachsen, Pål E.; Sørlie, Signe R.; Mauritzen, Cecilie; Lydersen, Christian; Dodd, Paul; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2014-11-01

    Following indications of recent warming trends in the Nordic Seas, we have studied the hydrography of these marginal seas from the summer of 2007 until the fall of 2008, using observations gathered by instrumented seals and Argo floats. The combined dataset shows that the upper ocean was indeed both warmer and saltier over much of the Nordic Seas in 2007-2008 compared to the average ocean state for the period 1956-2006 (based on the World Ocean Atlas 2009). There are also indications that the surface Polar Waters of the East Greenland Current were colder and fresher than the climatology, though the quality of the climatology is questionable for this region given the low number of historical observations. Dynamic height calculations suggest that the observed hydrographic changes were associated with enhanced northward upper-ocean thermal wind transport in the east and possibly also enhanced southward transport in the west.

  16. A synopsis of oncology and oncology-related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Brennan, P A; Shekar, K; McLeod, N; Puxeddu, R; Cascarini, L

    2009-10-01

    This paper provides a summary of the 95 papers related to oncology that were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) during 2007-2008. They include full length articles on clinical studies, radiology, basic science, and reconstruction in oral, and head and neck cancer. The journal also publishes technical notes and short communications. It encompasses the whole remit of the specialty and it is encouraging that authors choose to submit their work to BJOMS, but to improve the quality and status of the journal, we need to increase the ratio of full length articles to other submissions. Reviews of other subspecialties will be published in due course. PMID:19665266

  17. Rayleigh Lidar Network Observations and Analysis of the Evolution of the Arctic Middle Atmosphere during the IPY Winter 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, R. L.; Harvey, V. L.; Thurairajah, B.; Atkinson, D. E.; Larsen, C. J.; Baumgarten, G.; Fiedler, J.; Firanski, B. J.; Gerding, M.; Hoeffner, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Luebken, F.; Mizutani, K.; Pan, W.; Sica, R. J.; Strawbridge, K. B.

    2008-12-01

    A network of five Rayleigh lidars (i.e., Kuehlungsborn, Germany (54N, 12E), Chatanika, USA (65N, 147W), Kangerlussuaq, Greenland (67N, 51W), Andoya, Norway (69N, 16E), and Eureka, Canada (80N, 86W)) has been used to measure middle atmosphere temperature profiles through the 2007-2008 winter and spring. These measurements are being made as part of the project Pan-Arctic Studies of the Coupled Tropospheric, Stratospheric and Mesospheric Circulation as part of the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY-4). This project is a component of the two full IPY proposals; International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) and The Structure and Evolution of the Polar Stratosphere and Mesosphere and Links to the Troposphere during IPY (SPARC-IPY). The lidar network is part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON). The resolution and distribution of these lidar measurements provides the basis for a pan-Arctic perspective of the middle atmosphere circulation. We combine these lidar data with satellite observations and meteorological re-analyses to study the structure, evolution, and variability of the Arctic stratospheric vortex and Aleutian anticyclone. In this study we present the evolution of the Arctic middle atmosphere during the winter of 2007-2008. We highlight a stratospheric warming event that occurred during 20-26 February 2008. During this week the vortex was disrupted by the Aleutian anticyclone, then split at higher altitudes, and eventually reformed. The lidar measurements show that the altitude and temperature of the stratopause vary considerably (10 km, 30 K) from night-to-night and that the observed temperature structure often differs from that reported by the standard climatologies (e.g., SPARC). We discuss the observations in terms of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH).

  18. On the scaling laws derived from ice beacon trajectories in the southern Beaufort Sea during the International Polar Year - Circumpolar Flaw Lead study, 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukovich, J. V.; Babb, D. G.; Barber, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    Sea ice motion is an important element in mass balance calculations, ice thermodynamic modeling, ice management plans for industry, and ecosystems studies. In the historical literature, sea ice motion in the Beaufort Sea was characterized by a predominantly anticyclonic motion during winter months, with episodic reversals to cyclonic activity during summer. However, recent studies have shown an increase in cyclonic activity throughout the annual cycle. In this paper we examine circulation in the Beaufort Sea based on the trajectories of 22 ice beacons launched in the Franklin Bay area during the International Polar Year - Circumpolar Flaw Lead (IPY-CFL) study during an over-wintering experiment in 2007-2008. Dispersion characteristics of ice motion show that absolute zonal dispersion follows a t2 scaling law characteristic of advection associated with Beaufort Gyre circulation, whereas absolute meridional dispersion follows a scaling law of t5/4 characteristic of floaters and dispersion in 2-D turbulence. Temporal autocorrelations of ice velocity fluctuations highlight definitive timescales with values of 1.2 (0.7) days in the zonal (meridional) direction. Near-Gaussian behavior is reflected in higher-order moments for ice velocity fluctuation probability density functions (pdfs). Non-Gaussian behavior for absolute displacement pdfs indicates spatial heterogeneity in the ice motion fields. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice is explored through analysis of daily North American Regional Reanalysis and in situ wind data, where it is shown that ice in the CFL study region travels with an average speed of approximately 0.2% and an average angle of 51.5° to the right of the surface winds during the 2007-2008 winter. The results from this analysis further demonstrate seasonality in ice drift to wind ratios and angles that corresponds to stress buoy data indicative of increases in internal ice stress and connectivity due to consolidation of the seasonal ice zone to the coast

  19. Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hua; Chen, Min; Kransler, Kevin M; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2015-01-01

    As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-isodecyl phthalate) in the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set. For the total data set (N=2604), the co-occurrence of multiple phthalates at the upper percentile of exposure was infrequent. There were no individuals in the NHANES sample who were exposed to >95th percentiles for all six phthalates. For 75% of individuals, none of the six phthalates were above the 95th percentile of their respective exposure distributions. These data suggest that high exposure to multiple phthalates is infrequent in the NHANES population. This analysis solely focused on the pattern of contribution of individual phthalates to total exposure. It did not address the pattern of contribution to potential risk. The approach presented could potentially be used to provide insight into understanding the coexposure patterns for other chemicals. PMID:24756100

  20. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China. PMID:24394217

  1. The optical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian Antarctic stations during southern hemispheric summer of the International Polar Year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, Jai Prakash; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Vijayakumar S.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of background aerosols and their dependence on meteorological, geographical and human influence are examined using measured spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), total mass concentration (MT) and derived number size distribution (NSD) over two distinct coastal locations of Antarctica; Maitri (70° S, 12° E, 123 m m.s.l.) and Larsemann Hills (LH; 69° S, 77° E, 48 m m.s.l.) during southern hemispheric summer of 2007-2008 as a part of the 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) during International Polar Year (IPY). Our investigations showed comparable values for the mean columnar AOD at 500 nm over Maitri (0.034±0.005) and LH (0.032±0.006) indicating good spatial homogeneity in the columnar aerosol properties over the coastal Antarctica. Estimation of Angstrom exponent α showed accumulation mode dominance at Maitri (α~1.2±0.3) and coarse mode dominance at LH (0.7±0.2). On the other hand, mass concentration (MT) of ambient aerosols showed relatively high values (≈8.25±2.87 μg m-3) at Maitri in comparison to LH (6.03±1.33 μg m-3).

  2. Prevalence of internal parasites in beef cows in the United States: Results of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) beef study, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, Bert E; Gasbarre, Louis C; Ballweber, Lora R; Dargatz, David A; Rodriguez, Judith M; Kopral, Christine A; Zarlenga, Dante S

    2015-10-01

    During the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 2007-2008 beef study, 567 producers from 24 US States were offered the opportunity to collect fecal samples from weaned beef calves and have them evaluated for the presence of parasite eggs (Phase 1). Participating producers were provided with instructions and materials for sample collection. Up to 20 fresh fecal samples were collected from each of the 99 participating operations. Fresh fecal samples were submitted to one of 3 randomly assigned laboratories for evaluation. Upon arrival at the laboratories, all samples were processed for the enumeration of strongyle, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs using the modified Wisconsin technique. The presence or absence of coccidian oocysts and tapeworm eggs was also noted. In submissions where the strongyle eggs per gram exceeded 30, aliquots from 2 to 6 animals were pooled for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was subjected to genus level polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification for the presence of Ostertagia, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum, and Trichostrongylus. In this study, 85.6% of the samples had strongyle type, Nematodirus, and Trichuris eggs. Among the samples evaluated, 91% had Cooperia, 79% Ostertagia, 53% Haemonchus, 38% Oesophagostomum, 18% Nematodirus, 7% Trichuris, and 3% Trichostrongylus. The prevalence of coccidia and tapeworm eggs was 59.9% and 13.7%, respectively. PMID:26424909

  3. Assessment of chemical coexposure patterns based upon phthalate biomonitoring data within the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hua; Chen, Min; Kransler, Kevin M; Zaleski, Rosemary T

    2015-05-01

    As regulatory initiatives increasingly call for an understanding of the cumulative risks from chemical mixtures, evaluating exposure data from large biomonitoring programs, which may inform these cumulative risk assessments, will improve the understanding of occurrence and patterns of coexposures. Here we have analyzed the urinary metabolite data for six phthalates (di-butyl phthalate; di-isobutyl phthalate; butyl-benzyl phthalate; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-isononyl phthalate; and di-isodecyl phthalate) in the 2007/2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set. For the total data set (N=2604), the co-occurrence of multiple phthalates at the upper percentile of exposure was infrequent. There were no individuals in the NHANES sample who were exposed to >95th percentiles for all six phthalates. For 75% of individuals, none of the six phthalates were above the 95th percentile of their respective exposure distributions. These data suggest that high exposure to multiple phthalates is infrequent in the NHANES population. This analysis solely focused on the pattern of contribution of individual phthalates to total exposure. It did not address the pattern of contribution to potential risk. The approach presented could potentially be used to provide insight into understanding the coexposure patterns for other chemicals. PMID:24756100

  4. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial. PMID:25979511

  5. Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates obtained through population-based surveillance in South Africa in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Govender, Nelesh P; Patel, Jaymati; van Wyk, Marelize; Chiller, Tom M; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2011-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of meningitis among adult South Africans with HIV infection/AIDS. Widespread use of fluconazole for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and other HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections in South Africa may lead to the emergence of isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility. MIC testing using a reference broth microdilution method was used to determine if isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole or amphotericin B had emerged among cases of incident disease. Incident isolates were tested from two surveillance periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008) when population-based surveillance was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa. These isolates were also tested for susceptibility to flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Serially collected isolate pairs from cases at several large South African hospitals were also tested for susceptibility to fluconazole. Of the 487 incident isolates tested, only 3 (0.6%) demonstrated a fluconazole MIC of ≥ 16 μg/ml; all of these isolates were from 2002-2003. All incident isolates were inhibited by very low concentrations of amphotericin B and exhibited very low MICs to voriconazole and posaconazole. Of 67 cases with serially collected isolate pairs, only 1 case was detected where the isolate collected more than 30 days later had a fluconazole MIC value significantly higher than the MIC of the corresponding incident isolate. Although routine antifungal susceptibility testing of incident isolates is not currently recommended in clinical settings, it is still clearly important for public health to periodically monitor for the emergence of resistance. PMID:21444707

  6. Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. II. Eruptive behaviour during the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervyn, Matthieu; Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Keller, Jörg; Vaughan, R. Greg; Klaudius, Jurgis; Pradal, Evelyne; Belton, Frederic; Mattsson, Hannes B.; Mbede, Evelyne; Jacobs, Patric

    2010-10-01

    On September 4, 2007, after 25 years of effusive natrocarbonatite eruptions, the eruptive activity of Oldoinyo Lengai (OL), N Tanzania, changed abruptly to episodic explosive eruptions. This transition was preceded by a voluminous lava eruption in March 2006, a year of quiescence, resumption of natrocarbonatite eruptions in June 2007, and a volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm in July 2007. Despite the lack of ground-based monitoring, the evolution in OL eruption dynamics is documented based on the available field observations, ASTER and MODIS satellite images, and almost-daily photos provided by local pilots. Satellite data enabled identification of a phase of voluminous lava effusion in the 2 weeks prior to the onset of explosive eruptions. After the onset, the activity varied from 100 m high ash jets to 2-15 km high violent, steady or unsteady, eruption columns dispersing ash to 100 km distance. The explosive eruptions built up a ˜400 m wide, ˜75 m high intra-crater pyroclastic cone. Time series data for eruption column height show distinct peaks at the end of September 2007 and February 2008, the latter being associated with the first pyroclastic flows to be documented at OL. Chemical analyses of the erupted products, presented in a companion paper (Keller et al. 2010), show that the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions are associated with an undersaturated carbonated silicate melt. This new phase of explosive eruptions provides constraints on the factors causing the transition from natrocarbonatite effusive eruptions to explosive eruptions of carbonated nephelinite magma, observed repetitively in the last 100 years at OL.

  7. Fundamental changes in the activity of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. I. New magma composition during the 2007-2008 explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Jörg; Klaudius, Jurgis; Kervyn, Matthieu; Ernst, Gerald G. J.; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2010-10-01

    With a paroxysmal ash eruption on 4 September 2007 and the highly explosive activity continuing in 2008, Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) has dramatically changed its behavior, crater morphology, and magma composition after 25 years of quiet extrusion of fluid natrocarbonatite lava. This explosive activity resembles the explosive phases of 1917, 1940-1941, and 1966-1967, which were characterized by mixed ashes with dominantly nephelinitic and natrocarbonatitic components. Ash and lapilli from the 2007-2008 explosive phase were collected on the slopes of OL as well as on the active cinder cone, which now occupies the entire north crater having buried completely all earlier natrocarbonatite features. The lapilli and ash samples comprise nepheline, wollastonite, combeite, Na-åkermanite, Ti-andradite, resorbed pyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides, and a Na-Ca carbonate phase with high but varying phosphorus contents which is similar, but not identical, to the common gregoryite phenocrysts in natrocarbonatite. Lapilli from the active cone best characterize the erupted material as carbonated combeite-wollastonite-melilite nephelinite. The juvenile components represent a fundamentally new magma composition for OL, containing 25-30 wt.% SiO2, with 7-11 wt.% CO2, high alkalies (Na2O 15-19%, K2O 4-5%), and trace-element signatures reminiscent of natrocarbonatite enrichments. These data define an intermediate composition between natrocarbonatite and nephelinite, with about one third natrocarbonatite and two thirds nephelinite component. The data are consistent with a model in which the carbonated silicate magma has evolved from the common combeite-wollastonite nephelinite (CWN) of OL by enrichment of CO2 and alkalies and is close to the liquid immiscible separation of natrocarbonatite from carbonated nephelinite. Material ejected in April/May 2008 indicates reversion to a more common CWN composition.

  8. An analysis of data collected from the 2007--2008 Tennessee state report card and the variables related to science test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamons, Julia W.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) Achievement reading scores, school district per-pupil expenditures, school size, percentage of students qualifying for free and reduced-priced meals, and attendance were related to science TCAP test scores from the 2007-2008 school year. The data were gathered from an analysis of mean standardized test scores in reading and science of 8th graders in 67 school systems comprising 181 schools located throughout Tennessee. One hundred eighty-one schools configured grades 6 through 8 were used in this study. Only 177 schools had reported attendance available on the Tennessee Department of Education website. Pearson correlations were performed between the 8th mean grade science TCAP scores and 8th grade mean reading scores, per-pupil expenditure, school size, attendance, and the percentage of students qualifying for free and reduced-priced meals. Independent-samples t tests were conducted to evaluate whether 8th grade mean science TCAP scores and 8th grade mean reading scores varied depending on whether the school per-pupil expenditure was above or below the state average of $8,345. Independent-samples t test were also conducted to evaluate whether 8th grade mean science TCAP scores and 8th grade mean reading scores varied depending on whether the school attendance percentage was above or below the state goal of 93%. The school characteristic with the strongest association with the mean 8th grade science TCAP scores as computed by Pearson's correlation is the mean 8th grade reading TCAP scores. The values can be ranked as follows: mean 8th grade reading scores (.92) > percentage of students qualifying for free and reduced meals (-.84) > per-pupil expenditure (-.62) > attendance (.60) > school size (.23).

  9. Trends in Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates Obtained through Population-Based Surveillance in South Africa in 2002-2003 and 2007-2008

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Nelesh P.; Patel, Jaymati; van Wyk, Marelize; Chiller, Tom M.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of meningitis among adult South Africans with HIV infection/AIDS. Widespread use of fluconazole for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and other HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections in South Africa may lead to the emergence of isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility. MIC testing using a reference broth microdilution method was used to determine if isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole or amphotericin B had emerged among cases of incident disease. Incident isolates were tested from two surveillance periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008) when population-based surveillance was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa. These isolates were also tested for susceptibility to flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Serially collected isolate pairs from cases at several large South African hospitals were also tested for susceptibility to fluconazole. Of the 487 incident isolates tested, only 3 (0.6%) demonstrated a fluconazole MIC of ≥16 μg/ml; all of these isolates were from 2002-2003. All incident isolates were inhibited by very low concentrations of amphotericin B and exhibited very low MICs to voriconazole and posaconazole. Of 67 cases with serially collected isolate pairs, only 1 case was detected where the isolate collected more than 30 days later had a fluconazole MIC value significantly higher than the MIC of the corresponding incident isolate. Although routine antifungal susceptibility testing of incident isolates is not currently recommended in clinical settings, it is still clearly important for public health to periodically monitor for the emergence of resistance. PMID:21444707

  10. Adolescent Crash Rates and School Start Times in Two Central Virginia Counties, 2009-2011: A Follow-up Study to a Southeastern Virginia Study, 2007-2008

    PubMed Central

    Vorona, Robert Daniel; Szklo-Coxe, Mariana; Lamichhane, Rajan; Ware, J. Catesby; McNallen, Ann; Leszczyszyn, David

    2014-01-01

    Virginia study, 2007-2008. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1169-1177. PMID:25325600

  11. VARIABLE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2257. I. RESULTS BASED ON 2007-2008 B, V PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair; Jeon, Young-Beom E-mail: awalker@ctio.edu

    2009-11-15

    The variable stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 2257 are reinvestigated using photometry (to {approx}20th mag) of over 400 new B, V CCD images taken with the CTIO 0.9 m telescope on 14 nights in 2007 December and 2008 January. New period searches have been made using two independent algorithms (CLEAN, Period04); the resultant periods of most of the stars are consistent with the pulsation periods derived previously, and where there are discrepancies these have been resolved. For the B and V light curves, accurate Fourier coefficients and parameters are given. Six new variable stars have been discovered (V45-50), including a bright candidate long-period variable star showing secondary oscillations (V45) and two anomalously bright RRc stars (V48 and V50), which are shown to be brightened and reddened by nearby red giant stars. Also discovered among the previously known variable stars are three double-mode RR Lyrae stars (V8, V16, and V34) and several Blazhko variables. Archival Hubble Space Telescope images and the photometry by Johnson et al. have been used to define better the properties of the most crowded variable stars. The total number of cluster variable stars now stands at forty-seven: 23 RRab stars, four of which show Blazhko amplitude variations; 20 RRc stars, one showing clear Blazhko variations and another showing possible Blazhko variations; the three RRd stars, all having the dominant period {approx}0.36 day and period ratios P {sub 1}/P {sub 0} {approx}0.7450; and an LPV star located near the tip of the red giant branch. A comparison of the RRd stars with those in other environments shows them to be most similar to those in IC4499.

  12. Evaluation of the impact of SO₂ and NO₂ emissions on the ambient air-quality in the Çan-Bayramiç region of northwest Turkey during 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ozkurt, Nesimi; Sari, Deniz; Akalin, Nuray; Hilmioglu, Bilgin

    2013-07-01

    The characterization and assessment of air-quality in this region are essential steps for the implementation of the "Clean Air Action Plan" as this is set by the Turkish Regulation on Ambient Air-Quality Assessment and Management. This study area intends to shed a light on use of modeling tools as an alternative method for the assessment of local atmospheric pollution and the determination of the importance of local emissions. This modeling approach can be also used for the consistent geographic representation of air-quality concentration as well as for assessing the future air-quality condition after the implementation of emission reduction measures in a certain area. With this article we evaluate the impact of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions on the ambient air-quality in the Çan-Bayramiç region of Turkey. The emission rates of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were calculated by using the CALPUFF model. The concentration of these pollutants had also been monitored at ten air-quality locations during 2007-2008 in the research area. The measured data were also utilized for testing the model performance. Results showed that the air-quality in this important rural region of Turkey can be evaluated effectively by using the current numerical modeling system. PMID:23602979

  13. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  14. Red Clover

    MedlinePlus

    ... 17):2057–2071. Red clover. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Red clover ( Trifolium pratense ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  15. Red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

  16. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  17. The European Clinical, Molecular, and Pathological (ECMP) Criteria and the 2007/2008 Revisions of the World Health Organization for the Diagnosis, Classification, and Staging of Prefibrotic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Carrying the JAK2V617F Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Michiels, Jan Jacques; Kate, Fibo Ten; Lam, King H.; Schroyens, Wilfried; Berneman, Zwi; De Raeve, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The prefibrotic stages of JAK2V617F essential thrombocythemia (ET) and JAK2V617F polycythemia vera (PV) can easily be diagnosed clinically without use of bone marrow biopsy histology. We assessed the 2008 WHO and European Clinical, Molecular, and Pathological (ECMP) criteria for the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Materials and Methods: Studied patients included 6 JAK2V617F-mutated ET and 4 PV patients during long-term follow-up in view of critical analysis of the literature. The bone marrow biopsy histology diagnosis without use of clinical data was PV in 7 (of which 3 were cases of ET with features of early prodromal PV) and classical PV in 4. Results: The ECMP criteria distinguish 3 sequential phenotypes (1, 2, or 3) of JAK2V617F-mutated ET: normocellular ET-1; ET-2, with clinical and bone marrow features of PV (prodromal PV), and ET-3, with hypercellular dysmorphic megakaryocytic and granulocytic myeloproliferation (ET.MGM). The 3 patients with ET-2 or prodromal PV developed slow-onset PV after a follow-up of about 10 years. Bone marrow biopsy histology differentiates MPNs of various molecular etiologies from all variants of primary or secondary erythrocytoses and thrombocytoses with sensitivity and specificity of near 100%. Conclusion: Normocellular ET (WHO-ET), prodromal PV, and classical PV show overlapping bone marrow biopsy histology features with similar pleomorphic clustered megakaryocytes in the prefibrotic stages of JAK2V617F mutated MPN. Erythrocytes are below 6x1012/L in normocellular ET and prodromal PV, and are consistently above 6x1012/L in classical PV and at the time of transition from prodromal PV into classical PV. Red cell count at a cut-off level of 6x1012/L separates ET from PV and obviates the need for red cell mass measurement when bone marrow histology and JAK2V617F mutation screening are included in the diagnostic work-up of MPNs.

  18. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  19. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  20. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  1. Annual Performance Report: 2007-2008 State Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Jason; Thurlow, Martha; Vang, Mai

    2010-01-01

    States and other educational entities receiving Part B funding under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) submitted their Annual Performance Reports (APRs) and Section 618 Table 6 data together to the U.S. Secretary of Education on or before February 1, 2009. These reports may have been modified during the following few months,…

  2. Influenza update 2007-2008: vaccine advances, pandemic preparation.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2007-12-01

    Influenza vaccination remains our best measure to prevent epidemic and pandemic influenza. We must continue to improve vaccination rates for targeted populations. Antiviral options are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors. PMID:18183839

  3. Restrictions on Research Awards: Troublesome Clauses 2007/2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This joint report by the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR) is based on a survey of 20 U.S. research universities that conduct significant amounts of federal research. It follows up on a 2003/2004 survey of the same institutions. The new report shows that, despite the concerns and…

  4. Report on 2007-2008 High Tunnel Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New management strategies are needed to produce strawberry planting materials that will fruit in off-season in the mid-Atlantic coast region. Also, a better understanding of mechanisms that control flowering in strawberries is needed to improve fall flowering in short-day type cultivars. When plug...

  5. Overview of global space activities in 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Nicolas; Delmotte, Raphaëlle

    2009-08-01

    The period ranging from July 2007 to June 2008 has been marked by significant trends and issues in the space sector, particularly under the impulsion of space-faring countries. The internationalisation and globalisation of the space sector which started a few years ago have been gaining momentum as well. As a consequence, the size of the space sector has been growing, as well as the global competition for market shares.

  6. American Council of Learned Societies Annual Report, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Learned Societies, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) provides the humanities and related social sciences with leadership, opportunities for innovation, and national and international representation. ACLS was founded in 1919 to represent the United States in the Union Academique Internationale. Its mission is "the advancement of humanistic studies in…

  7. Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer: 2007-2008 Progress and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Lay, O. P.; Martin, S. R.; Peters, R. D.; Gappinger, R. O.; Ksendzov, A.; Scharf, D. P.; Booth, A. J.; Beichman, C. A.; Serabyn, E.; Johnston, K. J.; Danchi, W. C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of technology development for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I). TPF-I is a mid-infrared space interferometer being designed with the capability of detecting Earth-like planets in the habitable zones around nearby stars. The overall technology roadmap is presented and progress with each of the testbeds is summarized. The current interferometer architecture, design trades, and the viability of possible reduced-scope mission concepts are also presented.

  8. International Polar Year 2007/2008 - snapshots from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezek, K.

    2003-04-01

    Satellite observations are revolutionizing our ability to observe the poles and polar processes. No other technology developed since the IGY of 1957 provides the high-resolution, continental-scale, frequent-repeat, and all-weather observations available from spaceborne sensors. The utility of that technology is evidenced by associated scientific advances including measurements of long term trends in polar sea ice cover and extent, the realization that the polar ice sheets can change dramatically at decade or less time scales, and the quantification of relationships between processes at the poles and at mid and equatorial latitudes. There are many examples of successful spaceborne observations from pole to pole for scientific, commercial and governmental purposes. These successes encourage the use of the capabilities and consequently, the competition for access to resources from the international constellation of satellites becomes increasingly more intense. Frequently, this means that there are only limited opportunities for conducting large-scale projects that consume a significant fraction of system capabilities for some dedicated period of time. An example of a large-scale coordinated effort is the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project that required months of dedicated satellite and ground support time to achieve its objective of obtaining near instantaneous 'snapshots' of Antarctica to serve as gauges for measuring future changes. Large-scale coordinated-experiments will continue to be important for polar scientists seeking to understand the role of polar processes in climate change. These future missions will be further enhanced if complementary observations and data analysis from different satellite sensors can be coordinated (for example IceSAT laser altimeter observations of ice sheet surface topography with EnviSAT SAR observation of ice sheet motion). That coordination is challenging in part because of resource allocation issues and in part because space programs are operated by a host of national agencies. To overcome those challenges, the international polar science community needs a common rallying point. In this paper, we outline a path for developing an international science plan for coordinated, spaceborne and in situ observation of the polar regions and polar processes to be initiated as part of the proposed International Polar Year. The goal is to advance polar science by obtaining critical benchmarks of processes in the Arctic and Antarctic starting with the IPY. The technical objective would be to coordinate polar observations with spaceborne and in situ instruments and then to make the resulting data and derived products available to the international science community. A possible expansion of this idea would be to include ice covered regions from pole to pole that are known to be important contributors to current sea level change. We recommend that such a project focus on two classes of products. The first consists of mapped data from different sensors in a common format. The format may include Geographic Information System links to facilitate incorporation and comparison with in situ data. The second class consists of geophysical variables derived from the map products. These might include properties such as ice sheet elevation, velocity, accumulation rate, and sea ice extent and concentration. We envision the project to be coordinated by an international steering committee responsible for crafting overall science objectives, deliverables, and requirements. The steering committee will also be responsible for transmitting this information to the various flight agencies or vendors and for monitoring the overall coordination of the campaign. At a working level, individual teams of investigators will be asked to work directly with mission operations groups and to take ownership of the development of these products for delivery to data centers. The final result will be a coordinated, integrated data set that captures detailed snapshots of Earth's poles.

  9. International Polar Year 2007/2008 - A Snapshot from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noltimier, K.; Jezek, K.; Box, J.

    2002-12-01

    Satellite observations are revolutionizing our ability to observe the poles and polar processes. No other technology developed since the IGY of 1957 provides the high-resolution, continental-scale, frequent-repeat, and all-weather observations available from spaceborne sensors. The utility of that technology is evidenced by associated scientific advances including measurements of long term trends in polar sea ice cover and extent, the realization that the polar ice sheets can change dramatically at decade or less time scales, and the quantification of relationships between processes at the poles and at mid and equatorial latitudes. There are many examples of successful spaceborne observations from pole to pole for scientific, commercial and governmental purposes. These successes encourage the use of the capabilities and consequently, the competition for access to resources from the international constellation of satellites becomes increasingly more intense. Frequently, this means that there are only limited opportunities for conducting large-scale projects that consume a significant fraction of system capabilities for some dedicated period of time. An example of a large-scale coordinated effort is the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project that required months of dedicated satellite and ground support time to achieve its objective of obtaining near instantaneous 'snapshots' of Antarctica to serve as gauges for measuring future changes. Large-scale coordinated-experiments will continue to be important for polar scientists seeking to understand the role of polar processes in climate change. These future missions will be further enhanced if complementary observations and data analysis from different satellite sensors can be coordinated (for example IceSAT laser altimeter observations of ice sheet surface topography with EnviSAT SAR observation of ice sheet motion). That coordination is challenging in part because of resource allocation issues and in part because space programs are operated by a host of national agencies. To overcome those challenges, the international polar science community needs a common rallying point. In this paper, we outline a path for developing an international science plan for coordinated, spaceborne and in situ observation of the polar regions and polar processes as part of the proposed International Polar Year. The goal is to advance polar science by obtaining another critical benchmark of processes in the Arctic and Antarctic during the IPY. The technical objective would be to coordinate polar observations with spaceborne and in situ instruments and then to make the resulting data and derived products available to the international science community. A possible expansion of this idea would be to include ice covered regions from pole to pole that are known to be important contributors to current sea level change. We envision the project to be coordinated by an international steering committee responsible for crafting overall science objectives, deliverables, and requirements. The steering committee will also be responsible for transmitting this information to the various flight agencies or vendors and for monitoring the overall coordination of the campaign. At a working level, individual teams of investigators will be asked to work directly with mission operations groups and to take ownership of the development of these products for delivery to data centers. The final result will be a coordinated, integrated data set that captures a detailed snapshot of Earth's poles.

  10. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2007-2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 08 contract period October 1, 2007-September 30, 2008. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. Significant progress was realized in almost all major work types. Of particular note was progress made in tree plantings and pasture rehabilitation efforts. This year's tree planting effort included five sites detailed below and in terms of the number of plants was certainly the largest effort on the wildlife area to date in one season. The planting itself took a significant amount of time, which was anticipated. However, installation of mats and tubes took much longer than expected which impacted planned fence projects in particular. Survival of the plantings appears to be good. Improvement to the quality of waterfowl pasture habitats is evident on a number of sites due to replanting and weed control efforts. Continuing long-term weed control efforts will be key in improving this particular type of habitat. A prolonged cold, wet spring and a number of equipment breakdowns presented stumbling blocks that impacted schedules and ultimately progress on planned activities. The unusual spring weather delayed fieldwork on pasture planting projects as well as weed control and slowed the process of maintaining trees and shrubs. This time lag also caused the continued deferral of some of our fencing projects. The large brush hog mower had the driveline break twice and the smaller tractor had an engine failure that caused it to be down for over a month. We have modified our budget plan for next year to include a temporary employee that will work primarily on tree maintenance and fencing projects to make sure that we make progress in these areas and we will be investigating whether a heavier duty driveline can be obtained for the mower.

  11. MCPS Special Education at a Glance 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) "Special Education at a Glance," which includes a copy of the "Guide to Planning and Assessing School-Based Special Education Programs," provides in a single document, information about the special education population at each MCPS school, including enrollment, staffing, special education…

  12. Scotch Creek Wildlife Area 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jim

    2008-11-03

    The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area is a complex of 6 separate management units located in Okanogan County in North-central Washington State. The project is located within the Columbia Cascade Province (Okanogan sub-basin) and partially addresses adverse impacts caused by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee hydroelectric dams. With the acquisition of the Eder unit in 2007, the total size of the wildlife area is now 19,860 acres. The Scotch Creek Wildlife Area was approved as a wildlife mitigation project in 1996 and habitat enhancement efforts to meet mitigation objectives have been underway since the spring of 1997 on Scotch Creek. Continuing efforts to monitor the threatened Sharp-tailed grouse population on the Scotch Creek unit are encouraging. The past two spring seasons were unseasonably cold and wet, a dangerous time for the young of the year. This past spring, Scotch Creek had a cold snap with snow on June 10th, a critical period for young chicks just hatched. Still, adult numbers on the leks have remained stable the past two years. Maintenance of BPA funded enhancements is necessary to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and to recover and sustain populations of Sharp-tailed grouse and other obligate species.

  13. Rehabilitate Newsome Creek Watershed, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bransford, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridgetop approach. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Newsome Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1997. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through road decommissioning and culvert replacement. Starting in FY 2001 and continuing into the present, a major stream restoration effort on the mainstem of Newsome Creek has been pursued. From completing a watershed assessment to a feasibility study of 4 miles of mainstem rehabilitation to carrying that forward into NEPA and a final design, we will begin the effort of restoring the mainstem channel of Newsome Creek to provide spawning and rearing habitat for anadromous and resident fish species. Roads have been surveyed and prioritized for removal or improvement as well as culverts being prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed.

  14. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2007 and mid-2008. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, alternaria toxins, cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Some aspects of natural occurrence, ...

  15. Gilliam County Riparian Buffers 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-04

    During the contract year beginning July 1, 2007 and ending June 30, 2008, the CREP technician contacted 15 new landowners regarding an interest in either the CREP or the Continuous CRP programs. Most landowners requested a second meeting and most sites were visited to discuss possibilities of enrolling in a USDA riparian program. This year, a considerable amount of time was spent providing technical assistance to prior contracts as the practices are implemented. More time is being spent in planning site preparation so that NRCS and FSAs increasing concerns over plant survival are satisfied. A continued concern that the rate paid to the landowner for maintenance is not enough. Controlling competing vegetation is a major factor in increasing plant survival. Increasing costs in the methods used to control unwanted plants has made it difficult for contract holders to perform these methods as effectively as they would like. The projects that have continued maintenance are considerably more successful.

  16. Intervention for College Attendance Program: 2007-2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the outcomes of the Intervention for College Attendance Program, a program of competitive grants awarded to postsecondary institutions, professional organizations, and community-based organizations. Prior to the 2008-09 biennium, the program focused on provision of college awareness and the…

  17. Tennessee Higher Education Fact Book, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Division of Policy, Planning, and Research has assembled the Tennessee Higher Education Fact Book which is a compilation of statistical information pertaining to higher education in Tennessee. This Fact Book contains tables and charts with data relevant to enrollment and transfers, persistence and attainment, and fiscal information about…

  18. PSP toxin levels and plankton community composition and abundance in size-fractionated vertical profiles during spring/summer blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank, 2007, 2008, and 2010: 1. Toxin levels

    PubMed Central

    Deeds, Jonathan R.; Petitpas, Christian M.; Shue, Vangie; White, Kevin D.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Milligan, Peter J.; Anderson, Donald M.; Turner, Jefferson T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NOAA ECOHAB funded Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX)1 project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin composition, and concentration in quantitatively-sampled size-fractionated (20–64, 64–100, 100–200, 200–500, and > 500 μm) particulate water samples, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in these size fractions, at multiple depths (typically 1, 10, 20 m, and near-bottom) during 10 large-scale sampling cruises during the A. fundyense bloom season (May–August) in the coastal Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank in 2007, 2008, and 2010. Our findings were as follows: (1) when all sampling stations and all depths were summed by year, the majority (94% ± 4%) of total PSP toxicity was contained in the 20–64 μm size fraction; (2) when further analyzed by depth, the 20–64 μm size fraction was the primary source of toxin for 97% of the stations and depths samples over three years; (3) overall PSP toxin profiles were fairly consistent during the three seasons of sampling with gonyautoxins (1, 2, 3, and 4) dominating (90.7% ± 5.5%), followed by the carbamate toxins saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin (NEO) (7.7% ± 4.5%), followed by n-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1 and 2, GTX5) (1.3% ± 0.6%), followed by all decarbamoyl toxins (dcSTX, dcNEO, dcGTX2&3) (< 1%), although differences were noted between PSP toxin compositions for nearshore coastal Gulf of Maine sampling stations compared to offshore Georges Bank sampling stations for 2 out of 3 years; (4) surface cell counts of A. fundyense were a fairly reliable predictor of the presence of toxins throughout the water column; and (5) nearshore surface cell counts of A. fundyense in the coastal Gulf of Maine were not a reliable predictor of A. fundyense populations offshore on Georges Bank for 2 out of the 3 years sampled. PMID:25076816

  19. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  20. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts ...

  1. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  2. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    MedlinePlus

    ... dignity and resilience Geneva, 14 September 2016 – The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies... ... News Contact us Sitemap Go to top The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies ( ...

  3. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  4. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  5. Jupiter's Great Red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This color composite made from Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera frames shows the Great Red Spot during the late Jovian afternoon. North of the Red Spot lies a curious darker section of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB), the belt in which the Red Spot is located. A bright eruption of material passing from the SEB northward into the diffuse equatorial clouds has been observed on all occasions when this feature passes north of the Red Spot. The remnants of one such eruption are apparent in this photograph. To the lower left of the Red Spot lies one of the three long-lived White Ovals. This photograph was taken on June 29, 1979, when Voyager 2 was over 9 million kilometers (nearly 6 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features visible are over 170 kilometers (106 miles) across.

  6. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  7. Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The image was created using two filters, violet and near-infrared, at each of two camera positions. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter's atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. Winds blow counterclockwise around the Great Red Spot at about 400 kilometers per hour (250 miles per hour). The size of the storm is more than one Earth diameter (13,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles) in the north-south direction and more than two Earth diameters in the east-west direction. In this oblique view, where the Great Red Spot is shown on the planet's limb, it appears longer in the north-south direction. The image was taken on June 26, 1996.

    The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  8. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

  9. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  10. Reviving red snapper.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Red snappers in the Gulf of Mexico once hovered on the brink of extinction, their population having dropped to 2 percent of what had historically swum in the Gulf. But thanks to a recently introduced plan that turns the conventional wisdom of fisheries management on its head, the picture has begun to change. Called Individual Fishing Quotas (IFQs), the new regulations, which give a guaranteed allotment of fish to each participant instead of applying industry-wide quotas, went into effect for Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in early 2007. The results were immediate and so profound that the Gulf Fishery Management Council voted earlier this year to increase the annual limit on red snapper to nearly 7 million pounds from 5 million. PMID:21542214

  11. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized. PMID:25967822

  12. Lustre on Red Sky.

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, Stephen Todd; Mervini, Joe

    2010-04-01

    The goals of Lustre on Red Sky are: (1) provide home/projects/scratch Lustre file systems; (2) adhere to the Sun HPC stack; (3) implement software RAID on Sun provided JBODs; and (4) design for easy administration. Conclusions are: (1) software RAID includes additional risks and administration vs. hardware RAID solutions; (2) limited testing of hardware in these configurations make it ill-suited for rapid deployment in a production environment; and (3) Lustre has been a shining star on this machine, Red Sky users are pleased with its performance.

  13. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  14. 'Valley Red' Strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Valley Red' is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, Ore., released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Th...

  15. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  16. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  17. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  18. 'Saanich' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Saanich' is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivar from the breeding program at the Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre (PARC) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, British Columbia. 'Saanich', tested as BC 89-34-41, was selected from a 1989 cross of BC 82-5-161 and BC...

  19. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  20. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  1. Dietary intakes of choline: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this report is to present data on the choline intake of the U.S. population and the food categories that contribute to intake. The dietary data was from twenty-four hour recall provided by all 9,118 individuals who participated in What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007–2008. The analys...

  2. North Dakota University System Summary of 2007-2008 Annual Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007-08 operating budget for the North Dakota University System is over $960 million. Approximately 28 percent of operations are supported by the state general fund. The remainder of the operations of the University System are self-supporting through tuition and fees, room and board charges paid by students, and private and federal research…

  3. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Low-fat Milk Consumption Among Children and Adolescents in the ... results not shown). What type of milk, by fat content, do children and adolescents consume? Among children ...

  4. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the Columbia River and Snake River are exposed to different ocean conditions and may respond differently to climate changes. In particular, our work shows that the growth and fat content of Chinook and coho salmon vary along different parts of the coast and among years. These growth differences appear to be associated with differences in prey quality rather than by a direct effect of temperature on salmon growth or prey quantity, indicating that changes in ocean conditions and circulation affect salmon production indirectly through changes in prey community composition and quality. Taken together, our analyses indicate that the relative survival of different stocks of salmon in the ocean will depend on where they migrate in the ocean, and that changes at the base of the food chain must be taken into consideration to understand the effects of ocean conditions on salmon growth, and hence, on salmon survival.

  5. Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund Annual Report, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund (CWEALF) is a statewide non-profit organization dedicated to empowering women, girls and their families to achieve equal opportunities in their personal and professional lives. Members are guided by their commitment to feminism, diversity, empowerment, personal responsibility and self-sufficiency,…

  6. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, Norm

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to which ecological systems are experiencing anthropogenic disturbance and change in structure and function is critical for long term conservation of biotic diversity in the face of changing landscapes and land use. KTOI and the RDRT propose a concept based on incorporating hydrologic, aquatic, and terrestrial components into an operations-based assessment framework to assess ecological losses as shown in Figure E-1.

  7. 78 FR 50113 - Distribution of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Cable Royalty Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... September 16, 2013. ADDRESSES: Participants must submit an original, five paper copies, and an electronic..., music, etc.). For broadcast years 2006 through 2009, the parties settled their controversies. The...

  8. Bluetongue disease in Germany (2007-2008): monitoring of entomological aspects.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven; Schaub, Günter; Kiel, Ellen; Focke, René; Liebisch, Gabriele; Liebisch, Arndt; Werner, Doreen; Bauer, Christian; Clausen, Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Geier, Martin; Hörbrand, Thomas; Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Conraths, Franz J; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2009-08-01

    In the summer of 2006, a bluetongue epidemic started in the border area of Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany, spread within 2 years over large areas of Western and Central Europe, and caused substantial losses in farm ruminants. Especially sheep and cattle were severely affected, leading to a case-fatality ratio of nearly 40% in sheep (Conraths et al., Emerg Inf Dis 15(3):433-435, 2009). The German federal ministry of food, agriculture, and consumer protection (BMELV) established a countrywide monitoring on the occurrence of the vectors of this virus, i.e., midges (family Ceratopogonidae) of the genus Culicoides. The monitoring was done on 91 sites, most of which were localized in the 150-km restriction zone that existed in December 2006. A grid consisting of 45 x 45 km(2) cells was formed that covered the monitoring area. As a rule, one trap was placed into each grid cell. The monitoring program started at the end of March 2007 and lasted until May 2008. It included the catching of midges by ultraviolet light traps-done each month from days 1 until 8, the selection of midges of the Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides pulicaris group, and other Culicoides spp., the testing of midges for bluetongue virus (BTV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the daily registration of weather data at each trap site for the whole monitoring period. The following main results were obtained: (1) Members of the C. obsoletus group were most commonly found in the traps, reaching often 3/4 of the catches. The African and South European vector of BTV-the species Culicoides imicola-was never found. (2) Members of the C. obsoletus group were most frequently found infected with BTV besides a few cases in the C. pulicaris group and other species. (3) Members of the C. obsoletus group were also found in winter. Their numbers were reduced, however, and they were caught mostly close to stables. Therefore, a true midge-free period does not exist during the year in Germany. (4) The amounts of midges caught daily depended on the weather conditions. If it was cold and/or windy, the traps contained only a few specimens. Since the months from January to May 2008 were considerably colder (at all farms) than their correspondents in 2007, the growing of the population of midges started 2-3 months later in 2008 than in 2007. (5) The highest populations of midges occurred in both years (2007 and 2008) during the months September and October. This corresponded significantly to the finding of highest numbers of infected midges and to the number of diseased cattle and sheep during these 2 months. (6) It is noteworthy that in general, the first virus-positive midges of the species C. obsoletus were found about 1 1/2 months later than the first clinical cases had occurred or later than the first PCR-proven virus-positive sentinel animals had been documented. In 2007, the first BTV-positive cattle were detected in May in North Rhine-Westphalia, while the first positive Culicoides specimens were only found in August on the same farm. Evaluating these main results of the entomological monitoring and the fact that many wild ruminants have also been infected with BTV, it becomes evident that bluetongue disease has become endemic in Central Europe, and that only constant effort including vaccination and perhaps also insecticidal protection of cattle and sheep will keep the economical losses at a reasonable level. The following papers (1-10) in this journal will contribute more details obtained from this worldwide unique entomological monitoring: Bartsch et al. 2009; Bauer et al. 2009; Stephan et al. 2009; Clausen et al. 2009; Hörbrand and Geier 2009; Kiehl et al. 2009; Mehlhorn et al. 2009; Kiel et al. 2009; Vorsprach et al. 2009; Balczun et al. 2009. PMID:19322587

  9. CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. VIII. THE FINAL YEAR (2007-2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Szkody, Paula; Anderson, Scott F.; Brooks, Keira; Kronberg, Martin; Riecken, Thomas; Gaensicke, Boris T.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Agueeros, Marcel A.; Gomez-Moran, Ada N.; Schwope, Axel D.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Schreiber, Matthias R.

    2011-12-15

    This paper completes the series of cataclysmic variables (CVs) identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) I/II. The coordinates, magnitudes, and spectra of 33 CVs are presented. Among the 33 are eight systems known prior to SDSS (CT Ser, DO Leo, HK Leo, IR Com, V849 Her, V405 Peg, PG1230+226, and HS0943+1404), as well as nine objects recently found through various photometric surveys. Among the systems identified since the SDSS are two polar candidates, two intermediate polar candidates, and one candidate for containing a pulsating white dwarf. Our follow-up data have confirmed a polar candidate from Paper VII and determined tentative periods for three of the newly identified CVs. A complete summary table of the 285 CVs with spectra from SDSS I/II is presented as well as a link to an online table of all known CVs from both photometry and spectroscopy that will continue to be updated as future data appear.

  10. Analysis of enterovirus and adenovirus presence in swimming pools in Cyprus from 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Bashiardes, S; Koptides, D; Pavlidou, S; Richter, J; Stavrou, N; Kourtis, C; Papageorgiou, G T; Christodoulou, C G

    2011-01-01

    An analysis was carried out to determine the presence of enteroviruses and adenoviruses in public swimming pools in Cyprus. The effectiveness of the commonly implemented disinfection procedure of chlorination was confirmed by determination of bacteriological markers. Analysis of viral presence was carried out by sampling random swimming pools from the five major cities in Cyprus during a period of 21 months spanning from April 2007 to December 2008. A 10 I sample was taken from each swimming pool to be tested and was subsequently concentrated via membrane filtration using a new methodological approach for virus elution. Concentrated samples were analysed using of a Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) TaqMan probe based approach to detect the presence of enteroviruses and adenoviruses. Over the period of 21 months a total of 126 swimming pools were sampled and analysed. In four swimming pools enteroviruses were detected, in one pool echovirus 18 was identified, in two pools echovirus 30 was identified and in one other pool poliovirus Sabin 1 was identified. Similarly, in four swimming pools adenoviruses were detected, in all four adenovirus 41 was identified. Bacteriological marker analysis showed that 98% of pools complied with Cyprus regulations. PMID:22049764

  11. Serological status of Canadian cattle for brucellosis, anaplasmosis, and bluetongue in 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Paré, Julie; Geale, Dorothy W; Koller-Jones, Maria; Hooper-McGrevy, Kathleen; Golsteyn-Thomas, Elizabeth J; Power, Christine A

    2012-09-01

    A national bovine serological survey was conducted to confirm that the prevalence of brucellosis, bluetongue, and anaplasmosis does not exceed 0.02% (95% confidence) in live cattle in Canada. Sampling consisted of a systematic random sample of 15 482 adult cattle slaughtered in federally inspected abattoirs, stratified by province. Samples were tested to detect antibodies for brucellosis, bluetongue, and anaplasmosis. All samples were negative for brucellosis. Three samples were seroreactors to bluetongue, 2 of which originated from the Okanagan Valley in British Columbia and 1 from Ontario, which after follow-up, was considered an atypical result. A total of 244 samples were seroreactors to Anaplasma and follow-up identified infection in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Quebec. In conclusion, the Canadian cattle population remains free of brucellosis and free of bluetongue outside the Okanagan Valley. Canada is no longer free of anaplasmosis and will be unable to claim freedom until eradication measures are completed. PMID:23450858

  12. Surveillance of air-travel-related tuberculosis incidents, England and Wales: 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, I; Welfare, R; Moore, J; Watson, J M

    2008-06-01

    The potential spread of tuberculosis (TB) from infectious passengers during air travel has recently received increasing attention in the media and from public health authorities. We reviewed all air travel-related tuberculosis incidents reported to the Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections between January 2007 and February 2008 in England and Wales and investigated the effectiveness of contact investigation. Incidents involving air travel were defined according to the World Health Organization's guidelines on TB and Air Travel. We collected data on the index case, the incident and the outcome of contact investigation where available. We identified 24 incidents involving 39 flights. The median flight duration was 8.9 hours (inter-quartile range (IQR) 8 to 11.7). Most flights (36) were from or to a high burden country and 19 of the 24 incidents reported had a smear-positive index case. Two index cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In 17 incidents, no further investigation could be undertaken due to the lack of passenger information. In the remaining seven incidents, the quality of contact information obtained was variable. No further cases of TB infection or disease were identified. This study suggests that the process of investigating passenger contacts of a TB infected individual travelling by air is complicated and usually unsuccessful without dedicated resources and availability of high-quality contact information from airlines. Further research into the effectiveness of contact investigation in this setting is needed. PMID:18761951

  13. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2007-2008 Report. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile-justice programs and designated the Corrections Standards Authority (CSA) (formerly named the Board of Corrections) the administrator of funding. A 2001 California Senate bill extended the funding and changed the…

  14. Research in Our Schools: Duke University School Research Partnership Office, Research Studies 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Duke University School Research Partnership (SRP) Office was developed with support from the Office of the Provost and the Center for Child and Family Policy. Begun in 2006 as the Duke Office for Research in Schools (DORIS), the SRP Office is an integral part of the work of the Center for Child and Family Policy. The SRP Office facilitates…

  15. Snacking patterns of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to track changes in snacking frequency over time, determine whether snacking is associated with food energy intake and weight status, identify foods and beverages that make the largest contributions to calories consumed at snacks, and measure the contribution of snacks t...

  16. The Afterschool Experience in "Salsa, Sabor y Salud": Evaluation, 2007-2008. CRESST Report 747

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Denise; La Torre, Deborah; Oh, Christine; Harven, Aletha; Huber, Lindsay; Leon, Seth; Mostafavi, Sima

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, there is an alarming trend toward obesity and inactivity among children. Minorities and economically disadvantaged children are at an even higher risk. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention one in two Latino children will become diabetic. As a result, there is a dire need for tailored intervention…

  17. Detecting early signs of the 2007-2008 crisis in the world trade.

    PubMed

    Saracco, Fabio; Di Clemente, Riccardo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007, several contributions have tried to identify early-warning signals of the financial crisis. However, the vast majority of analyses has focused on financial systems and little theoretical work has been done on the economic counterpart. In the present paper we fill this gap and employ the theoretical tools of network theory to shed light on the response of world trade to the financial crisis of 2007 and the economic recession of 2008-2009. We have explored the evolution of the bipartite World Trade Web (WTW) across the years 1995-2010, monitoring the behavior of the system both before and after 2007. Our analysis shows early structural changes in the WTW topology: since 2003, the WTW becomes increasingly compatible with the picture of a network where correlations between countries and products are progressively lost. Moreover, the WTW structural modification can be considered as concluded in 2010, after a seemingly stationary phase of three years. We have also refined our analysis by considering specific subsets of countries and products: the most statistically significant early-warning signals are provided by the most volatile macrosectors, especially when measured on developing countries, suggesting the emerging economies as being the most sensitive ones to the global economic cycles. PMID:27461469

  18. Monitoring of Bright Blazars with MAGIC in the 2007/2008 Season

    SciTech Connect

    Satalecka, Konstancja; Bernardini, Elisa; Majumdar, Pratik; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; Galante, Nicola; Goebel, Florian; Wagner, Robert; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Stamerra, Antonio; Lindfors, Elina

    2009-04-08

    Because of the short duty-cycles and observation-time constraints, studies of bright TeV (E>100 GeV) blazars are mostly restricted to flaring episodes or rather short (days to few weeks) multiwavelength campaigns. At the same time, long-term studies of these objects are essential to gain a more complete understanding of the blazar phenomenon and to constrain theoretical models concerning jet physics. Only unbiased long-term studies are adequate for the determination of flaring state probabilities and for estimating the statistical significance of possible correlations between TeV flaring states and other wavebands or observables, such as neutrino events. Regular observations also provide triggers for multiwavelength ToO observations originating from the TeV waveband. These are particularly needed to identify and study orphan TeV flares, i.e. flares without counterparts in other wavebands. In 2007/8 the MAGIC telescope has monitored three TeV blazars on a regular basis: Mrk 501, Mrk 421, and 1ES 1959+650. We present preliminary results of these observations including the measured light curves and a correlation study for VHE {gamma}-rays and X-rays and VHE {gamma}-rays and optical R-band for Mrk 421.

  19. State Data Exchange: "39 Years and Still Counting." 2007-2008 Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The SREB-State Data Exchange is a cooperative effort of SREB and the statewide higher education governing and coordinating boards in the South. Founded in 1969-1970, it is one of the nation's oldest, most comprehensive sources of comparative data on public higher education. The Data Exchange annually collects, compiles and publishes the most…

  20. Test Coordinator's Guide for Federal and State Assessments, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide for testing coordinators includes information regarding: (1) Idaho statewide testing (both state and federal requirements); (2) testing dates; (3) Idaho Reading indicator (IRI); (4) Direct Mathematics Assessment (DMA); (5) Direct Writing Assessment (DEA); (6) Idaho Alternative Assessment (IAA); (7) Idaho Standards Achievement Test…

  1. Vital Signs: Food categories contributing the most to sodium consumption - United States, 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the U.S. population consumes sodium in excess of daily guidelines (<2,300 mg overall and 1,500 mg for specific populations). Excessive sodium consumption raises blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke, the nation’s first and fourth leading causes of death. I...

  2. Turning points in nonlinear business cycle theories, financial crisis and the 2007-2008 downturn.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Ragiv G

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews three nonlinear dynamical business cycle theories of which only one (The Goodwin model) reflects the stylized facts of observed business cycles and has a plausible turning point mechanism. The paper then examines the US (and now global) financial crisis of 2008 and the accompanying downturn in the US. The paper argues that a skewed income distribution could not sustain effective demand and that over the 2001-2006 expansion demand was maintained through massive amounts of credit, with more than 50 percent of sales in the US being maintained through credit. A vector autoregression model confirms the crucial role played by credit. However legislative changes that dismantled the restrictions placed on the financial sector after the crash of 1929 and the consequent structural changes in the financial sector after 1980 enabled the growth of new debt instruments and credit. But overexpansion of credit when profits and house prices were declining in 2005/06 led to a nonlinear shift due to a new realization of the poor quality of some of this debt, namely mortgage backed securities. Bankruptcies, followed by retrenchment at the banks, then led to the bursting of the credit bubble, with the possibility of a severe recession. PMID:19781138

  3. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) contains an overview of activities of the Council between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2008. These include programs, advisory groups, grants and contracts, and financial statements. It also includes a list of staff, a letter from the chairperson Paula Kaufman, and a message…

  4. International Student Guide to U.S. Community Colleges, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide was produced for prospective students considering studying in the United States. The guide is organized to help students through all stages of the process, including learning about the U.S. higher education system, finding the right college, benefits of attending community college, obtaining a student visa, estimating expenses, living…

  5. The Use of Restrictive Interventions in Victoria, Australia: Population Data for 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Lynne S.; McVilly, Keith R.; Stevenson, Elaine; Chan, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The once common use of restrictive interventions (the use of restraint and seclusion) for controlling the behaviour of people with an intellectual disability is now coming under greater scrutiny by government and community sector services. Questions are being raised with respect to the clinical efficacy and ethical appropriateness of such…

  6. Enhancing the Environmental Legacy of the International Polar Year 2007- 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, T.; Roura, R.; Perrault, M.

    2006-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) left a legacy of peace and international cooperation in the form of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty. Since the IGY, the 1991 Protocol of Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and entered into force. The Protocol establishes that the protection of the environment and the wilderness values of Antarctica "shall be fundamental considerations in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area". Fifty years on, the IPY 2007-08 can, in turn, leave behind a positive environmental legacy - where the sharing of facilities and logistics are encouraged, the human footprint in Antarctica is minimized and a future generation of environmentally aware scientists, logisticians and visitors is fostered. Based on an analysis of all Expressions of Interest submitted to the IPY, we found that about three-quarters of IPY's Antarctic projects plan to have fieldwork components. About one-third of these field projects expect to leave physical infrastructure in Antarctica. A number of projects plan to develop large-scale infrastructure, such as stations and observatories, in hitherto pristine areas. Fewer than one percent of Antarctic field projects address the issue of their environmental legacy: four projects indicated that the site will be cleaned up or the equipment will be removed at the end of the project; two projects indicated that their results may be useful for the management of the Antarctic environment, e.g., in the control of invasive species or setting up of marine protected areas. With the goal of increasing the environmental awareness of Antarctic field scientists, our contribution will review current research on the impacts of human activities science, tourism, exploitation of marine resources and global climate change - on the Antarctic environment. A preliminary analysis of the cumulative impacts of IPY activities will be presented. Case studies of scientific projects in Antarctica with a potentially positive environmental legacy will be highlighted, and suggestions of actions that could be taken to increase the environmental friendliness of scientific projects will be discussed.

  7. IPY 2007-2008 and Scientists, Science Organisations, and the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    An initial burst of enthusiasm resulted in more than 1000 expressions of interest and nearly 500 internationally coordinated proposals for polar research during IPY. An international committee has endorsed more than 200 of these proposals, and most other proposals and nearly all expressions of interest have found ways to join the endorsed programme. Ten nations have announced new IPY science funding totalling in excess of 300M USD for the two years of operations; several nations will make announcements soon. Most on-going funding for polar research, coming from at least 30 nations, approximately 1.6B USD over two years, will also support IPY activities. What should the thousands of scientists hoping to participate expect, personally and collectively? What should the overall science entity expect, during and after IPY? And, finally, what should the public expect, after much attention and the expenditure of 2B USD, not to mention the on-going and future costs of ice breakers and ice-monitoring satellites and polar bases? Many IPY scientists will initially experience disappointment. Funding, even with IPY infusions, will fall short of need, and initial proposal success rates will stay below 50% in almost every nation, far below in some nations. In many nations, however, a catch-up effect will occur, leading to more funds in 2008 or 2009 than in 2006 and 2007. A step-up effect will also occur, leading to increased on-going funds for polar research, although perhaps in smaller steps and in fewer countries than we might hope. Scientists should expect increased public attention to their work and increased demand for their cooperation and contribution to international data management and to public outreach. Individually and collectively, IPY scientists have the opportunity to interact with an amazing array of fellow scientists, exchanging experience and enthusiasm on topics from gravitational variations to genomic sequences to Gwich'in cultures. Science as an entity will feel the impact of IPY. IPY does not fit within any single science organisation, even one so vast as AGU. A true international IPY community will exist beyond existing organisational systems, and a full multidisciplinary IPY assembly will occur in partnership with but separate from existing events. IPY will stimulate and produce new data models and infrastructure that will allow future polar researchers and polar residents to access, share and explore gravitational, genomic, and Gwich'in information. IPY will also necessarily stir up murky issues between scientific research and the environment, including how mega-science programmes should reduce their own environmental impact and how science conducts its assessments of global environmental problems when its partners include commercial energy companies and when its information products might encourage expanded extractive activities. This IPY will inevitably produce an organisational, data and environmental legacy that will impact science and scientists of the future. The public will expect quick answers from IPY, to questions not necessarily of our choosing. We can expect that they will enjoy a wide array of films and programmes and books on polar themes. We will have failed if the global public does not also gain an improved understanding of polar science and of the global consequences of climate change, and an enhanced appreciation of the creativity, challenges, pleasures and disappointments of science and of the energies and enthusiasms of scientists.

  8. New Mexico Statewide Assessment Program (NMSAP) Procedures Manual, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This manual has been prepared for all New Mexico Statewide Assessment Program (NMSAP) assessment administrators, teachers, school specialists, and principals. It includes information about the following topics: PED contacts, New Mexico Standards Based Assessments (SBA), Grades 3-8 and 11; New Mexico High School Competency Examination (NMHSCE);…

  9. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water United States, 2007-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOS...

  10. Grande Ronde Subbasin Gauging Station Operations, 2007-2008 Reporting Period.

    SciTech Connect

    Menton, R. Coby

    2008-11-10

    The Grande Ronde Basin (GRB) in Northeast Oregon is a moderately dry climate receiving between 10 and 20 inches of precipitation per year with surrounding mountains accumulating up to 100 inches. Irrigated agriculture is a major part of the economy with water being diverted or pumped from surface and ground sources from April through October. Several ESA listed species exist in the basin including Chinook, steelhead, and bulltrout. Agriculture and ESA (Endangered Species Act) listed aquatic species combined with a dry climate demonstrate the need for a network of stream gauges. The GRB covers over 5,000 square miles and includes several thousand miles of perennial flowing streams. This project is in place to operate 12 existing stream gauges in combination with USGS (4 gauges) and OWRD (one gauge) who, independent of this project, operate five additional gauges (Grande Ronde at Troy, Imnaha R. at Imnaha, Minam R. at Minam, Lookingglass Creek, and Upper Catherine Cr.) to characterizes flow in both the Grande Ronde and Imnaha subbasins. These gauges are intended to assist in irrigation water management, fisheries management, long term flow and trend analysis, TMDL and SB1010 water quality management plan effectiveness, subbasin plan implementation, and provide essential information regarding cumulative effects response to conservation in the GRB. Headwater characteristics, land management influence, and basin outlet data are all selectively collected in this network of 17 flow gauges. Prior to the 2007 water year there were three separate stream gauging programs with similar objectives, protocol, and funding sources in the GRB. Each of these programs for the past ten years has operated under separate administration consuming more time and administrative money than is necessary to accomplish stated objectives. By combining all programs into one project costs have been reduced, each funding source has one contract instead of three, and the same amount of work has been done accomplishing the same objectives. This objective has been continued and realized in the 2008 water year.

  11. Connecting Worlds/Mundos Unidos Project: End-of-Year Report, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciriza, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This report presents information on the Connecting Worlds/Mundos Unidos Project and provides a general comparison overview of accomplishments during its five years of operation. The Connecting Worlds/Mundos Unidos Project has been operating in the El Paso Independent School District (EPISD) for eleven years, but in the present format as a Jacob K.…

  12. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria meningitidis--Minnesota and North Dakota, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    2008-02-22

    Meningoccocal disease causes substantial morbidity and mortality; approximately 10% of cases are fatal. Among those who survive, 10%-15% have long-term sequelae. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis is a precursor to disease; however, the majority of carriers do not develop disease. Household and other close contacts of persons with meningococcal disease have a higher risk for carriage and therefore invasive disease. These persons should receive antibiotic chemoprophylaxis to eliminate nasopharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis as soon as possible. The rate of secondary disease for close contacts is highest immediately after onset of disease in the index patient; secondary cases rarely occur after 14 days. Ciprofloxacin, a second-generation fluoroquinolone, is an effective single-dose oral chemoprophylaxis agent. Although isolated cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant meningoccocal disease have been described in Argentina, Australia, China, France, India, and Spain, resistance has not been reported in North America. This report describes a cluster of three cases of fluoroquinolone-resistant meningococcal disease that occurred among residents of the border area of North Dakota and Minnesota during January 2007-January 2008. The first of these cases was epidemiologically linked and had closely related molecular features to a 2006 case of fluoroquinolone-susceptible meningococcal disease that occurred in the same geographic region. Until further notice, ciprofloxacin should not be used for chemoprophylaxis of close contacts of persons with meningococcal disease in selected counties in North Dakota and Minnesota. Ceftriaxone, rifampin, and azithromycin are alternative agents. PMID:18288075

  13. 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report for BPA Grant Exp Restore Walla Walla River Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Bob

    2009-07-10

    WWBWC and its partners have been working on a wide variety of conservation and aquifer recharge related activities including: monitoring groundwater and surface water conditions, creating a geospatial database for the Walla Walla River valley (project focal area), expanding aquifer recharge testing at the HBDIC site and conducting an extensive outreach/education program by which to share the information, ideas and potential solutions to our current water management issues in this basin. This report is an outline of those activities and is accompanied by individual program-component (attached as appendices) reports for the areas that BPA is assisting to fund these on-the-ground projects along with the innovative research and monitoring being done to further aquifer recharge as a water management tool for the Pacific Northwest.

  14. Springtime Observations of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow across Northern Russia During IPY 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Warren, S. G.; Radionov, V. F.; Kogan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) in snow at ppb levels can significantly reduce the visible and near IR albedo. The effect is important for climate in regions where large areas of snow-covered surfaces are exposed to significant sunlight. The initial study of Clarke and Noone (1985) across the western Arctic in 1983-84 indicated albedo reduction of about 0-4 percent due to BC; however, their survey did not include results from the Russian Arctic. During April and May of 2007 and 2008, as part of the International Polar Year Program, two cooperative U.S.-Russian expeditions obtained the first set of BC observations at selected sites near the communities of Naryan Mar, Vorkuta, Dikson, Khatanga, Tiksi, Chersky, Bilibino, and Pevek, spanning almost the entire northern coastal zone of Russia. Samples were also obtained near Yakutsk, a sub-Arctic region of boreal forest with a severe winter climate. This time period was chosen to provide access to the full winter snowpack just prior to the onset of spring melt. This project is a critical component of a repeat and extension of the original 1985 survey, which now includes sites spanning the entire Arctic. A discussion of this work is the topic of an invited presentation by S. G. Warren in session "Snow and Ice Impurities as Climate Forcing Agents and Records" (C04). This project required access to restricted border regions of Russia, which was facilitated by the political prominence of the IPY program in the Russian government. Generous logistical assistance and advice were provided by Dr. V. N. Makarov of the Permafrost Institute in Yakutsk, Dr. Sergei Zimov of the Northeast Scientific Station at Chersky, and the Hydrometeorological Service at Pevek. Commercial air travel to the above-mentioned communities, in conjunction with local transportation, provided access to the observation sites, which were located at distances of 15-100 km from local sources to sample background levels of BC. At each site, snow samples and density profiles were taken from multiple levels in the snowpack, providing values for the snow deposited throughout the cold season. The samples were processed locally using the filtration method developed by Clarke and Noone to deposit the BC on 0.4-micron nuclepore filters. BC content was estimated via visual comparison with a set of standard filters and later verified via spectrophotometric techniques. Median values range from 20 to 30 ppb in general. These imply a decrease in snow albedo in the range 0.002 to 0.03 depending on grain size. Higher values of pollution were obtained near Tiksi, where dust and soil were included, and near Vorkuta, where local sources of coal burning were exceptionally strong. The snow thickness in both years was typically in the range 25-40 cm, and in many locations BC content was greatest near the surface, possibly because of dry deposition during months with little snowfall. Values of 10 to 30 ppb are in general agreement with the model predictions of Flanner et al. (2007).

  15. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations: Salmonid Studies Project Progress Report, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Walters, Jody; Maiolie, Melo

    2009-04-09

    This research report addresses bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and Redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss redd surveys, population monitoring, trout distribution, and abundance surveys in the Kootenai River drainage of Idaho. The bull trout is one of several sport fish native to the Kootenai River, Idaho that no longer supports a fishery. Because bull trout are listed under the Endangered Species Act, population data will be vital to monitoring status relative to recovery goals. Thirty-three bull trout redds were found in North and South Callahan creeks and Boulder Creek in 2007. This is a decrease from 2006 and 2005 and less than the high count in 2003. However, because redd numbers have only been monitored since 2002, the data series is too short to determine bull trout population trends based on redd counts. Redband trout still provide an important Kootenai River sport fishery, but densities are low, at least partly due to limited recruitment. The redband trout proportional stock density (PSD) in 2007 increased from 2006 for a second year after a two-year decline in 2004 and 2005. This may indicate increased recruitment to or survival in the 201-305 mm length group due to the minimum 406 mm (16 inches) length limit initiated in 2002. We conducted 13 redd surveys and counted 44 redband trout redds from May 7 to June 3, 2007 in a 3.8 km survey reach on Twentymile Creek. We surveyed streams in the Kootenai River valley to look for barriers to trout migration. Man-made barriers, for at least part of the year, were found on Caboose, Debt, Fisher, and Twenty Mile creeks. Removing these barriers would increase spawning and rearing habitat for trout and help to restore trout fisheries in the Kootenai River.

  16. Beverage choices of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to describe beverage consumption patterns of the U.S. adult population, determine whether beverage choices differ by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, and examine the impact of beverages on total daily nutrient intakes. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from 5,334 adu...

  17. 2007-2008 What We Eat In America, NHANES Tables 37-40

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use of dietary supplements can contribute substantially to nutrient intakes; however, collection methods for dietary supplements and food intakes have limited the ability to estimate total nutrient intakes for the U.S. population. As of 2007, supplement usage was collected as part of...

  18. MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, including school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents in all Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. The information is presented for…

  19. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and O&M, Annual Progress Report 2007-2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Sellman, Jake; Perugini, Carol

    2009-02-20

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance Project (DV Fisheries) is an ongoing resident fish program that serves to partially mitigate the loss of anadromous fish that resulted from downstream construction of the federal hydropower system. The project's goals are to enhance subsistence fishing and educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes and provide fishing opportunities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View (MVR), Lake Billy Shaw (LBS), and Sheep Creek Reservoirs (SCR), the program is also designed to: maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period fall into three categories: operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and public outreach. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include maintaining fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs, stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles, equipment, and restroom facilities. Monitoring and evaluation activities include creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, and control of encroaching exotic vegetation. Public outreach activities include providing environmental education to school children, providing fishing reports to local newspapers and vendors, updating the website, hosting community environmental events, and fielding numerous phone calls from anglers. The reservoir monitoring program focuses on water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir and Lake Billy Shaw had less than productive trout growth due to water quality issues including dissolved oxygen and/or turbidity. Regardless, angler fishing experience was the highest at Lake Billy Shaw. Trout in Mountain View Reservoir were in the best condition of the three reservoirs and anglers reported very good fishing there. Water quality (specifically dissolved oxygen and temperature) remain the main limiting factors in the fisheries, particularly in late August to early September.

  20. The great red flashlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, Edward A.

    After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

  1. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  2. Red giants seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  3. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  4. Red - Take a Closer Look

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

  5. Seeing red on the road.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Romnán, Amparo; Megías, Alberto; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal research has found that red perception is associated with specific behavioral reactions, generally characterized by intense responses. Here, we explored whether red cars are perceived as more dangerous than other colored cars. One hundred Spanish drivers examined several road scenarios which involved hazardous cars with different colors: red, green, yellow, black, gray, and white. Driver's behavior (response time and probability of braking) and the perceived level of risk for each scenario were analyzed. Although car color affected participants' response times, contrary to expectations, red cars did not elicit faster responses or higher perceived levels of risk. PMID:26489219

  6. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  7. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  8. Red microchip VECSEL array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastie, Jennifer E.; Morton, Lynne G.; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin D.; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles J.

    2005-09-01

    We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array.

  9. Red microchip VECSEL array.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Jennifer; Morton, Lynne; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles

    2005-09-01

    We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array. PMID:19498743

  10. Ambiguous red shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfman, Carl E.

    2010-12-01

    A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E.L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies they do not alter the energy and momentum conservation laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Białynicki-Birula.

  11. The Compton Effect Red Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierein, John

    2004-05-01

    In 1923 (Phil Mag. 46, 897.) A. H. Compton noted that the Compton effect produces a red shift for all wavelengths when the scattered electron is free and not bound to an atom or molecule. He suggested that the red shift in the visible spectrum at the limb of the sun is larger than that at the center due to the Compton effect from the greater number of free electrons in the sun's atmosphere along the line of sight. Kierein and Sharp (1968, Solar Physics 3, 450) quantified this and showed a good correlation of red shift observations with the variation in the number of these electrons along the line of sight from center to limb and suggested that the quasar red shift and cosmological red shift could be similarly explained. Grote Reber mapped and measured the background hectometric radiation and found it to be unexpectedly bright. In 1968 (J. Franklin Inst. 285,1), while describing these measurements and maps he explained this brightness as being due to the Compton effect causing the cosmological red shift and accelerating intergalactic electrons. The resulting universe is static. The predicted red shift from the Compton effect deviates from Hubble's law only at large red shifts.

  12. Red Marks the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

    Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

    The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

    Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

    The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the

  13. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  14. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  15. Red or uncomfortable eye.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to ophthalmic outpatients. 5. The following are typical eye problems which require urgent referral: History of pain as opposed to discomfort, Trauma including foreign bodies, chemicals and suspected penetrating injury, Unexplained drop in visual acuity of two lines or more in a painful eye. Specific conditions: preseptal cellulitis, herpes simplex ulcer, scleritis, orbital cellulitis, herpes zoster, bacterial corneal ulcer, dacryocystitis. 6. The following are typical problems which may require routine referral: Persistence of the problem not relieved by simple measures, Recurrent disorders of uncertain diagnosis, Eyelid swelling such as chalazion, cysts, basal cell carcinoma, Gradual loss of vision, for example cataract, macular degeneration. PMID:1345157

  16. Red ginseng and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Anderson, Samantha; DU, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-01-01

    The ginseng family, including Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng), is commonly used herbal medicine. White ginseng is prepared by air-drying after harvest, while red ginseng is prepared by a steaming or heating process. The anticancer activity of red ginseng is significantly increased, due to the production of active anticancer ginsenosides during the steaming treatment, compared with that of white ginseng. Thus far, anticancer studies have been mostly focused on Asian ginseng. In this article, we review the research progress made in the anticancer activities of red Asian ginseng, red American ginseng and red notoginseng. The major anticancer mechanisms of red ginseng compounds include cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis/paraptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The structure-function relationship analysis has revealed that the protopanaxadiol group ginsenosides have more potent effects than the protopanaxatriol group. Sugar molecules in ginsenosides inversely impact the antiproliferative potential of these compounds. In addition, ginsenoside stereoselectivity and double bond position also influence the anticancer activity. Future studies should focus on characterizing active red ginseng derivatives as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:26850342

  17. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. PMID:18954199

  18. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  19. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  20. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? RBC Antibody Identification Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Alloantibody Identification; Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell ...

  1. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  2. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  3. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  4. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  5. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  6. Galaxy Zoo: passive red spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Mosleh, Moein; Romer, A. Kathy; Nichol, Robert C.; Bamford, Steven P.; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J.; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C.; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M.; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-06-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red (or passive) spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on disc-dominated spirals, we construct a sample of truly passive discs (i.e. they are not dust reddened spirals, nor are they dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spiral galaxies and red early types, making up ~6 per cent of late-type spirals. We use optical images and spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. We find red spirals preferentially in intermediate density regimes. However, there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment suggesting that environment alone is not sufficient to determine whether a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a very small fraction of all spirals at low masses (M* < 1010 Msolar), but are a significant fraction of the spiral population at large stellar masses showing that massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that as expected, red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than the main spiral population. While the presence of spiral arms suggests that a major star formation could not have ceased a long ago (not more than a few Gyr), we show that these are also not recent post-starburst objects (having had no significant star formation in the last Gyr), so star formation must have ceased gradually. Intriguingly, red spirals are roughly four times as likely than the normal spiral population to host optically identified Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER; at a given stellar mass and even accounting for low-luminosity lines hidden by star formation), with most of the difference coming from the objects with LINER-like emission. We also find a

  7. RED: a red-cell antibody identification expert module.

    PubMed

    Smith, J W; Svirbely, J R; Evans, C A; Strohm, P; Josephson, J R; Tanner, M

    1985-06-01

    We describe a software module in an expert system RED, which interprets data related to red cell antibody identification. There are three portions to this module: the problem-solving component, which incorporates the knowledge required for antibody identification as a hierarchy of programs. The programs in the hierarchy organize within themselves small pieces of knowledge represented in the form of production rules, which are capable of making judgments concerning a specific hypothesis; an intelligent data base for storage of patient data, red cell attributes, and test results; the "overview critic" portion, which combines the atomic hypotheses judged favorably by the antibody programs into a unified judgment concerning the case. Overview makes the decision to terminate processing with a conclusion about which antibodies are actually present and what specific further tests need to be performed to resolve any remaining ambiguities. PMID:3840517

  8. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  9. Characterizing warfare in red teaming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A; Sarker, Ruhul

    2006-04-01

    Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through red teaming, analysts can learn about the future by forward prediction of scenarios. More recently, defense has been looking at evolutionary computation methods in red teaming. The fitness function in these systems is highly stochastic, where a single configuration can result in multiple different outcomes. Operational, tactical and strategic decisions can be made based on the findings of the evolutionary method in use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the nature of these problems and the role of the stochastic fitness to gain insight into the possible performance of different methods. This paper presents a first attempt at characterizing the search space difficulties in red teaming to shed light on the expected performance of the evolutionary method in stochastic environments. PMID:16604725

  10. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. ); Adams, H.S. )

    1987-10-01

    In this letter, the authors take issue with Zedaker, Hyink, and Smith who have indicated that observed red spruce growth declines can be expected based on growth trends for even-aged stands of red spruce as documented in Meyer (1929). Recently, an examination was made of stand stocking levels at 750 sites where red spruce were cored and neither the rate of growth decline nor the extent of mortality were found to be related to stand stocking levels or previous disturbance history. The authors conclude that the Meyer data do not represent an appropriate model for stand dynamics of old-growth, high-elevation stands and no not adequately explain the growth declines observed at many of those sites.

  11. Jupiter Great Red Spot Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was taken by Voyager 1 in early March 1979. Distance from top to bottom of the picture is 15,000 miles (24,000 kilometers). Smallest features visible are about 20 miles (30 kilometers) across. The white feature below the Great Red Spot is one of several white ovals that were observed to form about 40 years ago; they move around Jupiter at a different velocity from the Red Spot. During the Voyager 1 encounter period, material was observed to revolve around the center of the spot with a period of six days. The Voyager project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  12. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  13. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  14. Betelgeuse and the Red Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, J. Th.

    2013-05-01

    Betelgeuse is one of the most magnificent stars in the sky, and one of the nearest red supergiants. Astronomers gathered in Paris in the Autumn of 2012 to decide what we know about its structure, behaviour, and past and future evolution, and how to place this in the general context of the class of red supergiants. Here I reflect on the discussions and propose a synthesis of the presented evidence. I believe that, in those four days, we have achieved to solve a few riddles.

  15. Return to the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1996, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will begin America's return to Mars after a 20-year absence by launching the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. This mission will usher in a new and exciting era of scientific missions to study the red planet.

  16. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Zedaker, S.M.; Hyink, D.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades second-growth red spruce stands in the Northeast have demonstrated declines in radial increment. Some observers are implicating air pollution as a primary cause of the declines, based on recently acquired increment cores from dominant trees. Various forms of air pollution (O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, and trace metals) are known to reduce growth and development of tree species, but few studies have provided concrete evidence of regional pollution-caused declines in forest ecosystems. Recently published evidence of a synchronous, consistent, and unprecedented regional decline in red spruce should be weighed against the realization that radial increment in red spruce declines naturally as stands age. Separating anthropogenic stress-caused growth patterns from natural stand dynamics requires an in-depth knowledge of forest growth and yield, tree silvics, and forest ecosystem processes. Detailed analyses of growth by stand characteristics - site index, density, elevation, stand history - will be necessary to implicate air pollution as a primary cause of red spruce decline.

  17. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  18. "Red Power" and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, G. Louis

    The document is the result of research conducted on 14 Indian reservations and one settlement in the Southwest, Midwest, West, and Pacific Northwest by Illinois State University in the summer of 1970. Some 124 Indians were interviewed, many of whom were leaders and participants in various Red Power organizations. As noted, the dominant impression…

  19. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation. PMID:27212400

  20. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  1. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). The abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  2. Red cell distribution width and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gulcan Kurt, Yasemin; Cayci, Tuncer; Aydin, Fevzi Nuri; Agilli, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Red cell distribution width is a measure of deviation of the volume of red blood cells. It is a marker of anisocytosis and often used to evaluate the possible causes of anemia. Elevated red cell distribution width levels are also associated with acute and chronic inflammatory responses. In nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, inflammation is accompanied with steatosis. For assuming red cell distribution width as a marker of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, intervening factors such as levels of inflammatory markers should also be evaluated. PMID:25473202

  3. Grape (Vitis spp.) - Grapevine Red Blotch Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine red blotch disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and elsewhere in the U.S. The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negati...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  8. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  9. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  10. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  11. 7 CFR 29.1053 - Red (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red (R). 29.1053 Section 29.1053 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1053 Red (R). A brownish red....

  12. Registration of ‘Red Amber’ Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Amber’ (Reg. No.__________ PI _______) soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released March 28, 2008 in a licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Amber was selected from the cross ‘255...

  13. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  14. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  16. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  17. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  20. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  1. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is... entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line drawn...

  2. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This mosaic of the Great Red Spot shows that the region has changed significantly since the Voyager 1 encounter three months ago. Around the northern boundary a white cloud is seen, which extends to east of the region. The presence of this cloud prevents small cloud vertices from circling the spot in the manner seen in the Voyager 1 encounter. Another white oval cloud (different from the one present in this position three months ago) is seen south of the Great Red Spot. The internal structure of these spots is identical. Since they both rotate in an anticyclonic manner these observations indicate that they are meteorologically similar. This image was taken on July 6 from a range of 2,633,003 kilometers.

  3. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury. PMID:27251171

  4. Beyond the Price Effect in Time-of-Use Programs: Results from a Municipal Utility Pilot, 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzenhiser, Susan; Peters, Jane; Moezzi, Mithra; Woods, James

    2009-08-12

    This paper discusses results of a two-year collaborative research project between the authors and the Demand Response Research Center focused on behavioral response to a voluntary time-of-use pilot rate offered by the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD) under the PowerChoice label. The project had two purposes: one was to assess the potential for increasing demand response through the introduction of enhanced information and real-time consumption feedback; the second was to better understand behavioral response to a TOU rate. Three successive waves of telephone surveys collected details about reasons for participation, actions taken, capacities and constraints to altering behavior, and a range of salient conditions, such as demographics and dwelling characteristics. Pre- and post-program interval meter data for participants and a comparison sample of households were also collected and analyzed to consider initial and season-change price effects of the rate and the effect of supplemental information treatments on response. Over half of surveyed participating households reported that they had made a great deal of effort to adjust their electricity consumption to the rate. Despite this, load data analysis revealed only minimal price effects; and, though households subjected to information treatments seemed to have learned from these treatments, load data analysis again detected only minimal effects on load. Given the currently high hopes for behavioral intervention and residential TOU rates, these unexpected results require explanation. We suggest a number of possibilities and discuss some implications for TOU programs, and for understanding demand response behavior and approaches to experiments with TOU rates.

  5. IPY EOC USA: U.S. Education, Outreach and Communication Efforts for the International Polar Year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, M. S.; Pfirman, S.

    2007-12-01

    As an international collaborative effort involving scientific organizations and scientists from over 60 nations to study the polar regions and their global linkages during an intensive observation period running from 2007 to 2009, the International Polar Year (IPY) is recognized as a unique and timely opportunity to communicate to broad audiences the dynamics of polar regions and their global connections. The overall international effort to develop specific education, outreach and communication (EOC) strategies and foster a broad community supporting IPY activities has benefitted from the planning of the U.S. Polar Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, and from workshops funded and organized by the U.S. National Science Foundation, NOAA, Columbia University and the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES). This paper will examine the history of these efforts, the challenges the community has faced in pursuing the opportunities, and the successes to date of the diverse array of programs and projects aimed at communicating the "who, what, where, how, when and why" of IPY activities to diverse, non-technical audiences.

  6. 76 FR 2883 - Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of 2007-2008...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 40788 (July 14, 2010) (``Preliminary Results... November 3, 2010,\\4\\ Feili Group (Fujian) Co., Ltd. and Feili Furniture Development Limited Quanzhou City...; Trays commonly referred to as ``TV trays;'' Side tables; Child-sized tables; Portable counter...

  7. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological characteristics of the North Fork Flathead River, Montana, water years 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Taylor J.; Schweiger, E. William; Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In water year 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, began a 2-year study to collect hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data to provide a baseline characterization of the North Fork Flathead River from the United States-Canada border to its confluence with the Middle Fork of the Flathead River near Columbia Falls, Montana. Although mining in the Canadian portion of the North Fork Basin was banned in 2010 by a Memorandum of Understanding issued by the Province of British Columbia, baseline characterization was deemed important for the evaluation of any potential future changes in hydrology, water quality, or aquatic biology in the basin. The North Fork Basin above Columbia Falls (including Canada) drains an area of 1,564 square miles, and the study area encompasses the portion of the basin in Montana, which is 1,126 square miles. Seasonal patterns in the hydrology of the North Fork are dominated by the accumulation and melting of seasonal snowpack in the basin. Low-flow conditions occurred during the late-summer, fall, and winter months, and high-flow conditions coincided with the spring snowmelt. Substantial gains in streamflow occurred along the study reach of the North Fork, 85 percent of which were accounted for by tributary inflows during low-flow conditions, indicating unmeasured streamflow inputs along the main stem were 15 percent or less.

  8. The International Polar Year, 2007-2008, an opportunity to focus on infectious diseases in Arctic regions.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    On 3 occasions over the past 125 years, scientists from around the world have worked together to organize scientific and exploration activities in polar regions (www.ipy.org). The first International Polar Year (IPY) in 1881-1884 marked the first major coordinated international scientific initiative to collect standardized meteorological and geophysical data in polar regions. Fifteen expeditions led by 12 nations amassed a large amount of data, but the scientific value was diminished by disjointed publication efforts and lack of long-term institutional commitment; lessons were learned and corrected in subsequent polar years. The second IPY began in 1932. Forty-four nations led expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic, resulting in greater understanding of the aurora, magnetism, and meteorology. Air and marine navigation, radio operations, and weather forecasting were greatly improved as a result. The third IPY, in 1957-58, was renamed the International Geophysical Year and capitalized on technologic advances developed during World War II. Technologic and scientific momentum was redirected toward research, particularly to studies of the upper atmosphere, a legacy that continues to the present day. Notable achievements included launching the first satellite, measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases, delineating the system of mid-ocean ridges, and confirming the theory of plate tectonics. PMID:18258069

  9. Pesticide concentrations in water and sediment and associated invertebrate toxicity in Del Puerto and Orestimba Creeks, California, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, Michael; Bergin, Rick; Spurlock, Frank; Goh, Kean S

    2011-04-01

    The California's San Joaquin River and its tributaries including Orestimba (ORC) and Del Puerto (DPC) Creeks are listed on the 2006 US EPA Clean Water Act §303(d) list for pesticide impairment. From December 2007 through June 2008, water and sediment samples were collected from both creeks in Stanislaus County to determine concentrations of organophosphorus (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides and to identify toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. OPs were detected in almost half (10 of 21) of the water samples, at concentrations from 0.005 to 0.912 μg L(-1). Diazinon was the most frequently detected OP, followed by chlorpyrifos and dimethoate. Two water samples were toxic to C. dubia; based on median lethal concentrations (LC50), chlorpyrifos was likely the cause of this toxicity. Pyrethroids were detected more frequently in sediment samples (18 detections) than in water samples (three detections). Pyrethroid concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.005 to 0.021 μg L(-1). These concentrations were well below reported C. dubia LC50s, and toxicity was not observed in laboratory bioassays. Cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in sediment samples at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 74.4 ng g(-1), dry weight. At DPC, all but one sediment sample caused 100% toxicity to H. azteca. Based on estimated toxicity units (TUs), bifenthrin was likely responsible for this toxicity and λ-cyhalothrin also contributed. At ORC, survival of H. azteca was significantly reduced in four of the 11 sediment samples. However, pyrethroids were detected in only two of these samples. Based on TUs, bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin likely contributed to the toxicity. PMID:20563640

  10. Closing the loop - Approaches to monitoring the state of the Arctic Mediterranean during the International Polar Year 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritzen, C.; Hansen, E.; Andersson, M.; Berx, B.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Burud, I.; Christensen, K. H.; Debernard, J.; de Steur, L.; Dodd, P.; Gerland, S.; Godøy, Ø.; Hansen, B.; Hudson, S.; Høydalsvik, F.; Ingvaldsen, R.; Isachsen, P. E.; Kasajima, Y.; Koszalka, I.; Kovacs, K. M.; Køltzow, M.; LaCasce, J.; Lee, C. M.; Lavergne, T.; Lydersen, C.; Nicolaus, M.; Nilsen, F.; Nøst, O. A.; Orvik, K. A.; Reigstad, M.; Schyberg, H.; Seuthe, L.; Skagseth, Ø.; Skarðhamar, J.; Skogseth, R.; Sperrevik, A.; Svensen, C.; Søiland, H.; Teigen, S. H.; Tverberg, V.; Wexels Riser, C.

    2011-07-01

    During the 4th International Polar Year 2007-2009 (IPY), it has become increasingly obvious that we need to prepare for a new era in the Arctic. IPY occurred during the time of the largest retreat of Arctic sea ice since satellite observations started in 1979. This minimum in September sea ice coverage was accompanied by other signs of a changing Arctic, including the unexpectedly rapid transpolar drift of the Tara schooner, a general thinning of Arctic sea ice and a double-dip minimum of the Arctic Oscillation at the end of 2009. Thanks to the lucky timing of the IPY, those recent phenomena are well documented as they have been scrutinized by the international research community, taking advantage of the dedicated observing systems that were deployed during IPY. However, understanding changes in the Arctic System likely requires monitoring over decades, not years. Many IPY projects have contributed to the pilot phase of a future, sustained, observing system for the Arctic. We now know that many of the technical challenges can be overcome. The Norwegian projects iAOOS-Norway, POLEWARD and MEOP were significant ocean monitoring/research contributions during the IPY. A large variety of techniques were used in these programs, ranging from oceanographic cruises to animal-borne platforms, autonomous gliders, helicopter surveys, surface drifters and current meter arrays. Our research approach was interdisciplinary from the outset, merging ocean dynamics, hydrography, biology, sea ice studies, as well as forecasting. The datasets are tremendously rich, and they will surely yield numerous findings in the years to come. Here, we present a status report at the end of the official period for IPY. Highlights of the research include: a quantification of the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Nordic Seas (“ the loop”) in thermal space, based on a set of up to 15-year-long series of current measurements; a detailed map of the surface circulation as well as characterization of eddy dispersion based on drifter data; transport monitoring of Atlantic Water using gliders; a view of the water mass exchanges in the Norwegian Atlantic Current from both Eulerian and Lagrangian data; an integrated physical-biological view of the ice-influenced ecosystem in the East Greenland Current, showing for instance nutrient-limited primary production as a consequence of decreasing ice cover for larger regions of the Arctic Ocean. Our sea ice studies show that the albedo of snow on ice is lower when snow cover is thinner and suggest that reductions in sea ice thickness, without changes in sea ice extent, will have a significant impact on the arctic atmosphere. We present up-to-date freshwater transport numbers for the East Greenland Current in the Fram Strait, as well as the first map of the annual cycle of freshwater layer thickness in the East Greenland Current along the east coast of Greenland, from data obtained by CTDs mounted on seals that traveled back and forth across the Nordic Seas. We have taken advantage of the real-time transmission of some of these platforms and demonstrate the use of ice-tethered profilers in validating satellite products of sea ice motion, as well as the use of Seagliders in validating ocean forecasts, and we present a sea ice drift product - significantly improved both in space and time - for use in operational ice-forecasting applications. We consider real-time acquisition of data from the ocean interior to be a vital component of a sustained Arctic Ocean Observing System, and we conclude by presenting an outline for an observing system for the European sector of the Arctic Ocean.

  11. Association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and thyroid function among males and females: data from NHANES 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between thyroid function and exposure to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) among those aged ≥ 20 years. Thyroid variables considered for evaluation were thyroid-stimulating hormone, free and total serum thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin. PAH metabolites in urine for which data were analyzed were 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene. Using data from 2007 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, regression models with logs of thyroid variables as dependent variables and PAH exposure, age, race/ethnicity, iodine sufficiency, smoking status, and others as independent variables were fitted. For females, increased levels of 2-hydroxynapthalene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene were associated with elevated levels of TT3. For males, increased levels of 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 9-hydroxypyrene were associated with decreased levels of FT4. PMID:26787071

  12. Introduction of the 2007-2008 JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Research Program, NWT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Numasawa, M.; Yasuda, M.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, K.; Wright, J.; Nixon, F.

    2007-12-01

    Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) and Natural Resource Canada (NRCan) have embarked on a new research program to study the production potential of gas hydrates. The program is being carried out at the Mallik gas hydrate field in the Mackenzie Delta, a location where two previous scientific investigations have been carried in 1998 and 2002. In the 2002 program that was undertaken by seven partners from five countries, 468m3 of gas flow was measured during 124 hours of thermal stimulation using hot warm fluid. Small-scale pressure drawdown tests were also carried out using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Tester (MDT) wireline tool, gas flow was observed and the inferred formation permeabilities suggested the possible effectiveness of the simple depressurization method. While the testing undertaken in 2002 can be cited as the first well constrained gas production from a gas hydrate deposit, the results fell short of that required to fully calibrate reservoir simulation models or indeed establish the technical viability of long term production from gas hydrates. The objectives of the current JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik production research program are to undertake longer term production testing to further constrain the scientific unknowns and to demonstrate the technical feasibility of sustained gas hydrate production using the depressurization method. A key priority is to accurately measure water and gas production using state-of-art production technologies. The primary production test well was established during the 2007 field season with the re-entry and deepening of JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 well, originally drilled in 1998. Production testing was carried out in April of 2007 under a relatively low drawdown pressure condition. Flow of methane gas was measured from a 12m perforated interval of gas-hydrate-saturated sands from 1093 to 1105m. The results establish the potential of the depressurization method and provide a basis for future prolonged testing planned in the near future. The authors acknowledge the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21), the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and NRCan for the support and funding. The Mallik 2002 program was undertaken jointly by JNOC, NRCan, GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), the United State Geological Survey (USGS), the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the India Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOPNG)-Gas Authority of India (GAIL), and the BP-Chevron Texaco Mackenzie Delta Joint Venture.

  13. Adult Basic Education in British Columbia's Public Post-Secondary Institutions. An Articulation Handbook. 2007-2008 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This is the twenty-second edition of the Adult Basic Education (ABE) Articulation Handbook for British Columbia's public postsecondary institutions. The purpose of ABE articulation is to ensure learners have access to quality courses, receive appropriate credits and are able to transfer easily among publicly-funded colleges, university colleges,…

  14. School Choice: Policy Developments and National Participation Estimates in 2007-2008. Backgrounder. No. 2102 [with Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lips, Dan

    2008-01-01

    School choice improves parents' satisfaction with their children's schools, and public schools that face competition have shown improved performance, yet opponents continue to oppose reforms that give parents the opportunity to choose their children's schools. State and federal policymakers should reform existing education policies to give all…

  15. Groundwater, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.

    2009-01-01

    The N aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area, which is typically about 6 to 14 inches per year. The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2007 to September 2008. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals, (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry. In 2007, total groundwater withdrawals were 4,270 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 1,170 acre-ft, and municipal withdrawals were 3,100 acre-ft. Total withdrawals during 2007 were about 41 percent less than total withdrawals in 2005. From 2006 to 2007, however, total withdrawals increased by 4 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by approximately 2 percent, and total municipal withdrawals increased by 7 percent. From 2007 to 2008, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 6 of 11 wells measured in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.2 feet. Water levels declined in 9 of 18 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was -0.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2008, the median water-level change for 33 wells in both the confined and unconfined area was -12.9 feet. Median water-level changes were -1.0 feet for 15 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -33.2 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured at two springs in 2008. Flow decreased at both Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring from previous years. Flow fluctuated during the period of record, but a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2007), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2007), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2007), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (August 2004 to 2007). Median winter flows (November through February) of each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge at the above-named sites. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, which suggests no change in groundwater. The period of record is too short to determine if there is a trend at Pasture Canyon Spring. In 2008, water samples collected from 6 wells and 2 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents and the results compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 6 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record at that site. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate at Pasture Canyon Spring have not varied much since the early 1980s, and there is no trend in those data.

  16. Metals in blood and urine, and thyroid function among adults in the United States 2007-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: The thyroid is integral to regulation of development and metabolism. Certain metals have been shown to affect thyroid function in occupationally exposed persons, but few studies have been conducted in the general population. Objective: To evaluate the as...

  17. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Alignment of 2007-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadratures the geometry of the configuration makes it possible to sample "in situ" the plasma parcels that are remotely observed in the corona. Although the quadrature position occurs at a well defined instant in time, we typically take data while Ulysses is within +/- 5 degrees of the limb, with the understanding that plasma sampled by Ulysses over this time interval can all be traced to its source in the corona. The relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses in winter 2007 (19 Dec 2006-28 May 2007) are unusual: the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is always between 85 and 95 degrees - the quadrature lasts for 5 months! This provides an opportunity for extended observations of specific observing objectives. In addition, in summer 2007, Ulysses (at 1.34 AU) is in near-radial alignment with Earth/ACE/Wind and SOHO, allowing us to analyze radial gradients and propagation in the solar wind and inner heliosphere. Our own quadrature campaigns rely heavily on LASCO and UVCS coronal observations: LASCO giving the overall context above 2 solar radii while the UVCS spectrograph acquired data from - 1.5 to, typically, 4-5 solar radii. In the past, coronal parameters have been derived from data acquired by these two experiments and compared with "in situ" data of Ulysses' SWOOPS and SWICS. Data from other experiments like EIT, CDS, SUMER, Sac Peak Fe XIV maps, magnetic field maps from the Wilcox solar magnetograph, MLSO, from MDI, and from the Ulysses magnetograph experiment have been, and will be, used to complement LASCO/UVCS/SWOOPS and SWICS data. We anticipate that observations by ACE/WIND/STEREO/Hinode and other missions will be relevant as well. During the IHY campaigns, Ulysses will be 52-80 degrees south in winter 2007, near sunspot minimum. Hence, our own scientific objective will be to sample high speed wind or regions of transition between slow and fast wind. This might be a very interesting situation - not met in previous quadratures - allowing us to study the variation of element abundances across streamer borders in the corona and,correspondingly, "in situ". Also, observing plasma over prolonged time intervals and at different latitudes, we may examine the latitude variation of the fractionation effect (e.g. Yon Steiger, 2002) and its dependence on time (e.g. Woo, 2004). For instance, if the FIP bias is dictated by the duration of plasma confinement in solar loops, its value in streamers should depend on the streamer age. Analogous variations should be found in the abundances of "in situ" plasma released by the streamer. All Ulysses and SOHO data is in the public domain and accessible so different objectives could be addressed by others. The winter 2008 quadrature will be well into the next sunspot cycle and there might be significant high mid-latitude activity. Ulysses will be up to 80 degrees in the northern hemisphere at this time and able to detect the resulting ICMEs and ejecta, allowing us to study the physical parameters of the propagating CME bubble/core/front, and/or to study the coronal and "in situ" characteristics of the current sheet associated with the event (e.g. Bemporad et al. 2005), so far still vaguely defined.

  18. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Radial Alignment of 2007-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During quadrature, plasma seen on the limb of the Sun, along the radi al direction to Ulysses, by SOHO or STEREO can be sampled in situ as lt later passes Ulysses. A figure shows a coronagraph image, the rad ial towards Ulysses at 58 deg. S. and the SOHO/UVCS slit positions d uring one set of observations. A CME subsequently occurred and passed Ulysses (at 3/4 AU) 15 days later.

  19. Planning for Post-Secondary Is Just a Click Away! Learning Clicks Final Report. 2007/2008 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Learning Clicks is a program under the provincial department of Advanced Education and Technology's "Raising Awareness about Planning for Post-Secondary" (RAPPS) umbrella; an initiative that supports Strategy 2.4 in Alberta Advanced Education and Technology's 2007-10 Business Plan to enhance parents' and learners' knowledge and awareness of…

  20. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Notice Requesting Comments, 70 FR 46193 (Aug. 9, 2005), Docket 2005-2 CRB SD 2001-2003; Notice Requesting Comments, 73 FR 5597 (Jan. 30, 2008), Docket 2008-5 CRB SD 1999-2000; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 4423 (Jan. 27, 2010) Docket 2010-2 CRB SD 2004-2007; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 66799 (Oct....

  1. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Since 1978, CDC, EPA, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to capture data on waterborne disease outbreaks associated with recreational water. WBDOSS is the prima...

  2. MyPyramid intakes and snacking patterns of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to determine the frequency of snacking by adults, measure the contribution of snacks to MyPyramid food group intakes, and determine whether snacking is associated with total intake of MyPyramid food groups and components. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from 5,334 ...

  3. Pyroclast textures in the explosive 2007-2008 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Implications for magma ascent and fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, H. B.; Bosshard, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    After more than 25 years of effusive natrocarbonatitic activity the Oldoinyo Lengai (OL) volcano in northern Tanzania started erupting explosively in September 2007. The eruption continued for 8 months and was surprisingly vigorous (occasionally the plume reached up to 15 km in altitude). It has previously been proposed that thermal decomposition of older natrocarbonatites (and release of CO2) inside the main crater of the volcano was responsible for the vigour associated with the explosive 1966-67 eruption. From the recent eruption we sampled the initial ash-fall (3 days after the onset) in Al-canisters during a 24 hour period, which was later complemented by tephra samples collected from 140 profiles around the volcano during a field campaign in May 2011. Petrologically, bulk-rock analyses show a trend from being a mechanical mixture of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinitic material in the beginning of the eruption, to being dominated by nephelinitic composition at the end of the eruption. SEM-studies of the first ash-deposits (i.e., September 7th) show a dominance of non-vesicular natrocarbonatitic droplets (containing nyerereite and gregoryite phenocrysts) mixed with a small amount of sub-spherical nephelinitic pyroclasts with low vesicularity (<25 vol.%). Deposits from the later phases of the eruption (as deduced from the tephra-stratigraphy) are dominated by well-sorted, near-spherical, lapilli. In these deposits, the natrocarbonatitic component is absent and individual tephra layers can be distinguished based on variations in grain-size. SEM studies of pyroclasts reveal that approximately 60% of the lapilli are cored by a crystal (predominantly nepheline, garnet, pyroxene, wollastonite) which is covered by a thin melt film. The nephelinitic melt film varies in vesicularity between 20 and 50 vol.% with a clear predominance of near-spherical vesicle shapes. An abundance of small particles and crystals are adhered/welded to the fluidal outer surface of the nephelinitic melt droplets. In addition to this, most of the studied deposits display an absence of particles produced by breaking/rupturing of vesicle walls. Thus, the observed pyroclast textures in the OL-deposits strongly suggest that the nephelinitic magma was erupted in a similar fashion as an aerosol (i.e., melt droplets carried by a gas stream). Decomposition of carbonates which is required to generate such high gas-fluxes cannot occur inside the crater as this material is highly porous and only constitute the uppermost 80 m of the conduit (leaving little time for gas expansion to occur inside the conduit). Based on the observed pyroclast textures we find that the nephelinitic magma must have interacted with a deeper carbonatitic reservoir, in order to allow the CO2 to expand during ascent (i.e., decompression). This interpretation is also supported by the petrological data.

  4. Pyroclast texture and chemical composition of the 2007-2008 explosive eruption at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Evidence for magma mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosshard, S. A.; Mattsson, H. B.

    2012-12-01

    The last explosive eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai in northern Tanzania started on the night from the 3rd to 4th September 2007 and lasted until April 2008. This eruption terminated 25 years of effusive natrocarbonatitic activity and was at times highly explosive with an eruption plume that reached up to 15 km into the atmosphere. We sampled tephra fallout on September 7th (i.e. on the third day of eruption) with additional samples from the 24th. During fieldwork in May 2011 we measured 140 profiles for their dominating grain size and collected representative samples. The tephra layers show variable grain-sizes from fine ash (< 1mm) to fine lapilli (2-30 mm). Most locations revealed three distinct layers with different dominating grain sizes, but especially on the western flank of the volcano, where the tephra deposits were thicker overall (due to the wind direction during the eruption), up to seven layers with alternating grain-sizes were visible. All pyroclasts are well-rounded with euhedral silicate minerals (commonly nepheline, pyroxene, garnet, wollastonite) in the center, surrounded by a moderately vesiculated melt film. The first tephra fallout contains variable amounts of silicate fragments, natrocarbonatite droplets and a mixture between the two magmas. These deposits are interpreted to reflect incomplete mixing between a natrocarbonatitic and a nephelinitic magma. Tephra collected two weeks later (24th September 2007) have a composition that is consistent with being a hybrid between a nephelinite and a natrocarbonatite. The natrocarbonatitic magma is completely assimilated into the new hybrid magma (tephra of natrocarbonatitic composition is no longer observed). It has previously been suggested that CO2, which exsolved from the natrocarbonatite melt during mixing with more silicic, nephelinitic melt is the driving force for these violent explosive, mixed eruptions. Our data support this hypothesis based on CO2 content, which decreases towards the end of the eruption. Geochemical analyzes support this mixing-hypothesis: increasing alkali content with decreasing SiO2, and higher CO2 concentration with lower SiO2 supports CO2 exsolution from natrocarbonatitic melt during mixing. The samples collected during fieldwork in May 2011 plot in a narrow compositional range; the SiO2 content varies between 36 and 40 wt.%, a small range compared to the first erupted tephra . We conclude that the pyroclasts at Oldoinyo Lengai were erupted in a similar way as an aerosol, inferring that melt droplets were carried by a gas stream. The pyroclast textures suggest that the nephelinitic magma was interacting with carbonatitic magma in a deeper chamber, which led to CO2 exsolution and expansion during magma ascent.

  5. Dynamic communities in multichannel data: An application to the foreign exchange market during the 2007-2008 credit crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; McDonald, Mark; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S.

    2009-09-01

    We study the cluster dynamics of multichannel (multivariate) time series by representing their correlations as time-dependent networks and investigating the evolution of network communities. We employ a node-centric approach that allows us to track the effects of the community evolution on the functional roles of individual nodes without having to track entire communities. As an example, we consider a foreign exchange market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. We study the period 2005-2008, which includes the recent credit and liquidity crisis. Using community detection, we find that exchange rates that are strongly attached to their community are persistently grouped with the same set of rates, whereas exchange rates that are important for the transfer of information tend to be positioned on the edges of communities. Our analysis successfully uncovers major trading changes that occurred in the market during the credit crisis.

  6. Dynamic communities in multichannel data: an application to the foreign exchange market during the 2007-2008 credit crisis.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Daniel J; Porter, Mason A; McDonald, Mark; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Neil F; Jones, Nick S

    2009-09-01

    We study the cluster dynamics of multichannel (multivariate) time series by representing their correlations as time-dependent networks and investigating the evolution of network communities. We employ a node-centric approach that allows us to track the effects of the community evolution on the functional roles of individual nodes without having to track entire communities. As an example, we consider a foreign exchange market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. We study the period 2005-2008, which includes the recent credit and liquidity crisis. Using community detection, we find that exchange rates that are strongly attached to their community are persistently grouped with the same set of rates, whereas exchange rates that are important for the transfer of information tend to be positioned on the edges of communities. Our analysis successfully uncovers major trading changes that occurred in the market during the credit crisis. PMID:19791999

  7. Injuries sustained at a temporary ice-skating rink: prospective study of the Winchester experience 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, N K R; Bowyer, G W

    2009-12-01

    Anecdotal reports when a temporary ice-rink opened in Winchester, suggested a burden on the Emergency Department (ED) and Trauma & Orthopaedic (T&O) services. This study was undertaken to assess, prospectively, the workload created as a consequence of ice-rink injuries, when the facility was reopened over Christmas 2007. All patients attending from the ice-rink were included and their injuries reviewed. Costs of care were calculated based on ED attendance, out-patient appointments (OPA's), radiography, plaster immobilisation and government tariffs for surgical procedures. The ice-rink was open for 39 days welcoming 43,000 skaters. Sixty-two accidents were recorded in the accident book, 43 attended the ED. Radiographic investigation was necessary for 31 patients. Nineteen had diagnoses of soft tissue injury, 3 of head/facial injuries. T&O received 23 referrals; all fractures were in the upper limb, 6 requiring admission and surgery. Fifty-eight ED, fracture clinic and physiotherapy OPA's were required. Additional costs to The Royal Hampshire County Hospital (RHCH) were calculated as 33,718.50 pounds. This temporary facility created a smaller than predicted burden for the ED and T&O service, however, sufficient consideration of OPA requirements should be made when planning service provision whilst temporary recreational facilities, such as this, are open. PMID:19524911

  8. Flavonoid intake from food and beverages: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008, Tables 1-4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has released 4 flavonoid intake data tables that make available, for the first time, nationally representative estimates of the intake of 29 individual flavonoids in six classes (as well as the sum of those flavonoids)...

  9. 39th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, Academic Year 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The economic and noneconomic benefits of higher education, both private and social are undeniable. The higher the average education level of the population, the better off people are. College is not for everyone, but college ought to be possible for anyone who wants to try and who has taken the steps to help themselves succeed. State-funded…

  10. Psychotropic Medication Use among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Enrolled in a National Registry, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Mandell, David S.; Farmer, Janet E.; Law, J. Kiely; Marvin, Alison R.; Law, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of current psychotropic medication use among 5,181 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enrolled in a Web-based registry were examined. Overall, 35% used at least one psychotropic medication, most commonly stimulants, neuroleptics, and/or antidepressants. Those who were uninsured or exclusively privately insured were less likely…

  11. Tuition and Fees in Public Higher Education in the West, 2007-2008: Detailed Tuition and Fees Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This annual report provides detailed information concerning tuition and mandatory fees at public higher institutions in the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education's (WICHE's) 15-state region, including an institution-by-institution historical review of tuition changes from year to year as well as a 10-year average. Also included are…

  12. Analysis of Proposed 2007-2008 Revisions to the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria for United States Space Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, James E.; Krider, E. Phillip; Merceret, Francis J.; Willett, John C.; Bateman, Monte G.; Mach, Douglas M.; Walterscheid, Richard; O'Brien, T. Paul; Christian, Hugh J.

    2008-01-01

    Ascending space vehicles are vulnerable to both natural and triggered lightning. Launches under the jurisdiction of the United States are generally subject to a set of rules called the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider etal., 1999; Krider etal., 2006). The LLCC protect both the vehicle and the public by assuring that the launch does not take place in conditions posing a significant risk of a lightning strike to the ascending vehicle. Such a strike could destroy the vehicle and its payload, thus causing failure of the mission while releasing both toxic materials and debris. To assure safety, the LLCC are conservative and sometimes they may seriously limit the ability of the launch operator to fly as scheduled even when conditions are benign. In order to safely reduce the number of launch scrubs and delays attributable to the LLCC, the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM II) program was undertaken in 2000 - 2001. The effort was directed to collecting detailed high-quality data on the electrical, microphysical, radar and meteorological properties of thunderstorm-associated clouds. Details may be found in Dye et al., 2007. The expectation was that this additional knowledge would provide a better physical basis for the LLCC and allow them to be revised to be less restrictive while remaining at least as safe. That expectation was fulfilled, leading to significant revisions to the LLCC in 2003 and 2005. The 2005 revisions included the application of a new radar-derived quantity called the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) in the rules governing flight through anvil clouds. VAHIRR is the product of the volume averaged radar reflectivity times the radardetermined cloud thickness. The reflectivity average extends horizontally 5 km west, east, south and north of a point along the flight track and vertically from the 0 C isotherm to the top of the radar cloud. This region is defined as the "Specified Volume". See Dye et al., 2006 and Merceret et al., 2006 for a more thorough description of VAHIRR. The units are dBZ km (not dBZ per kilometer) and the threshold is 10 dBZ km. It is safe to fly through an anvil cloud for which VAHIRR is below this threshold everywhere along the flight track as long as (1) the entire cloud within 5 nmi. (9.26 km) of the flight track is colder than 0 C, (2) the points at which VAHIRR must be evaluated are at least 20 km from any active convective cores and recent lightning, and (3) the radar return is not being attenuated within the Specified Volume around those points.

  13. Analysis of Proposed 2007-2008 Revisions to the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria for United States Space Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, J. E.; Krider, E. P.; Merceret, F. J.; Willett, J. C.; Bateman, M. G.; Mach, D. M.; Rust, W. D.; Walterscheid, R.; O'Brien, T. P.; Christian, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Ascending space vehicles are vulnerable to both natural and triggered lightning. Launches under the jurisdiction of the United States are generally subject to a set of rules called the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC). The LLCC protect both the vehicle and the public by assuring that the launch does not take place in conditions posing a significant risk of a lightning strike to the ascending vehicle. Such a strike could destroy the vehicle and its payload, thus causing failure of the mission while releasing both toxic materials and debris. To assure safety, the LLCC are conservative and sometimes they may seriously limit the ability of the launch operator to fly as scheduled even when conditions are benign. In order to safely reduce the number of launch scrubs and delays attributable to the LLCC, the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) program was undertaken in 2000 - 2001. The effort was directed to collecting detailed high-quality data on the electrical, microphysical, radar and meteorological properties of thunderstorm-associated clouds. The expectation was that this additional knowledge would provide a better physical basis for the LLCC and allow them to be revised to be both safer and less restrictive. That expectation was fulfilled, leading to significant revisions to the LLCC in 2003 and 2005. The 2005 revisions included the application of a new radar-derived quantity called the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) in the rules governing flight through anvil clouds. Analysis of the ABFM data has continued, and two additional revisions to the LLCC were proposed in late 2006 for adoption in 2007 or 2008. One proposal was to apply the VAHIRR concept to debris clouds, and the other was to reduce the "stand-off distances" in the rules for anvil and/or debris clouds. The stand-off distance is the clearance (out side of the cloud) required between the flight path of the vehicle and the edge of a cloud that it is not permissible to fly through. This paper will discuss these proposed changes in the LLCC and the scientific rationale for adopting or rejecting them based on ABFM data.

  14. Public Reporting of 2007-2008 Assessment Information on Students with Disabilities: Progress on the Gap Front. Technical Report 57

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Chris; Albus, Debra; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the twelfth annual report by the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) analyzing public reporting of disaggregated assessment data for elementary and secondary students with disabilities in the United States. Reporting disaggregated performance data at the state and district level to the public is required of states by the…

  15. Characterization of Suspended-Sediment Loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir, East-Central Kansas, 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Storage capacity in John Redmond Reservoir is being lost to sedimentation more rapidly than in other federal impoundments in Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, initiated a study to characterize suspended-sediment loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir from February 21, 2007, through February 21, 2008. Turbidity sensors were installed at two U.S. Geological Survey stream gages upstream (Neosho River near Americus and the Cottonwood River near Plymouth) and one stream gage downstream (Neosho River at Burlington) from the reservoir to compute continuous, real-time (15-minute) measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and loading. About 1,120,000 tons of suspended-sediment were transported to, and 100,700 tons were transported from John Redmond Reservoir during the study period. Dependent on the bulk density of sediment stored in the reservoir, 5.0 to 1.4 percent of the storage in the John Redmond conservation pool was lost during the study period, with an average deposition of 3.4 to 1.0 inches. Nearly all (98-99 percent) of the incoming sediment load was transported during 9 storms which occurred 25 to 27 percent of the time. The largest storm during the study period (peak-flow recurrence interval of about 4.6-4.9 years) transported about 37 percent of the sediment load to the reservoir. Suspended-sediment yield from the unregulated drainage area upstream from the Neosho River near Americus was 530 tons per square mile, compared to 400 tons per square mile upstream from the Cottonwood River near Plymouth. Comparison of historical (1964-78) to current (2007) sediment loading estimates indicate statistically insignificant (99 percent) decrease in sediment loading at the Neosho River at Burlington. Ninety-percent confidence intervals of streamflow-derived estimates of total sediment load were 7 to 21 times larger than turbidity-derived estimates. Results from this study can be used by natural resource managers to calibrate sediment models and estimate the ability of John Redmond Reservoir to support designated uses into the future.

  16. Examination of Case Law (2007-2008) regarding Autism Spectrum Disorder and Violations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams; Martin, E. Davis, Jr.; Nelson-Head, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Using the LexisNexis database, the authors examined 99 court cases on students--who were 3-21 years of age and with various forms of autism spectrum disorder--between 2007 and 2008. The authors coded and analyzed procedural and substantive violations to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and the provision of a Free and Appropriate…

  17. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks and Other Health Events Associated with Recreational Water -United States, 2007-2008*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1978, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data on occurrences and causes...

  18. Groundwater level and specific conductance monitoring at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, Onslow County, North Carolina, 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, monitored water-resources conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in Onslow County, North Carolina, from November 2007 through September 2008. To comply with North Carolina Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area regulations, large-volume water suppliers in Onslow County must reduce their dependency on the Black Creek aquifer as a water-supply source and have, instead, proposed using the Castle Hayne aquifer as an alternative water-supply source. The Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, uses water obtained from the unregulated surficial and Castle Hayne aquifers for drinking-water supply. Water-level data were collected and field measurements of physical properties were made at 19 wells at 8 locations spanning the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune. These wells were instrumented with near real-time monitoring equipment to collect hourly measurements of water level. Additionally, specific conductance and water temperature were measured hourly in 16 of the 19 wells. Graphs are presented relating altitude of groundwater level to water temperature and specific conductance measurements collected during the study, and the relative vertical gradients between aquifers are discussed. The period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater levels at two well clusters were compared to median monthly mean groundwater levels at these same well clusters for 2008 to determine groundwater-resources conditions. In 2008, water levels were below normal in the 3 wells at one of the well clusters and were normal in 4 wells at the other cluster.

  19. Development and Testing of a Sorbent-Based Atmosphere Revitalization System for the Crew Exploration Vehicle 2007/2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Howard, David; Miller, Lee

    2008-01-01

    The design of a Vacuum-Swing Adsorption (VSA) system to remove metabolic water and metabolic carbon dioxide from the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) atmosphere is presented. The approach for Orion is a VSA system that removes not only 100 percent of the metabolic CO2 from the atmosphere, but also 100% of the metabolic water as well, a technology approach that has not been used in previous spacecraft life support systems. The design and development of the Sorbent Based Atmosphere Regeneration (SBAR) system, including test articles, a facility test stand, and full-scale testing in late 2007 and early 2008 is discussed.

  20. A longitudinal study of feed contamination by European starling excreta in Ohio dairy farms (2007-2008).

    PubMed

    Medhanie, G A; Pearl, D L; McEwen, S A; Guerin, M T; Jardine, C M; Schrock, J; LeJeune, J T

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the temporal pattern of contamination of cattle feed by starling excrement on dairy farms and to evaluate the temporal pattern in recovering Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella in relation to the absolute mass of excrement recovered. A longitudinal study was conducted on 15 dairy farms in Ohio from July 2007 to October 2008. One open-topped tray filled with bird feed was placed near a cattle feeding site; bird excrement from the tray was weighed monthly for 12 consecutive months. Linear regression models with a random intercept for farm were computed to examine the association between the absolute weight of excrement recovered each month or the farm-specific standard score for weight of excrement, and month or season. Exact logistic regression was used to determine whether an association between recovering E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was present and the amount of excrement recovered and season. A spatial scan statistic was used to test for evidence of space-time clustering of excrement, based on the standard score for the weight of the excrement, among our study farms. A total of 5 of 179 excrement samples (2.79%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7 and 2 (1.12%) were positive for Salmonella. A significantly higher level of contamination with excrement was observed during the winter. The odds of recovering a pathogen increased with the amount of excrement recovered and decreased if the excrement was collected in the winter. A spatio-temporal cluster of contamination with excrement was detected. These findings provide basic information for future quantitative microbial risk assessments concerning the role of starlings in spreading enteric pathogens on dairy farms. PMID:24881798

  1. A Summary of the Research on the Effects of Test Accommodations: 2007-2008. Technical Report 56

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Damien C.; Altman, Jason; Shyyan, Vitaliy; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    The use of accommodations for both instruction and assessment continues to be of great importance for students with disabilities. The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the state of the research on testing accommodations, as well as to identify promising areas of research likely to contribute to understanding of current and emerging…

  2. Redesigning Today's Schools to Build a Stronger Tomorrow: The Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time Initiative 2007-2008 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts 2020, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Our children deserve an education that fully prepares them for the future--success in college, the workforce and a healthy, fulfilled life. The Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Initiative is redesigning and expanding the school schedule to offer children new learning and enrichment opportunities. With state resources, participating…

  3. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed. PMID:25300050

  4. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  5. What is red cell deformability?

    PubMed

    Schmid-Schönbein, H; Gaehtgens, P

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic flow visualization of the process of red cell adaptation to flow shows that red cell deformation in flow is the consequence of a continuous viscous rather than an elastic deformation. This fluid drop-like adaptation primarily depends on: (a) the fluidity of the cytoplasm and (b) the favourable surface-area-to-volume ratio, with an excess of surface area allowing strong deformations without an increase in surface area (a real strain). (c) In contrast to previous notions, the modulus of shear elasticity of the membrane is probably less significant. After many attempts to differentiate the contribution of bending and shear stiffness to the elastic recovery of the normal biconcave cell shape have not produced equivocal results, we have changed the elastic shear modulus experimentally by cross-linking the spectrin using the membrane-permeant, bifunctional SH-reagent DIAMIDE, which allows to increase the elastic shear modulus in a dose-dependent manner. Despite a 25-fold decrease in compliance the DIAMIDE-treated cells have normal shape and show remarkably small changes in the rheological behaviour when tested in vitro and in vivo. PMID:6948373

  6. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  7. The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

  8. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  9. The structure of the chromophore within DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral.

    PubMed

    Gross, L A; Baird, G S; Hoffman, R C; Baldridge, K K; Tsien, R Y

    2000-10-24

    DsRed, a brilliantly red fluorescent protein, was recently cloned from Discosoma coral by homology to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea. A core question in the biochemistry of DsRed is the mechanism by which the GFP-like 475-nm excitation and 500-nm emission maxima of immature DsRed are red-shifted to the 558-nm excitation and 583-nm emission maxima of mature DsRed. After digestion of mature DsRed with lysyl endopeptidase, high-resolution mass spectra of the purified chromophore-bearing peptide reveal that some of the molecules have lost 2 Da relative to the peptide analogously prepared from a mutant, K83R, that stays green. Tandem mass spectrometry indicates that the bond between the alpha-carbon and nitrogen of Gln-66 has been dehydrogenated in DsRed, extending the GFP chromophore by forming C==N==C==O at the 2-position of the imidazolidinone. This acylimine substituent quantitatively accounts for the red shift according to quantum mechanical calculations. Reversible hydration of the C==N bond in the acylimine would explain why denaturation shifts mature DsRed back to a GFP-like absorbance. The C==N bond hydrolyses upon boiling, explaining why DsRed shows two fragment bands on SDS/PAGE. This assay suggests that conversion from green to red chromophores remains incomplete even after prolonged aging. PMID:11050230

  10. The structure of the chromophore within DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Larry A.; Baird, Geoffrey S.; Hoffman, Ross C.; Baldridge, Kim K.; Tsien, Roger Y.

    2000-01-01

    DsRed, a brilliantly red fluorescent protein, was recently cloned from Discosoma coral by homology to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea. A core question in the biochemistry of DsRed is the mechanism by which the GFP-like 475-nm excitation and 500-nm emission maxima of immature DsRed are red-shifted to the 558-nm excitation and 583-nm emission maxima of mature DsRed. After digestion of mature DsRed with lysyl endopeptidase, high-resolution mass spectra of the purified chromophore-bearing peptide reveal that some of the molecules have lost 2 Da relative to the peptide analogously prepared from a mutant, K83R, that stays green. Tandem mass spectrometry indicates that the bond between the alpha-carbon and nitrogen of Gln-66 has been dehydrogenated in DsRed, extending the GFP chromophore by forming —C⩵N—C⩵O at the 2-position of the imidazolidinone. This acylimine substituent quantitatively accounts for the red shift according to quantum mechanical calculations. Reversible hydration of the C⩵N bond in the acylimine would explain why denaturation shifts mature DsRed back to a GFP-like absorbance. The C⩵N bond hydrolyses upon boiling, explaining why DsRed shows two fragment bands on SDS/PAGE. This assay suggests that conversion from green to red chromophores remains incomplete even after prolonged aging. PMID:11050230

  11. 33 CFR 165.T09-0263 - Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety zone; Red River Safety..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED... § 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a) Location. The following area is...

  12. Chemical toxicity of red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Piomelli, S

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to toxic chemicals may result in alterations of red cell function. In certain cases, the toxic effect requires a genetic predisposition and thus affects only a restricted number of individuals; in other instances, the toxic effect is exerted on the hematopoietic system of every person. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is probably the most widespread genetic disorder. It is observed at highest frequency in populations from subtropical countries as a result of its selective advantage vis à vis falciparum malaria. The gene controlling this enzyme is located on the X-chromosome; thus, the defect is sex-linked. Individuals with a genetic defect of this enzyme are extremely susceptible to hemolysis, when exposed to oxidant drugs (such as certain antimalarials and sulfonamides) because of the inability of their red cells to regenerate NADPH. Lead poisoning result in profound effects on the process of heme synthesis. Among the steps most sensitive to lead toxicity are the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and the intramitochondrial step that leads to the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin. By these mechanisms, in severe lead intoxication there is an accumulation of large amounts of delta-aminolevulinic acid (a compound with inherent neurotoxicity), and there are abnormalities of mitochondrial function in all cells of the body. Individuals living in an industrialized society are unavoidably exposed to some environmental lead. Recent evidence indicates that, even at levels of exposure which do not increase the blood lead level above values presently considered normal, abnormalities of heme synthesis are clearly detectable. PMID:7016524

  13. Red blood cell membrane defects.

    PubMed

    Iolascon, Achille; Perrotta, Silverio; Stewart, Gordon W

    2003-03-01

    We present an overview of the currently known molecular basis of red cell membrane disorders. A detailed discussion of the structure of the red cell membrane and the pathophysiology and clinical aspects of its disorders is reported. Generally speaking, hereditary spherocytosis (HS) results from a loss of erythrocyte surface area. The mutations of most cases of HS are located in the following genes: ANK1, SPTB, SLC4A1, EPB42 and SPTA1, which encode for ankyrin, spectrin beta-chain, the anion exchanger 1 (band 3), protein 4.2 and spectrin alpha-chain, respectively. Hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) reflects a diminished elasticity of the skeleton. Its aggravated form, hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP), implies that the skeleton undergoes further destabilization. The mutations responsible for HE and HPP, lie in the SPTA1 and SPTB gene, and in the EPB41 gene encoding protein 4.1. Allele alpha LELY is a common polymorphic allele, which plays the role of an aggravating factor when it occurs in trans of an elliptocytogenic allele of the SPTA1 gene. Southeast Asian ovalocytosis derives from a change in band 3. The genetic disorders of membrane permeability to monovalent cations required a positional cloning approach. In this respect, channelopathies represent a new frontier in the field. Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS) was shown to belong to a pleiotropic syndrome: DHS + fetal edema + pseudohyperkalemia, which maps 16q23-24. Splenectomy is strictly contraindicated in DHS and another disease of the same class, overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, because it increases the risk of thromboembolic accidents. PMID:14692233

  14. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  15. Public Perceptions of Florida Red Tide Risks

    PubMed Central

    Kuhar, Sara E.; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A.

    2009-01-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals’ responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides. PMID:19392675

  16. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  17. Red discoloration of fully cooked poultry meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red or bloody appearance of fully cooked poultry meat is a severe defect. Methods for inducing discoloration for further study, including control of and causes of red discoloration were determined. Cooked retail parts (n=274) showed approximately 11% discoloration and 0.4% bloodiness. To induce r...

  18. Persistence of Grazed Red Clover Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, red clover (Trifolium pratense) has been limited by its lack of stand persistence in hay and grazed systems compared to other small-seeded forage legumes. Breeding over the past 50 years has extended red clover persistence in a hay management system to four years. This study examined g...

  19. Biological control of red imported fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Imported Fire Ants (IFA), the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and the Black Imported Fire Ant, S. richteri Forel, were introduced into the United States in the early 1900s and currently inhabit over 320 million acres in the southern United States and Puerto Rico. Red ...

  20. Seeing red to being red: conserved genetic mechanism for red cone oil droplets and co-option for red coloration in birds and turtles.

    PubMed

    Twyman, Hanlu; Valenzuela, Nicole; Literman, Robert; Andersson, Staffan; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-08-17

    Avian ketocarotenoid pigments occur in both the red retinal oil droplets that contribute to colour vision and bright red coloration used in signalling. Turtles are the only other tetrapods with red retinal oil droplets, and some also display red carotenoid-based coloration. Recently, the CYP2J19 gene was strongly implicated in ketocarotenoid synthesis in birds. Here, we investigate CYP2J19 evolution in relation to colour vision and red coloration in reptiles using genomic and expression data. We show that turtles, but not crocodiles or lepidosaurs, possess a CYP2J19 orthologue, which arose via gene duplication before turtles and archosaurs split, and which is strongly and specifically expressed in the ketocarotenoid-containing retina and red integument. We infer that CYP2J19 initially functioned in colour vision in archelosaurs and conclude that red ketocarotenoid-based coloration evolved independently in birds and turtles via gene regulatory changes of CYP2J19 Our results suggest that red oil droplets contributed to colour vision in dinosaurs and pterosaurs. PMID:27488652

  1. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage is due to the accumulation of large quantity of anthocyanins. To investigate the general regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbages, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulators from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four...

  2. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  3. 76 FR 23485 - Safety Zone; Red River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Red River in the State of North Dakota, including those portions of the river bordered by Richland... across latitude 46 20'00'' N, extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed...

  4. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  5. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  6. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  7. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  8. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  9. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  10. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  11. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  12. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  13. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  14. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  15. RED RIVER BASIN BIOLOGICAL MONITORING WORKGROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to improve coordination of biological monitoring efforts in the Red River Basin. This is to be accomplished through coordination of a study to develop sampling protocols for macroinvertebrates in the main stream and lower tributaries of the Red River....

  16. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-09-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  17. Red, Rank, and Romance in Women Viewing Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Gramzow, Richard H.; Maier, Markus A.; Liu, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present…

  18. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  19. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  20. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  1. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  2. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  3. The Art of Red Tide Science

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emily R.; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined “The Art of Red Tide Science,” consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues. PMID:22712002

  4. Red wine as a cause of migraine.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, J T; Gibb, C; Glover, V; Sandler, M; Davies, P T; Rose, F C

    1988-03-12

    Patients with migraine who believed that red wine but not alcohol in general had a headache-provoking effect on them were challenged either with red wine or with a vodka and diluent mixture of equivalent alcohol content, both consumed cold out of dark bottles to disguise colour and flavour. The red wine, which had a negligible tyramine content, provoked a typical migraine attack in 9 of 11 such patients, whereas none of the 8 challenged with vodka had an attack. Neither red wine nor vodka provoked such episodes in other migrainous subjects or controls. These findings show that red wine contains a migraine-provoking agent that is neither alcohol nor tyramine. PMID:2894493

  5. Investigate the properties of red QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, An-Li; Hwang, Chrong-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    QSOs are one type of AGNs. The spectral energy distribution of luminous QSOs usually peak at near-UV wavebands and have blue colors. However, recent observations discovered a population of red QSOs. The nature of these red QSOs are still not clear. The redness is obscured either by dusty torus or by dust associated with nuclear star formation. A better wavelength to study the obscuration of QSOs is from IR to radio, which can avoid the dust extinction at optical.We have selected a group of QSOs from the SDSS Quasar Catalog, the VLA FIRST Radio Survey Catalog, and the WISE All Sky Survey Data. We defined the color base on the flux ratio between two bands of continuum emission which avoid strong emission lines. We compare the difference between red QSOs and typical QSOs, and discuss the properties of the red color.

  6. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  7. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  8. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. PMID:20022488

  9. The Art of Red Tide Science.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily R; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J; Heil, Cynthia A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined "The Art of Red Tide Science," consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues. PMID:22712002

  10. Congo red uptake by motile Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Statner, B; George, W L

    1987-05-01

    Virulence of several species of enteropathogenic bacteria has been correlated with the ability of isolates to take up the dye Congo red. To determine whether Congo red uptake might be a useful marker for virulence of motile Aeromonas species, we examined 50 strains of diverse clinical origin on a medium containing 50 micrograms of Congo red per ml. All of the strains took up the dye to various degrees. For most strains, uptake was greatest at 37 degrees C and least at 22 degrees C. Production of acetyl methyl carbinol (Voges-Proskauer test) or lysine decarboxylase has been reported by some investigators to be a virulence marker for Aeromonas species. Congo red uptake did not correlate with either acetyl methyl carbinol or lysine decarboxylase production in our study. These data suggest that Congo red uptake may not be a useful marker for virulence of motile Aeromonas species. PMID:3584422

  11. Modeling and simulation of Red Teaming. Part 1, Why Red Team M&S?

    SciTech Connect

    Skroch, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    Red teams that address complex systems have rarely taken advantage of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in a way that reproduces most or all of a red-blue team exchange within a computer. Chess programs, starting with IBM's Deep Blue, outperform humans in that red-blue interaction, so why shouldn't we think computers can outperform traditional red teams now or in the future? This and future position papers will explore possible ways to use M&S to augment or replace traditional red teams in some situations, the features Red Team M&S should possess, how one might connect live and simulated red teams, and existing tools in this domain.

  12. Red Giant Plunging Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (left panel) shows the 'bow shock' of a dying star named R Hydrae, or R Hya, in the constellation Hydra.

    Bow shocks are formed where the stellar wind from a star are pushed into a bow shape (illustration, right panel) as the star plunges through the gas and dust between stars. Our own Sun has a bow shock, but prior to this image one had never been observed around this particular class of red giant star.

    R Hya moves through space at approximately 50 kilometers per second. As it does so, it discharges dust and gas into space. Because the star is relatively cool, that ejecta quickly assumes a solid state and collides with the interstellar medium. The resulting dusty nebula is invisible to the naked eye but can be detected using an infrared telescope. This bow shock is 16,295 astronomical units from the star to the apex and 6,188 astronomical units thick (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The mass of the bow shock is about 400 times the mass of the Earth.

    The false-color Spitzer image shows infrared emissions at 70 microns. Brighter colors represent greater intensities of infrared light at that wavelength. The location of the star itself is drawn onto the picture in the black 'unobserved' region in the center.

  13. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet. PMID:11538726

  14. Red supergiants as type II supernova progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Dorda, Ricardo; González-Fernández, Carlos; Marco, Amparo

    2015-08-01

    Recent searches for supernova IIp progenitors in external galaxies have led to the identification of red objects with magnitudes and colours indicative of red supergiants, in most cases implying quite low luminosities and hence masses well below 10Msol. Stellar models, on the other hand, do not predict explosions from objects below 9 Msol. What does our knowledge of local red supergiants tells us about the expected properties of such objects?We have carried out a comprehensive spectroscopic and photometric study of a sample of hundreds of red supergiants in the Milky Way and both Magellanic Clouds. We have explored correlations between different parameters and the position of stars in the HR diagrams of open clusters. At solar metallicty, there is strong evidence for a phase of very heavy mass loss at the end of the red supergiant phase, but the existence of such a phase is still not confirmed at SMC metallicities. Objects of ~ 7Msol, on the other hand, become very dusty in the SMC, and appear as very luminous Miras.Among Milky Way clusters, we find a surprising lack of objects readily identifiable as the expected 7 to 10 Msol red supergiants or AGB stars. We are carrying out an open cluster survey aimed at filling this region of the HR diagram with reliable data. Finally, we will discuss the implications of all this findings for the expected properties of supernova progenitors, as it looks unlikely that typical red supergiants may explode without undergoing further evolution.

  15. Decadal stability of Red Sea mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-02-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  16. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E.; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  17. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  18. The second-order gravitational red shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, J.

    1973-01-01

    The direct measurement of the nonlinear term of the gravitational field equations by using very stable clocks is discussed along with measuring the perhelion advance of a planet or satellite. These are considered measurements of the second-order gravitational red shift. The exact expression for the frequency shift of light in a gravitational field is derived. Other topics discussed include: The Doppler-cancelling technique; the second-order red shift in a spherically symmetric gravitational field; finite signal transit time; and the reality and interpretation of coordinates in the second-order red shift experiment.

  19. THE TEMPERATURES OF RED SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Ben; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach; Plez, Bertrand; Trager, Scott; Lancon, Ariane; Bergemann, Maria; Evans, Chris; Chiavassa, Andrea

    2013-04-10

    We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of red supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the spectra, deriving effective temperatures for each star from (1) the TiO bands, (2) line-free continuum regions of the SEDs, and (3) the integrated fluxes. We show that the temperatures derived from fits to the TiO bands are systematically lower than the other two methods by several hundred kelvin. The TiO fits also dramatically overpredict the flux in the near-IR, and imply extinctions which are anomalously low compared to neighboring stars. In contrast, the SED temperatures provide good fits to the fluxes at all wavelengths other than the TiO bands, are in agreement with the temperatures from the flux integration method, and imply extinctions consistent with nearby stars. After considering a number of ways to reconcile this discrepancy, we conclude that three-dimensional effects (i.e., granulation) are the most likely cause, as they affect the temperature structure in the upper layers where the TiO lines form. The continuum, however, which forms at much deeper layers, is apparently more robust to such effects. We therefore conclude that RSG temperatures are much warmer than previously thought. We discuss the implications of this result for stellar evolution and supernova progenitors, and provide relations to determine the bolometric luminosities of RSGs from single-band photometry.

  20. Viscoelastic transient of confined red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Prado, Gaël; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi; Bureau, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, η(mem)(2D) ∼ 10(-7) N ⋅ s ⋅ m(-1). By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of η(mem)(2D), and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works. PMID:25954871

  1. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  2. Day Pass Down the Red Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the southeastern Mediterranean Sea and down the coastline of the Red Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was ta...

  3. Movie Trailer: 'Road to the Red Planet'

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and the European Space Agency have announced three new joint science missions to Mars, including one that will return to Earth with a sample taken from the Martian surface. "Road to the Red Pl...

  4. Red blood cells, sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    These crescent or sickle-shaped red blood cells (RBCs) are present with Sickle cell anemia, and stand out clearly against the normal round RBCs. These abnormally shaped cells may become entangled and ...

  5. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  6. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Red in the Face Understanding Rosacea Some people think of a rosy complexion as ... more troubling—a long-lasting skin disorder called rosacea. Rosacea (pronounced ro-ZAY-she-ah) may start ...

  7. Territoriality in the Red-winged Blackbird

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Chris

    1977-01-01

    Reports findings on research in Red-winged Blackbird territoriality and describes the educational potential of use of similar studies in the classroom. Territorial mapping and observational techniques are explained. (CS)

  8. Variable Red Giants--The MACHO View

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S C; Cook, K H

    2003-01-03

    The authors present a study of the MACHO red variable population in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study reveals six period-luminosity relations among the red variable population. Only two of these were known prior to MACHO. The results are consistent with Mira pulsation in the fundamental mode. A sequence comprising 26% of the red variable population can not be explained by pulsation. They propose a dust {kappa}-mechanism in the circumstellar environment is responsible for the long period variation of these objects. The luminosity function of the variables shows a sharp edge at the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). This is the first clear indication of a population of variable stars within the immediate vicinity of the TRGB. The results indicate this population amounts to 8% of the RGB population near the TRGB.

  9. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  10. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  11. Ultra-Long Crystalline Red Phosphorus Nanowires from Amorphous Red Phosphorus Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua B; Hagaman, Daniel; DiGuiseppi, David; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2016-09-19

    Heating red phosphorus in sealed ampoules in the presence of a Sn/SnI4 catalyst mixture has provided bulk black phosphorus at much lower pressures than those required for allotropic conversion by anvil cells. Herein we report the growth of ultra-long 1D red phosphorus nanowires (>1 mm) selectively onto a wafer substrate from red phosphorus powder and a thin film of red phosphorus in the present of a Sn/SnI4 catalyst. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction characterization suggested the formation of crystalline red phosphorus nanowires. FET devices constructed with the red phosphorus nanowires displayed a typical I-V curve similar to that of black phosphorus and a similar mobility reaching 300 cm(2)  V(-1)  s with an Ion /Ioff ratio approaching 10(2) . A significant response to infrared light was observed from the FET device. PMID:27553637

  12. Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxicity of Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40).

    PubMed

    Honma, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40) is a red azo dye that is used for food coloring in beverage and confectionary products. However, its genotoxic properties remain controversial. To clarify the in vivo genotoxicity, we treated mice with Allura Red AC and investigated the induction of DNA damage (liver, glandular stomach), clastogenicity/anuegenicity (bone marrow), and mutagenicity (liver, glandular stomach) using Comet assays, micronucleus tests, and transgenic gene mutation assays, respectively. All studies were conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline. Although Allura Red AC was administered up to the maximum doses recommended by the OECD guideline, no genotoxic effect was observed in any of the genotoxic endpoints. These data clearly show no evidence of in vivo genotoxic potential of Allura Red AC administered up to the maximum doses in mice. PMID:26364875

  13. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  14. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    DUGGAN,RUTH A.; WOOD,BRADLEY

    1999-10-07

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper.

  15. Termosyphon cryogenic system for RED-100 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnovtsev, V.; Tolstukhin, I.; Shakirov, A.; Shafigullin, R.

    2016-02-01

    A cryogenic system based on a two-phase closed tubular thermosyphon with 12 mm diameter copper tube is developed. It was used for thermal stabilization of the liquid xenon emission detector RED-100. The nitrogen refrigerant cooled down with a free-boiling liquid nitrogen bath has been used. It was shown that the system supports the RED100 operation at temperature 166 K with accuracy ±1K.

  16. Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

  17. Red cell membrane: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of natural selection driven by severe forms of malaria, 1 in 6 humans in the world, more than 1 billion people, are affected by red cell abnormalities, making them the most common of the inherited disorders. The non-nucleated red cell is unique among human cell type in that the plasma membrane, its only structural component, accounts for all of its diverse antigenic, transport, and mechanical characteristics. Our current concept of the red cell membrane envisions it as a composite structure in which a membrane envelope composed of cholesterol and phospholipids is secured to an elastic network of skeletal proteins via transmembrane proteins. Structural and functional characterization of the many constituents of the red cell membrane, in conjunction with biophysical and physiologic studies, has led to detailed description of the way in which the remarkable mechanical properties and other important characteristics of the red cells arise, and of the manner in which they fail in disease states. Current studies in this very active and exciting field are continuing to produce new and unexpected revelations on the function of the red cell membrane and thus of the cell in health and disease, and shed new light on membrane function in other diverse cell types. PMID:18988878

  18. Interpretation of the Jupiter Red Spot, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    With the aid of 8900 micron CH4 filter photographs it is shown that the Red Spot is normally the highest cloud feature in the Jovian atmosphere, located squarely on the South Tropical Zone at 22 deg. S. The Red Spot is a rising column, obviously having its own energy source; it spreads outward at the top level, in anticyclonic rotation. It is concluded that the large and persistent Jovian cloud masses, of which the Red Spot is the largest, are major organized storm arrays embedded in a near stagnant atmosphere, each probably possessing numerous short-lived rising hot columns driven by released latent heat; and covered by a horizontally-expanding gigantic cirrus cloud system, in anti-cyclonic rotation. The meteorological theory of Organized Cumulus Convection is applied to the Red Spot and the White Ovals. Evidence exists that the array of hot towers under the Red Spot is eccentric. The 90-day and the occassional 5-8 year fluctuations in the motion of the Red Spot may be due to processes analogous to those found in the Earth's Tropical Convergence. The 90-day oscillation has been observed for 8 years.

  19. The Junior Red Cross goes to Healthland.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J F

    1997-01-01

    An amusing reminder of earnest attempts to teach the principles of public health, Junior Red Cross Time brought plays and games about "Healthland" to schoolchildren in the 1920s. Explaining why health education became part of the mission of the Junior Red Cross raises larger issues, such as the ideology and practice of the American Red Cross in war and peace, the place of health in the moral education of children, and the transition from the activism of the Progressive Era to the markedly different social climate of the 1920s. The Junior Red Cross promoted Healthland largely because it was an innocuous concept that had been stripped of potentially controversial features to adapt it to the conservative mood of postwar America. This process of dilution mirrored the fate of the adult Red Cross, which briefly and unsuccessfully sought to reinvent itself as a national (and international) agency for the promotion of public health. The unreality of Healthland is no mere coincidence; its separation from the real world was a crucial part of its appeal to the Red Cross in the 1920s. PMID:9366639

  20. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unprocessed western red cedar. 754.4... CONTROLS § 754.4 Unprocessed western red cedar. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS... the export of unprocessed western red cedar covered by ECCN 1C988 (Western red cedar (thuja...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration which... surface has been reddened in the curing process may be described as variegated red or scorched. (See...

  2. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...

  3. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...

  4. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...

  5. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...

  6. 27 CFR 9.169 - Red Hills Lake County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Hills Lake County. 9... Red Hills Lake County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hills Lake County”. (b) Approved Map. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Red...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration which... surface has been reddened in the curing process may be described as variegated red or scorched. (See...

  8. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration which... surface has been reddened in the curing process may be described as variegated red or scorched. (See...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration which... surface has been reddened in the curing process may be described as variegated red or scorched. (See...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration which... surface has been reddened in the curing process may be described as variegated red or scorched. (See...

  11. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  12. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  13. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  14. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  15. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  16. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  17. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  18. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  19. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  20. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  1. Spectral Tuning of Deep Red Cone Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    Amora, Tabitha L.; Ramos, Lavoisier S.; Galan, Jhenny F.; Birge, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Visual pigments are G-protein-coupled receptors that provide a critical interface between organisms and their external environment. Natural selection has generated vertebrate pigments that absorb light from the far-UV (360 nm) to the deep red (630 nm) while using a single chromophore, in either the A1 (11-cis-retinal) or A2 (11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) form. The fact that a single chromophore can be manipulated to have an absorption maximum across such an extended spectral region is remarkable. The mechanisms of wavelength regulation remain to be fully revealed, and one of the least well-understood mechanisms is that associated with the deep red pigments. We investigate theoretically the hypothesis that deep red cone pigments select a 6-s-trans conformation of the retinal chromophore ring geometry. This conformation is in contrast to the 6-s-cis ring geometry observed in rhodopsin and, through model chromophore studies, the vast majority of visual pigments. Nomographic spectral analysis of 294 A1 and A2 cone pigment literature absorption maxima indicates that the selection of a 6-s-trans geometry red shifts M/LWS A1 pigments by ~1500 cm−1 (~50 nm) and A2 pigments by ~2700 cm−1 (~100 nm). The homology models of seven cone pigments indicate that the deep red cone pigments select 6-s-trans chromophore conformations primarily via electrostatic steering. Our results reveal that the generation of a 6-s-trans conformation not only achieves a significant red shift but also provides enhanced stability of the chromophore within the deep red cone pigment binding sites. PMID:18370404

  2. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  3. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    SciTech Connect

    Dinge, Dennis C.; Davis, Michael E.; Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  4. Seeing Red: Discourse, Metaphor, and the Implementation of Red Light Cameras in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Lance Alan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the deployment of automated red light camera systems in the state of Texas from 2003 through late 2007. The deployment of new technologies in general, and surveillance infrastructures in particular, can prove controversial and challenging for the formation of public policy. Red light camera surveillance during this period in…

  5. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  6. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-07-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  7. Male red ornamentation is associated with female red sensitivity in sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Rick, Ingolf P; Mehlis, Marion; Bakker, Theo C M

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection theory proposes correlated evolutionary changes in mating preferences and secondary sexual characters based on a positive genetic correlation between preference and the preferred trait. Empirical work has provided support for a genetic covariation between female preference and male attractiveness in several taxa. Here, we study parent and offspring visual traits in threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. While focusing on the proximate basis of mating preferences, we compare the red breeding coloration of males, which strongly contributes to female choice, with their daughters' red sensitivity measured by optomotor response thresholds. We show that the red color expression of fathers correlates well with their daughters' red sensitivity. Given that a within-population genetic correlation between signal and preference was experimentally confirmed for the red coloration in sticklebacks, our results indicate a proximate mechanism in terms of perceptual sensitivity being involved in the co-evolution of female preferences and male mating signals. PMID:21984930

  8. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication. PMID:24588355

  9. Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2013-01-01

    The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life. PMID:23770768

  10. Chlorine-Free Red-Burning Pyrotechnics.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Koch, Ernst-Christian; Poret, Jay C; Moretti, Jared D; Harbol, Seth M

    2015-09-01

    The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors. PMID:26333055

  11. Red spectra from white and blue noise

    PubMed Central

    Balmforth, N. J.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E. A.; Martens, M.; Tresser, C.; Wu, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    The value of maps of the interval in modelling population dynamics has recently been called into question because temporal variations from such maps have blue or white power spectra, whereas many observations of real populations show time-series with red spectra. One way to deal with this discrepancy is to introduce chaotic or stochastic fluctuations in the parameters of the map. This leads to on–off intermittency and can markedly redden the spectrum produced by a model that does not by itself have a red spectrum. The parameter fluctuations need not themselves have a red spectrum in order to achieve this effect. Because the power spectrum is not invariant under a change of variable, another way to redden the spectrum is by a suitable transformation of the variables used. The question this poses is whether spectra are the best means of characterizing a fluctuating variable.

  12. Red eyes and red-flags: improving ophthalmic assessment and referral in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, Caroline; Lois, Charis

    2016-01-01

    Up to five percent of primary care consultations are eye-related, yet 96% of General Practitioners (GPs) do not undergo postgraduate ophthalmology training. Most do not feel assured performing eye assessments. Some red eye conditions can become sight threatening, and often exhibit red-flag features. These features include moderate pain, photophobia, reduced visual acuity (VA), eye-trauma, or unilateral marked redness. The aim of this project was to improve primary care assessment and referral of patients presenting with red-flag features based on the NICE ‘Red Eye’ Clinical Knowledge Summary recommendations. Data was collected retrospectively from 139 red eye consultations. A practice meeting highlighted poor awareness of red-flag features, low confidence levels in eye assessments, and time-constraints during appointments. Interventions were based on feedback from staff. These included a primary care teaching session on red-flag features, a VA measurement tutorial, and provision of a red eye toolkit, including VA equipment, to each consultation room. At baseline, each patient had on average 0.9 red-flag features assessed. Only 36.0% (9/25) of patients with red-flag features were appropriately referred to same-day ophthalmology services. Following two improvement cycles, a significant improvement was seen in almost every parameter. On average, each patient had 2.7 red-flag features assessed (vs 0.9, p<0.001). VA was assessed in 55.6% of consultations (vs 7.9%, p<0.001), pain was quantified in 81.5% (vs 20.9%, p=0.005), eye-trauma or foreign-body (51.8% vs 8.6%, p<0.001), extent of redness was documented in 66.7% (vs 14.4%, p<0.001). Only photophobia remained poorly assessed (18.5% vs 14.4%, p=0.75). Following this, 75.0% (6/8) of patients were appropriately referred. This project reflected the literature regarding low confidence and inexperience amongst GPs when faced with ophthalmic conditions. Improvements in education are required to ensure accurate

  13. [Pseudo-scabies transmitted by red fox].

    PubMed

    Birk, R W; Tebbe, B; Schein, E; Zouboulis, C C; Orfanos, C E

    1999-02-01

    Pseudoscabies, i.e. infestation of human skin with animal mites may occasionally occur and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pruritic and papular skin disease. We report here on a 52-year-old woman with pseudoscabies or canine scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), transmitted by indirect contact with a red fox in the urban area of Berlin. Red foxes may live in unhabited areas of metropolitan large cities, i.e. in garages, car wrecks and cellars. Full remission of the prolonged and pruritic rush was seen after topical administration of lindane together with systemic corticosteroids. PMID:10097956

  14. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of these background data, metabolic studies were performed on humans involved in space flight. These studies included the Skylab experiences. The primary purpose of the investigations was to study red cells for: (1) evidences of lipid peroxidation, or (2) changes at various points in the glycolytic pathway. The Skylab missions were an opportunity to study blood samples before, during, and after flight and to compare results with simultaneous controls. No direct evidence that lipid peroxidation had occurred in the red blood cells was apparent in the studies.

  15. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  16. Certification procedures for sirius red F3B (CI 35780, Direct red 80).

    PubMed

    Dapson, R W; Fagan, C; Kiernan, J A; Wickersham, T W

    2011-06-01

    Sirius red F3B (CI 35780, Direct red 80) is a polyazo dye used principally in staining methods for collagen and amyloid. For certification by the Biological Stain Commission, a sample of the dye must exhibit an absorption spectrum of characteristic shape with a maximum at 528-529 nm, a small shoulder near 500 nm and narrow peaks at 372, 281-282 and 230-235 nm. Spot tests (color changes with addition of concentrated H(2)SO(4) or HCl and subsequent dilution or neutralization) also are applied. The dye must perform satisfactorily in the picro-sirius red method for collagen by providing red staining of all types of collagen with yellow and green birefringence of fibers. Llewellyn's alkaline sirius red method applied to tissue known to contain amyloid must show red coloration of the products with green birefringence. Dye content, which does not influence significantly the staining properties of sirius red F3B, is not assayed. PMID:21417582

  17. Phosphatidylserine exposure and red cell viability in red cell aging and in hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Boas, Franz Edward; Forman, Linda; Beutler, Ernest

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) normally localizes to the inner leaflet of cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cells, signaling macrophages to ingest them. Along similar lines, it seemed possible that the removal of red cells from circulation because of normal aging or in hemolytic anemias might be triggered by PS exposure. To investigate the role of PS exposure in normal red cell aging, we used N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin to tag rabbit red cells in vivo, then used phycoerythrin-streptavidin to label the biotinylated cells, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to detect the exposed PS. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells drawn at 10-day intervals up to 70 days after biotinylation indicated that older, biotinylated cells expose more PS. Furthermore, our data match a simple model of red cell senescence that assumes both an age-dependent destruction of senescent red cells preceded by several hours of PS exposure and a random destruction of red cells without PS exposure. By using this model, we demonstrated that the exposure of PS parallels the rate at which biotinylated red cells are removed from circulation. On the other hand, using an annexin V-FITC label and flow cytometry demonstrates that exposed PS does not cause the reduced red cell life span of patients with hemolytic anemia, with the possible exception of those with unstable hemoglobins or sickle cell anemia. Thus, in some cases PS exposure on the cell surface may signal the removal of red cells from circulation, but in other cases some other signal must trigger the sequestration of cells. PMID:9501218

  18. Phosphine on Jupiter and implications for the Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Lewis, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the chemistry and photochemistry of the recently discovered phosphine in the atmosphere of Jupiter suggests that the red colorations on this planet result from photochemical production of red phosphorus particles. Chemical-dynamical models of this red phosphorus haze imply that the intensity of the red coloration is a strong function of the strength of vertical turbulent mixing in the atmosphere. If the Jovian Great Red Spot is a region of considerable dynamical activity our model provides a self-consistent explanation for the redness of this region in comparison to the rest of the planet.

  19. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-06-28

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a {approx} 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that {approx}> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K {le} 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%.

  20. Walking in Balance on the Red Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thin Elk, Gene

    1993-01-01

    Native American who entered treatment for alcohol abuse and found that conventional cures did not address cultural clash of being Indian in Eurocentric society describes alcohol prevention and treatment program rooted in traditional Indian values and ceremonies. Describes "The Red Road," holistic approach which uses culture as therapy and…

  1. Clandestine Companions of Nearby Red Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Koerner, D. W.; Jao, W. C.; Subasavage, J. P.; Ianna, P. A.; RECONS

    2006-12-01

    During the RECONS parallax program at the CTIO 0.9m, we have accumulated more than six years of astrometric data on red dwarfs in the southern sky. Eighty red dwarfs within 10 pc, including more than two dozen new discoveries by our team, are being followed to reveal the telltale perturbations caused by unseen companions. The advent of modern CCD technology yields substantial improvement in the detection of low mass companions over the classic studies done using photographic plates. The current ASPENS (Astrometric Search for Planets Encircling Nearby Stars) program is capable of finding hidden companions with masses as low as 10 Jupiters. Here we report the first results of the ASPENS effort, including a few intriguing systems with orbital periods of several years. Nearby red dwarfs are prime candidates for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) because the astrometric perturbations are largest for planets orbiting nearby stars of low mass. In addition, new multiple red dwarf systems can be targeted for mass determinations, thereby providing points on a comprehensive mass-luminosity relation for the most populous members of the Galaxy. These long-term observations began in 1999 as an NOAO Surveys program, and are continuing via the SMARTS Consortium. This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation (AST 98-20711 and 05-07711), NASA's Space Interferometry Mission, Georgia State University, and Northern Arizona University.

  2. Traffic Lights: Red Light Spells Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2001-01-01

    A "traffic light" model provides youth groups with a means to evaluate the risk level of specific behaviors and agree upon the management of such behaviors. Designed for outdoor pursuits, the model may be used in other environments. Suggestions for ways to discuss red-light, yellow-light, and green-light behaviors are included. (SV)

  3. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... between the individual and the community during times of disaster. This applies only to natural disasters... Cross officials to the maximum feasible degree during times of natural disasters. (39 U.S.C. 401, 411... item in Red Cross disaster relief. It will urge disaster victims displaced from their homes to...

  4. Jupiter's Convection and Its Red Spot.

    PubMed

    Smoluchowski, R

    1970-06-12

    Physical properties of the liquid hydrogen-helium layer of Jupiter are calculated and used in evaluating convection and in interpreting the approximately constant rate of longitudinal motion of the Red Spot on the basis of the Hide-Streett model. PMID:17731041

  5. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  6. Using a Red Team to devise countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swedenburg, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    The ability of a defense system to operate effectively when deployed in battle is dependent on designs able to deal with countermeasures against the defense. The formation of a technical Red Team to stress the preliminary designs of the defensive system with technologically feasible and effective potential countermeasures provides a means to identify such potential countermeasures. This paper describes the experience of the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) Theater Missile Defense Red Team since the Gulf War in 1991, the Red-Blue Exchange process, and the value it has provided to the designers of the U.S. Theater Missile Defense systems for developing robust systems. A wide-range of technologically feasible countermeasures has been devised, analyzed, tested for feasibility, and provided to the system developers for mitigation design. The process for independently analyzing possible susceptibilities of preliminary designs and exploiting the susceptibilities to identify possible countermeasures is explained. Designing and characterizing the Red Team's countermeasures, determining their feasibility, and analyzing their potential effectiveness against the defense are explained. A technique for the Blue Team's designers to deal with a wide range of potential countermeasures is explained.

  7. Use of red ochre by early Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Roebroeks, Wil; Sier, Mark J.; Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; De Loecker, Dimitri; Parés, Josep Maria; Arps, Charles E. S.; Mücher, Herman J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of manganese and iron oxides by late Neandertals is well documented in Europe, especially for the period 60–40 kya. Such finds often have been interpreted as pigments even though their exact function is largely unknown. Here we report significantly older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concentrates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands. The excavations exposed a series of well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial period. Samples of the reddish material were submitted to various forms of analyses to study their physical properties. All analyses identified the red material as hematite. This is a nonlocal material that was imported to the site, possibly over dozens of kilometers. Identification of the Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by (early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200–250 kya (i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African record). PMID:22308348

  8. Optical Data Storage in Acid Red Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Deepa; Palanisamy, P. K.

    High-density optical data storage is a current field gaining importance where research work is done in abundance to bring about holographic CDs to light. Dye-doped gelatin films are promising candidates as recording materials for holographic data storage because of the ease of preparation and low cost. In this report we suggest some acid red dyes as useful recording materials for optical data storage. Acid red dyes namely Acid Red 73 and Acid Red 114 that are completely water-soluble are used to sensitize gelatin thin films for data storage. These dyes have their absorption peak around 514 nm. Two coherent beams of Argon ion laser (514.5 nm) are used to form the grating in the dye-sensitized gelatin films. The grating formed is found to be permanent. The diffraction efficiency of each material as a function of different parameters like dye concentration, writing beam intensities and their ratios and spatial frequency has been studied and presented. An attempt to store data in the sample has been made.

  9. The Story of Red River Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfsrud, Erling Nicolai

    This resource book provides the teacher with a summary narrative of the history and the development of the Red River Basin, a lakebed plain that extends from the Canadian border into Minnesota and North Dakota. There are many historical topics covered: the geology, cultures of the Sioux and Chippewa, fur trading, exploration, settlement of the…

  10. Red River Valley. Selected Readings. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Sixteen readings dating from 1854 through 1969, many of which are primary materials excerpted from dated Minnesota newspapers, are intended for fifth grade students. Five themes describe past and present conditions in the Red River Valley: 1) show the importance of fur trade and describe the wooden carts in the train that carried the trade; 2)…

  11. Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Bioespecímenes de calidad son un recurso de investigación oncológica. Uno de los programas de bioespecímenes que han operado por más tiempo es la Red Cooperativa de Tejido Humano, ara descubrimientos básicos e investigación inicial de transferencia.

  12. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  13. Registration of 'Advance' Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new hard red spring wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent on satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also help to maxi...

  14. A universal fingerprinting set for red raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., is the most economically important fruit crop in the highly diverse Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus, which also includes black raspberry R. occidentalis L. Major world production occurs in Europe, South and North America including central highlands of Mexico, California (U...

  15. A universal fingerprinting set for red raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red raspberry, Rubus idaeus L., is the most economically important fruit crop in the highly diverse Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus. This subgenus also includes black raspberry R. occidentalis L. The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Ore.), is responsible for preserving a Rubus col...

  16. Film Guide for "The Red Kite".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, A. O.

    1969-01-01

    Aspects to consider in studying the film "The Red Kite" are (1) a synopsis of the story, which concerns a young father's musings about life and death; (2) the film's structure, which focuses on the father's encounters in a store, on a bus, in his home, at a party, and finally on a hill while flying the kite; (3) possible themes, such as "human…

  17. Registration of 'Red River Runner' peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Red River Runner' (tested as TX 994313) is a high oleic runner peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivar cooperatively developed and released by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Texas AgriLife Research and Extension, and Oklahoma Agricultura...

  18. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  19. New Perspectives on the Old Red Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miall, Andrew D.

    The Old Red Sandstone is amongst the most distinctive and well-known stratigraphic units in the British Isles. It is mainly of Devonian age; in fact, its lower boundary was used to define the base of the Devonian until relatively recently and it was called "Old" back in the nineteenth century to distinguish it from a superficially similar succession of Triassic age named the New Red Sandstone. The Old Red Sandstone has long been known to be a non-marine syntectonic to post-tectonic deposit associated with the Caledonian Orogeny One of the most famous outcrops of the red sandstone is at Siccar Point in northeast England at one of several outcrops named "Hutton's unconformity" where it lies, with marked angularity on Silurian lithic sandstones and shales. It was at these outcrops, toward the end of the eigthteenth century that James Hutton first came to understand the meaning of angular unconformities as structures representing vast amounts of missing time during which major upheavals of the Earth's crust occurred.

  20. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  1. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  2. Viscoelastic Transient of Confined Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Gaël; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi; Bureau, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, ηmem2D ∼ 10−7 N⋅s⋅m−1. By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of ηmem2D, and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works. PMID:25954871

  3. The "red flags" rule in health care.

    PubMed

    Gindin, Susan E

    2009-07-01

    Important questions for hospitals to ask regarding the Federal Trade Commission's identity theft "red flags" rule include: What is the compliance deadline? Who must comply? What is required for compliance? What about HIPAA? What are the consequences of failure to comply? PMID:19588815

  4. Phonon dispersion in red mercuric iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, H.; Chang, Y. ); James, R.B. )

    1994-02-15

    We present theoretical studies of phonon modes of undoped HgI[sub 2] in its red tetragonal form. A rigid-ion model including the Coulomb interaction is used which gives the best fit to the neutron scattering, infrared reflectivity, and Raman scattering data. The calculated sound velocities are also in accord with experiment.

  5. Registration of 'Badillo' Light Red Kidney Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Badillo’, Reg. No. CV-294, PI658490, a multiple disease resistant light red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar adapted to the humid tropics, was developed and released in 2009 cooperatively by the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) Agricultural Experiment Station and the United States Depart...

  6. In Brief: Red tide Web site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Kumar, Mohi

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has established the NOAA New England Red Tide Information Center to help people understand the significant red tides that are predicted to form there later this spring. The site (http://www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/redtide) will provide a summary of the current red tide situation and its potential harmful impacts on humans and animals and will serve as a central repository of information. The site also will have direct links to news releases, changes to relevant federal fishing regulations, links to closures of shellfish waters, and links to state agency Web sites with localized information. In addition, the site will have information about NOAA's scientific response effort as well as information from several other sources including NOAA's major response partner, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). On 24 April, WHOI scientists, using forecast models developed with NOAA funding support, predicted ``that excess winter precipitation has set the stage for a harmful algal bloom similar to the historic red tide of 2005.'' That bloom shut down shellfish beds from the Bay of Fundy to Martha's Vineyard for several months.

  7. Aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Duncan, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An unusual form of pulmonary aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is described in this report. The major lesion is unique because it closely resembles a lesion referred to as an aspergilloma. An aspergilloma is a single large granulomatous lesion that resembles a tumor and is caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.

  8. The Little Red Spot: Closest View Yet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is a mosaic of three New Horizons images of Jupiter's Little Red Spot, taken with the spacecraft's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) camera at 17:41 Universal Time on February 26 from a range of 3.5 million kilometers (2.1 million miles). The image scale is 17 kilometers (11 miles) per pixel, and the area covered measures 33,000 kilometers (20,000 miles) from top to bottom, two and one-half times the diameter of Earth.

    The Little Red Spot, a smaller cousin of the famous Great Red Spot, formed in the past decade from the merger of three smaller Jovian storms, and is now the second-largest storm on Jupiter. About a year ago its color, formerly white, changed to a reddish shade similar to the Great Red Spot, perhaps because it is now powerful enough to dredge up reddish material from deeper inside Jupiter. These are the most detailed images ever taken of the Little Red Spot since its formation, and will be combined with even sharper images taken by New Horizons 10 hours later to map circulation patterns around and within the storm.

    LORRI took the images as the Sun was about to set on the Little Red Spot. The LORRI camera was designed to look at Pluto, where sunlight is much fainter than it is at Jupiter, so the images would have been overexposed if LORRI had looked at the storm when it was illuminated by the noonday Sun. The dim evening illumination helped the LORRI camera obtain well-exposed images. The New Horizons team used predictions made by amateur astronomers in 2006, based on their observations of the motion of the Little Red Spot with backyard telescopes, to help them accurately point LORRI at the storm.

    These are among a handful of Jupiter system images already returned by New Horizons during its close approach to Jupiter. Most of the data being gathered by the spacecraft are stored onboard and will be downlinked to Earth during March and April 2007.

  9. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.

    The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.

    The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology

  10. Observations of the summer Red Sea circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at exploring and understanding the summer circulation in the Red Sea, a cruise was conducted in the basin during the summer of 2001 involving hydrographic, meteorological, and direct current observations. The most prominent feature, characteristic of the summer circulation and exchange with the Indian Ocean, is a temperature, salinity, and oxygen minimum located around a depth of 75 m at the southern end of the basin, associated with Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water inflowing from the Gulf of Aden during the summer season as an intruding subsurface layer. Stirring and mixing with ambient waters lead to marked increases in temperature (from 16.5 to almost 33°C) and salinity (from 35.7 to more than 38 psu) in this layer by the time it reaches midbasin. The observed circulation presents a very vigorous pattern with strong variability and intense features that extend the width of the basin. A permanent cyclone, detected in the northern Red Sea, verifies previous observations and modeling studies, while in the central sector of the basin a series of very strong anticyclones were observed with maximum velocities exceeding 1 m/s. The three-layer flow pattern, representative of the summer exchange between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, is observed in the strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the southern part of the basin the layer flow is characterized by strong banking of the inflows and outflows against the coasts. Both surface and intermediate water masses involved in the summer Red Sea circulation present prominent spatial variability in their characteristics, indicating that the eddy field and mixing processes play an important role in the summer Red Sea circulation.

  11. Extreme Red Quasars in SDSS-BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia; Paris, Isabelle; Herbst, Hanna; Villforth, Carolin; Alexandroff, Rachael; Ross, Nicholas; Greene, Jenny; Strauss, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Red quasars are believed to mark a critical transition stage of massive galaxy evolution when a blowout of gas and dust truncates the initial starburst and provides our first visible views of a luminous central AGN. Red quasars could therefore have unusual properties associated with a young evolution stage, such as higher accretion rates, higher rates of mergers and interactions, and more common or more powerful outflows capable of driving a galaxy-wide blowout (e.g., compared to normal blue quasars in presumably more evolved galaxy hosts). The recently completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey (BOSS) of SDSS-III has discovered many more faint quasars with higher redshifts and redder colors than any previous large survey. We combine BOSS spectra with SDSS and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) photometry of nearly 100,000 quasars to identify and characterize the red quasar population at redshifts >2. We find a number of strong trends with the amount of reddening/obscuration. For example, red quasars are 5 to 8 times more likely to have broad absorption lines and other "intrinsic" absorption lines that identify quasar-driven outflows. Perhaps most interesting is that extreme red quasars (ERQs), selected via rest-frame UV to near-IR colors similar to Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs), have uniquely exotic emission line properties that include extreme velocity shifts between lines and the broadest and most blueshifted [OIII] lines yet discovered (with FWHMs reaching >3000 km/s). We will discuss the implications of these results for models of the structure and evolution of quasars and their host galaxy environments.

  12. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  13. ASCI Red for dummies : a recipe book for easy use of the ASCI Red platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Quinlan, Gerald F.; Miller, Joel D.; Sault, Allen G.; McAllister, Paula L.

    2003-11-01

    It has been recognized that documentation for new customers of ASCI Red, aka janus or the Intel Teraflops at Sandia National Laboratories, has been sadly lacking. This document has been prepared by a team of subject matter experts to fill that void and to provide a starting point for providing a similar document for ASCI Red Storm in the future. This document is intended for SNL users who need to jumpstart their use of Janus and Janus-s.

  14. Growth and replication of red rain cells at 121°C and their red fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangappa, Rajkumar; Wickramasinghe, Chandra; Wainwright, Milton; Kumar, A. Santhosh; Louis, Godfrey

    2010-09-01

    We have shown that the red cells found in the Red Rain (which fell on Kerala, India, in 2001) survive and grow after incubation for periods of up to two hours at 121°C . Under these conditions daughter cells appear within the original mother cells and the number of cells in the samples increases with length of exposure to 121°C. No such increase in cells occurs at room temperature, suggesting that the increase in daughter cells is brought about by exposure of the Red Rain cells to high temperatures. This is an independent confirmation of results reported earlier by two of the present authors, claiming that the cells can replicate under high pressure at temperatures upto 300°C. The flourescence behaviour of the red cells is shown to be in remarkable correspondence with the extended red emission observed in the Red Rectagle planetary nebula and other galactic and extragalactic dust clouds, suggesting, though not proving an extraterrestrial origin.

  15. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    PubMed Central

    Bitsch, Roland

    2004-01-01

    In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp) in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine) and 0.23% (red grape juice) of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity. PMID:15577192

  16. Understanding the Red Sea nutrient cycle - a first look into nitrogen fixation in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Roslinda; Arrieta, Jesus; Alam, Intikhab; Duarte, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Red Sea is an elongated and semi-enclosed system bordered by Africa and Saudi Arabia. Positioned in an arid, tropical zone, the system receives high solar irradiance and heat flux, extensive evaporation, low rainfall and therefore high salinity. These harsh environmental conditions has set the Red Sea to be one of the fastest warming and saltiest ecosystem in the world. Although nutrients are known to be at very low concentrations, the ultimately limiting nutrient in the system is still undefined. Therefore, like most other oligotrophic systems, we regard the Red Sea as being nitrogen-limited and we foresee nitrogen fixation as the most probable bottleneck in the Red Sea nitrogen budget. On the basis of metagenomes from pelagic microbial communities along the Red Sea, we looked into the distribution of nitrogenase, an enzyme involved in nitrogen fixation, in this system and provide a first insight into the microbial community that is involved in the process. The implications of this study will not only help improve our understanding of the Red Sea nutrient regime, but may also hint on future ocean responses to rising climates.

  17. Red Rain Cells Recovered from Interior of the Polonnaruwa Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramarathne, K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-03-01

    Red rain cells were discovered in extracts from the Polonnaruwa (Aralaganwila) meteorite that fell nearly ten days before a red rain event in the same location in Sri Lanka. A causal connection is speculated.

  18. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX FAIRFIELD WORKS (TOP LEFT) WITH WENONAH SINTERING PLANT (BOTTOM CENTER) AND WENONAH COMMUNITY (CENTER RIGHT). - High Line Railroad, From Red Mountain to Fairfield Works, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Bed Bugs Drawn to Red and Black Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158493.html Bed Bugs Drawn to Red and Black Colors Critters strongly prefer those bedroom hues to ... the little blood suckers strongly preferred red and black and avoided green and yellow. Does that mean ...

  20. J. Saunders Redding: A Case Study of the Black Intellectual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mootry, Maria K.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the debate between Jay Saunders Redding and Imamu Amiri Baraka regarding the role of Black Studies in American Studies. Intersperses excerpts from and analysis of Redding's work with an interview conducted with him in 1980. (GC)

  1. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  2. Light Phenomena over the ESO Observatories II: Red Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Bór, J.; Setvák, M.

    2016-03-01

    A rare atmospheric phenomenon, known as red sprites, was observed and captured on camera from the La Silla Observatory. This event signalled the first time that these extremely short-lived flashes of red light, originating in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, were photographed from a major astronomical observatory. Further images of red sprites from the La Silla Paranal Observatory sites are presented and the nature of red sprites is discussed.

  3. Determination of Fc function with frozen red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, V; Bertolini, J; Lyons, K

    2006-09-01

    The Fc function of immunoglobulins is commonly determined by an assay based on monitoring immunoglobulin induced, complement mediated red cell lysis. This assay requires a continuous source of fresh red cells. We have shown that the assay can be successfully performed with frozen red cells. The possibility of access to a stored standard stock of red cells will improve the convenience of performing the assay and could contribute to improved assay reproducibility. PMID:16500112

  4. Red Dwarfs and the End of the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, F. C.; Graves, G. J. M.; Laughlin, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper celebrates the contributions of Peter Bodenheimer to our understanding of stellar evolution by focusing on the long term development of red dwarf stars. We show that these diminutive stellar objects remain convective over most of their lives, they continue to burn hydrogen for trillions of years, and they do not experience red giant phases in their old age. Instead, red dwarfs turn into blue dwarfs and finally white dwarfs. This work shows (in part) why larger stars do become red giants.

  5. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  7. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  14. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  15. 32 CFR 700.816 - The American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The American National Red Cross. 700.816 Section... Commanding Officers in General § 700.816 The American National Red Cross. (a) Pursuant to the request of the... Red Cross is authorized to conduct a program of welfare, including social, financial, medical...

  16. 22 CFR 71.8 - Assistance to American Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... American Red Cross. Officers and employees of the Foreign Service may cooperate fully with the American Red Cross within their respective districts and subject to the limitations prescribed in § 102.806 (22 CFR... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to American Red Cross. 71.8...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1080 - Variegated dark red (KD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated dark red (KD). 29.1080 Section 29.1080..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1080 Variegated dark red (KD). A dark brownish-red discoloration... over extended periods of time. Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is dark...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  1. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  2. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  3. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identify human blood-group antibodies. (b) Source. Reagent Red Blood Cells shall be prepared from human... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells §...

  4. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH U.S. HIGHWAY 280 (BOTTOM LEFT TO CENTER) AND THE HIGHWAY CUT (CENTER RIGHT). - Red Mountain Cut National Natural Landmark, U.S. 280 at Red Mountain, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 29 CFR 1620.26 - Red circle rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red circle rates. 1620.26 Section 1620.26 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.26 Red circle rates. (a) The term “red circle” rate is used to describe certain unusual, higher than...

  6. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  7. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  8. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  9. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  10. 21 CFR 74.302 - Citrus Red No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citrus Red No. 2. 74.302 Section 74.302 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.302 Citrus Red No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Citrus Red No. 2 is principally 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenylazo)-2-naphthol. (2) The following diluents may...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  12. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  13. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  14. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  15. 7 CFR 29.3052 - Red color (R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Red color (R). 29.3052 Section 29.3052 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Red color (R). A brownish red....

  16. 75 FR 16010 - Safety Zone; Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Red River, MN. This safety zone... from entering all navigable waters of the Red River in the State of Minnesota north of a line...

  17. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  18. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  19. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  20. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be Reagent...

  1. African dust forms red soils in Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-11-01

    In Bermuda, red, iron-rich, clayey soils, called terra rossa, are storehouses of information not only on past local processes that crafted the topography of the island but also on atmospheric circulation patterns that drove global climate during the Quaternary period (roughly 2.5 million years ago). The origin of the terra rossa, however, has remained a mystery for more than a century. On one hand, dissolution features in the carbonate rocks suggest that local material, for example volcanic rocks, could be the source of these red beds. On the other hand, Bermuda is also uniquely located to receive airborne dust from western Africa as well as from loess deposits of the Mississippi valley of the central United States—both of which could also be potential sources of the terra rossa soils in Bermuda.

  2. Population dynamics of red tide dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Timothy; Zingone, Adriana

    2014-03-01

    Sea-surface discolorations due to high concentrations of phytoplankton are called red tides. Their ecological significance is a long standing puzzle, and they are sometimes considered pathological. Here we propose that many red tides, particularly but not exclusively those composed of certain autotrophic dinoflagellates, are presexual/sexual swarms, essential links in their complex life cycles. This view provides a rationale for the appearance of these organisms in thin surface layers, and helps explain their ephemeral nature. We suggest that further understanding of this phenomenon, and of phytoplankton ecology in general, would benefit from attention to the 'net reproductive value‧ (r) over the whole life cycle as well as to the division rate (μ) of the vegetative phase. It is argued that r is strategically adapted to seasonal cycles and long term environmental variability, while μ reflects tactical needs (timing) and constraints (grazers, parasites) on vegetative growth.

  3. Mass loss in red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The circumstellar envelopes surrounding late-type giants and supergiants were studied using high resolution, photoelectric scans of strong optical resonance lines. A method for extracting the circumstellar from the stellar components of the lines allowed a quantitative determination of the physical conditions in the envelopes and the rates of mass loss at various positions in the red giant region of the HR diagram. The observed strengthening of the circumstellar spectrum with increasing luminosity and later spectral type is probably caused by an increase in the mass of the envelopes. The mass loss rate for individual stars is proportional to the visual luminosity; high rates for the supergiants suggest that mass loss is important in their evolution. The bulk of the mass return to the interstellar medium in the red giant region comes from the normal giants, at a rate comparable to that of planetary nebulae.

  4. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  5. Molecular biodiversity of Red Sea demosponges.

    PubMed

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Voigt, Oliver; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Berumen, Michael L; Büttner, Gabriele; Catania, Daniela; Guirguis, Adel Naguib; Paulay, Gustav; Schätzle, Simone; Wörheide, Gert

    2016-04-30

    Sponges are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems, including those around the Arabian Peninsula. Despite their importance, our knowledge on demosponge diversity in this area is insufficient to recognize, for example, faunal changes caused by anthropogenic disturbances. We here report the first assessment of demosponge molecular biodiversity from Arabia, with focus on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal molecular markers gathered in the framework of the Sponge Barcoding Project. We use a rapid molecular screening approach on Arabian demosponge collections and analyze results in comparison against published material in terms of biodiversity. We use a variable region of 28S rDNA, applied for the first time in the assessment of demosponge molecular diversity. Our data constitutes a solid foundation for a future more comprehensive understanding of sponge biodiversity of the Red Sea and adjacent waters. PMID:26776057

  6. The Red River Valley archeological project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

  7. On the interior properties of red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    The interior evolution of red giants is focused on, the major emphasis being on the evolution of stars during the double shell-burning stage. The evolutionary course during the first and second ascent up the red giant branch of the H-R diagram are discussed for stars that vary with respect to certain critical masses, and the thermal pulse phase is also treated. Core, envelope, and surface phenomena are explained along with the process of development into white dwarfs or supernovas. The interplay of internal forces caused by various fuel-burning processes, electron-degeneracy pressure, and gravity are detailed, and phenomena such as core dredge-up, relaxed oscillations, and AGB stars are explained. Numbers are given for the properties of H-burning and convective shells, and detailed comparisons with observations are made.

  8. The red edge of plant leaf reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horler, D. N. H.; Dockray, M.; Barber, J.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed study of the red edge spectral feature of green vegetation based on laboratory reflectance spectrophotometry is presented. A parameter lambda is defined as the wavelength is defined as the wavelength of maximum slope and found to be dependent on chlorophyll concentration. Species, development stage, leaf layering, and leaf water content of vegetation also influences lambda. The maximum slope parameter is found to be independent of simulated ground area coverage. The results are interpreted in terms of Beer's Law and Kubelka-Munk theory. The chlorophyll concentration dependence of lambda seems to be explained in terms of a pure absorption effect, and it is suggested that the existence of two lambda components arises from leaf scattering properties. The results indicate that red edge measurements will be valuable for assessment of vegetative chlorophyll status and leaf area index independently of ground cover variations, and will be particularly suitable for early stress detection.

  9. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study. PMID:24246651

  10. Responder individuality in red blood cell alloimmunization.

    PubMed

    Körmöczi, Günther F; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2014-11-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) antigens, their dose (number of transfusions and pregnancies, absolute number of antigens per RBC) and the mode of exposure impact on RBCA rates. In addition, individual circumstances determine the risk to form RBCA. Responder individuality in terms of age, sex, severity of underlying disease, disease- or therapy-induced immunosuppression and inflammation are discussed with respect to influencing RBC alloimmunization. For particular high-risk patients, extended phenotype matching of transfusion and recipient efficiently decreases RBCA induction and associated clinical risks. PMID:25670932

  11. Origin of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    SciTech Connect

    Luchkov, B.

    1981-09-01

    The Great Red Spot, a giant vortex in the Jovian atmosphere, may owe its origin to the structure of Jupiter's magnetic field and radiation belt. Several Spot parameters resemble those of the Brazil anomaly, a negative anomaly in the terrestrial field. It is shown qualitatively that the Spot has developed at the site of a negative anomaly in the Jovian field and is continually supplied by precipitation of energetic radiation-belt particles into the planet's atmosphere.

  12. Comparing models of Red Knot population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Predictive population modeling contributes to our basic scientific understanding of population dynamics, but can also inform management decisions by evaluating alternative actions in virtual environments. Quantitative models mathematically reflect scientific hypotheses about how a system functions. In Delaware Bay, mid-Atlantic Coast, USA, to more effectively manage horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) harvests and protect Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations, models are used to compare harvest actions and predict the impacts on crab and knot populations. Management has been chiefly driven by the core hypothesis that horseshoe crab egg abundance governs the survival and reproduction of migrating Red Knots that stopover in the Bay during spring migration. However, recently, hypotheses proposing that knot dynamics are governed by cyclical lemming dynamics garnered some support in data analyses. In this paper, I present alternative models of Red Knot population dynamics to reflect alternative hypotheses. Using 2 models with different lemming population cycle lengths and 2 models with different horseshoe crab effects, I project the knot population into the future under environmental stochasticity and parametric uncertainty with each model. I then compare each model's predictions to 10 yr of population monitoring from Delaware Bay. Using Bayes' theorem and model weight updating, models can accrue weight or support for one or another hypothesis of population dynamics. With 4 models of Red Knot population dynamics and only 10 yr of data, no hypothesis clearly predicted population count data better than another. The collapsed lemming cycle model performed best, accruing ~35% of the model weight, followed closely by the horseshoe crab egg abundance model, which accrued ~30% of the weight. The models that predicted no decline or stable populations (i.e. the 4-yr lemming cycle model and the weak horseshoe crab effect model) were the most weakly supported.

  13. Multigrid with red black SOR revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Yavneh, I.

    1994-12-31

    Optimal relaxation parameters are obtained for red-black point Gauss-Seidel relaxation in multigrid solvers of a family of elliptic equations. The resulting relaxation schemes are found to retain high efficiency over an appreciable range of coefficients of the elliptic operator, yielding simple, inexpensive and fully parallelizable smoothers in many situations where more complicated and less cost-effective block-relaxation and/or partial coarsening are commonly used.

  14. Bioactive Constituents of Brazilian Red Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Trusheva, Boryana; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Simova, Svetlana; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Miorin, Patricia Laguna; da Rocha Pasin, Flavia; Tsvetkova, Iva

    2006-01-01

    In a new propolis type, red Brazilian propolis, 14 compounds were identified (six of them new for propolis), among them simple phenolics, triterepenoids, isoflavonoids, prenylated benzophenones and a naphthoquinone epoxide (isolated for the first time from a natural source). Three of the major components demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity, and two (obtained as inseparable mixture) possessed radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). PMID:16786055

  15. Formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ping; Bower, Amy S.; Smethie, William M.; Pratt, Larry J.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrographic data, chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) measurements collected in March 2010 and September-October 2011 in the Red Sea, as well as an idealized numerical experiment are used to study the formation and spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) in the Red Sea. Analysis of inert tracers, potential vorticity distributions, and model results confirm that RSOW is formed through mixed-layer deepening caused by sea surface buoyancy loss in winter in the northern Red Sea and reveal more details on RSOW spreading rates, pathways, and vertical structure. The southward spreading of RSOW after its formation is identified as a layer with minimum potential vorticity and maximum CFC-12 and SF6. Ventilation ages of seawater within the RSOW layer, calculated from the partial pressure of SF6 (pSF6), range from 2 years in the northern Red Sea to 15 years at 17°N. The distribution of the tracer ages is in agreement with the model circulation field which shows a rapid transport of RSOW from its formation region to the southern Red Sea where there are longer circulation pathways and hence longer residence time due to basin wide eddies. The mean residence time of RSOW within the Red Sea estimated from the pSF6 age is 4.7 years. This time scale is very close to the mean transit time (4.8 years) for particles from the RSOW formation region to reach the exit at the Strait of Bab el Mandeb in the numerical experiment.

  16. Red junglefowl have individual body odors.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds. PMID:20435811

  17. Visual field testing with red targets.

    PubMed

    Mindel, J S; Safir, A; Schare, P W

    1983-06-01

    Ten patients with partial temporal visual field defects were examined with a modified tangent screen projection perimeter (Auto-Plot). Defects demonstrated with an isopter for chromatic recognition of a 3-mm red stimulus could always be reproduced with an isopter for achromatic recognition of a dim, 3-mm white stimulus. The red-white intensity ratio producing equivalent fields remained constant for a given patient but varied from subject to subject (range, 3.0 to 7.5; mean, 5.7; SD, 1.8). Thus, red functioned as dim white, but no single fixed ratio of intensities was applicable to all subjects. Visual field testing with 1 foot-candle of tangent screen illumination permitted subjects to adapt to dark. As retinal sensitivities increased, the corresponding visual field steadily enlarged for 30 minutes. This effect was greater in the pathologic temporal fields, which increased relatively more than intact nasal fields. The result was poor visual field reproducibility with time. PMID:6860207

  18. Red blood cell transfusion in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Robin K; Jefferies, Ann L

    2014-04-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is an important and frequent component of neonatal intensive care. The present position statement addresses the methods and indications for red blood cell transfusion of the newborn, based on a review of the current literature. The most frequent indications for blood transfusion in the newborn are the acute treatment of perinatal hemorrhagic shock and the recurrent correction of anemia of prematurity. Perinatal hemorrhagic shock requires immediate treatment with large quantities of red blood cells; the effects of massive transfusion on other blood components must be considered. Some guidelines are now available from clinical trials investigating transfusion in anemia of prematurity; however, considerable uncertainty remains. There is weak evidence that cognitive impairment may be more severe at follow-up in extremely low birth weight infants transfused at lower hemoglobin thresholds; therefore, these thresholds should be maintained by transfusion therapy. Although the risks of transfusion have declined considerably in recent years, they can be minimized further by carefully restricting neonatal blood sampling. PMID:24855419

  19. Chandra Observations of 12 Luminous Red Quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Urrutia, T; Lacy, M; Gregg, M D; Becker, R H

    2005-03-11

    The authors present results of a study of 12 dust-reddened quasars with 0.4 < z < 2.65 and reddenings in the range 0.15 < E(B-V) < 1.7. They obtained ACIS-S X-ray spectra of these quasars, estimated the column densities towards them, and hence obtained the gas:dust ratios in the material obscuring the quasar. They detect all but one of the red quasars in the X-rays. Even though there is no obvious correlation between the X-ray determined column densities of the sources and their optical color or reddening, all of the sources show absorbed X-ray spectra. When they correct the luminosity for absorption, they can be placed among luminous quasars; therefore their objects belong to the group of high luminosity analogues of the sources contributing to the X-ray background seen in deep X-ray observations. Such sources are also found in serendipitous shallow X-ray surveys. There is a hint that the mean spectral slope of the red quasar is higher than that of normal, unobscured quasars, which could be an indication for higher accretion rates and/or an evolutionary effect. They investigate the number density of these sources compared to type 2 AGN based on the X-ray background and estimate how many moderate luminosity red quasars may be found in deep X-ray fields.

  20. Ammonium Hydrosulfide and Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R.; Chanover, N.; Simon, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The color and composition of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) has been debated for more than a century. While there are numerous hypotheses for the origin of Jupiter's GRS, recent work suggests that the GRS's color could originate from multiple components (Carlson et al., 2012; Simon et al., submitted). In light of this, we have recently begun conducting in situ laboratory experiments that test whether ammonium hydrosulfide, NH4SH, or its radiation decomposition products contribute to the GRS spectrum. In this presentation, we will discuss some of our most recent results, where we have studied the stability of NH4SH samples as a function of temperature using infrared and mass spectrometry. Funding for this work has been provided by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Outer Planets Research programs. ReferencesCarlson, R. W., K. H. Baines, M. S. Anderson, G. Filacchione. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot, DPS, 44, 2012. Simon, A. A., J. Legarreta, F. Sanz-Requena, S. Perez-Hoyos, E. Garcia-Melendo, R. W. Carlson. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, submitted.

  1. Red algal exotics on North Sea coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, Christine A.; Stegenga, Herre

    1998-09-01

    A total of ten red seaweed species are recognized as introduced into the North Sea from other parts of the world. These are Asparagopsis armata and Bonnemaisonia hamifera (Bonnemaisoniales), Grateloupia doryphora (Halymeniales), Antithamnionella spirographidis, Antithamnionella ternifolia, Anotrichium furcellatum, Dasya baillouviana, ?Dasysiphonia sp., Polysiphonia harveyi and Polysiphonia senticulosa (Ceramiales). The oldest of these is B. hamifera, introduced prior to 1890, while the most recent, ?Dasysiphonia sp., was first found in 1994 and still requires taxonomic investigation. A variety of distribution patterns is seen, with geographical ranges varying from general within the North Sea to very restricted. The diversity of introduced red algae on eastern coasts of the North Sea is much greater than in the west. The most likely explanation for this pattern is that French coasts were the initial site of introduction for many of the seaweeds, which were then distributed northwards by the residual surface currents. Their increasing success in the Netherlands has probably been promoted by the drastically changed local hydrodynamic conditions which have also permitted the recent introduction of many native European species. Of the biological features of species that may favour their success as introductions, clonal vegetative propagation, often with specialized propagules or fragmentation mechanisms, is almost ubiquitous. Low-temperature tolerances can be inferred, but data are sparse. Many of the alien red algae in the North Sea contain anti-grazing compounds such as bromophenols, which may contribute to their invasive potential by deterring grazing sufficiently to permit establishment of an inoculum.

  2. From Red Cells to Soft Porous Lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qianhong; Gacka, Thomas; Nathan, Rungun; Crawford, Robert; Vucbmss Team

    2014-11-01

    Biological scientists have wondered, since the motion of red cells was first observed in capillaries, how the highly flexible red cell can move with so little friction in tightly fitting microvessels without being damaged or undergoing hemolysis. Theoretical studies (Feng and Weinbaum, 2000, JFM; Wu et al., 2004, PRL) attributed this frictionless motion to the dramatically enhanced hydrodynamic lifting force generated inside the soft, porous, endothelial surface layer (ESL) covering the inner surfaces of our capillaries, as a red blood cell glides over it. Herein we report the first experimental examination of this concept. The results conclusively demonstrate that significant fraction of the overall lifting force generated in a soft porous layer as a planing surface glides over it, is contributed by the pore fluid pressure, and thus frictional loss is reduced significantly. Moreover, the experimental predictions showed excellent agreement with the experimental data. This finding has the potential of dramatically changing existing lubrication approaches, and can result in substantial savings in energy consumption and thus reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. PPR Great Red Spot Temperature Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This map shows temperature for the region around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and an area to the northwest. It corresponds to a level in Jupiter's atmosphere where the pressure is 1/2 of the of the Earth's at sea level (500 millibars), the same as it is near 6000 meters (20,000 feet) above sea level on Earth. The center of Great Red Spot appears colder than the surrounding areas, where air from below is being brought up. The 'panhandle' to the northwest is warmer and drier, and the gases there are descending, so it is much clearer of clouds. Compare this map to one released earlier at a higher place in the atmosphere (250 millibars or 12000 meters). The center of the Great Red Spot is warmer lower in the atmosphere, and a white 'hot spot' appears in this image that is not present at the higher place. This map was made from data taken by the Photopolarimeter/Radiometer (PPR) instrument on June 26, 1996.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment.

    JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  4. On the clustering of faint red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haojie; Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong; Zhu, Ju; Zehavi, Idit

    2016-08-01

    Faint red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey show a puzzling clustering pattern in previous measurements. In the two-point correlation function (2PCF), they appear to be strongly clustered on small scales, indicating a tendency to reside in massive haloes as satellite galaxies. However, their weak clustering on large scales suggests that they are more likely to be found in low-mass haloes. The interpretation of the clustering pattern suffers from the large sample variance in the 2PCF measurements, given the small volume of the volume-limited sample of such faint galaxies. We present improved clustering measurements of faint galaxies by making a full use of a flux-limited sample to obtain volume-limited measurements with an increased effective volume. In the improved 2PCF measurements, the fractional uncertainties on large scales drop by more than 40 per cent, and the strong contrast between small-scale and large-scale clustering amplitudes seen in previous work is no longer prominent. From halo occupation distribution modelling of the measurements, we find that a considerable fraction of faint red galaxies to be satellites in massive haloes, a scenario supported by the strong covariance of small-scale 2PCF measurements and the relative spatial distribution of faint red galaxies and luminous galaxies. However, the satellite fraction is found to be degenerate with the slope of the distribution profile of satellites in inner haloes. We compare the modelling results with semi-analytic model predictions and discuss the implications.

  5. A comparison of red spots in the atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, R. F.; Hockey, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    Voyager, Pioneer and ground-based astronomical and broadband photometric images of Jupiter are analyzed to compare the Great Red Spot (GRS) with the Little Red Spots (LRS) observed in the North Tropical Zone in 1976. Attention is given to the size and latitudinal positions and the color profiles. The red ovals are found to absorb strongly at blue and UV wavelengths, unlike red-brown belts. The movements of the GRS and the LRS coincided strongly with zonal wind profiles of the regions in which they are embedded. The meridional gradient of the zonal wind is the controlling factor in the lifetime of the red spots.

  6. False Color Mosaic Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    False color representation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) taken through three different near-infrared filters of the Galileo imaging system and processed to reveal cloud top height. Images taken through Galileo's near-infrared filters record sunlight beyond the visible range that penetrates to different depths in Jupiter's atmosphere before being reflected by clouds. The Great Red Spot appears pink and the surrounding region blue because of the particular color coding used in this representation. Light reflected by Jupiter at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane strongly absorbs is shown in red. Due to this absorption, only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (732 nm) where methane absorbs less strongly is shown in green. Lower clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere is shown in blue: This light is reflected from the deepest clouds. Thus, the color of a cloud in this image indicates its height. Blue or black areas are deep clouds; pink areas are high, thin hazes; white areas are high, thick clouds. This image shows the Great Red Spot to be relatively high, as are some smaller clouds to the northeast and northwest that are surprisingly like towering thunderstorms found on Earth. The deepest clouds are in the collar surrounding the Great Red Spot, and also just to the northwest of the high (bright) cloud in the northwest corner of the image. Preliminary modeling shows these cloud heights vary over 30 km in altitude. This mosaic, of eighteen images (6 in each filter) taken over a 6 minute interval during the second GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996, has been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet

  7. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.; Bonnett, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, C.; Hoyle, B.; Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carollo, D.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Childress, M. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Davis, T.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lidman, C.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; O'Neill, C. R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Uddin, S.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.; da Costa, L. N.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photozs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range $z\\in[0.2,0.8]$. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of $10^{-3}\\ (h^{-1} Mpc)^{-3}$, and a median photoz bias ($z_{spec}-z_{photo}$) and scatter $(\\sigma_z/(1+z))$ of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively. The corresponding $5\\sigma$ outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photoz biases at the 0.1% level.

  8. redMaGiC: Selecting Luminous Red Galaxies from the DES Science Verification Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.; Bonnett, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, C.; Hoyle, B.; Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carollo, D.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Childress, M. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Davis, T.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lidman, C.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; O'Neill, C. R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Uddin, S.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.; da Costa, L. N.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range z ∈ [0.2, 0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec - zphoto) and scatter (σz/(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively. The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1% level.

  9. redMaGiC. Selecting Luminous Red Galaxies from the DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Rozo, E.

    2015-07-20

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the color-cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sam- ple of constant comoving density. Additionally, we demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine-learning based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalog sampling the redshift range z ϵ [0.2,0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec zphoto) and scatter (σz=(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017 respectively.The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4%. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8) and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1% level.

  10. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.; Bonnett, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, C.; Hoyle, B.; Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carollo, D.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Childress, M. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Davis, T.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lidman, C.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; O'Neill, C. R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Uddin, S.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.; da Costa, L. N.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the colour cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine learning-based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalogue sampling the redshift range z ∈ [0.2, 0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1 Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec - zphoto) and scatter (σz/(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4 per cent. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1 per cent level.

  11. Red, rank, and romance in women viewing men.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Kayser, Daniela Niesta; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Gramzow, Richard H; Maier, Markus A; Liu, Huijun

    2010-08-01

    In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present research, we document parallels between human and nonhuman females' response to male red. Specifically, in a series of 7 experiments we demonstrate that women perceive men to be more attractive and sexually desirable when seen on a red background and in red clothing, and we additionally show that status perceptions are responsible for this red effect. The influence of red appears to be specific to women's romantic attraction to men: Red did not influence men's perceptions of other men, nor did it influence women's perceptions of men's overall likability, agreeableness, or extraversion. Participants showed no awareness that the research focused on the influence of color. These findings indicate that color not only has aesthetic value but can carry meaning and impact psychological functioning in subtle, important, and provocative ways. PMID:20677892

  12. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activities of red ginseng.

    PubMed

    Xiaoguang, C; Hongyan, L; Xiaohong, L; Zhaodi, F; Yan, L; Lihua, T; Rui, H

    1998-02-01

    Red ginseng extract A and B are the active components of Panax ginseng. Red ginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medicine. Among Chinese herbs, red ginseng has been considered as one of the tonics. Many studies indicated that red ginseng could enhance immune function of the human body. The effects of red ginseng extracts on transplantable tumors, proliferation of lymphocyte, two-stage model and rat liver lipid peroxidation were studied. In a two-stage model, red ginseng extracts had a significant cancer chemoprevention. At 50-400 mg/kg, they could inhibit DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin papilloma in mice, decrease the incidence of papilloma, prolong the latent period of tumor occurrence and reduce tumor number per mouse in a dose-dependent manner. Red ginseng extract B could effectively inhibit the Fe2+/cysteine-induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsome, suggesting that red ginseng extract B has a stronger antioxidative effect than that of extract A. The results indicated that red ginseng extracts (50 approximately 400 mg/kg) could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable mouse sarcoma S180 and melanoma B16. Red ginseng extracts A (0.5 mg/ml) and B (0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml) might effectively promote the transformation of T lymphocyte, but there was no influence on lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A. This suggests that red ginseng extracts have potent tumor therapeutic activity and improve the cell immune system. PMID:9533434

  13. Neocytolysis: physiological down-regulator of red-cell mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfrey, C. P.; Rice, L.; Udden, M. M.; Driscoll, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    It is usually considered that red-cell mass is controlled by erythropoietin-driven bone marrow red-cell production, and no physiological mechanisms can shorten survival of circulating red cells. In adapting to acute plethora in microgravity, astronauts' red-cell mass falls too rapidly to be explained by diminished red-cell production. Ferrokinetics show no early decline in erythropolesis, but red cells radiolabelled 12 days before launch survive normally. Selective destruction of the youngest circulating red cells-a process we call neocytolysis-is the only plausible explanation. A fall in erythropoietin below a threshold is likely to initiate neocytolysis, probably by influencing surface-adhesion molecules. Recognition of neocytolysis will require re-examination of the pathophysiology and treatment of several blood disorders, including the anaemia of renal disease.

  14. Utilization of red mud in cement production: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na

    2011-10-01

    Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Its disposal remains a worldwide issue in terms of environmental concerns. During the past decades, extensive work has been done by a lot of researchers to develop various economic ways for the utilization of red mud. One of the economic ways is using red mud in cement production, which is also an efficient method for large-scale recycling of red mud. This paper provides a review on the utilization of red mud in cement production, and it clearly points out three directions for the use of red mud in cement production, namely the preparation of cement clinkers, production of composite cements as well as alkali-activated cements. In the present paper, the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red mud are summarized, and the current progresses on these three directions are reviewed in detail. PMID:21930526

  15. Red-Enhanced White-Light-Emitting Diode Using a New Red Phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Motokazu; Naitou, Takahiro; Izuno, Kunihiro; Tamaki, Hiroto; Murazaki, Yoshinori; Kameshima, Masatoshi; Mukai, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    We fabricated a high-color-rendering, red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode (LED) using a new red phosphor and a short-wavelength YAG phosphor. When the new white-LED was operated at a forward-bias current of 20 mA at room temperature (RT), color temperature (Tcp), the general color rendering index (Ra) and luminous efficiency were 4670 K, 87.7 and 25.5 lm/W, respectively. Most of the color-rendering indexes (CRIs) of the new white-LED were larger than those of current white-LEDs, in which only YAG is used. In particular, the CRI-No.9 value, which shows the color reproduction in the red region, is improved from -2.5 to 62.6.

  16. Fragment molecular orbital calculations on red fluorescent proteins (DsRed and mFruits).

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Naoki; Mochizuki, Yuji; Nakano, Tatsuya; Amari, Shinji; Fukuzawa, Kaori; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Sakurai, Minoru; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2009-01-29

    We have performed a series of fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations for a family of red fluorescent proteins, DsRed and mFruits. The electronic transition energies were evaluated by the method of configuration interaction singles with perturbative doubles [CIS(D)] including higher-order corrections. The calculated values were in good agreement with the corresponding experimental peak values of spectra. Additionally, the chromophore environment was systematically analyzed in terms of the interaction energies between the pigment moiety and neighboring residues. It was theoretically revealed that the electrostatic interactions play a dominant role in the DsRed chromophore, whereas the color tunings in mFruits are controlled in a more delicate fashion. PMID:19127982

  17. Tests of two convection theories for red giant and red supergiant envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.; Chin, Chao-Wen

    1995-01-01

    Two theories of stellar envelope convection are considered here in the context of red giants and red supergiants of intermediate to high mass: Boehm-Vitense's standard mixing-length theory (MLT) and Canuto & Mazzitelli's new theory incorporating the full spectrum of turbulence (FST). Both theories assume incompressible convection. Two formulations of the convective mixing length are also evaluated: l proportional to the local pressure scale height (H(sub P)) and l proportional to the distance from the upper boundary of the convection zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red phase of core helium burning. Since the theoretically predicted effective temperatures for cool stars are known to be sensitive to the assigned value of the mixing length, this quantity has been individually calibrated for each evolutionary sequence. The calibration is done in a composite Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the red giant and red supergiant members of well-observed Galactic open clusters. The MLT model requires the constant of proportionality for the convective mixing length to vary by a small but statistically significant amount with stellar mass, whereas the FST model succeeds in all cases with the mixing lenghth simply set equal to z. The structure of the deep stellar interior, however, remains very nearly unaffected by the choices of convection theory and mixing lenghth. Inside the convective envelope itself, a density inversion always occurs, but is somewhat smaller for the convectively more efficient MLT model. On physical grounds the FST model is preferable, and seems to alleviate the problem of finding the proper mixing length.

  18. Line Broadening in Field Metal-Poor Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Bruce W.; Latham, David W.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Laird, John B.

    2008-01-01

    We report 349 radial velocities for 45 metal-poor field red giant branch (RGB) and red horizontal branch (RHB) stars, with time coverage ranging from 1 to 21 years. We have identified one new spectroscopic binary, HD 4306, and one possible such system, HD 184711. We also provide 57 radial velocities for 11 of the 91 stars reported in our previous work. All but one of the 11 stars had been found to have variable radial velocities. New velocities for the long-period spectroscopic binaries BD-1 2582 and HD 108317 have extended the time coverage to 21.7 and 12.5 years, respectively, but in neither case have we yet completed a full orbital period. As was found in the previous study, radial velocity "jitter" is present in many of the most luminous stars. Excluding stars showing spectroscopic binary orbital motion, all 7 of the red giants with estimated MV values more luminous than -2.0 display jitter, as well as 3 of the 14 stars with -2.0 < MV <= -1.4. We have also measured the line broadening in all the new spectra, using synthetic spectra as templates. Comparison with results from high-resolution and higher signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra employed by other workers shows good agreement down to line-broadening levels of 3 km s-1, well below our instrumental resolution of 8.5 km s-1. As the previous work demonstrated, the majority of the most luminous red giants show significant line broadening, as do many of the red horizontal branch stars, and we briefly discuss possible causes. The line broadening appears related to velocity jitter, in that both appear primarily among the highest luminosity red giants.

  19. Growth and photomorphogenesis of pepper plants under red light-emitting diodes with supplemental blue or far-red lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. S.; Schuerger, A. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential irradiation source for intensive plant culture systems and photobiological research. They have small size, low mass, a long functional life, and narrow spectral output. In this study, we measured the growth and dry matter partitioning of 'Hungarian Wax' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants grown under red LEDs compared with similar plants grown under red LEDs with supplemental blue or far-red radiation or under broad spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Additionally, we describe the thermal and spectral characteristics of these sources. The LEDs used in this study had a narrow bandwidth at half peak height (25 nm) and a focused maximum spectral output at 660 nm for the red and 735 nm for the far-red. Near infrared radiation (800 to 3000 nm) was below detection and thermal infrared radiation (3000 to 50,000 nm) was lower in the LEDs compared to the MH source. Although the red to far-red ratio varied considerably, the calculated phytochrome photostationary state (phi) was only slightly different between the radiation sources. Plant biomass was reduced when peppers were grown under red LEDs in the absence of blue wavelengths compared to plants grown under supplemental blue fluorescent lamps or MH lamps. The addition of far-red radiation resulted in taller plants with greater stem mass than red LEDs alone. There were fewer leaves under red or red plus far-red radiation than with lamps producing blue wavelengths. These results indicate that red LEDs may be suitable, in proper combination with other wavelengths of light, for the culture of plants in tightly controlled environments such as space-based plant culture systems.

  20. Sizing Up Red-Giant Twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    In KIC 9246715, two red-giant stars twins in nearly every way circle each other in a 171-day orbit. This binary pair may be a key to learning about masses and radii of stars with asteroseismology, the study of oscillations in the interiors of stars.Two Ways to MeasureIn order to understand a stars evolution, it is critical that we know its mass and radius. Unfortunately, these quantities are often difficult to pin down!One of the few cases in which we can directly measure stars masses and radii is in eclipsing binaries, wherein two stars eclipse each other as they orbit. If we have a well-sampled light curve for the binary, as well as radial velocities for both stars, then we can determine the stars complete orbital information, including their masses and radii.But there may be another way to obtain stellar mass and radius: asteroseismology. In asteroseismology, oscillations inside stars are used to characterize the stellar interiors. Conveniently, if a star with a convective envelope exhibits solar-like oscillations, these oscillations can be directly compared to those of the Sun. Mass and radius scaling relations which use the Sun as a benchmark and scale based on the stars temperature can then be used to derive the mass and radius of the star.Test Subjects from KeplerSolar-like oscillations from KIC 9246715 are shown in red across different resonant frequencies. The oscillations of a single red-giant star with similar properties are shown upside down in grey for reference. [Rawls et al. 2016]Of course, scaling relations are only useful if we can test them! A team of scientists including Meredith Rawls (New Mexico State University) has identified 18 red-giant eclipsing binaries in the Kepler field of view that also exhibit solar-like oscillations perfect for testing the scaling relations.In a recent study led by Rawls, the team analyzed the first of these binaries, KIC 9246715. Using the Kepler light curves in addition to radial velocity measurements from high