Science.gov

Sample records for 2010-2011 refuge-specific hunting

  1. 76 FR 3937 - 2010-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    .... Response to Comments Received In the September 15, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 56360), we published a... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 2010-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing...-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  2. 75 FR 56359 - 2010-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to add one refuge to the list of areas open for hunting and/or sport fishing and increase the activities available at seven other refuges, along with pertinent refuge-specific regulations on other refuges that pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the 2010-2011...

  3. 76 FR 39185 - 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76... Service 50 CFR Part 32 RIN 1018-AX54 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations... Service proposes to add one refuge to the list of areas open for hunting and/or sport fishing and...

  4. 75 FR 18413 - 2009-2010 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations-Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    .... According to the July 9, 2007, final rule published in the Federal Register (72 FR 37346), we went from 487... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 RIN 1018-AW49 2009-2010 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport...: The Fish and Wildlife Service adds two refuges to the list of areas open for hunting and/or...

  5. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... liberalize existing State laws or regulations. (d) Refuge-specific hunting regulations are subject to change... refuge-specific season dates and times after the State establishes its hunting seasons by publication... regulations may be amended or new conditions imposed at any time during the hunting season when...

  6. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... liberalize existing State laws or regulations. (d) Refuge-specific hunting regulations are subject to change... refuge-specific season dates and times after the State establishes its hunting seasons by publication... regulations may be amended or new conditions imposed at any time during the hunting season when...

  7. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... liberalize existing State laws or regulations. (d) Refuge-specific hunting regulations are subject to change... refuge-specific season dates and times after the State establishes its hunting seasons by publication... regulations may be amended or new conditions imposed at any time during the hunting season when...

  8. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... liberalize existing State laws or regulations. (d) Refuge-specific hunting regulations are subject to change... refuge-specific season dates and times after the State establishes its hunting seasons by publication... regulations may be amended or new conditions imposed at any time during the hunting season when...

  9. 76 FR 59304 - 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Register on September 9, 2011 (76 FR 56054), to finalize our yearly updates to the Code of Federal... paragraph should have been removed. PART 32-- Accordingly, in FR Doc. 2011-22752 appearing on page 56064 in... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 RIN 1018-AX54 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and...

  10. 77 FR 58051 - Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations CFR Correction 0 In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1,...

  11. 77 FR 58050 - Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations CFR Correction Sec. 32.29 0 In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, parts 18 to 199, revised as...

  12. 77 FR 58050 - Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations CFR Correction Sec. 32.37 0 In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as...

  13. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations? 32.3 Section 32.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions § 32.3 What...

  14. 77 FR 41001 - 2012-2013 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... equipment. * * * * * 10. We allow squirrel, raccoon, rabbit, and opossum to be hunted with dogs during designated hunts. We prohibit dogs in the Middle Swamp area of the refuge, except during the February small... squirrel on the North Unit from September 1 until January 31. 3. We allow dogs for hunting of rabbit...

  15. 77 FR 56027 - 2012-2013 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ..., Federal Register (77 FR 41002), we published a proposed rulemaking identifying changes pertaining to... squirrel, raccoon, rabbit, and opossum to be hunted with dogs during designated hunts. We prohibit dogs in... from September 1 until January 31. 3. We allow dogs for hunting of rabbit and squirrel from December...

  16. National wildlife refuge visitor survey results: 2010/2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Dietsch, Alia M.; Don Carolos, Andrew W.; Miller, Holly M.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Solomon, Adam N.

    2012-01-01

    refuges during 2010/2011 and contain the following information: * Synopsis: Brief summary of the survey results. * Introduction: An overview of the Refuge System and the goals of the national surveying effort. * Methods: The procedures for the national surveying effort, including selecting refuges, developing the survey instrument, contacting visitors, and guidance for interpreting the results. * Survey Results: Key findings from the survey, including: - Visitor and trip characteristics - Visitors opinions about refuges - Visitor opinions about alternative transportation - Visitor opinions about climate change * Conclusion * References Individual results for each of the 53 participating refuges are available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/643/ as part of USGS Data Series 643.

  17. Association of Canadian Community Colleges Annual Report, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Established in 1972, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) is the national and international voice of Canada's colleges, institutes, polytechnics, cegeps, and university colleges. This Annual Report provides the highlights of the Association's activities for 2010-2011. The auditors' report is also included. [For "Association of…

  18. Houston Community College 2010-2011 Fact Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Community College System, Office of Institutional Research, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Houston Community College (HCC) 2010-2011 Fact Book provides statistical information about the college district. It is important for the reader to be aware that data presented in this publication may differ slightly from statistics found in other district reports. Such variances may result from differences methodology including the source of…

  19. Salaries of School Business Officials, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licciardi, Chris; Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    How much were school business officials paid during school year 2010-2011? How do their salaries compare with those of other administrators, with those of classroom teachers, and with increases in the cost of living? In this article, the authors provide school business officials with information to address these and related questions. The data…

  20. Recruiting Trends, 2010-2011. 40th Anniversary Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2010-2011. This year's report is based on nearly 5,800 respondents, of which approximately 4,600 provided useable information, and 3,714 included complete hiring figures used for the projections. Despite the gloomy national labor market situation, the college segment of the market is poised to rebound…

  1. 78 FR 58753 - 2013-2014 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... contribute new income to the regional economy and benefit local businesses. Due to the unavailability of site... requirements. Regulatory Flexibility Act Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (as amended by the Small Business... (i.e., small businesses, small organizations, and small government jurisdictions). However,...

  2. 76 FR 56053 - 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... FR 39186), we published a proposed rulemaking identifying changes pertaining to migratory game bird....gov/sacramento/ec/lead%20shot.htm ). In the November 21, 1986, Federal Register (51 FR 42103) we began..., Federal Register (56 FR 28133)). The Service oversees the approval process for alternative shot types...

  3. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  4. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  5. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  6. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  7. 50 CFR 32.6 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific sport fishing regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... refuge-specific sport fishing regulations? 32.6 Section 32.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH... sport fishing regulations? (a) Refuge-specific fishing regulations are issued only at the time of or after the opening of a wildlife refuge area to sport fishing. (b) Refuge-specific fishing...

  8. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-03-30

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces the demand for cigarettes, thereby reducing youth smoking initiation and cigarette consumption and decreasing the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States overall, particularly among youths and young adults. The most common way governments have increased the price of cigarettes is by increasing cigarette excise taxes, which currently are imposed by all states and the District of Columbia. To update data on state cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of changes in state cigarette excise taxes during 2010-2011. During that period, eight states increased their cigarette excise taxes, and one state decreased its tax; as a result, the mean state tax increased from $1.34 in 2009 to $1.46 in 2011. Previous evidence indicates that further increases in cigarette excise taxes would be expected to result in further reductions in demand for cigarettes, decreasing smoking and associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:22456118

  9. Seroprevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and effectiveness of 2010/2011 influenza vaccine during 2010/2011 season in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Shi, Weixian; Lu, Guilan; Cui, Shujuan; Peng, Xiaomin; Zhang, Daitao; Liu, Yimeng; Liang, Huijie; Pang, Xinghuo; Wang, Quanyi

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Yang et al. (2011) Seroprevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and effectiveness of 2010/2011 influenza vaccine during 2010/2011 season in Beijing, China. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(6), 381–388. Background  In the post‐pandemic period, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was expected to circulate seasonally and was introduced into trivalent influenza vaccine during 2010/2011 season in the Northern Hemisphere. Objectives  The aim of this study was to examine the evolution of herd immunity against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in Beijing, China, during 2010/2011 season and effectiveness of the 2010/2011 trivalent vaccine. Methods  Two serological surveys were conducted before and after 2010/2011 season in Beijing. A case–control study was used to investigate vaccine effectiveness against influenza‐like illness (ILI) and lower respiratory tract infection (LRI). Results  A total of 4509 and 4543 subjects participated in the pre‐ and post‐season surveys, respectively. The standardized seroprevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza increased from 22·1% pre‐season to 24·3% post‐season (P < 0·001). Significant elevation in seroprevalence appeared in the ≥60 years age‐group (P < 0·001), but not in others. The 2010/2011 trivalent vaccine contributed to the higher post‐seasonal seroprevalence in unvaccinated individuals (P = 0·024), but not in those vaccinated with monovalent pandemic vaccine (P = 0·205), as well as in those without prior immunity versus those with immunity. The adjusted effectiveness of the 2010/2011 trivalent vaccine was 79% protection against ILI (95% CI, 61–89%) and 95% against LRI (95% CI: 59–99%). Conclusions  A slight increase in herd immunity against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza was observed in Beijing, China, during the 2010/2011 season. Prior vaccination and immunity had a suppressive impact on immune response toward this novel influenza virus

  10. Hunting Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank

    Eleven stories describe traditional practices and true adventures of the Tlingit hunters of Southeast Alaska. The stories are accompanied by learning activities and discussion questions for students and are arranged under the headings of bear, mountain goat and deer, and seal and sea lion. Topics include hunting weapons and strategies, bravery,…

  11. Profiles of For-Profit and Nonprofit Education Management Organizations: Thirteenth Annual Report, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Gary; Urschel, Jessica L.; Yat Aguilar, Mayra A.; Dailey, Breanna

    2012-01-01

    While past annual "Profiles" reports have focused on either for-profit EMOs (education management organizations) or nonprofit EMOs, this is the first annual "Profiles" report to cover both categories in a single report which allows for easier comparisons. The 2010-2011 school year marked another year of relatively slow growth in the for-profit…

  12. Getting Ready: The 2010-2011 Maryland School Readiness Report. Children Entering School Ready to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report was developed in partnership with Ready At Five. It lays out the critical importance of children starting school fully prepared to succeed in kindergarten. Most importantly, the report shares what everyone has learned from the 2010-2011 Maryland Model for School Readiness (MMSR) data about the school readiness of Maryland's children:…

  13. Annual Report: Discipline, Crime, and Violence, School Year 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "Code of Virginia" (Section 22.1-279.3:1) requires school divisions statewide to submit data to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence (DCV). School divisions began reporting such data in 1991. This annual report focuses primarily on DCV data submitted for school year 2010-2011, with…

  14. Children Entering School Ready to Learn: 2010-2011 Maryland Model for School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The report shares what everyone has learned from the 2010-2011 Maryland Model for School Readiness (MMSR) data about the school readiness of Maryland's children: statewide, by subgroups, and for each of Maryland's 24 local jurisdictions. Some of the highlights are: (1) The percentage of Maryland kindergarteners fully ready to start school…

  15. [Influenza vaccines dispensed in community pharmacies during the 2010-2011 flu season].

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, K; Hamelinck, W

    2011-12-01

    In this article we consider the delivery of influenza vaccines in the Belgian communiy pharmacies during the influenza season 2010-2011. We compare this season with the previous influenza seasons and consider the age distribution the flu-vaccinated patients. The vaccination rate of the entire population is compared to the vaccination rate among the risk group of diabetic patients. Also the market introduction of intradermal vaccinations in investigated. PMID:22299238

  16. Freshening anomalies in the Indonesian throughflow and impacts on the Leeuwin Current during 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Benthuysen, Jessica; Zhang, Ningning; Slawinski, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    During the 2010-2011 La Niña and Ningaloo Niño, excessive precipitations in the Maritime Continent and Indonesian-Australian Basin caused surface waters to freshen by 0.3 practical salinity unit in the southeast Indian Ocean. The low-salinity anomalies are observed to be carried westward by the Indonesian throughflow and the South Equatorial Current and transmitted into the poleward flowing eastern boundary current, the Leeuwin Current, along the Western Australian coast. Low-salinity anomalies contribute to about 30% of the anomalous increase of the southward Leeuwin Current transport during the evolution of the 2010-2011 Ningaloo Niño, resulting in unprecedented warming off the coast of Western Australia. Episodical freshening of the Leeuwin Current has been observed at the Rottnest coastal reference station of Western Australia during extended La Niña conditions over the past several decades; low-salinity anomalies at the station during the 2010-2011 Ningaloo Niño are comparable with strong historical events.

  17. Microbe Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, W. Ian

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Platforms for pathogen discovery have improved since the days of Koch and Pasteur; nonetheless, the challenges of proving causation are at least as daunting as they were in the late 1800s. Although we will almost certainly continue to accumulate low-hanging fruit, where simple relationships will be found between the presence of a cultivatable agent and a disease, these successes will be increasingly infrequent. The future of the field rests instead in our ability to follow footprints of infectious agents that cannot be characterized using classical microbiological techniques and to develop the laboratory and computational infrastructure required to dissect complex host-microbe interactions. I have tried to refine the criteria used by Koch and successors to prove linkage to disease. These refinements are working constructs that will continue to evolve in light of new technologies, new models, and new insights. What will endure is the excitement of the chase. Happy hunting! PMID:20805403

  18. Response and recovery lessons from the 2010-2011 earthquake sequence in Canterbury, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierepiekarz, Mark; Johnston, David; Berryman, Kelvin; Hare, John; Gomberg, Joan S.; Williams, Robert A.; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    The impacts and opportunities that result when low-probability moderate earthquakes strike an urban area similar to many throughout the US were vividly conveyed in a one-day workshop in which social and Earth scientists, public officials, engineers, and an emergency manager shared their experiences of the earthquake sequence that struck the city of Christchurch and surrounding Canterbury region of New Zealand in 2010-2011. Without question, the earthquake sequence has had unprecedented impacts in all spheres on New Zealand society, locally to nationally--10% of the country's population was directly impacted and losses total 8-10% of their GDP. The following paragraphs present a few lessons from Christchurch.

  19. An evaluation of dental information sessions provided to childcare educators in NSW in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Noller, Jennifer M

    2013-12-01

    Childcare services provide ideal settings to promote good oral health and help reduce tooth decay in young children. This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the dental information session component of the NSW Little Smiles Program provided by public oral health service professionals to childcare educators in NSW in 2010-2011. The evaluation sought to determine if a face-to-face information session provided to childcare educators by oral health professionals: (i) can improve the confidence of childcare educators to reach national quality standards that relate to oral health; and (ii) is an appropriate model to use. In 2010-2011, 163 dental information sessions were provided to 1716 participants from over 526 childcare centres across NSW. Results showed that a dental information session can improve the confidence of childcare educators to assist their service to reach the required national quality standards for oral hygiene and diet-related oral health issues. Further evaluation is required to determine if oral health can be embedded in the daily practice of childcare services and other options need to be explored to deliver the sessions in a more cost-effective way. PMID:24360212

  20. Impact of the 2010-2011 la NIÑA Phenomenon in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ortiz, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The 2010-2011 ENSO phenomenon affected four million Colombians, ˜9% of the total population, and caused economic losses of approximately US $7.8 billion. We analyzed the spatial patterns of effects on the population, using global (Moran's I index) and local (LISA) spatial autocorrelation indicators, and multiple regression analyses (OLS and ML spatial error model). The spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed two regional clusters in the lower Magdalena River Valley (Caribbean plains) and lower Atrato Valley (Pacific lowlands). The regression analyses showed the importance of the spatial component as well as the variables related to hazard exposure and social vulnerability. Municipalities in regional clusters show: (1) a high degree of flooding, as they are located on the Magdalena and Atrato River floodplains, and (2) high social vulnerability, suggested by low values of the ICV (national living conditions index).

  1. The Scientist Scavenger Hunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphew, Valerie N.; Key, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Using a well-planned scavenger hunt, students' awareness of the significance of minorities and women in science is enhanced. Provides a sample scavenger hunt and resource list as well as activities for extension. (ZWH)

  2. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women's rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31-49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) was present in only 12% and 2% of athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18-15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts. PMID:27517954

  3. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women’s rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31–49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) was present in only 12% and 2% of athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18–15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts. PMID:27517954

  4. Puzzles and Hunts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissblum, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    A company designs and delivers treasure and scavenger hunts for corporate and institutional clients. Groups are divided into teams that must solve puzzles for directions or clues. The hunts build creativity, teamwork, communication skills, and an appreciation of others' strengths. An insert includes a four-puzzle mini-treasure hunt. (TD)

  5. Hunting and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

  6. Observed and Forecasted Intraseasonal Activity of Southwest Monsoon Rainfall over India During 2010, 2011 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Rathore, L. S.; Kumar, Arun

    2013-12-01

    The monsoon seasons of 2010 and 2011, with almost identical seasonal total rainfall over India from June to September, are associated with slightly different patterns of intraseasonal rainfall fluctuations. Similarly, the year 2012, with relatively less rainfall compared to 2010 and 2011, also witnessed different intraseasonal rainfall fluctuations, leading to drought-like situations over some parts of the country. The present article discusses the forecasting aspect of monsoon activity over India during these 3 years on an extended range time scale (up to 3 weeks) by using the multimodel ensemble (MME), based on operational coupled model outputs from the ECMWF monthly forecasting system and the NCEP's Climate Forecast System (CFS). The average correlation coefficient (CC) of weekly observed all-India rainfall (AIR) and the corresponding MME forecast AIR is found to be significant, above the 98 % level up to 2 weeks (up to 18 days) with a slight positive CC for the week 3 (days 19-25) forecast. However, like the variation of observed intraseasonal rainfall fluctuations during 2010, 2011 and 2012 monsoon seasons, the MME forecast skills of weekly AIR are also found to be different from one another, with the 2012 monsoon season indicating significant CC (above 99 % level) up to week 2 (12-18 days), and also a comparatively higher CC (0.45) during the week 3 forecast (days 19-25). The average CC between observed and forecasted weekly AIR rainfall over four homogeneous regions of India is found to be the lowest over the southern peninsula of India (SPI), and northeast India (NEI) is found to be significant only for the week 1 (days 5-11) forecast. However, the CC is found to be significant over northwest India (NWI) and central India (CEI), at least above the 90 % level up to 18 days, with NWI having slightly better skill compared to the CEI. For the individual monsoon seasons of 2010, 2011 and 2012, there is some variation in CC and other skill scores over the four

  7. Multi-scale auroral observations in Apatity: winter 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozelov, B. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Borovkov, L. P.; Yurov, V. E.

    2012-03-01

    Routine observations of the aurora are conducted in Apatity by a set of five cameras: (i) all-sky TV camera Watec WAT-902K (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon lens YV2.2 × 1.4A-SA2; (ii) two monochromatic cameras Guppy F-044B NIR (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon HF25HA-1B (1:1.4/25 mm) lens for 18° field of view and glass filter 558 nm; (iii) two color cameras Guppy F-044C NIR (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon DF6HA-1B (1:1.2/6 mm) lens for 67° field of view. The observational complex is aimed at investigating spatial structure of the aurora, its scaling properties, and vertical distribution in the rayed forms. The cameras were installed on the main building of the Apatity division of the Polar Geophysical Institute and at the Apatity stratospheric range. The distance between these sites is nearly 4 km, so the identical monochromatic cameras can be used as a stereoscopic system. All cameras are accessible and operated remotely via Internet. For 2010-2011 winter season the equipment was upgraded by special blocks of GPS-time triggering, temperature control and motorized pan-tilt rotation mounts. This paper presents the equipment, samples of observed events and the web-site with access to available data previews.

  8. Multi-scale auroral observations in Apatity: winter 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozelov, B. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Borovkov, L. P.; Yurov, V. E.

    2011-12-01

    Routine observations of the aurora are conducted in Apatity by a set of five cameras: (i) all-sky TV camera Watec WAT-902K (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon lens YV2.2 × 1.4A-SA2; (ii) two monochromatic cameras Guppy F-044B NIR (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon HF25HA-1B (1:1.4/25 mm) lens for 18° field of view and glass filter 558 nm; (iii) two color cameras Guppy F-044C NIR (1/2"CCD) with Fujinon DF6HA-1B (1:1.2/6 mm) lens for 67° field of view. The observational complex is aimed at investigating spatial structure of the aurora, its scaling properties, and vertical distribution in the rayed forms. The cameras were installed on the main building of the Apatity division of the Polar Geophysical Institute and at the Apatity stratospheric range. The distance between these sites is nearly 4 km, so the identical monochromatic cameras can be used as a stereoscopic system. All cameras are accessible and operated remotely via Internet. For 2010-2011 winter season the equipment was upgraded by special blocks of GPS-time triggering, temperature control and motorized pan-tilt rotation mounts. This paper presents the equipment, samples of observed events and the web-site with access to available data previews.

  9. Equity in health care financing in Portugal: findings from the Household Budget Survey 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Quintal, Carlota; Lopes, José

    2016-07-01

    Equity in health care financing is recognised as a main goal in health policy. It implies that payments should be linked to capacity to pay and that households should be protected against catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). The risk of CHE is inversely related to the share of out-of-pocket payments (OOP) in total health expenditure. In Portugal, OOP represented 26% of total health expenditure in 2010 [one of the highest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries]. This study aims to identify the proportion of households with CHE in Portugal and the household factors associated with this outcome. Additionally, progressivity indices are calculated for OOP and private health insurance. Data were taken from the Portuguese Household Budget Survey 2010/2011. The prevalence of CHE is 2.1%, which is high for a developed country with a universal National Health Service. The main factor associated with CHE is the presence of at least one elderly person in households (when the risk quadruples). Payments are particularly regressive for medicines. Regarding the results by regions, the Kakwani index for total OOP is larger (negative) for the Centre and lower, not significant, for the Azores. Payments for voluntary health insurance are progressive. PMID:26573411

  10. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): the 2010-2011 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, R.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Serrano, I.; Villaseñor, A.; Galeano, J.

    2012-04-01

    As an example of the recent advances introduced in seismic monitoring of Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) during recent years, we describe the instrumental network deployed during the 2010-2011 survey by the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR). The period of operation extended from December 19, 2010 to March 5, 2011. We deployed a wireless seismic network composed by four three-component seismic stations. These stations are based on 24-bit SL04 SARA dataloggers sampling at 100 sps. They use a PC with embedded linux and SEISLOG data acquisition software. We use two types of three-component seismometers: short-period Mark L4C with natural frequency of 1 Hz and medium-period Lennartz3D/5s with natural frequency of 0.2 Hz. The network was designed for an optimum spatial coverage of the northern half of Deception, where a magma chamber has been reported. Station locations include the vicinity of the Spanish base "Gabriel de Castilla" (GdC), Obsidianas Beach, a zone near the craters from the 1970 eruptions, and the Chilean Shelter located south of Pendulum Cove. Continuous data from the local seismic network are received in real-time in the base by wifi transmission. We used Ubiquiti Networks Nanostation2 antennas with 2.4 GHz, dual-polarity, 10 dBi gain, and 54 Mbps transmission rate. They have shown a great robustness and speed for real-time applications. To prioritize data acquisition when the battery level is low, we have designed a circuit that allows independent power management for the seismic station and wireless transmission system. The reception antenna located at GdC is connected to a computer running SEISCOMP. This software supports several transmission protocols and manages the visualization and recording of seismic data, including the generation of summary plots to show the seismic activity. These twelve data channels are stored in miniseed format and displayed in real time, which allows for a rapid evaluation of

  11. 2010-2011 Performance of the AirNow Satellite Data Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasch, A. N.; DeWinter, J. L.; Haderman, M. D.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Szykman, J.; White, J. E.; Dickerson, P.; Zahn, P. H.; Dye, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program provides maps of real time hourly Air Quality Index (AQI) conditions and daily AQI forecasts nationwide (http://www.airnow.gov). The public uses these maps to make health-based decisions. The usefulness of the AirNow air quality maps depends on the accuracy and spatial coverage of air quality measurements. Currently, the maps use only ground-based measurements, which have significant gaps in coverage in some parts of the United States. As a result, contoured AQI levels have high uncertainty in regions far from monitors. To improve the usefulness of air quality maps, scientists at EPA, Dalhousie University, and Sonoma Technology, Inc. have been working in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to incorporate satellite-estimated surface PM2.5 concentrations into the maps via the AirNow Satellite Data Processor (ASDP). These satellite estimates are derived using NASA/NOAA satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals and GEOS-Chem modeled ratios of surface PM2.5 concentrations to AOD. GEOS-Chem is a three-dimensional chemical transport model for atmospheric composition driven by meteorological input from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GOES). The ASDP can fuse multiple PM2.5 concentration data sets to generate AQI maps with improved spatial coverage. The goal of ASDP is to provide more detailed AQI information in monitor-sparse locations and augment monitor-dense locations with more information. We will present a statistical analysis for 2010-2011 of the ASDP predictions of PM2.5 focusing on performance at validation sites. In addition, we will present several case studies evaluating the ASDP's performance for multiple regions and seasons, focusing specifically on days when large spatial gradients in AQI and wildfire smoke impact were observed.

  12. Infant and maternal characteristics in neonatal abstinence syndrome--selected hospitals in Florida, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Lind, Jennifer N; Petersen, Emily E; Lederer, Philip A; Phillips-Bell, Ghasi S; Perrine, Cria G; Li, Ruowei; Hudak, Mark; Correia, Jane A; Creanga, Andreea A; Sappenfield, William M; Curran, John; Blackmore, Carina; Watkins, Sharon M; Anjohrin, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a constellation of physiologic and neurobehavioral signs exhibited by newborns exposed to addictive prescription or illicit drugs taken by a mother during pregnancy. The number of hospital discharges of newborns diagnosed with NAS has increased more than 10-fold (from 0.4 to 4.4 discharges per 1,000 live births) in Florida since 1995, far exceeding the three-fold increase observed nationally. In February 2014, the Florida Department of Health requested the assistance of CDC to 1) assess the accuracy and validity of using Florida's hospital inpatient discharge data, linked to birth and infant death certificates, as a means of NAS surveillance and 2) describe the characteristics of infants with NAS and their mothers. This report focuses only on objective two, describing maternal and infant characteristics in the 242 confirmed NAS cases identified in three Florida hospitals during a 2-year period (2010-2011). Infants with NAS experienced serious medical complications, with 97.1% being admitted to an intensive care unit, and had prolonged hospital stays, with a mean duration of 26.1 days. The findings of this investigation underscore the important public health problem of NAS and add to current knowledge on the characteristics of these mothers and infants. Effective June 2014, NAS is now a mandatory reportable condition in Florida. Interventions are also needed to 1) increase the number and use of community resources available to drug-abusing and drug-dependent women of reproductive age, 2) improve drug addiction counseling and rehabilitation referral and documentation policies, and 3) link women to these resources before or earlier in pregnancy. PMID:25742381

  13. Convection in the Greenland Sea in winter 2010-2011: Comparison between model and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nummelin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Dense water formation and the associated deep convection feeding the meridional overturning circulation is one crucial component in the earth's climate system. Furthermore, since convection is a sub-grid scale process in ocean and climate models, it needs to be parametrized. Although a number of different turbulence parametrization have been introduced trough the years these are rarely developed for deep convection. Traditionally convection in the Greenland Sea has been considered to be an important contributor to the Greenland-Scotland Ridge overflow waters, which form the main part of the abyssal limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. However, this view has changed and presently there are indications that it is of minor importance. Two possible forms of convection have been identified in the Greenland Sea, plume convection and mixed layer deepening. Plume convection occurs if the initial stratification, cold upper layer, allows the thermobaric effect to become important. The convection is, however, driven by extensive buoyancy loss and all the other forcing mechanisms are secondary. This study uses observations from three Argo buoys and results from 1-D turbulence model (GOTM) runs to examine the convection in the Greenland Sea during the winter 2010-2011. Two different modelling approaches are tested. The first approach follows the float paths (Lagrangian approach) while the second stays at one (median) position (Eulerian approach). The model is forced with NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim surface fluxes. The resulting convection is in agreement with the mixed layer deepening scenario. Furthermore, all the traditional second order turbulence closures are found to perform relatively well in these conditions, most likely because non-local fluxes and thermobaric effects were insignificant. The different atmospheric forcings introduce most of the uncertainties, while the Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches are found to produce rather similar results.

  14. Reassessment of the 2010-2011 Haiti cholera outbreak and rainfall-driven multiseason projections.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, Andrea; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Righetto, Lorenzo; Blokesch, Melanie; Gatto, Marino; Casagrandi, Renato; Murray, Megan; Vesenbeckh, Silvan M; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-04-24

    Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and by anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. We study the ex post reliability of predictions of the 2010-2011 Haiti cholera outbreak from four independent modeling studies that appeared almost simultaneously during the unfolding epidemic. We consider the impact of different approaches to the modeling of spatial spread of Vibrio cholerae and mechanisms of cholera transmission, accounting for the dynamics of susceptible and infected individuals within different local human communities. To explain resurgences of the epidemic, we go on to include waning immunity and a mechanism explicitly accounting for rainfall as a driver of enhanced disease transmission. The formal comparative analysis is carried out via the Akaike information criterion (AIC) to measure the added information provided by each process modeled, discounting for the added parameters. A generalized model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus proposed and applied to the year-long dataset of reported cases now available. The model allows us to draw predictions on longer-term epidemic cholera in Haiti from multiseason Monte Carlo runs, carried out up to January 2014 by using suitable rainfall fields forecasts. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective. We conclude that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control. PMID:22505737

  15. Reflections on Communicating Science during the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence of 2010-2011, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wein, A. M.; Berryman, K. R.; Jolly, G. E.; Brackley, H. L.; Gledhill, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence began with the 4th September 2010 Darfield earthquake (Mw 7.1). Perhaps because there were no deaths, the mood of the city and the government was that high standards of earthquake engineering in New Zealand protected us, and there was a confident attitude to response and recovery. The demand for science and engineering information was of interest but not seen as crucial to policy, business or the public. The 22nd February 2011 Christchurch earthquake (Mw 6.2) changed all that; there was a significant death toll and many injuries. There was widespread collapse of older unreinforced and two relatively modern multi-storey buildings, and major disruption to infrastructure. The contrast in the interest and relevance of the science could not have been greater compared to 5 months previously. Magnitude 5+ aftershocks over a 20 month period resulted in confusion, stress, an inability to define a recovery trajectory, major concerns about whether insurers and reinsurers would continue to provide cover, very high levels of media interest from New Zealand and around the world, and high levels of political risk. As the aftershocks continued there was widespread speculation as to what the future held. During the sequence, the science and engineering sector sought to coordinate and offer timely and integrated advice. However, other than GeoNet, the national geophysical monitoring network, there were few resources devoted to communication, with the result that it was almost always reactive. With hindsight we have identified the need to resource information gathering and synthesis, execute strategic assessments of stakeholder needs, undertake proactive communication, and develop specific information packages for the diversity of users. Overall this means substantially increased resources. Planning is now underway for the science sector to adopt the New Zealand standardised CIMS (Coordinated Incident Management System) structure for

  16. After the flood: consistency in DOM response to the 2010/2011 Australian floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutova, Y.; Baker, A.; Bridgeman, J.; Henderson, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010/2011 floods in Eastern Australia were one of the worst on record, causing more than one billion AUD of damages and killing 35 people. This field campaign, monitoring raw water DOM concentration and character on three contrasting rivers across the region captured the late recession curve (October 2011- September 2012). DOM was characterized using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra with PARAFAC analysis; δ 13C-DOC; and molecular size using liquid chromatography with organic carbon, UV254 and nitrogen detection (LC-OCD) to identify DOC fractions: biopolymers, humic substance (HS), building blocks (BB), low molecular weight acids, and low molecular weight neutrals. Despite the difference in catchment and climatic zones, similar trends were observed in all three rivers, where DOC concentrations gradually decreased in river streams over a year from 8-11 mgCL-1 to 3-4 mgCL-1, followed by similar changes of HS, BB and fluorescent terrestrially delivered DOM components (C1-C3). In Allyn and Patterson rivers the proportion of HS, fluorescent terrestrially delivered DOM components (C1, C2) in DOC have decreased, in contrast to Logan River, where the ratio of HS/DOC was highly variable and showed no particular trends. The proportion of other DOC components remained almost the same. Molecular weight of the HS declined from 700 gmol-1 to 610 gmol-1 in all sites. δ 13C-DOC increased during monitoring, this could be linked to general decrease of DOM proportion delivered from C4 type plants after the flood. Overall, although DOC concentration decreased over the year post flood at all sites, most importantly the composition of DOM changed, with major changes occurring in proportion of humic-like and fluorescent terrestrially delivered DOM. Therefore it is important to monitor DOM character to be able to assess the impact of climate change and extreme weather events on the DOM transport and transformation.

  17. The Vestiges of Brown: An Analysis of the Placements of African American Principals in Florida Public Schools (2010-2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Leo, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the relationship between a school's percentage of African American students enrolled and the placement of an African American principal for all of Florida's K-12 traditional public schools during the academic year 2010-2011. This study also sought to determine if this relationship was moderated…

  18. 78 FR 9672 - Certain Pasta From Turkey; 2010-2011; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Pasta From Turkey, 61 FR 38545 (July 24, 1996). Notification to... Preliminary Results of the 2010-2011 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 46694 (August 6, 2012... Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Proceedings: Final Modification, 77 FR 8101...

  19. Snow Depth with GPS: Case Study from Minnesota 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilich, A. L.; Slater, A. G.; Larson, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    Although originally designed to enable accurate positioning and time transfer, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has also proved useful for remote sensing applications. In this study, GPS signals are used to measure snow depth via GPS interferometric reflectometry (GPS-IR). In GPS-IR, a GPS antenna receives the desired direct signal as well as an indirect signal which reflects off of the ground or snow surface. These two signals interfere, and the composite signal recorded by the GPS receiver can be post-processed to yield the distance between the antenna and the reflecting surface, that is, distance to the snow surface. We present the results of a new snow depth product for the state of Minnesota over the winter of 2010-2011. Although single-station examples of GPS snow depth measurements can be found in the literature, this is one of the first studies to compute GPS snow depth over a large regional-scale network. We chose Minnesota because the state Department of Transportation runs a network of continuously operating reference stations (CORS) with many desired characteristics: freely available data, good GPS station distribution with good proximity to COOP weather stations, GPS stations located adjacent to farm fields with few sky obstructions, and receiver models known to have sufficient data quality for GPS-IR. GPS-IR with CORS has many advantages over traditional snow depth measurements. First, because we leverage existing CORS, no new equipment installations are required and data are freely available via the Internet. Second, GPS-IR with CORS measures a large area, approximately 100 m2 around the station and 20 m2 per satellite. We present snow depth results for over 30 GPS stations distributed across the state. We compare the GPS-IR snow depth product to COOP observations and SNODAS modeled estimates. GPS-IR snow depth is one of the few independent data sources available for assessment of SNODAS. Ideally snow depth via GPS-IR will be available for

  20. Pneumoconiosis and advanced occupational lung disease among surface coal miners--16 states, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-06-15

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a chronic occupational lung disease caused by long-term inhalation of dust, which triggers inflammation of the alveoli, eventually resulting in irreversible lung damage. CWP ranges in severity from simple to advanced; the most severe form is progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Advanced CWP is debilitating and often fatal. To prevent CWP, the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 established the current federal exposure limit for respirable dust in underground and surface coal mines. The Act also established a surveillance system for assessing prevalence of pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners, but this surveillance does not extend to surface coal miners. With enforcement of the exposure limit, the prevalence of CWP among underground coal miners declined from 11.2% during 1970-1974 to 2.0% during 1995-1999, before increasing unexpectedly in the last decade, particularly in Central Appalachia. Exposure to respirable dust is thought to be less in surface than underground coal miners. Although they comprise 48% of the coal mining workforce, surface coal miners have not been studied since 2002. To assess the prevalence, severity, and geographic distribution of pneumoconiosis among current surface coal miners, CDC obtained chest radiographs of 2,328 miners during 2010-2011 through the Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Forty-six (2.0%) of 2,257 miners with >1 year of surface mining experience had CWP, including 37 who had never worked underground. Twelve (0.5%) had PMF, including nine who had never worked underground. A high proportion of the radiographs suggested silicosis, a disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica. Surface coal mine operators should monitor worker exposures closely to ensure that both respirable dust and silica are below recommended levels to prevent CWP. Clinicians should be aware of the risk for advanced

  1. Botanical Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Livingston, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Why not combine the use of technology with the excitement of a scavenger hunt that moves middle-level students out into the "wilds" of their school campus to classify plants? In the lesson plan described here, students embark on a botanical scavenger hunt and then document their findings using a digital camera. This project was designed to allow…

  2. Hunting for Ecological Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Joel B.; Greenwood, David A.; Ryan, Jessica L.; Greenwood, Eli A.

    2013-01-01

    Considering (a) the many potential connections between hunting, culture, and environmental thought, (b) how much hunters have contributed to the conservation movement and to the protection of a viable land base, and (c) renewed interest in hunting as part of the wider movement toward eating local, non-industrialized food, we seek to bring hunting…

  3. The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence: Environmental effects, seismic triggering thresholds and geologic legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Mark C.; Hughes, Matthew W.; Bradley, Brendon A.; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Reid, Catherine; Morgenroth, Justin; Horton, Travis; Duffy, Brendan; Pettinga, Jarg R.

    2016-03-01

    Seismic shaking and tectonic deformation during strong earthquakes can trigger widespread environmental effects. The severity and extent of a given effect relates to the characteristics of the causative earthquake and the intrinsic properties of the affected media. Documentation of earthquake environmental effects in well-instrumented, historical earthquakes can enable seismologic triggering thresholds to be estimated across a spectrum of geologic, topographic and hydrologic site conditions, and implemented into seismic hazard assessments, geotechnical engineering designs, palaeoseismic interpretations, and forecasts of the impacts of future earthquakes. The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES), including the moment magnitude (Mw) 7.1 Darfield earthquake and Mw 6.2, 6.0, 5.9, and 5.8 aftershocks, occurred on a suite of previously unidentified, primarily blind, active faults in the eastern South Island of New Zealand. The CES is one of Earth's best recorded historical earthquake sequences. The location of the CES proximal to and beneath a major urban centre enabled rapid and detailed collection of vast amounts of field, geospatial, geotechnical, hydrologic, biologic, and seismologic data, and allowed incremental and cumulative environmental responses to seismic forcing to be documented throughout a protracted earthquake sequence. The CES caused multiple instances of tectonic surface deformation (≥ 3 events), surface manifestations of liquefaction (≥ 11 events), lateral spreading (≥ 6 events), rockfall (≥ 6 events), cliff collapse (≥ 3 events), subsidence (≥ 4 events), and hydrological (10s of events) and biological shifts (≥ 3 events). The terrestrial area affected by strong shaking (e.g. peak ground acceleration (PGA) ≥ 0.1-0.3 g), and the maximum distances between earthquake rupture and environmental response (Rrup), both generally increased with increased earthquake Mw, but were also influenced by earthquake location and source

  4. How did ocean warming affect Australian rainfall extremes during the 2010/2011 La Niña event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; Sen Gupta, Alexander; England, Matthew H.; Taschetto, Andréa. S.; Briggs, Peter R.; Raupach, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    Extreme rainfall conditions in Australia during the 2010/2011 La Niña resulted in devastating floods claiming 35 lives, causing billions of dollars in damages, and far-reaching impacts on global climate, including a significant drop in global sea level and record terrestrial carbon uptake. Northeast Australian 2010/2011 rainfall was 84% above average, unusual even for a strong La Niña, and soil moisture conditions were unprecedented since 1950. Here we demonstrate that the warmer background state increased the likelihood of the extreme rainfall response. Using atmospheric general circulation model experiments with 2010/2011 ocean conditions with and without long-term warming, we identify the mechanisms that increase the likelihood of extreme rainfall: additional ocean warming enhanced onshore moisture transport onto Australia and ascent and precipitation over the northeast. Our results highlight the role of long-term ocean warming for modifying rain-producing atmospheric circulation conditions, increasing the likelihood of extreme precipitation for Australia during future La Niña events.

  5. National wildlife refuge visitor survey 2010/2011: Individual refuge results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Dietsch, Alia M.; Don Carlos, Andrew W.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Solomon, Adam N.; Miller, Holly M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System (Refuge System), established in 1903 and managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), is the leading network of protected lands and waters in the world dedicated to the conservation of fish, wildlife and their habitats. There are 556 national wildlife refuges and 38 wetland management districts nationwide, encompassing more than 150 million acres. The Refuge System attracts more than 45 million visitors annually, including 25 million people per year to observe and photograph wildlife, over 9 million to hunt and fish, and more than 10 million to participate in educational and interpretation programs. Understanding visitors and characterizing their experiences on national wildlife refuges are critical elements of managing these lands and meeting the goals of the Refuge System. The Service collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national survey of visitors regarding their experiences on national wildlife refuges. The survey was conducted to better understand visitor needs and experiences and to design programs and facilities that respond to those needs. The survey results will inform Service performance planning, budget, and communications goals. Results will also inform Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCPs), Visitor Services, and Transportation Planning processes. This data series consists of 53 separate data files. Each file describes the results of the survey for an individual refuge and contains the following information: * Introduction: An overview of the Refuge System and the goals of the national surveying effort. * Methods: The procedures for the national surveying effort, including selecting refuges, developing the survey instrument, contacting visitors, and guidance for interpreting the results. * Refuge Description: A brief description of the refuge location, acreage, purpose, recreational activities, and visitation statistics, including a map (where available) and refuge website link

  6. Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the same virus that causes chickenpox and shingles. In people with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, the virus ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 70. Read More Shingles Update Date 5/28/2014 Updated by: Joseph ...

  7. Wildlife management: Managing the hunt versus the hunting experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitt, William E.; McDonald, Cary D.; Noe, Francis P.

    1989-07-01

    Deer hunter satisfaction is investigated from two perspectives, (1) satisfaction with the hunt/harvest and (2) satisfaction with the overall hunting trip experience. Regression analysis is used to determine what variables best predict satisfaction with the hunt and the hunting experience. Results indicate that animal population variables (number of deer seen, shot at, bagged) are the best determinants of a quality deer hunt, while environmental (outdoors) and social (crowding and hunter behavior) are the best predictors of a quality hunting trip experience. Wildlife managers and researchers need to realize that deer hunters view the hunt/harvest as different from the hunting trip experience and need to manage for both aspects of hunter satisfaction.

  8. Record-breaking ozone loss in the Arctic winter 2010/2011: comparison with 1996/1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Lefèvre, F.; Nikulin, G.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.

    2012-08-01

    We present a detailed discussion of the chemical and dynamical processes in the Arctic winters 1996/1997 and 2010/2011 with high resolution chemical transport model (CTM) simulations and space-based observations. In the Arctic winter 2010/2011, the lower stratospheric minimum temperatures were below 195 K for a record period of time, from December to mid-April, and a strong and stable vortex was present during that period. Simulations with the Mimosa-Chim CTM show that the chemical ozone loss started in early January and progressed slowly to 1 ppmv (parts per million by volume) by late February. The loss intensified by early March and reached a record maximum of ~2.4 ppmv in the late March-early April period over a broad altitude range of 450-550 K. This coincides with elevated ozone loss rates of 2-4 ppbv sh-1 (parts per billion by volume/sunlit hour) and a contribution of about 30-55% and 30-35% from the ClO-ClO and ClO-BrO cycles, respectively, in late February and March. In addition, a contribution of 30-50% from the HOx cycle is also estimated in April. We also estimate a loss of about 0.7-1.2 ppmv contributed (75%) by the NOx cycle at 550-700 K. The ozone loss estimated in the partial column range of 350-550 K exhibits a record value of ~148 DU (Dobson Unit). This is the largest ozone loss ever estimated in the Arctic and is consistent with the remarkable chlorine activation and strong denitrification (40-50%) during the winter, as the modeled ClO shows ~1.8 ppbv in early January and ~1 ppbv in March at 450-550 K. These model results are in excellent agreement with those found from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations. Our analyses also show that the ozone loss in 2010/2011 is close to that found in some Antarctic winters, for the first time in the observed history. Though the winter 1996/1997 was also very cold in March-April, the temperatures were higher in December-February, and, therefore, chlorine activation was moderate and ozone loss was

  9. Record-breaking ozone loss in the Arctic winter 2010/2011: comparison with 1996/1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Lefèvre, F.; Nikulin, G.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.

    2012-03-01

    We present a detailed discussion of the chemical and dynamical processes in the Arctic winters 1996/1997 and 2010/2011 with high resolution chemical transport model (CTM) simulations and space-based observations. In the Arctic winter 2010/2011, the lower stratospheric minimum temperatures were below 195 K for a record period, from December to mid-April, and a strong and stable vortex was present during that period. Analyses with the Mimosa-Chim CTM simulations show that the chemical ozone loss started by early January and progressed slowly to 1 ppmv (parts per million by volume) by late February. The loss intensified by early March and reached a record maximum of ~2.4 ppmv in the late March-early April period over a broad altitude range of 450-550 K. This coincides with elevated ozone loss rates of 2-4 ppbv sh-1 (parts per billion by volume/sunlit hour) and a contribution of about 40% from the ClO-ClO cycle and about 35-40% from the ClO-BrO cycle in late February and March, and about 30-50% from the HOx cycle in April. We also estimate a loss of around 0.7-1.2 ppmv contributed (75%) by the NOx cycle at 550-700 K. The ozone loss estimated in the partial column range of 350-550 K also exhibits a record value of ~148 DU (Dobson Unit). This is the largest ozone loss ever estimated in the Arctic and is consistent with the remarkable chlorine activation and strong denitrification (40-50%) during the winter, as the modeled ClO shows ~1.8 ppbv in early January and ~1 ppbv in March at 450-550 K. These model results are in excellent agreement with those found from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations. Our analyses also show that the ozone loss in 2010/2011 is close to that found in some Antarctic winters, for the first time in the observed history. Though the winter 1996/1997 was also very cold in March-April, the temperatures were higher in December-February, and, therefore, chlorine activation was moderate and ozone loss was average with about 1.2 ppmv at 475-550 K

  10. Mathenger Hunt: Mathematics Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falba, Christy J.; Weiss, Maria J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity which shows how mathematics is used in real life and helps to establish a need for mathematics in students' futures. Adapted from a scavenger-hunt idea, this activity helps students to discover that almost every career makes use of mathematics. (KR)

  11. A Geometric Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Julie; Marshall, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Children possess a genuine curiosity for exploring the natural world around them. One third grade teacher capitalized on this inherent trait by leading her students on "A Geometric Scavenger Hunt." The four-lesson inquiry investigation described in this article integrates mathematics and science. Among the students' discoveries was the fact that…

  12. A Geospatial Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Adriana E.; Williams, Nikki A.; Metoyer, Sandra K.; Morris, Jennifer N.; Berhane, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of technology such as Global Positioning System (GPS) units and Google Earth for a simple-machine scavenger hunt, you will transform a standard identification activity into an exciting learning experience that motivates students, incorporates practical skills in technology, and enhances students' spatial-thinking skills. In the…

  13. Transports and budgets of anthropogenic CO2 in the tropical North Atlantic in 1992-1993 and 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, Patricia; Pérez, Fiz F.; Fajar, Noelia M.; Guallart, Elisa F.; Ríos, Aida F.; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso

    2015-07-01

    The meridional transport of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) in the tropical North Atlantic (TNA) is investigated using data from transoceanic sections along 7.5°N and 24.5°N, carried out in the early 1990s and 2010s. The net Cant transport across both sections is northward. At 7.5°N, this transport increased from 315 ± 47 kmol s-1 in 1993 to 493 ± 51 kmol s-1 in 2010; similarly, across 24.5°N it grew from 530 ± 46 kmol s-1 in 1992 to 662 ± 49 kmol s-1 in 2011. These changes result from modifications in the intermediate and deep circulation patterns, as well as from Cant increase within the thermocline waters. In deep waters, lateral advection causes a net Cant input of 112 ± 60 kmol s-1 (234 ± 65 kmol s-1) in 1992-1993 (2010-2011); within these deep waters, the storage rate of Cant is not statistically different from the net Cant input, 139 ± 21 kmol s-1 (188 ± 21 kmol s-1) in 1992-1993 (2010-2011). The Cant increase in deep waters is due to the large injection of Cant across the 24.5°N by the Deep Western Boundary Current and the northward recirculation of North Atlantic Deep Water along 7.5°N. In contrast, a large net Cant output in the upper layer is caused by the Florida Current. Despite this net Cant output, the Cant accumulates at a rate of 215 ± 24 kmol s-1 (291 ± 24 kmol s-1) referenced to year 1993 (2010). From the two Cant budgets, we infer a Cant air-sea flux of 0.23 ± 0.02 Pg yr-1in the TNA, much larger than previous estimates.

  14. ORR Deer Hunt Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, P.A.; Teasley, N.A.

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose for the initiation of deer hunts on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was deer population control to reduce collisions with vehicles and maintain a healthy herd and habitat. As of 1997, thirteen annual deer hunts have been conducted on the ORR. The deer hunt monitoring program (DHMP) has two components -- a field screening monitoring program and a confirmatory laboratory analysis program of both retained and randomly selected released deer samples.

  15. Hunting injuries in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Forks, Thomas P

    2002-11-01

    It is clear from the data that hunting injuries in Mississippi mirror those which occur nationwide. The vast majority of these injuries are easily preventable by following common sense hunting safety rules. As with firearm injuries, tree stand injuries are clearly preventable by following common sense rules (Table 1). Most falls are due to poorly constructed or old wooden tree stands that come apart or become detached from the tree thereby causing the hunter to fall. All bolts and fasteners should be inspected and replaced if found to be defective prior to use of the stand. Old, broken or rotten lumber should be replaced. Tree stands should only be placed in healthy, mature trees with strong healthy limbs. Unfortunately, tree stand hunters seldom wear safety harnesses when hunting. These devices, when used properly (worm around the chest under both arms), can greatly decrease morbidity and mortality associated with falls. To minimize trauma, tree stands should be constructed no greater than 20 feet above ground level. Hunters should be cautioned to wear non-slip boots [table| see text] and to apply a non-slip covering to the floor of their tree stands prior to use of the stands. Other safety tips include the removal of all logs, stones or other obstructions from around the base of the tree. As with all hunters, tree stand hunters are advised to carry a compass, whistle, flashlight and cellular phone with them during their hunt. Hunting equipment, including bows and arrows and all firearms should never be carried up to the stand. This equipment should only be lifted or lowered to or from the stand with the use of a haul line. Hunters must remember the 10 commandments of gun safety (Table 2). Every firearm should be treated as if it were loaded. Firearms should not be pointed at anything other than the intended target and the muzzle must be controlled at all times. The action and barrel should be inspected prior to loading ammunition to ensure that they are clear of

  16. Changes to Saturn's zonal-mean tropospheric thermal structure after the 2010-2011 northern hemisphere storm

    SciTech Connect

    Achterberg, R. K.; Hesman, B. E.; Gierasch, P. J.; Conrath, B. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Flasar, F. M.

    2014-05-10

    We use far-infrared (20-200 μm) data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on the Cassini spacecraft to determine the zonal-mean temperature and hydrogen para-fraction in Saturn's upper troposphere from observations taken before and after the large northern hemisphere storm in 2010-2011. During the storm, zonal mean temperatures in the latitude band between approximately 25°N and 45°N (planetographic latitude) increased by about 3 K, while the zonal mean hydrogen para-fraction decreased by about 0.04 over the same latitudes, at pressures greater than about 300 mbar. These changes occurred over the same latitude range as the disturbed cloud band seen in visible images. The observations are consistent with low para-fraction gas being brought up from the level of the water cloud by the strong convective plume associated with the storm, while being heated by condensation of water vapor, and then advected zonally by the winds near the plume tops in the upper troposphere.

  17. Ship-based DOAS measurements of halogen oxides and OVOCs during the Malaspina circumnavigation expedition 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados-Roman, C.; Hay, T.; Royer, S.; Mahajan, A.; Cuevas, C.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Within the framework of the Malaspina expedition, in 2010-2011 the Spanish research vessel Hesperides circumnavigated the world aiming at investigating the biogeochemistry, physical oceanography, and microbiological biodiversity of the oceans from a multidisciplinary approach. We deployed a MAX-DOAS system and a surface ozone instrument to monitor the geographical distribution of some trace gases such as iodine and bromine monoxide (IO, BrO), glyoxal ((CHO)2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) in the marine boundary layer, with the overall goal of improving our knowledge on atmosphere-ocean interactions and their relationship with the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the climate. We will present a map of the geographical distribution of IO, BrO, (CHO)2 and HCHO over four different oceans, and relate them to similar measurements performed in the Pacific Ocean during the HaloCarbon Air Sea Transect-Pacific cruise (HaloCAST-P) and the Climate and HAlogen Reactivity tropicaL EXperiment (CHARLEX); as well as to satellite observations of radical species such as IO and glyoxal. One-dimensional chemical transport modeling of the results and atmospheric implications will also be discussed.

  18. The rise and fall of the "marine heat wave" off Western Australia during the summer of 2010/2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Alan F.; Feng, Ming

    2013-02-01

    Record high ocean temperatures were experienced along the Western Australian coast during the austral summer of 2010/2011. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in February 2011 peaked at 3 °C above the long-term monthly means over a wide area from Ningaloo (22°S) to Cape Leeuwin (34°S) along the coast and out to > 200 km offshore. Hourly temperature measurements at a number of mooring sites along the coast revealed that the temperature anomalies were mostly trapped in the surface mixed layer, with peak nearshore temperatures rising to ~ 5 °C above average in the central west coastal region over a week encompassing the end of February and early March, resulting in some devastating fish kills as well as temporary southward range extensions of tropical fish species and megafauna such as whale sharks and manta rays. The elevated temperatures were a result of a combination of a record strength Leeuwin Current, a near-record La Niña event, and anomalously high air-sea heat flux into the ocean even though the SST was high. This heat wave was an unprecedented thermal event in Western Australian waters, superimposed on an underlying long-term temperature rise.

  19. Climate Variability Drives Plankton Community Composition Changes: the 2010-2011 El Nino to La Nina Transition Around Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Peter A.; Bonham, Pru; Thomson, Paul; Rochester, Wayne; Doblin, Martina A.; Waite, Anya M.; Richardson, Anthony; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2015-01-01

    The strong La Nina of 2010-2011 provided an opportunity to investigate the ecological impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on coastal plankton communities using the nine national reference stations around Australia. Based on remote sensing and across the entire Australian region 2011 (La Nina) was only modestly different from 2010 (El Nino) with the average temperature declining 0.2 percent surface chlorophyll a up 3 percent and modelled primary production down 14 percent. Other changes included a poleward shift in Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Along the east coast, there was a reduction in salinity, increase in nutrients, Chlorophytes and Prasinophytes (taxa with chlorophyll b, neoxanthin and prasinoxanthin). The southwest region had a rise in the proportion of 19-hexoyloxyfucoxanthin; possibly coccolithophorids in eddies of the Leeuwin Current and along the sub-tropical front. Pennate diatoms increased, Ceratium spp. decreased and Scrippsiella spp. increased in 2011. Zooplankton biomass declined significantly in 2011. There was a reduction in the abundance of Calocalanus pavo and Temora turbinata and increases in Clausocalanus farrani, Oncaea scottodicarloi and Macrosetella gracilis in 2011. The changes in the plankton community during the strong La Nina of 2011 suggest that this climatic oscillation exacerbates the tropicalization of Australia.

  20. Admission Rate of Patients with Most Common Psychiatric Disorders in Relation to Seasons and Climatic Factors During 2010/2011

    PubMed Central

    Licanin, Ifeta; Fisekovic, Saida; Babić, Sanina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Climate and its impact on human health and mental illness have been in the focus of the research since years in the field. Aim: The aim of the research is to study the admissions rate to the psychiatric clinic in correlation to seasons and climate. Material and method: The research was conducted in a Psychiatric clinic of the Clinical Center in Sarajevo. Randomly selected subjects (aged 5-89 years, 1316 males and 1039 females) N=2355, were interviewed by the Structural Clinical Interview (SCID) which generated DSM-IV. In this retrospective-prospective, clinicalepidemiological study subjects were divided into groups according to type of disorders. Correlation between the impact of seasons and the rate of admissions to a Psychiatric clinic was analyzed. Certain data were taken from Federal Hydrometeorological Institute in Sarajevo of the climatic situation for period of the study. Results and conclusions: Of the total number of subjects who were admitted to the clinic in the period of 2010/2011 the most common diagnoses were F10-F19, F20-F29, F30-F39, F40-F48, and the suicide attempts as the separate entity. It was found correlation between certain seasons and the effects of the certain weather parameters at an increased admission rate of subjects with the certain diseases. PMID:23922518

  1. Shooting and Hunting: Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W., Comp.

    The shooting and hunting manual, part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, explains shooting skills, hunting, and proper gun handling on the range and in the field. This manual should be supplemented and enriched by available references, facilities, and resources. It may be included in the community's educational and…

  2. Comparison of serum hemagglutinin and neuraminidase inhibition antibodies after 2010-2011 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in healthcare personnel.

    PubMed

    Laguio-Vila, Maryrose R; Thompson, Mark G; Reynolds, Sue; Spencer, Sarah M; Gaglani, Manjusha; Naleway, Allison; Ball, Sarah; Bozeman, Sam; Baker, Steven; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Levine, Min; Katz, Jackie; Fry, Alicia M; Treanor, John J

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Most inactivated influenza vaccines contain purified and standardized hemagglutinin (HA) and residual neuraminidase (NA) antigens. Vaccine-associated HA antibody responses (hemagglutination inhibition [HAI]) are well described, but less is known about the immune response to the NA. Methods.  Serum of 1349 healthcare personnel (HCP) electing or declining the 2010-2011 trivalent-inactivated influenza vaccine ([IIV3], containing A/California/7/2009 p(H1N1), A/Perth/16/2009 [H3N2], B/Brisbane/60/2008 strains) were tested for NA-inhibiting (NAI) antibody by a modified lectin-based assay using pseudotyped N1 and N2 influenza A viruses with an irrelevant (H5) HA. Neuraminidase-inhibiting and HAI antibody titers were evaluated approximately 30 days after vaccination and end-of-season for those with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed influenza infection. Results.  In 916 HCP (68%) receiving IIV3, a 2-fold increase in N1 and N2 NAI antibody occurred in 63.7% and 47.3%, respectively. Smaller responses occurred in HCP age >50 years and those without prior 2009-2010 IIV3 nor monovalent A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccinations. Forty-four PCR-confirmed influenza infections were observed, primarily affecting those with lower pre-exposure HAI and NAI antibodies. Higher pre-NAI titers correlated with shorter duration of illness for A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections. Conclusions.  Trivalent-inactivated influenza vaccine is modestly immunogenic for N1 and N2 antigens in HCP. Vaccines eliciting robust NA immune responses may improve efficacy and reduce influenza-associated morbidity. PMID:25884004

  3. HUNTing the Overlap

    SciTech Connect

    Iancu, Costin; Parry, Husbands; Hargrove, Paul

    2005-07-08

    Hiding communication latency is an important optimization for parallel programs. Programmers or compilers achieve this by using non-blocking communication primitives and overlapping communication with computation or other communication operations. Using non-blocking communication raises two issues: performance and programmability. In terms of performance, optimizers need to find a good communication schedule and are sometimes constrained by lack of full application knowledge. In terms of programmability, efficiently managing non-blocking communication can prove cumbersome for complex applications. In this paper we present the design principles of HUNT, a runtime system designed to search and exploit some of the available overlap present at execution time in UPC programs. Using virtual memory support, our runtime implements demand-driven synchronization for data involved in communication operations. It also employs message decomposition and scheduling heuristics to transparently improve the non-blocking behavior of applications. We provide a user level implementation of HUNT on a variety of modern high performance computing systems. Results indicate that our approach is successful in finding some of the overlap available at execution time. While system and application characteristics influence performance, perhaps the determining factor is the time taken by the CPU to execute a signal handler. Demand driven synchronization at execution time eliminates the need for the explicit management of non-blocking communication. Besides increasing programmer productivity, this feature also simplifies compiler analysis for communication optimizations.

  4. Slight Decline in Use of Private School Tuition Vouchers in 2010-2011: Loss of Schools Results in Fewer Students. Research Brief. Volume 99, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    For the first time since its 1998 expansion to include religious schools, enrollment in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) did not grow in the 2010-2011 school year. Currently, 20,996 private school students receive taxpayer-funded tuition vouchers (of $6,442 per pupil), a decrease of 66 students over last year. Chart 1 shows program…

  5. Design of Value-Added Models for IMPACT and TEAM in DC Public Schools, 2010-2011 School Year. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Hock, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the value-added models that will be used to measure school and teacher effectiveness in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) in the 2010-2011 school year. It updates the earlier technical report, "Measuring Value Added for IMPACT and TEAM in DC Public Schools." The earlier report described the methods used…

  6. The Role of Community Rehabilitation Providers in Employment for Persons with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Results of the 2010-2011 National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domin, Daria; Butterworth, John

    2013-01-01

    Based on the 2010-2011 National Survey of Community Rehabilitation Providers, findings are presented on people with all disabilities and people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) who are served in employment and nonwork settings by community rehabilitation providers. Findings suggest little change over the past eight years in…

  7. [Clinical review of influenza (H1N1) 2009 detected in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 flu season in Nara Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masaki; Uranishi, Yousuke; Okayama, Akiko

    2012-09-01

    This study is based on clinical information on 894 subjects diagnosed with influenza (H1N1) 2009 in Nara Prefecture from June 15, 2009, to March 4, 2010, and from July 9, 2010, to March 6, 2011. Clinical data for 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 was compared. Results showed that 43% of 2009-2010 subjects were 0-9 years old and 38% were 10-19 years old. They also showed that 25% of 2010-2011 0-9 years old, 20% 10-19 years old, 20% 20-29 years old and 16% 30-39 years old. Both seasons showed a high percentage of subjects 0-9 years old. Numbers of subjects aged 20-39 years old increased in 2010-2011. Results thus suggest that an age shift occurred in subjects, in Nara Prefecture. The most frequent symptom was fever, e.g., 38 degrees C, in 88%. Upper airway inflammation was seen in 68%, lower airway inflammation in 20% and gastroenteritis in 6%. Lower airway inflammation decreased from 20% in 2009-2010 to 7% in 2010-2011. Neuraminidase inhibitor was prescribed for 408 (46%) subjects, oseltamivir for 262 (63%), zanamivir for 120 (29%), peramivir for 10 (2.4%), and laninamivir for 12 (2.9%). Two neuraminidase inhibitors were prescribed for 11 subjects. Oseltamivir prescription rates were lower among subjects 10-19 years old, following guidelines for the use of antiinfluenza drugs. PMID:23198577

  8. Annual Performance Report 2010-2011. Bureau of Indian Education. Submitted February 1, 2012. Revised Clarification, April 17, 2012. APR Template-Part B (4)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    During SY 2010-2011, the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) continued their efforts to improve the validity and reliability of data reporting. BIE data collections are dependent on school level entry (self-reporting) into the Native American Student Information System (NASIS) or into the Bureau's Annual Report from the schools. In addition,…

  9. Changes in self-reported HIV testing during South Africa's 2010/2011 national testing campaign: gains and shortfalls

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Lloyd, Neil; Bor, Jacob; Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives HIV counselling and testing is critical to HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Mass campaigns may be an effective strategy to increase HIV testing in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We assessed the self-reported uptake of HIV testing among individuals who had never previously tested for HIV, particularly those in high-risk populations, during the period of a national, multisector testing campaign in South Africa (April 2010 and June 2011). Design This study was a prospective cohort study. Methods We analyzed data from two waves (2010/2011, n=16,893; 2012, n=18,707) of the National Income Dynamics Study, a nationally representative cohort that enabled prospective identification of first-time testers. We quantified the number of adults (15 years and older) testing for the first time nationally. To assess whether the campaign reached previously underserved populations, we examined changes in HIV testing coverage by age, gender, race and province sub-groups. We also estimated multivariable logistic regression models to identify socio-economic and demographic predictors of first-time testing. Results Overall, the proportion of adults ever tested for HIV increased from 43.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.48, 45.96) to 65.2% (95% CI: 63.28, 67.10) over the study period, with approximately 7.6 million (95% CI: 6,387,910; 8,782,986) first-time testers. Among black South Africans, the country's highest HIV prevalence sub-group, HIV testing coverage improved among poorer and healthier individuals, thus reducing gradients in testing by wealth and health. In contrast, HIV testing coverage remained lower for men, younger individuals and the less educated, indicating persistent if not widening disparities by gender, age and education. Large geographic disparities in coverage also remained as of 2012. Conclusions Mass provision of HIV testing services can be effective in increasing population coverage of HIV testing. The geographic and socio

  10. The Clearing of Ammonia and Deeper Clouds in the Wake of Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Baines, Kevin H.; Fry, Patrick M.

    2015-11-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 produced a planet-encircling wake that slowly transitioned from a region that was mainly dark at 5 microns in February 2011 to a region that was almost entirely bright and remarkably uniform by January 2012 (Momary and Baines, 2014, AAS/DPS Meeting Abstracts). The uniformity and high emission levels suggested that the entire wake region had been cleared not only of the ammonia clouds that the storm had generated, but also of deep aerosols that normally provide significant blocking of the thermal emission from Saturn's warmer deep atmosphere. Measurements of 2.2-cm emission in May 2011 (Jannsen et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 522-535; Laraia et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 641-654) showed that the wake region was becoming "dried out" with respect to ammonia vapor, suggesting that a depletion of NH3 clouds might be occurring. Our analysis of VIMS spectra from December 2012 confirmed a clearing of NH3 particles but showed that two significant cloud layers remained behind: about 5 optical depths (at 2 microns) in a 120-530 mbar layer (needed to match levels of reflected sunlight), and an optically thick cloud near 3.5 bars (needed to limit 5-micron thermal emission). From spectra taken from the same latitude region upstream of the storm in February 2011 we inferred a similar cloud structure, with the main exception being that the deep thermal blocking layer, likely composed of NH4SH particles, was more spatially variable and at a lower effective pressure (2.9 bars vs. 3.5 bars), reducing 5-micron emission by a factor of 2 or more relative to the cleared region in the wake. While the storm head and early wake region displayed strong signatures of ammonia ice, these were not present prior to the storm, and disappeared completely as part of the wake clearing event. The main reason for the high 5-micron brightness of the cleared region is the removal of cloud particles in the region between about 500 mbar and 3.5 bars. Its exceptional horizontal

  11. [Tolosa-Hunt syndrome].

    PubMed

    Péterfi, Anna; Zádori, Péter; Süto, Gábor; Horváth, Gyula; Kopa, János

    2011-01-30

    Both men and women are affected by the rare disease called Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. We don't know exactly what causes it to evolve. It is usually put into the categories of either idiopathic inflammation or pseudotumor. Its pathological feature is a non-specific inflammatory process with fibroblastic, lymphocytic, plasmocytic infiltration, which can be found, for the most part, in the wall of the sinus cavernosus. Granulocytic and giant-cell infiltrations have been described too. The possibility of autoimmune disease has also come up. In our current study we describe the case of a female patient who recovered with the help of a steroid therapy. Through examining her, we also found immunological alterations, which should urge us to thoroughly examine the further observations of this kind. PMID:21428035

  12. Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011: Cloud particles containing ammonia and water ices indicate a deep convective origin. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P.

    2013-12-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 was first detected by amateur astronomers in early December 2010 and later found in Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images taken on 5 December, when it took the form of a 1000 km wide bright spot. Within a week the head of the storm grew by a factor of ten in width and within a few months created a wake that encircled the planet. This is the sixth Great Saturn Storm in recorded history, all having appeared in the northern hemisphere, and most near northern summer solstice at intervals of roughly 30 years (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 1991, Nature 353, 397-401). That the most recent storm appeared 10 years early proved fortunate because Cassini was still operating in orbit around Saturn and was able to provide unique observations from which we could learn much more about these rare and enormous events. Besides the dramatic dynamical effects displayed at the visible cloud level by high-resolution imaging observations (Sayanagi et al. 2013, Icarus 223, 460-478), dramatic thermal changes also occurred in the stratosphere above the storm (Fletcher et al. 2011, Science 332, 1413), and radio measurements of lightning (Fischer et al., 2011, Nature 475, 75-77) indicated strong convective activity at deeper levels. Numerical models of Saturn's Giant storms (Hueso and Sanchez-Lavega 2004, Icarus 172, 255-271) suggest that they are fueled by water vapor condensation beginning at the 10-12 bar level, some 250 km below the visible cloud tops. That idea is also supported by our detection of water ice near the cloud tops (Sromovsky et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 402-418). From Cassini VIMS spectral imaging taken in February 2011, we learned that the storm's cloud particles are strong absorbers of sunlight at wavelengths from 2.8 to 3.1 microns. Such absorption is not seen on Saturn outside of storm regions, implying a different kind of cloud formation process as well as different cloud composition inside the storm region. We found compelling evidence

  13. Hunting stand-related injuries in orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Lebus, George F; Krueger, Chad A; Stinner, Daniel J; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-09-01

    Hunting remains an extremely popular recreational activity, with nearly 15 million Americans receiving a hunting license annually. Precautions have helped decrease accidents, but hunting-related injuries remain relatively common. The majority of severe, hunting-related accidents involve either a fall from a hunting platform or an accidental shooting. Both of these mechanisms frequently result in orthopedic injuries, many of which require operative care. Although firearms-associated injury has seemingly decreased, hunting platform falls and their sequelae are increasing. Understanding the mechanisms of these injuries and increasing awareness of them may minimize their morbidity and mortality or help prevent them altogether. PMID:25188622

  14. Galaxy 'Hunting' Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Galaxies found under the Glare of Cosmic Flashlights Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered in a single pass about a dozen otherwise invisible galaxies halfway across the Universe. The discovery, based on a technique that exploits a first-class instrument, represents a major breakthrough in the field of galaxy 'hunting'. ESO PR Photo 40a/07 ESO PR Photo 40a/07 Newly Found Galaxies (SINFONI/VLT) The team of astronomers led by Nicolas Bouché have used quasars to find these galaxies. Quasars are very distant objects of extreme brilliance, which are used as cosmic beacons that reveal galaxies lying between the quasar and us. The galaxy's presence is revealed by a 'dip' in the spectrum of the quasar - caused by the absorption of light at a specific wavelength. The team used huge catalogues of quasars, the so-called SDSS and 2QZ catalogues, to select quasars with dips. The next step was then to observe the patches of the sky around these quasars in search for the foreground galaxies from the time the Universe was about 6 billion years old, almost half of its current age. "The difficulty in actually spotting and seeing these galaxies stems from the fact that the glare of the quasar is too strong compared to the dim light of the galaxy," says Bouché. This is where observations taken with SINFONI on ESO's VLT made the difference. SINFONI is an infrared 'integral field spectrometer' that simultaneously delivers very sharp images and highly resolved colour information (spectra) of an object on the sky. ESO PR Photo 32e/07 ESO PR Photo 40b/07 Chasing 'Hidden' Galaxies (Artist's Impression) With this special technique, which untangles the light of the galaxy from the quasar light, the team detected 14 galaxies out of the 20 pre-selected quasar patches of sky, a hefty 70% success rate. "This high detection rate alone is a very exciting result," says Bouché. "But, these are not just ordinary galaxies: they are most notable ones, actively forming a lot of

  15. Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Effiom, Edu O.; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Smith, Henrik G.; Ottosson, Ulf; Olsson, Ola

    2013-01-01

    To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers—both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)—were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent. PMID:23516245

  16. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  17. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  18. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  19. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  20. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... Marine Corps Base, Quantico, VA, on any authorized hunting day. In addition, a minimum of fifteen...

  1. Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests.

    PubMed

    Effiom, Edu O; Nuñez-Iturri, Gabriela; Smith, Henrik G; Ottosson, Ulf; Olsson, Ola

    2013-05-22

    To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers-both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)-were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species. In protected sites, seedling communities were similar in composition to the mature trees, but in hunted sites species with other dispersal modes dominated among seedlings. Seedlings emerging 1 year after clearing of all vegetation in experimental plots showed a similar pattern to the standing seedlings. This study thus verifies the transforming effects of bushmeat hunting on plant communities of tropical forests and is one of the first studies to do so for the African continent. PMID:23516245

  2. Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-02-01

    International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species. PMID:26746807

  3. A Treasure Hunt for Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Adam J.; Rutledge, Peter J.; Todd, Matthew H.; Connor, Ricky

    2011-01-01

    A new group educational activity based on a treasure hunt is described. Students are asked questions and the answers specify a grid on a map. A specified object in the grid location must be found and photographed, and the photograph submitted electronically (through the Learning Management System) for assessment. Once a series of objects in…

  4. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were truly…

  5. Winslow Homer: "The Fox Hunt."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pond, Jeanne C.

    1988-01-01

    Uses a print of Homer's painting, "The Fox Hunt," to introduce students in grades 4-6 to paintings of wildlife as both factual record and as a storytelling medium. Includes learning objectives, instructional strategies, and background information on the artist. (GEA)

  6. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  7. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. PMID:22394275

  8. Chemical ozone loss and ozone mini-hole event during the Arctic winter 2010/2011 as observed by SCIAMACHY and GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, R.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Aschmann, J.; Bramstedt, K.; Weber, M.; von Savigny, C.; Richter, A.; Rozanov, A.; Wittrock, F.; Khosrawi, F.; Bauer, R.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-04-01

    Record breaking loss of ozone (O3) in the Arctic stratosphere has been reported in winter-spring 2010/2011. We examine in detail the composition and transformations occurring in the Arctic polar vortex using total column and vertical profile data products for O3, bromine oxide (BrO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), chlorine dioxide (OClO), and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) retrieved from measurements made by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartography) on-board Envisat (Environmental Satellite), as well as total column ozone amount, retrieved from the measurements of GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) on MetOp-A (Meteorological Experimental Satellite). Similarly we use the retrieved data from DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) measurements made in Ny-Ålesund (78.55° N, 11.55° E). A chemical transport model (CTM) has been used to relate and compare Arctic winter-spring conditions in 2011 with those in the previous year. In late winter-spring 2010/2011 the chemical ozone loss in the polar vortex derived from SCIAMACHY observations confirms findings reported elsewhere. More than 70% of O3 was depleted by halogen catalytic cycles between the 425 and 525 K isentropic surfaces, i.e. in the altitude range ~16-20 km. In contrast, during the same period in the previous winter 2009/2010, a typical warm Arctic winter, only slightly more than 20% depletion occurred below 20 km, while 40% of O3 was removed above the 575 K isentrope (~23 km). This loss above 575 K is explained by the catalytic destruction by NOx descending from the mesosphere. In both Arctic winters 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, calculated O3 losses from the CTM are in good agreement to our observations and other model studies. The mid-winter 2011 conditions, prior to the catalytic cycles being fully effective, are also investigated. Surprisingly, a significant loss of O3 around 60%, previously not discussed in detail, is observed in mid-January 2011 below

  9. Neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility profile of pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 influenza seasons in Japan.

    PubMed

    Dapat, Clyde; Kondo, Hiroki; Dapat, Isolde C; Baranovich, Tatiana; Suzuki, Yasushi; Shobugawa, Yugo; Saito, Kousuke; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Two new influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), peramivir and laninamivir, were approved in 2010 which resulted to four NAIs that were used during the 2010-2011 influenza season in Japan. This study aims to monitor the susceptibility of influenza virus isolates in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 influenza seasons in Japan to the four NAIs using the fluorescence-based 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) method. Outliers were identified using box-and-whisker plot analysis and full NA gene sequencing was performed to determine the mutations that are associated with reduction of susceptibility to NAIs. A total of 117 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 59 A(H3N2), and 18 type B viruses were tested before NAI treatment and eight A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1 type B viruses were examined from patients after NAI treatment in the two seasons. NA inhibition assay showed type A influenza viruses were more susceptible to NAIs than type B viruses. The peramivir and laninamivir IC₅₀ values of both type A and B viruses were significantly lower than the oseltamivir and zanamivir IC₅₀ values. Among influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, the prevalence of H274Y viruses increased from 0% in the 2009-2010 season to 3% in the 2010-2011 season. These H274Y viruses were resistant to oseltamivir and peramivir with 200-300 fold increase in IC₅₀ values but remained sensitive to zanamivir and laninamivir. Other mutations in NA, such as I222T and M241I were identified among the outliers. Among influenza A(H3N2) viruses, two outliers were identified with D151G and T148I mutations, which exhibited a reduction in susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir, respectively. Among type B viruses, no outliers were identified to the four NAIs. For paired samples that were collected before and after drug treatment, three (3/11; 27.3%) H274Y viruses were identified among A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses after oseltamivir treatment but no outliers were found in the laninamivir-treatment group (n=3). Despite widespread use of

  10. Meridional transports in the Atlantic Ocean at 7.5N and 24.5N in 1992-1993 and 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Pelegrí, José L.; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2013-04-01

    An inverse model has been applied to two oceanographic cruises carried out in 2010 and 2011 at 7.5N and 24.5N, respectively. Results have been compared to a reanalysis of these same sections conducted in 1992 and 1993, in the frame of the WOCE program. The inverse model encompasses 17 equations and 196/226 unknowns for 1992/2011, corresponding to the velocities in the reference layer. Different constraints have been considered: transport of Antarctic Bottom Water and Deep Western Boundary Current at 7N, transport of the Florida Current, and transport of the Antilles Current and Deep Western Boundary Current at 24N. The analysis shows stronger thermocline and Antarctic Bottom Water transports during 1992-1993 than during 2010-2011.

  11. New insights into the tectonic inversion of North Canterbury and the regional structural context of the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Philip M.; Ghisetti, Francesca C.; Gorman, Andrew R.

    2016-02-01

    The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence highlighted the existence of previously unknown active faults beneath the North Canterbury plains and Pegasus Bay, South Island, New Zealand. We provide new insights into the geometry and kinematics of ongoing deformation by analyzing marine seismic data to produce new maps of regional faults and cross-sectional reconstructions of deformation history. Active faulting and folding extends up to 30 km offshore, and involves reactivation of sets of Late Cretaceous-Paleogene normal faults under NW-SE tectonic compression. The active faults consist predominantly of NE-SW striking, SE-dipping reverse faults, and less commonly E-W to NW-SE faults suitably oriented for strike-slip reactivation. Additionally, newly developing reverse faults obliquely segment and overprint the inherited basement fabric and impose geometric and kinematic complexities revealed by mapping and reverse displacement profiles of markers. The Quaternary reverse slip rates decrease from 0.1-0.3 mm/yr beneath northern Pegasus Bay to <0.05 mm/yr approaching Banks Peninsula. Fault growth modeling involving trishear fault-propagation folding mechanisms successfully restores an evolutionary sequence of progressive fault inversion, revealing a history of reactivated individual faults. Tectonic inversion and overprinting processes beneath Pegasus Bay are immature and <1.2 ± 0.4 Ma old, with no evidence of systematic spatial migration of deformation. Our marine data analyses give insights into the structural context of the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, while the combined onshore to offshore data provide an excellent illustration of fault growth associated with immature inversion tectonics, in which selective fault reactivation results from compressive stress imposed across a complex network of inherited faults.

  12. Career progression of men and women doctors in the UK NHS: a questionnaire study of the UK medical qualifiers of 1993 in 2010/2011

    PubMed Central

    Svirko, Elena; Goldacre, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To report the career progression of a cohort of UK medical graduates in mid-career, comparing men and women. Design Postal and questionnaire survey conducted in 2010/2011, with comparisons with earlier surveys. Setting UK. Participants In total, 2507 responding UK medical graduates of 1993. Main outcome measures Doctors’ career specialties, grade, work location and working pattern in 2010/2011 and equivalent data in earlier years. Results The respondents represented 72% of the contactable cohort; 90% were working in UK medicine and 7% in medicine outside the UK; 87% were in the UK NHS (87% of men and 86% of women). Of doctors in the NHS, 70.6% of men and 52.0% of women were in the hospital specialties and the great majority of the others were in general practice. Within hospital specialties, a higher percentage of men than women were in surgery, and a higher percentage of women than men were in paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology, clinical oncology, pathology and psychiatry. In the NHS, 63% of women and 8% of men were working less-than-full-time (in general practice, 19% of men and 83% of women; and in hospital specialties, 3% of men and 46% of women). Among doctors who had always worked full-time, 94% of men and 87% of women GPs were GP principals; in hospital practice, 96% of men and 93% of women had reached consultant level. Conclusions The 1993 graduates show a continuing high level of commitment to the NHS. Gender differences in seniority lessened considerably when comparing doctors who had always worked full-time. PMID:25408921

  13. 77 FR 38317 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background...

  14. 76 FR 3155 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed...

  15. 77 FR 15386 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife..., announce a public teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES... that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a teleconference. Background...

  16. 77 FR 74864 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting.... App., we announce that Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a...

  17. 77 FR 10543 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Office of the Secretary Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Charter AGENCY: Office of the... Secretary of Agriculture have renewed the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council..., providing recommendations for: (a) Implementing the Recreational Hunting and Wildlife Resource...

  18. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuhan; Pyatkevich, Yelena

    2014-05-01

    A 57-year-old man developed 3 days of left facial pain and swelling with left-sided hearing loss followed by a painful, unilateral, erythematous, and vesicular rash on the left anterior two-thirds of the tongue, external auditory canal, lip, and face typical of varicella-zoster virus reactivation (figure). Reactivation in the geniculate ganglion or facial nerve is uncommon and typically causes tongue and auricular lesions or facial palsy and was described by Hunt in 1907.(1) The patient received IV acyclovir and oral prednisone with rapid improvement in pain and resolution of lesions and improvement of hearing over 1 month. PMID:24799517

  19. Inquiry on School Organizations: Some Hunting Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willower, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    In this essay, inquiry concerning school organizations is likened to a hunt and some "hunting stories" are told. The stories deal with two areas of inquiry related to pupil control. One area is concerned with the instruments that serve as operational definitions or measures in the author's pupil control research. The other was concerned with a…

  20. Tropical Controls on the CO2 Atmospheric Growth Rate 2010-2011 from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Parazoo, N.; Lee, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Gierach, M. M.; Brix, H.; Gurney, K. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variations in the atmospheric growth rate of CO2 have been attributed to the tropical regions and the controls are correlated with temperature anomalies. We investigate the spatial drivers of the atmospheric growth rate and the processes controlling them over the exceptional period of 2010-2011. This period was marked by a marked shift from an El Nino to La Nina period resulting in historically high sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Atlantic leading to serious droughts in the Amazon. However, in 2011, unusual precipitation in Australia was linked to gross primary productivity anomalies in semi-arid regions. We use satellite observations of CO2, CO, and solar induced fluorescence assimilated into the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Project (CMS-Flux) to attribute the atmospheric growth rate to global, spatially resolved fluxes. This system is based upon observationally-constrained "bottom-up" estimates from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS), the ECCO2­-Darwin physical and biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and CASA-GFED3 land-surface biogeochemical model. The system is used to compute regional tropical and extra-tropical fluxes and quantify the role of biomass burning and gross primary productivity in controlling those fluxes.

  1. Evaluation of Magnesium Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Febrile Convulsion Hospitalized in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Khosroshahi, Nahid; Ghadirian, Laleh; Kamrani, Kamyar

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of magnesium levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with febrile convulsion (FC) hospitalized in Bahrami hospital in Tehran in 2010-2011. In the past, decreased levels of magnesium in serum and CSF of patients with FC were reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible role of magnesium in febrile seizures in children. Identifying this condition, we may control seizures and also prevent subsequent convulsion. In this cross-sectional study, inclusion criteria were the existence of convulsion due to fever and exclusion criteria were having a known neurological disease which could induce a seizure, and children younger than one month. In each group (cases include children with febrile convulsion and controls include febrile children without convulsion), Mg was measured in blood, and cerebrospinal fluid of 90 children and then they were compared. The data were analyzed by SPSS (α=0.05). The mean serum and CSF levels of Mg in case and control groups were equal (P<0.87 and P<0.22 respectively). There was no difference between two groups in terms of sex, but mean age was significantly different (P<0.003). There was not an association between serum and CSF levels of magnesium and the presence of FC. Therefore, it's not suggested to measure the level of magnesium in serum or CSF in children with fever routinely. PMID:26749235

  2. Age-specific vaccine effectiveness of seasonal 2010/2011 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in preventing influenza in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Pebody, R G; Andrews, N; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Cottrell, S; Smyth, B; Durnall, H; Robertson, C; Carman, W; Ellis, J; Sebastian-Pillai, P; Zambon, M; Kearns, C; Moore, C; Thomas, D Rh; Watson, J M

    2013-03-01

    An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42-66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45-97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27-97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI -6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15-91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42-68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32-91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group. PMID:22691710

  3. Austerity, precariousness, and the health status of Greek labour market participants: Retrospective cohort analysis of employed and unemployed persons in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Pepita; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-11-01

    Greece implemented the deepest austerity package in Europe during the Great Recession (from 2008), including reductions in severance pay and redundancy notice periods. To evaluate whether these measures worsened labour market participants' health status, we compared changes in self-reported health using two cohorts of employed individuals in Greece from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. During the initial recession (2008-2009) we found that self-reported health worsened both for those remaining in employment and those who lost jobs. Similarly, during the austerity programme (2010-2011) people who lost jobs experienced greater health declines. Importantly, individuals who remained employed in 2011 were also 25 per cent more likely to experience a health decline than in 2009. These harms appeared concentrated in people aged 45-54 who lost jobs. Our study moves beyond existing findings by demonstrating that austerity both exacerbates the negative health consequences of job loss and worsens the health of those still employed. PMID:26290470

  4. Development of a Polar Stratospheric Cloud Model within the Community Earth System Model using constraints on Type I PSCs from the 2010-2011 Arctic winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunqian; Toon, Owen B.; Lambert, Alyn; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Brakebusch, Matthias; Bardeen, Charles G.; Mills, Michael J.; English, Jason M.

    2015-06-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are critical elements of Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion. We establish a PSC microphysics model using coupled chemistry, climate, and microphysics models driven by specific dynamics. We explore the microphysical formation and evolution of STS (Supercooled Ternary Solution) and NAT (Nitric Acid Trihydrate). Characteristics of STS particles dominated by thermodynamics compare well with observations. For example, the mass of STS is close to the thermodynamic equilibrium assumption when the particle surface area is >4 µm2/cm3. We derive a new nucleation rate equation for NAT based on observed denitrification in the 2010-2011 Arctic winter. The homogeneous nucleation scheme leads to supermicron NAT particles as observed. We also find that as the number density of NAT particles increases, the denitrification also increases. Simulations of the PSC lidar backscatter, denitrification, and gas phase species are generally within error bars of the observations. However, the simulations are very sensitive to temperature, which limits our ability to fully constrain some parameters (e.g., denitrification, ozone amount) based on observations.

  5. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use...

  6. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use...

  7. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use...

  8. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use...

  9. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use...

  10. Response to Roger W. Hunt.

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    A response to a critique by Roger W. Hunt of my views on the eventual likely need to use age as a standard for the allocation of expensive, high-technology, life-extending medical care for the elderly. The response encompasses three elements: 1. that while the elderly have a substantial claim to publicly-provided health care, it cannot be an unlimited claim; 2. that a health care system which provided a decent, coherent set of medical and social services for the elderly would be sufficient, even if some limits had to be set; and 3. allocation and rationing decisions should not be made by individual doctors at the bedside but by regional or national policy. PMID:11643099

  11. Drivers of bushmeat hunting and perceptions of zoonoses in Nigerian hunting communities.

    PubMed

    Friant, Sagan; Paige, Sarah B; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-05-01

    Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1) quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2) identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3) identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4) measure perceptions of risk. Participants engaged in a variety of behaviors that increased contact with wild animals, including: butchering to sell (37%), being injured (14%), using body parts for traditional medicine (19%), collecting carcasses found in forests and/or farms (18%), and keeping as pets (16%). Hunters came into contact with wildlife significantly more than non-hunters, even through non-hunting exposure pathways. Participants reported hunting rodents (95%), ungulates (93%), carnivores (93%), primates (87%), and bats (42%), among other prey. Reported hunting frequencies within taxonomic groups of prey were different for different hunting behaviors. Young age, lower education level, larger household size, having a father who hunts, and cultural group were all associated with becoming a hunter. Fifty-five percent of respondents were aware that they could contract diseases from wild animals, but only 26% of these individuals reported taking protective measures. Overall, hunters in this setting frequently contact a diversity of prey in risky ways, and the decision to become a hunter stems from family tradition, modified by economic necessity. Conservation and public health interventions in such settings may be most efficient when they capitalize on local knowledge and target root socio-economic and cultural drivers that lead to hunting behavior. Importantly, interventions that target

  12. Drivers of Bushmeat Hunting and Perceptions of Zoonoses in Nigerian Hunting Communities

    PubMed Central

    Friant, Sagan; Paige, Sarah B.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1) quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2) identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3) identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4) measure perceptions of risk. Participants engaged in a variety of behaviors that increased contact with wild animals, including: butchering to sell (37%), being injured (14%), using body parts for traditional medicine (19%), collecting carcasses found in forests and/or farms (18%), and keeping as pets (16%). Hunters came into contact with wildlife significantly more than non-hunters, even through non-hunting exposure pathways. Participants reported hunting rodents (95%), ungulates (93%), carnivores (93%), primates (87%), and bats (42%), among other prey. Reported hunting frequencies within taxonomic groups of prey were different for different hunting behaviors. Young age, lower education level, larger household size, having a father who hunts, and cultural group were all associated with becoming a hunter. Fifty-five percent of respondents were aware that they could contract diseases from wild animals, but only 26% of these individuals reported taking protective measures. Overall, hunters in this setting frequently contact a diversity of prey in risky ways, and the decision to become a hunter stems from family tradition, modified by economic necessity. Conservation and public health interventions in such settings may be most efficient when they capitalize on local knowledge and target root socio-economic and cultural drivers that lead to hunting behavior. Importantly, interventions that target

  13. Job Hunting? Maybe a Therapist Can Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159458.html Job Hunting? Maybe a Therapist Can Help Study finds ... News) -- The unemployed may find help for their job search in an unexpected place -- a therapist's office. ...

  14. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat. PMID:23765495

  15. Hunting for sustainability in tropical secondary forests.

    PubMed

    Parry, Luke; Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A

    2009-10-01

    The interaction between land-use change and the sustainability of hunting is poorly understood but is critical for sustaining hunted vertebrate populations and a protein supply for the rural poor. We investigated sustainability of hunting in an Amazonian landscape mosaic, where a small human population had access to large areas of both primary and secondary forest. Harvestable production of mammals and birds was calculated from density estimates. We compared production with offtake from three villages and used catch-per-unit-effort as an independent measure of prey abundance. Most species were hunted unsustainably in primary forest, leading to local depletion of the largest primates and birds. The estimated sustainable supply of wild meat was higher for primary (39 kg x km(-2) x yr(-1)) than secondary forest (22 kg x km(-2) x yr(-1)) because four species were absent and three species at low abundance in secondary forests. Production of three disturbance-tolerant mammal species was 3 times higher in secondary than in primary forest, but hunting led to overexploitation of one species. Our data suggest that an average Amazonian smallholder would require > or = 3.1 km2 of secondary regrowth to ensure a sustainable harvest of forest vertebrates. We conclude that secondary forests can sustainably provide only 2% of the required protein intake of Amazonian smallholders and are unlikely to be sufficient for sustainable hunting in other tropical forest regions. PMID:19765039

  16. Cloud clearing in the wake of Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 and suggested new constraints on Saturn's He/H2 ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P. M.; Momary, T. W.

    2016-09-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 produced a planet-encircling wake that slowly transitioned from a region that was mainly dark at 5 μm in February 2011 to a region that was almost entirely bright and remarkably uniform by December of 2012. The uniformity and high emission levels suggested that the entire wake region had been cleared not only of the ammonia clouds that the storm had generated and exposed, but also of any other aerosols that might provide significant blocking of the thermal emission from Saturn's deeper and warmer atmospheric layers. Our analysis of VIMS wake spectra from December 2012 provides no evidence of ammonia ice absorption, but shows that at least one significant cloud layer remained behind: a non-absorbing layer of 3-4 optical depths (at 2 μm) extending from 150 to ∼400 mbar. A second layer of absorbing and scattering particles, with less than 1 optical depth and located near 1 bar, is also suggested, but its existence as a model requirement depends on what value of the He/H2 ratio is assumed. The observations can be fit well with just a single (upper) cloud layer for a He/H2 ratio ≈ 0.064 in combination with a PH3 deep volume mixing ratio of 5 ppm. At lower He/H2 ratios, the observed spectra can be modeled without particles in this region. At higher ratios, in order to fit the brightest wake spectrum, models must include either significant cloud opacity in this region, or significantly increased absorption by PH3, NH3, and AsH3. As the exceptional horizontal uniformity in the late wake is most easily understood as a complete removal of a deep cloud layer, and after considering independent constraints on trace gas mixing ratios, we conclude that the existence of this remarkable wake uniformity is most consistent with a He/H2 mixing ratio of 0.055-0.015+0.010, which is on the low side of the 0.038-0.135 range of previous estimates.

  17. The 2010-2011 Microearthquake Swarm in Krýsuvík, SW Iceland: Was it Triggered by Crustal Magma Injection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Michael, F.; Hager, B. H.

    2013-12-01

    -lateral strike-slip faults that are delineated by the earthquake relocations, consistent with the local stress induced by magma intrusion and the regional stress field caused by the interaction of the spreading plate boundary and mantle plume, explain the observed second order deformation. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that seismicity in the Krýsuvík area in 2010-2011 might be triggered by magmatic activity.

  18. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off-reservation trust lands, and ceded lands. This rule responds to tribal requests for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service or we) recognition of tribal authority to regulate hunting under established guidelines. This rule allows the establishment of......

  19. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off-reservation trust lands, and ceded lands. This rule responds to tribal requests for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service or we) recognition of tribal authority to regulate hunting under established guidelines. This rule allows the establishment of......

  20. 75 FR 32872 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), proposed in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2010-11 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed rule provides the regulatory schedule, announces the Service Migratory Bird Regulations Committee and Flyway Council meetings, and provides Flyway Council recommendations......

  1. 78 FR 53217 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Register (78 FR 47136), we proposed special migratory bird hunting regulations for the 2013-14 hunting... (50 FR 23467). The guidelines respond to tribal requests for Service recognition of their reserved... the April 9, 2013, Federal Register (78 FR 21200), we requested that tribes desiring special...

  2. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... (76 FR 19876) a proposal to amend 50 CFR part 20. The proposal provided a background and overview of..., proposed rule (76 FR 19876): National Environmental Policy Act; Endangered Species Act; Regulatory... for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings...

  3. Effects of hunting on cougar spatial organization

    PubMed Central

    Maletzke, Benjamin T; Wielgus, Robert; Koehler, Gary M; Swanson, Mark; Cooley, Hilary; Alldredge, J Richard

    2014-01-01

    The effects of increased mortality on the spatial dynamics of solitary carnivores are not well understood. We examined the spatial ecology of two cougar populations that differed in hunting intensity to test whether increased mortality affected home range size and overlap. The stability hypothesis predicts that home range size and overlap will be similar for both sexes among the two areas. The instability hypothesis predicts that home range size and overlap will be greater in the heavily hunted population, although may differ for males versus females due to behavior strategies. We marked 22 adult resident cougars in the lightly hunted population and 20 in the heavily hunted population with GPS collars from 2002 to 2008. Cougar densities and predation rates were similar among areas, suggesting no difference in per capita resources. We compared home range size, two-dimensional home range overlap, and three-dimensional utilization distribution overlap index (UDOI) among annual home ranges for male and female cougars. Male cougars in the heavily hunted area had larger sized home ranges and greater two-dimensional and three-dimensional UDOI overlap than those in the lightly hunted area. Females showed no difference in size and overlap of home range areas between study populations – further suggesting that differences in prey quantity and distribution between study areas did not explain differences in male spatial organization. We reject the spatial stability hypothesis and provide evidence to support the spatial instability hypothesis. Increased hunting and ensuing increased male home range size and overlap may result in negative demographic effects for cougars and potential unintended consequences for managers. PMID:25360259

  4. Effects of hunting on cougar spatial organization.

    PubMed

    Maletzke, Benjamin T; Wielgus, Robert; Koehler, Gary M; Swanson, Mark; Cooley, Hilary; Alldredge, J Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of increased mortality on the spatial dynamics of solitary carnivores are not well understood. We examined the spatial ecology of two cougar populations that differed in hunting intensity to test whether increased mortality affected home range size and overlap. The stability hypothesis predicts that home range size and overlap will be similar for both sexes among the two areas. The instability hypothesis predicts that home range size and overlap will be greater in the heavily hunted population, although may differ for males versus females due to behavior strategies. We marked 22 adult resident cougars in the lightly hunted population and 20 in the heavily hunted population with GPS collars from 2002 to 2008. Cougar densities and predation rates were similar among areas, suggesting no difference in per capita resources. We compared home range size, two-dimensional home range overlap, and three-dimensional utilization distribution overlap index (UDOI) among annual home ranges for male and female cougars. Male cougars in the heavily hunted area had larger sized home ranges and greater two-dimensional and three-dimensional UDOI overlap than those in the lightly hunted area. Females showed no difference in size and overlap of home range areas between study populations - further suggesting that differences in prey quantity and distribution between study areas did not explain differences in male spatial organization. We reject the spatial stability hypothesis and provide evidence to support the spatial instability hypothesis. Increased hunting and ensuing increased male home range size and overlap may result in negative demographic effects for cougars and potential unintended consequences for managers. PMID:25360259

  5. 'Impact hunters' catalyse cooperative hunting in two wild chimpanzee communities.

    PubMed

    Gilby, Ian C; Machanda, Zarin P; Mjungu, Deus C; Rosen, Jeremiah; Muller, Martin N; Pusey, Anne E; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Even when hunting in groups is mutually beneficial, it is unclear how communal hunts are initiated. If it is costly to be the only hunter, individuals should be reluctant to hunt unless others already are. We used 70 years of data from three communities to examine how male chimpanzees 'solve' this apparent collective action problem. The 'impact hunter' hypothesis proposes that group hunts are sometimes catalysed by certain individuals that hunt more readily than others. In two communities (Kasekela and Kanyawara), we identified a total of five males that exhibited high hunt participation rates for their age, and whose presence at an encounter with red colobus monkeys increased group hunting probability. Critically, these impact hunters were observed to hunt first more often than expected by chance. We argue that by hunting first, these males dilute prey defences and create opportunities for previously reluctant participants. This by-product mutualism can explain variation in group hunting rates within and between social groups. Hunting rates declined after the death of impact hunter FG in Kasekela and after impact hunter MS stopped hunting frequently in Kanyawara. There were no impact hunters in the third, smaller community (Mitumba), where, unlike the others, hunting probability increased with the number of females present at an encounter with prey. PMID:26503679

  6. Target definition for shipwreck hunting

    PubMed Central

    Kirsner, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or “mean” just 2.7 NM (nautical miles) from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor's reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013). The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review. PMID:26579007

  7. 77 FR 57577 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage...

  8. 77 FR 31636 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit...

  9. 78 FR 25463 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2... tribes, and the Federal Government; 3. Benefit recreational hunting. The Council advises the Secretary of... recommendations to improve implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting,...

  10. 77 FR 16051 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... conservation endeavors that (a) benefit wildlife resources; (b) encourage partnership among the public...) benefit recreational hunting. Nominations should describe and document the proposed member's... benefit wildlife, hunting, and outdoor recreation on private lands; and (h) When requested by...

  11. 78 FR 73205 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit wildlife resources; 2..., and the Federal Government; and 3. Benefit recreational hunting. The Council advises the Secretary of... recommendations to improve implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting,...

  12. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  13. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A.; Fick, Linda G.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Maloney, Shane K.; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  14. Auditory dysfunction in Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iragui, V J

    1986-07-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a Ramsay Hunt syndrome due to herpes zoster had a hearing deficit. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) localised the site of dysfunction to the ipsilateral eighth nerve. Clinical improvement was associated with improvement of the BAEP. Conventional audiological studies and BAEPs provided no evidence of involvement of the cochlea or the brainstem. In Ramsay Hunt syndrome, BAEPs may help to localise the site of involvement within the auditory pathway and follow the course of the disease. PMID:3746312

  15. Who was... John A Hunt OBE?

    PubMed

    Payne, D

    2001-12-01

    Major John A (Anthony) Hunt OBE (1906 - 1986) was a professional geologist who spent part of his working life in the oil fields of the world and a further highly significant period of 28 years (1936 - 58) as a Colonial Administrative Service Officer in the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. In 1943, he was personally selected by the Governor to carry out a wide-ranging General Survey of the Protectorate. The report of this General Survey attained such repute that newly appointed colonial administrators were recommended to rely on three basic documents: the Koran, the Bible and Hunt's, A General Survey of British Somaliland. PMID:11740081

  16. 76 FR 66955 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES: Meeting... Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council will hold a meeting. Background Formed in February...

  17. 76 FR 12130 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...) Benefit recreational hunting; (b) Benefit wildlife resources; and (c) Encourage partnership among the... Sport Wildlife Trust Fund; (c) Fostering wildlife and habitat conservation and ethics in hunting and... implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting, and outdoor recreation on...

  18. 76 FR 17442 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...) Benefit recreational hunting; (b) Benefit wildlife resources; and (c) Encourage partnership among the... Sport Wildlife Trust Fund; (c) Fostering wildlife and habitat conservation and ethics in hunting and... implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting, and outdoor recreation on...

  19. Demographic influences on the hunting behavior of chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Mitani, J C; Watts, D P

    1999-08-01

    We investigated hunting in an unusually large community of wild chimpanzees at Ngogo in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. Aspects of predation were recorded with respect to the prey, the predators, and hunting episodes. During 23 months of observation, the Ngogo chimpanzees caught 128 prey items from four primate and three ungulate species. Chimpanzees preyed selectively on immature red colobus primarily during group hunts, with adult males making the majority of kills. Party size and composition were significant predictors of the probability that chimpanzees would hunt and of their success during attempts. Chimpanzees were more likely to hunt red colobus if party size and the number of male hunters were large; party size and the number of male hunters were also significantly larger in successful compared with unsuccessful hunts. The Ngogo chimpanzees did not appear to hunt cooperatively, but reciprocal meat-sharing typically took place after kills. Hunts occurred throughout the year, though there was some seasonality as displayed by periodic hunting binges. The extremely high success rate and large number of kills made per successful hunt are the two most striking aspects of predation by the Ngogo chimpanzees. We compare currently available observations of chimpanzee hunting behavior across study sites and conclude that the large size of the Ngogo community contributes to their extraordinary hunting success. Demographic differences between groups are likely to contribute to other patterns of interpopulation variation in chimpanzee predation. PMID:10423261

  20. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except...

  1. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except...

  2. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing...

  3. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  4. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  5. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing...

  6. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except...

  7. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing...

  8. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  9. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  10. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  11. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing...

  12. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing...

  13. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except...

  14. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Post Commander § 552.19 Hunting and fishing permits. All permits to hunt,...

  15. Helping Students Understand American Influence in Canada: A Scavenger Hunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokott, Bridget; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explains a scavenger hunt to collect items (newspaper clippings, pictures, records, etc.) that represent the influence of the United States on Canadian Culture. The teacher prepares scavenger hunt stations which include items that students have collected. An assessment on items follows the hunt. (KC)

  16. 77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting seasons. These late seasons include most waterfowl seasons, the earliest of which commences on September 22, 2012. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate the States' selection of hunting seasons......

  17. 78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or we) prescribes final late-season frameworks from which States may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting seasons. These late seasons include most waterfowl seasons, the earliest of which commences on September 21, 2013. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate the States' selection of hunting seasons......

  18. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service or we) is proposing to establish the 2011-12 early-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer limits, for dates and times when hunting may occur and the maximum number of birds that may be taken and possessed in early seasons. Early seasons may open as early as September 1, and......

  19. Concerning Hunt's New Ways of Assessing Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmont, John M.

    1983-01-01

    In an earlier article, Hunt envisions the automation of intelligence testing, but he appears to be overly optimistic. He neglects to mention conceptual and practical difficulties at the interface of measurement and theory that place psychometry not in the dawn of microcomputerization, but rather more nearly in its primordium. (Author)

  20. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  1. Hunting and Wildlife Management. Issue Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview discusses hunting as a tool for wildlife management, the management of wildlife populations and hunter participation in providing research data, and the…

  2. Visuomotor Transformations Underlying Hunting Behavior in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Isaac H.; Engert, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Visuomotor circuits filter visual information and determine whether or not to engage downstream motor modules to produce behavioral outputs. However, the circuit mechanisms that mediate and link perception of salient stimuli to execution of an adaptive response are poorly understood. We combined a virtual hunting assay for tethered larval zebrafish with two-photon functional calcium imaging to simultaneously monitor neuronal activity in the optic tectum during naturalistic behavior. Hunting responses showed mixed selectivity for combinations of visual features, specifically stimulus size, speed, and contrast polarity. We identified a subset of tectal neurons with similar highly selective tuning, which show non-linear mixed selectivity for visual features and are likely to mediate the perceptual recognition of prey. By comparing neural dynamics in the optic tectum during response versus non-response trials, we discovered premotor population activity that specifically preceded initiation of hunting behavior and exhibited anatomical localization that correlated with motor variables. In summary, the optic tectum contains non-linear mixed selectivity neurons that are likely to mediate reliable detection of ethologically relevant sensory stimuli. Recruitment of small tectal assemblies appears to link perception to action by providing the premotor commands that release hunting responses. These findings allow us to propose a model circuit for the visuomotor transformations underlying a natural behavior. PMID:25754638

  3. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 326, in Sec. 32.35, in...

  4. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 385, in Sec. 32.43, the...

  5. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 406, in Sec. 32.45,...

  6. 76 FR 60379 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of.... Sport Fishing. We allow fishing on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations subject to the following conditions: 0 1. We allow fishing in impounded waters contained within dikes...

  7. The Simulation of Prehistoric Hunting Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rick, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses use of computer simulation as an archeological tool for research and teaching involving the remains of prehistoric game animals to aid in understanding effects of various strategies of prehistoric hunters on populations of game animals. A simulation involving possible vicuna hunting strategies is described. (MBR)

  8. Scavenger Hunt: Middle School Earth Science "Test."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Katharine D.; Sanders, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a scavenger hunt activity that has been used successfully with middle school students in an earth science course. This activity includes items that call for library research rather than the collection of objects, emphasize real-world connections, are skill-oriented, ask for originality and creativity, and are just for fun. (JRH)

  9. Scavenger Hunts: Chasing Down Scientific Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marshall S.; Dew, Nancy; Kronberg, Joyce R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a scavenger hunt activity that stimulates active learning. Presents objectives, examples, pitfalls, grading methods, and evaluation based on course experiences with the technique. Although the method was used with lower division biology courses, it is applicable to a wide variety of science courses at various levels. (SAH)

  10. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the submission with the…

  11. Sporting Goods. Fishing and Hunting Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, W. O.

    This text provides material for the individualized instruction of students training in the area of sporting goods retailing and merchandising or some closely related area. It consists of nine assignments dealing with fishing equipment and 13 assignments devoted to hunting equipment. Covered in the individual assignments are the following topics:…

  12. Determinants of a quality wild turkey hunting season.

    PubMed

    Wynveen, Christopher J; Cavin, Drew A; Wright, Brett A; Hammitt, William E

    2005-07-01

    According to the National Wild Turkey Federation, there has been a 450% increase in the number of licensed wild turkey hunters since 1973. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research articles focusing specifically on turkey hunting. Most human dimensions of wildlife research have focused on either deer or waterfowl hunting. In this study, dimensions of hunting quality, days a field, and harvest were examined among a sample of 739 Virginia fall turkey hunters. Quality of a hunting season, rather than a specific hunt, was examined. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed five domains of attributes of a high-quality turkey-hunting season: wildlife interaction, education, being away, social interaction, and hunting skills. The domains of hunting quality revealed by the PCA are similar to domains found previously for spring turkey hunters as well as other types of hunters. Also examined were hunter perceptions of overall hunting quality, the number of days spent hunting turkeys during the fall season, and harvest success. For comparative purposes and agency needs, hunters were segmented into three categories based on days spent hunting: low frequency (1 to 2 days), medium frequency (3 to 4 days), and high frequency (> or =5 days). The influence of these variables to respondents' perceptions of overall quality was examined using a series of regression models. Variables found to be significant predictors of quality were wildlife interaction and harvest success. Hunters who killed a turkey reported a significantly higher quality season than those who did not kill a turkey. PMID:16132453

  13. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    PubMed

    Lute, Michelle L; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management. PMID:25464276

  14. Identity-Driven Differences in Stakeholder Concerns about Hunting Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Lute, Michelle L.; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management. PMID:25464276

  15. A Pediatric Case of Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Derin, Serhan; Derin, Hatice; Sahan, Murat; Çaksen, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is characterized by facial paralysis, inner ear dysfunction, periauricular pain, and herpetiform vesicles. The reported incidence in children is 2.7/100,000. The pathogenesis involves the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. The recovery rate is better in children than in adults. This paper discusses a 12-year-old girl with a rare case of peripheral facial paralysis caused by RHS and reviews the literature. PMID:25276457

  16. Canvasback mortality from illegal hunting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Nissen, J.M.; Wetzel, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the consequences of local hunting on illegal kill of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), we studied the behavior of hunters on a 646-ha area open to duck hunting (closed to canvasback hunting) on Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, Wisconsin, during the 1991 and 1992 waterfowl hunting seasons. Law enforcement officers observed 258 hunting parties for 419 hours. Of 94 hunting parties encountering canvasbacks, 41 (44%) shot at the ducks on 56 occasions, or 27% of 207 encounters observed, Based on a ratio estimator, there were 790 (95% CI = 376) attempts to shoot at canvasbacks on the Lake Onalaska study area during 1991 and 837 (95% CI = 390) during 1992. Mortality of canvasbacks, excluding crippling loss, was estimated to be 128 during 1991 and 166 during 1992. Thus, total canvasback losses may be higher than currently estimated on a flyway or national basis. This estimating technique offers a promising method for enumerating hunter take of protected and legal species.

  17. A novel hunting accident. Discharge of a firearm by a hunting dog.

    PubMed

    Baker, A M; Keller, G; Garcia, D

    2001-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 21-year-old man who was killed while duck hunting when a shotgun accidentally discharged, shooting him in the head. The loaded weapon, which had been lying on the ground with the safety off and the muzzle pointed toward a river a few feet away, discharged when a hunting dog stepped on the trigger. Scene investigation confirmed that the victim had been standing in the river, planting decoys, with his head approximately level with the adjacent bank. Autopsy examination and ballistic testing confirmed a range of fire consistent with the witness' statements. Examination of the weapon in question documented a light trigger pull but no mechanical defects. The authors review the epidemiology and causality of hunting accidents and discuss the various safety rules that were violated in this highly unusual case. The importance of a complete death investigation, including autopsy, when dealing with a firearm death is emphasized. PMID:11563741

  18. HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS THE GREAT CIRCUS - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  19. Cooperative hunting roles among taï chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Christophe

    2002-03-01

    All known chimpanzee populations have been observed to hunt small mammals for meat. Detailed observations have shown, however, that hunting strategies differ considerably between populations, with some merely collecting prey that happens to pass by while others hunt in coordinated groups to chase fast-moving prey. Of all known populations, Taï chimpanzees exhibit the highest level of cooperation when hunting. Some of the group hunting roles require elaborate coordination with other hunters as well as precise anticipation of the movements of the prey. The meat-sharing rules observed in this community guarantee the largest share of the meat to hunters who perform the most important roles leading to a capture. The learning time of such hunting roles is sometimes especially long. Taï chimpanzee males begin hunting monkeys at about age 10. The hunters' progress in learning the more sophisticated hunting roles is clearly correlated with age; only after 20 years of practice are they able to perform them reliably. This lengthy learning period has also been shown in some hunter-gatherer societies and confirms the special challenge that hunting represents. PMID:26192594

  20. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the April 17, 2012, Federal Register (77 FR 23094), we requested proposals from... season, under the guidelines described in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). In this... adequately and, therefore, we made them final beginning with the 1988-89 hunting season (53 FR 31612,...

  1. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Service, (703) 358-1714. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the May 13, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 27144... Register (50 FR 23467). In this supplemental proposed rule, we propose special migratory bird hunting... regulations were published in the Federal Register on July 29, 2010 (75 FR 44856); early-season...

  2. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ..., 2013, Federal Register (78 FR 21200), we requested proposals from Indian Tribes wishing to establish... in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). In this supplemental proposed rule, we propose... hunting season (53 FR 31612, August 18, 1988). We should stress here, however, that use of the...

  3. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ..., purchased, shipped, carried, exported, or transported. In the August 8, 2011, Federal Register (76 FR 48694... Indian tribes, under the guidelines described in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The..., Federal Register (76 FR 19876), we requested that tribes desiring special hunting regulations in the...

  4. 78 FR 58233 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ..., purchased, shipped, carried, exported, or transported. In the August 2, 2013, Federal Register (78 FR 47136... Indian tribes, under the guidelines described in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The..., Federal Register (78 FR 21200), we requested that tribes desiring special hunting regulations in the...

  5. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ..., carried, exported, or transported. In the August 6, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 47682), we proposed... the guidelines described in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The guidelines respond..., Federal Register (75 FR 27144), we requested that tribes desiring special hunting regulations in the...

  6. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ..., carried, exported, or transported. In the August 16, 2012, Federal Register (77 FR 49680), we proposed... the guidelines described in the June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The guidelines respond..., Federal Register (77 FR 23094), we requested that tribes desiring special hunting regulations in the...

  7. 75 FR 53773 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ..., 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 47682), we proposed special migratory bird hunting regulations for the..., Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The guidelines respond to Tribal requests for Service recognition of their... the May 13, 2010, Federal Register (75 FR 27144), we requested that Tribes desiring special...

  8. Hunting for Knowledge: Using a Scavenger Hunt to Orient Graduate Veterinary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Caitlin; Alpi, Kristine M.

    2015-01-01

    Active participation in orientation is hoped to increase understanding and use of library resources and services beyond the effect of tours or welcome lectures. Timed scavenger hunts have been used to orient undergraduate and medical students to academic libraries. This report describes the planning, execution, and evaluation of an untimed…

  9. 77 FR 34931 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Meeting Regarding Regulations for the 2012-13 Hunting Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... migratory game bird hunting regulations (77 FR 29516). In that document, we announced a meeting of the SRC.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On April 17, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 23094) a... (77 ] FR 29516) for information regarding how to submit comments. Authority We publish...

  10. 78 FR 21199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... June 4, 1985, Federal Register (50 FR 23467) to establish special migratory game bird hunting... Register (55 FR 9618). Regulatory Schedule for 2013-14 This document is the first in a series of proposed... season by indigenous inhabitants. On August 16, 2002, we published in the Federal Register (67 FR...

  11. Cat Dilemma: Too Protected To Escape Trophy Hunting?

    PubMed Central

    Palazy, Lucille; Bonenfant, Christophe; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2011-01-01

    Trophy hunting is one of the most controversial issues in the field of biodiversity conservation. In particular, proponents and opponents debate fiercely over whether it poses a threat to hunted populations. Here, we show that trophy hunting constitutes a greater menace to threatened species than previously realized. Because humans value rarity, targeted species that are threatened are likely to be disproportionately hunted, thereby becoming even more vulnerable, which could eventually push them to extinction. With the ten felid species currently hunted for their trophies, we present evidence that (1) the number of killed individuals increases with time, in several cases exponentially, despite population declines, (2) the price of trophies is strongly dependent on species protection status, (3) changes of protection status coincide with counter-intuitive changes of hunting pressures: protection intensification with augmented hunting effort, and protection relaxation with lower effort. This suggests an over-exploitation of trophy-hunted felids and the necessity of a better quota system coupled with reconsidered protection methods. PMID:21818322

  12. 77 FR 25191 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    .... Benefit recreational hunting; 2. Benefit wildlife resources; and 3. Encourage partnership among the public... support for the Sport Wildlife Trust Fund; 3. Fostering wildlife and habitat conservation and ethics in... recommendation to improve implementation of Federal ] conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting,...

  13. 76 FR 30192 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... habitat conservation endeavors that: (a) Benefit recreational hunting; (b) Benefit wildlife resources; and... awareness of and support for the Sport Wildlife Trust Fund; (c) Fostering wildlife and habitat conservation... benefit wildlife, hunting and outdoor recreation on private lands; and (h) When requested by the...

  14. 76 FR 39433 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...) Benefit recreational hunting; (b) Benefit wildlife resources; and (c) Encourage partnership among the...) Increasing public awareness of and support for the Sport Wildlife Trust Fund; (c) Fostering wildlife and... programs that benefit wildlife, hunting, and outdoor recreation on private lands; and (h) When requested...

  15. 75 FR 57292 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...) Benefit recreational hunting; (b) Benefit wildlife resources; and (c) Encourage partnership among the... Plan--A Ten-Year Plan for Implementation; (b) Increasing public awareness of and support for the Sport... improve implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit wildlife, hunting and...

  16. 78 FR 3446 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior,...

  17. 77 FR 1718 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held... CONTACT: Chief, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of...

  18. 78 FR 78377 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service RIN 1018-AZ80 Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting... preliminary issues concerning the 2014-15 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior,...

  19. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  20. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  1. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  2. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  3. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  4. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game...

  5. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  6. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  7. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and...

  8. Native American Hunting Traditions as a Basis for Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Native American hunting practices and beliefs applicable to an outdoor education curriculum, focusing on respect and reverence for the earth, animals, and the natural world. Suggests that Native hunting rationales could form a philosophical foundation for environmental education and outdoor education programs. (LP)

  9. 78 FR 48460 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... and Water Conservation Fund; and 4. Other Council business. The final agenda will be posted on the... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). DATES:...

  10. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14 Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  11. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14 Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  12. Missouri DECA: 2010-2011 Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Missouri DECA Policy Manual. This manual contains the following sections: (1) DECA Board of Directors; (2) State Sales Projects; (3) State Officers; (4) Districts; (5) Competitive Events; (6) General Conference Information; (7) Fall Leadership & State Officer Election Conference; (8) Central Region Leadership Conference;…

  13. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

  14. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William E; Croes, Barbara M; Tchignoumba, Landry; Lahm, Sally A; Alonso, Alfonso; Lee, Michelle E; Campbell, Patrick; Ondzeano, Claude

    2006-08-01

    Road expansion and associated increases in bunting pressure are a rapidly growing threat to African tropical wildlife. In the rainforests of southern Gabon, we compared abundances of larger (>1 kg) mammal species at varying distances from forest roads and between hunted and unhunted treatments (comparing a 130-km2 oil concession that was almost entirely protected from bunting with nearby areas outside the concession that had moderate hunting pressure). At each of 12 study sites that were evenly divided between hunted and unhunted areas, we established standardized 1-km transects at five distances (50, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 m) from an unpaved road, and then repeatedly surveyed mammals during the 2004 dry and wet seasons. Hunting had the greatest impact on duikers (Cephalophus spp.), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus), which declined in abundance outside the oil concession, and lesser effects on lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and carnivores. Roads depressed abundances of duikers, sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), and forest elephants (Loxondonta africana cyclotis), with avoidance of roads being stronger outside than inside the concession. Five monkey species showed little response to roads or hunting, whereas some rodents and pangolins increased in abundance outside the concession, possibly in response to greater forest disturbance. Our findings suggest that even moderate hunting pressure can markedly alter the structure of mammal communities in central Africa. Roads had the greatest impacts on large and small ungulates, with the magnitude of road avoidance increasing with local hunting pressure. PMID:16922241

  15. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2013-14 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  16. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  17. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...This rule prescribes final early-season frameworks from which the States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands may select season dates, limits, and other options for the 2010-11 migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include seasons in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The effect of this final rule is to facilitate......

  18. Bear-Baiting May Exacerbate Wolf-Hunting Dog Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bump, Joseph K.; Murawski, Chelsea M.; Kartano, Linda M.; Beyer, Dean E.; Roell, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12–7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. Conclusions/Significance These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting

  19. The 2013 Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal

    PubMed Central

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue; Hieter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The Genetics Society of America annually honors members who have made outstanding contributions to genetics. The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal recognizes a lifetime contribution to the science of genetics. The Genetics Society of America Medal recognizes particularly outstanding contributions to the science of genetics over the past 32 years. The George W. Beadle Award recognizes distinguished service to the field of genetics and the community of geneticists. The Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes individuals or groups who have had a significant, sustained impact on genetics education at any level, from kindergarten through graduate school and beyond. The Novitski Prize recognizes an extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in solving significant problems in biological research through the application of genetic methods. We are pleased to announce the 2013 awards. PMID:23633133

  20. Hunt for θ13 with LENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, K.; Enqvist, T.; Hissa, J.; Nesterenko, D.; Novikov, Yu N.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vergados, J.; Wurm, M.

    2012-07-01

    In a hunt for by far missing neutrino mixing angle θ13 the accelerator experiments have recently indicated non-zero value and the dedicated reactor neutrino experiments are moving towards the data-taking phase to confirm that. The small effect of θ13 to the neutrino oscillation probabilities can be also complementarily probed using artificially made source of mono-chromatic neutrinos with low energies originated from electron capture processes. Due to the small energy of neutrino and tiny interaction cross section, and the expected scale of θ13 support the use of large liquid scintillation detector. In this work, the estimated sensitivities for measurement of mixing angle θ13 is presented in context of proposed LENA detector. Instead of the existing and earlier investigated neutrino source 51Cr, more feasible source candidate 75Se is used. The search for possible sterile neutrino flavors is also discussed.

  1. [Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Marijan; Kovacić, Ivan; Krvavica, Ana; Nekić, Ivica; Harapin, Mladen

    2010-01-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is a nonspecific granulomatous inflammation of the cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure and apex of the orbit. It involves episodes of unilateral orbital pain which may last several weeks, lesions of cranial nerve III, IV or VI, and rarely II, V, VII and VIII. It is characterized by remissions and exacerbations, and can cause permanent neurological disorder of the affected nerves. We present the course of the disease in a patient whose initial symptom was gradual visual loss in the right eye, followed by neuralgic pain in the right orbit and face. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and corticosteroid therapy was administered. Exacerbation of the disease required repeated surgery, excision of the fibrous tissue of the cavernous sinus, as well as prolonged corticosteroid therapy. PMID:20677620

  2. Scaling law in target-hunting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-Jie

    2004-05-01

    We study a hunting process for a target, in which the hunter tracks the goal by smelling odors it emits. The odor intensity is supposed to decrease with the diffusion distance. The Monte Carlo experiment is carried out on a two-dimensional square lattice. Having no idea of the location of the target, the hunter determines its moves only by random attempts in each direction. By sorting the searching time in each simulation and introducing a variable x to reflect the sequence of searching times, we obtain a curve with a wide plateau, indicating the most probable time of successfully finding the target. The simulations reveal a scaling law for the searching time versus the distance to the position of the target. The scaling exponent depends on the sensitivity of the hunter. Our model may be a prototype in studying such searching processes as various food-foraging behaviors of wild animals.

  3. Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Benzohra, D E; Damry, N; Delpierre, I; Huybrechts, S; Monier, A; Christophe, C

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in a 4-year-old girl. Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed a left cavernous sinus involvement with internal carotid artery occlusion. Clinical signs included left ophthalmoplegia, convulsions and right hemiplegia. Etiopathogenesis of this syndrome is unclear but as in our case, response to corticosteroid therapy is spectacular and avoids unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. We underline the importance of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnostic approach. Several other diseases including tumors, vascular lesions and infections can have a similar clinical and/or imaging presentation. However, closely monitored evolution on imaging proves to be decisive in the establishment of final diagnosis of this syndrome. PMID:22191295

  4. In vitro neuraminidase inhibitory concentration (IC50) of four neuraminidase inhibitors against clinical isolates of the influenza viruses circulating in the 2010-2011 to 2014-2015 Japanese influenza seasons.

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Kawai, Naoki; Iwaki, Norio; Kashiwagi, Seizaburo

    2016-09-01

    To assess the extent of viral resistance to the four neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), we measured their 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for influenza virus isolates from the 2014-2015 influenza season for comparison with those circulating in the 2010-2011 to 2013-2014 influenza seasons. Viral isolation was done with specimens obtained prior to treatment, and the type and subtype of influenza was determined by RT-PCR using type- and subtype-specific primers. The IC50 was determined by a neuraminidase inhibition assay using a fluorescent substrate. IC50 was measured for 200 influenza A(H3N2) and 19 influenza B in the 2014-2015 season, and no virus with highly reduced sensitivity to the four NAIs was detected. The ratios of the geometric means of the A(H3N2) IC50s of 2014-2015 to those of the 2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 seasons ranged from 0.72 to 1.05, 0.82 to 1.22, 0.69 to 1.00, and 0.70 to 1.03, respectively. The ratios of the geometric mean of the B IC50s to the previous four seasons ranged from 0.59 to 1.28, 0.66 to 1.34, 0.84 to 1.21, and 1.06 to 1.47, respectively. There was no trend in the change of the IC50s for A(H3N2) or B. Significant differences were found in some seasons, but the differences in the IC50s were all less than two fold. These results show change in the geometric mean IC50 by season but with no trend, which indicates that the influence of viral mutation on the effectiveness of these NAIs was minute for A(H3N2) and B over the past five seasons. PMID:27346379

  5. Hunt to buy Pacific Enterprises' U. S. production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-19

    This paper reports that Hunt Oil Co., Dallas, has agreed to buy substantially all of the oil and gas assets of Pacific Enterprises Oil Co. (U.S.A.) a subsidiary of Pacific Enterprises, Los Angeles. Hunt will pay $371 million for leases mainly in Texas, Wyoming, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The acquired properties will add oil and gas reserves of about 63 million bbl of oil equivalent and nearly 1.4 million gross leasehold acres to Hunt's exploration and production assets. Included in the assets to be acquired are several oil and gas fields on the Burnett Ranch in King County, Tex., and a subsidiary corporation that has production interests in Colombia.

  6. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

    PubMed

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos. PMID:24001054

  7. Estimation of vitamin K intake in Koreans and determination of the primary vitamin K-containing food sources based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Soo; Kim, Mi-Sung; Na, Woo-Ri

    2013-01-01

    There is little information on dietary vitamin K intake and nutritional status of daily requirements of vitamin K in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the vitamin K intake and major food sources of Vitamin K in Koreans. The survey data from the 2010-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 7,792 subjects (aged 19-64 years) were examined. Total vitamin K intake was calculated from 24-hour dietary recall using a vitamin K food database, Computer Aided Nutritional analysis Program and the United States Department of Agriculture database. The geometric mean of vitamin K was estimated as 322.40 ± 6.33 ug/day for men and 271.20 ± 4.92 ug/day for women. Daily vitamin K intake increased significantly with age (p for trend < 0.001). The main food source of vitamin K was vegetables (72.84%), including cabbage kimchi (19.26%), spinach (17.38%), sesame leaves (7.11%), radish leaves (6.65%), spring onions (6.28%), and laver (4.82%), followed by seaweed, seasonings, and fat and oils. We observed that the vitamin K intake of Koreans was relatively higher than that reported by other studies in Western countries and differed depending on age. PMID:24353837

  8. Animal welfare and the harp seal hunt in Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Crook, Alice; Bollinger, Trent K.; Campbell, Keith G.; Wong, James

    2002-01-01

    Much attention has been given over the years to animal welfare issues surrounding the seal hunt in Atlantic Canada. However, very little information is available on this subject in the scientific literature. This article reports the results of observations made by representatives of the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association at the hunt in recent years and compares them with observations made by members of the International Fund for Animal Welfare. The conclusion is that the large majority of seals taken during this hunt (at best, 98% in work reported here) are killed in an acceptably humane manner. However, the small proportion of animals that are not killed effectively justifies continued attention to this hunt on the part of the veterinary profession. PMID:12240525

  9. 78 FR 42104 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    .... Benefit wildlife resources; 2. Encourage partnership among the public, sporting conservation organizations, States, Native American tribes, and the Federal Government; and 3. Benefit recreational hunting. The.... Providing recommendations to improve implementation of Federal conservation programs that benefit...

  10. Geocaching: Finding Mathematics in a Global Treasure Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.

    2014-01-01

    If you love taking mathematics lessons outdoors, then you will love this article. Leicha Bragg describes geocaching, which combines technology, treasure hunting and mathematics, and results in purposeful, authentic and engaging mathematics.

  11. Animal welfare and the harp seal hunt in Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Crook, Alice; Bollinger, Trent K; Campbell, Keith G; Wong, James

    2002-09-01

    Much attention has been given over the years to animal welfare issues surrounding the seal hunt in Atlantic Canada. However, very little information is available on this subject in the scientific literature. This article reports the results of observations made by representatives of the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association at the hunt in recent years and compares them with observations made by members of the International Fund for Animal Welfare. The conclusion is that the large majority of seals taken during this hunt (at best, 98% in work reported here) are killed in an acceptably humane manner. However, the small proportion of animals that are not killed effectively justifies continued attention to this hunt on the part of the veterinary profession. PMID:12240525

  12. Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Rhett D; Sreekar, Rachakonda; Brodie, Jedediah F; Brook, Sarah; Luskin, Matthew; O'Kelly, Hannah; Rao, Madhu; Scheffers, Brett; Velho, Nandini

    2016-10-01

    Although deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting-tolerant species. To document hunting impacts on vertebrate populations regionally, we conducted an extensive literature review, including papers in local journals and reports of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Evidence from multiple sites indicated animal populations declined precipitously across the region since approximately 1980, and many species are now extirpated from substantial portions of their former ranges. Hunting is by far the greatest immediate threat to the survival of most of the region's endangered vertebrates. Causes of recent overhunting include improved access to forests and markets, improved hunting technology, and escalating demand for wild meat, wildlife-derived medicinal products, and wild animals as pets. Although hunters often take common species, such as pigs or rats, for their own consumption, they take rarer species opportunistically and sell surplus meat and commercially valuable products. There is also widespread targeted hunting of high-value species. Consequently, as currently practiced, hunting cannot be considered sustainable anywhere in the region, and in most places enforcement of protected-area and protected-species legislation is weak. The international community's focus on cross-border trade fails to address overexploitation of wildlife because hunting and the sale of wild meat is largely a local issue and most of the harvest is consumed in villages, rural towns, and nearby cities. In addition to improved enforcement, efforts to engage hunters and manage wildlife populations through sustainable hunting practices are urgently needed. Unless there is a step change in efforts to reduce wildlife exploitation to sustainable levels, the

  13. Different hunting strategies of generalist predators result in functional differences.

    PubMed

    Michalko, Radek; Pekár, Stano

    2016-08-01

    The morphological, physiological, and behavioural traits of organisms are often used as surrogates for actual ecological functions. However, differences in these traits do not necessarily lead to functional differences and/or can be context-dependent. Therefore, it is necessary to explicitly test whether the surrogates have general ecological relevance. To investigate the relationship between the hunting strategies of predators (i.e., how, where, and when they hunt) and their function, we used euryphagous spiders as a model group. We used published data on the diet composition of 76 spider species based on natural prey and laboratory prey acceptance experiments. We computed differences in the position and width of trophic niches among pairs of sympatrically occurring species. Pairs were made at different classification levels, ranked according to the dissimilarity in their hunting strategies: congeners, confamiliars (as phylogenetic proxies for similarity in hunting strategy), species from the same main class of hunting strategy, from the same supra-class, and from different supra-classes. As for niche position computed from the natural prey analyses, species from the same class differed less than species from different classes. A similar pattern was obtained from the laboratory studies, but the congeners differed less than the species from the same classes. Niche widths were most similar among congeners and dissimilar among species from different supra-classes. Functional differences among euryphagous spiders increased continuously with increasing difference in their hunting strategy. The relative frequency of hunting strategies within spider assemblages can, therefore, influence the food webs through hunting strategy-specific predator-prey interactions. PMID:27098662

  14. ["Treasure Hunt"--a cognitive-behavioural computer game].

    PubMed

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The development of video games promoting health related behaviour is increasing. This holds not only for chronic diseases like asthma and diabetes, but also for the field of child psychotherapy. At the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of Zürich University, the video game Treasure Hunt was developed to support psychotherapeutic treatment of children between eight and thirteen years of age. Treasure Hunt does not replace the therapist but supports treatment by offering attractive electronic work assignments. The scope of this article is an overview on health games for children and a description of Treasure Hunt. After the explanation of its therapeutic potentials, an evaluation based on questionnaires for therapists and children will be presented. 124 therapists answered a questionnaire on their impression of the game three months after download. 41 therapists were willing to participate in the further evaluation and sent questionnaires of 200 children with whom Treasure Hunt had been used. A limitation of these data is that a positive bias can not be excluded, as therapists with a positive attitude towards psychotherapeutic computer games were more likely to answer the questionnaire. 118 therapists (95.2%) considered Treasure Hunt a useful tool in child psychotherapy. 197 children (98.5%) report being satisfied with the use of the game during treatment. Treasure Hunt was predominantly used for the age group it is designed for and both, by very experienced and by young therapists. Eleven diagnostic categories reflect a broader range of indications than expected. PMID:22242257

  15. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting.

    PubMed

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P

    2014-06-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. PMID:24966203

  16. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting

    PubMed Central

    Lönnstedt, Oona M.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. PMID:24966203

  17. Modeling the impacts of hunting on the population dynamics of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rudran, Rasanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Overexploitation of wildlife populations occurs across the humid tropics and is a significant threat to the long-term survival of large-bodied primates. To investigate the impacts of hunting on primates and ways to mitigate them, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model for a landscape that included hunted and un-hunted areas. We used the large-bodied neotropical red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) as our case study species because its life history characteristics make it vulnerable to hunting. We modeled the influence of different rates of harvest and proportions of landscape dedicated to un-hunted reserves on population persistence, population size, social dynamics, and hunting yields of red howler monkeys. In most scenarios, the un-hunted populations maintained a constant density regardless of hunting pressure elsewhere, and allowed the overall population to persist. Therefore, the overall population was quite resilient to extinction; only in scenarios without any un-hunted areas did the population go extinct. However, the total and hunted populations did experience large declines over 100 years under moderate and high hunting pressure. In addition, when reserve area decreased, population losses and losses per unit area increased disproportionately. Furthermore, hunting disrupted the social structure of troops. The number of male turnovers and infanticides increased in hunted populations, while birth rates decreased and exacerbated population losses due to hunting. Finally, our results indicated that when more than 55% of the landscape was harvested at high (30%) rates, hunting yields, as measured by kilograms of biomass, were less than those obtained from moderate harvest rates. Additionally, hunting yields, expressed as the number of individuals hunted/year/km2, increased in proximity to un-hunted areas, and suggested that dispersal from un-hunted areas may have contributed to hunting sustainability. These results indicate that un-hunted

  18. The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Extrasolar moons may be frequent temperate abodes for life and their detection would not only have astrobiological significance but would also greatly further our understanding of planet/moon formation theories. To date, the bulk of research on this topic has been mostly theoretical, focussing on detection techniques and expected sensitivities as well as exomoon origin and evolution. Here, we introduce a new observational project which aims to change this, enabled by the fact both the theory and available instrumentation have evolved to the required level to make such a search feasible. Our project, "The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler” (HEK), will be a systematic search for exomoons around planets which are viable hosts, with the explicit goal of determining the frequency of large exomoons in the cosmos. We will overview the observational strategy including the detection tools and target selection routines which have been developed, methods to vet false-positives, and some preliminary results from our first batch of candidates. This research is enabled by the NASA Carl Sagan fellowships for exoplanetary research.

  19. The hunters and the hunted revisited.

    PubMed

    Lee-Thorp, J; Thackeray, J F; van der Merwe, N

    2000-12-01

    The dietary niches of extinct animals, including hominids and predators, may be constrained using stable carbon isotope ratios in fossil tooth enamel.(13)C/(12)C ratios of many of the primates abundant in the faunal assemblages of Members 1 and 2 at Swartkrans, including cercopithecoids and Australopithecus (Paranthropus) robustus, and a range of other possible prey species, have been reported previously. Resulting suggestions of a mixed, or omnivorous, diet for A. robustus raise questions about niche overlap with coeval, larger brained Homo. Here we present(13)C/(12)C data from Homo and several large predators including Panthera pardus, Dinofelis sp., Megantereon cultridens and Chasmoporthetes nitidula in Member 1, and P. pardus and P. leo in Member 2, in order to compare the two hominid species and to determine likely predators of the various primates and other macrovertebrates. Results for three Homo cf. ergaster individuals are indistinguishable from those of A. robustus, showing that proportions of C(3)- and C(4)-based foods in their diets did not differ. P. pardus, Megantereon and Crocuta are shown to be likely predators of the hominids and Papio baboons in Member 1, while the Dinofelis individual concentrated on prey which consumed C(4)grasses. The hunting hyaenid C. nitidula preyed on either mixed feeders or on a range of animals across the spectrum of C(3)and C(4)variation. The data from Members 1 and 2 confirm a shift in leopard diets towards animals that consumed C(4)grasses. PMID:11102267

  20. LEECH: LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, A.

    2014-03-01

    In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4- meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reducing the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L' (3.8 microns) with LMIRcam, as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 microns) of other similar surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. The goals of LEECH are to (1) discover new exoplanets, (2) characterize the atmospheres of newly discovered exoplanets, (3) characterize the architectures of nearby planetary systems, and (4) establish meaningful constraints on the prevalence of wideseparation exoplanets.

  1. Hunting for Snarks in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hestenes, David

    2009-12-08

    A long-standing debate over the interpretation of quantum mechanics has centered on the meaning of Schroedinger's wave function {psi} for an electron. Broadly speaking, there are two major opposing schools. On the one side, the Copenhagen school(led by Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli) holds that {psi} provides a complete description of a single electron state; hence the probability interpretation of {psi}{psi}* expresses an irreducible uncertainty in electron behavior that is intrinsic in nature. On the other side, the realist school(led by Einstein, de Broglie, Bohm and Jaynes) holds that {psi} represents a statistical ensemble of possible electron states; hence it is an incomplete description of a single electron state. I contend that the debaters have overlooked crucial facts about the electron revealed by Dirac theory. In particular, analysis of electron zitterbewegung(first noticed by Schroedinger) opens a window to particle substructure in quantum mechanics that explains the physical significance of the complex phase factor in {psi}. This led to a testable model for particle substructure with surprising support by recent experimental evidence. If the explanation is upheld by further research, it will resolve the debate in favor of the realist school. I give details. The perils of research on the foundations of quantum mechanics have been foreseen by Lewis Carroll in The Hunting of the Snark{exclamation_point}.

  2. Regeneration: Thomas Hunt Morgan's window into development.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Mary Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Early in his career Thomas Hunt Morgan was interested in embryology and dedicated his research to studying organisms that could regenerate. Widely regarded as a regeneration expert, Morgan was invited to deliver a series of lectures on the topic that he developed into a book, Regeneration (1901). In addition to presenting experimental work that he had conducted and supervised, Morgan also synthesized and critiqued a great deal of work by his peers and predecessors. This essay probes into the history of regeneration studies by looking in depth at Regeneration and evaluating Morgan's contribution. Although famous for his work with fruit fly genetics, studying Regeneration illuminates Morgan's earlier scientific approach which emphasized the importance of studying a diversity of organisms. Surveying a broad range of regenerative phenomena allowed Morgan to institute a standard scientific terminology that continues to inform regeneration studies today. Most importantly, Morgan argued that regeneration was a fundamental aspect of the growth process and therefore should be accounted for within developmental theory. Establishing important similarities between regeneration and development allowed Morgan to make the case that regeneration could act as a model of development. The nature of the relationship between embryogenesis and regeneration remains an active area of research. PMID:20665231

  3. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ANTIBIOTICS IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN A SECONDARY CARE SETTING FROM 2005-2006 AND 2010-2011, IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL: DATA FROM 11,943 URINE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Érique José Peixoto De; Oliveira, Gerson Sobrinho Salvador De; Roque, Felício Lopes; Santos, Sílvia Regina Dos; Olmos, Rodrigo Diaz; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) has a high incidence and recurrence, therefore, treatment is empirical in the majority of cases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the urine cultures performed at a secondary hospital, during two periods, 2005-2006 and 2010-2011, and to estimate the microbial resistance. Patients and methods: We analyzed 11,943 aerobic urine cultures according to basic demographic data and susceptibility to antibiotics in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) for Vitek 1 and 2. Results: Most of our cohort consisted of young adult females that were seen at the Emergency Department. E. coli was the most frequent (70.2%) among the 75 species isolated. Resistance of all isolates was ≥ 20% for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, cefazolin and nalidixic acid. Although E. coli was more susceptible (resistance ≥ 20% for TMP/SMX and nalidixic acid) among all of the isolates, when classified by the number and percentage of antibiotic resistance. Global resistance to fluoroquinolones was approximately 12%. Risk factors for E. coli were female gender and an age less than 65 years. Men and patients older than 65 years of age, presented more resistant isolates. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were identified in 173 out of 5,722 Gram-negative isolates (3.0%) between 2010 and 2011. Conclusion: E. coli was the most frequent microbe isolated in the urine cultures analyzed in this study. There was a significant evolution of bacterial resistance between the two periods studied. In particular, the rise of bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones was concerning. PMID:25076433

  4. Analysis of six elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in several wild vegetables and evaluation of their intakes based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2015-03-01

    Wild vegetables, those edible among naturally grown vegetables, have been reported to contain many bioactive substances, dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals. The purpose of this study is to examine the six elements of the wild vegetables frequently consumed by Koreans and assess the element intakes through them. Contents of six kinds of elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) in 11 wild vegetables were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Using these analysis data, the 6-element intakes from the wild vegetables were evaluated in healthy Korean adults aged 19-64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011). Sedum and shepherd's purse contained over 100 mg of Ca in 100 g of their edible portion. The Mg content per 100 g of the 11 wild vegetables ranged from 12.1 mg to 43.4 mg. The wild vegetable with the highest mineral content per 100 g was sedum for Ca, spinach for Mg, shepherd's purse for Fe, spinach for Zn, bracken for Cu, and fragrant edible wild aster for Mn. The element intakes from the 11 wild vegetables compared with dietary reference intakes in the healthy Koreans were 1.0 % for Ca, 2.1 % for Mg, 5.3 % for Fe, 1.4 % for Zn, 0.3 % for Cu, and 1.8 % for Mn. Considering the low intake ratio (1.2 %) of the wild vegetable to total food intake, wild vegetables may contribute to some element intakes. Our results show the nutritional value of the wild vegetables in the aspect of mineral nutrition; however, further research is needed to evaluate the bioavailability of various elements in wild vegetables. PMID:25524523

  5. Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, hunt with tools.

    PubMed

    Pruetz, Jill D; Bertolani, Paco

    2007-03-01

    Although tool use is known to occur in species ranging from naked mole rats [1] to owls [2], chimpanzees are the most accomplished tool users [3-5]. The modification and use of tools during hunting, however, is still considered to be a uniquely human trait among primates. Here, we report the first account of habitual tool use during vertebrate hunting by nonhumans. At the Fongoli site in Senegal, we observed ten different chimpanzees use tools to hunt prosimian prey in 22 bouts. This includes immature chimpanzees and females, members of age-sex classes not normally characterized by extensive hunting behavior. Chimpanzees made 26 different tools, and we were able to recover and analyze 12 of these. Tool construction entailed up to five steps, including trimming the tool tip to a point. Tools were used in the manner of a spear, rather than a probe or rousing tool. This new information on chimpanzee tool use has important implications for the evolution of tool use and construction for hunting in the earliest hominids, especially given our observations that females and immature chimpanzees exhibited this behavior more frequently than adult males. PMID:17320393

  6. Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  7. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  8. [The determination of the ballistics of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet].

    PubMed

    Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Nagornov, M N

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are considered to determine the shooting range of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet from the specific features of gunshot injuries inflicted by container-type Poleba-3 bullets for hunting rifles. PMID:25275187

  9. 76 FR 16638 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference; Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ..., see our March 4, 2011, Federal Register notice (76 FR 12130), or contact Joshua Winchell, Council... Fish and Wildlife Service Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference... teleconference of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). The teleconference was...

  10. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  11. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  12. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to...

  13. Mourning dove nesting: seasonal patterns and effects of September hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, Paul H.; Dolton, David D.; Field, Rebecca; Coon, Richard A.; Percival, H. Franklin; Hayne, Don W.; Soileau, Lawrence D.; George, Ronnie R.; Dunks, James H.; Bunnell, S. Dwight

    1987-01-01

    A nationwide State-Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on nesting mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in zones where early September dove hunting is permitted than in zones where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were monitored to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated using two measurements, backdating from hatch dates and counting numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percentage of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating from hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual nesting activity occurred in September and October. The activity of 80% of the observed nests was within the period of 22 April to 4 September. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. Because a decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the 1 September start of hunting, we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and is not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in adjacent hunted and nonhunted zones from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted zones; the corresponding fledging rates were 33 and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26-day

  14. Mourning Dove Nesting: Seasonal Patterns and Effects of September Hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.; Dolton, D.D.; Coon, R.A.; Percival, H.F.; Field, R.; Hayne, D.W.; Soileau, L.D.; George, R.R.; Dunks, J.H.; Bunnell, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A nationwide State/Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting. This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in areas where early September dove hunting is permitted compared to areas where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were followed to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated both by backdating from hatch dates and by the numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percent of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual total of nesting activity occurred in September and October. The observed period when 80% of the nests were active, based on hatch dates, lasted from April 22 to September 4. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. A decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the September 1 start of hunting. From this we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in hunted and nonhunted sections from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted sections; the corresponding fledging rates were 33% and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26

  15. Shoot first, ask questions later: Interpretative narratives of Neanderthal hunting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mark; Pettitt, Paul; Schreve, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the hunting strategies employed by Neanderthals at a series of kill or near-kill sites from the Middle Palaeolithic of Europe (Mauran, La Borde, Taubach, Zwoleń and Salzgitter Lebenstedt). Using palaeolandscape reconstructions and animal ethology as our context, we adopt a multifaceted approach that views hunting as a chaîne opératoire involving the decisions and actions of both the hunter and the hunted, which together help reconstruct a forensic picture of past events as they unfolded. Our conclusions indicate that Neanderthals did not necessarily pre-select individuals from a herd, who they then isolated, pursued and killed, but rather ambushed whole groups, which they slaughtered indiscriminately. There is strong evidence, however, that Neanderthals were highly selective in the carcasses they then chose to process. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals were excellent tacticians, casual executioners and discerning diners.

  16. Risk and Ethical Concerns of Hunting Male Elephant: Behavioural and Physiological Assays of the Remaining Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Tarryne; Page, Bruce; Van Dyk, Gus; Millspaugh, Josh; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Background Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1) risk of attack or damage (11 hunts), and (2) behavioural (movement dynamics) and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations) responses (4 hunts) in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds) did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites) in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt) and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt). Conclusions/Significance As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies. PMID:18560517

  17. Application of the anthropogenic allee effect model to trophy hunting as a conservation tool.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard B; Cooney, Rosie; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2013-10-01

    Trophy hunting can provide economic incentives to conserve wild species, but it can also involve risk when rare species are hunted. The anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE) is a conceptual model that seeks to explain how rarity may spread the seeds of further endangerment. The AAE model has increasingly been invoked in the context of trophy hunting, increasing concerns that such hunting may undermine rather than enhance conservation efforts. We question the appropriateness of uncritically applying the AAE model to trophy hunting for 4 reasons. First, the AAE assumes an open-access resource, which is a poor characterization of most trophy-hunting programs and obscures the potential for state, communal, or private-property use rights to generate positive incentives for conservation. Second, study results that show the price of hunting increases as the rarity of the animal increases are insufficient to indicate the presence of AAE. Third, AAE ignores the existence of biological and behavioral factors operating in most trophy-hunting contexts that tend to regulate the effect of hunting. We argue that site-specific data, rather than aggregated hunting statistics, are required to demonstrate that patterns of unsustainable exploitation can be well explained by an AAE model. Instead, we suggest that conservation managers seeking to investigate and identify constraints that limit the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, should focus on the critical governance characteristics that shape the potential conservation role of trophy hunting, such as corruption, insecure property rights, and inadequate sharing of benefits with local people. PMID:23869913

  18. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  19. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  20. 3 CFR 8870 - Proclamation 8870 of September 21, 2012. National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Hunting and Fishing Day, 2012 8870 Proclamation 8870 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8870 of September 21, 2012 Proc. 8870 National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2012By the President of the... outdoors have always played an important role in our national life. On National Hunting and Fishing Day,...

  1. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  2. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  3. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National...

  4. Hunting for Ancient Tsunamis in the Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.

    2007-05-01

    the plow for centuries. The outlook for paleotsunami hunting in South and Southeast Asia probably depends on new targets that include coral boulders and scarcely disturbed beach-ridge plains in Thailand; archaeological sites that provide cultural timelines in India; lagoons of Sri Lanka; coastal rivers that offer cutbanks and oxbows on beach-ridge plains of Java; delicately laminated deposits of salt flats routinely overrun by storm surges on the arid northern shores of the Arabian Sea; and records of prehistoric land-level change close to fault-rupture areas along the Sunda Trench.

  5. 50 CFR 32.70 - Wyoming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. National Elk Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. B. Upland Game Hunting. C. Big Game Hunting. Hunters may hunt elk and bison on designated areas... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. Hunting of geese, ducks and coots is permitted on designated...

  6. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos Resumen Científicos conservacionistas cada vez se

  7. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 327.8 Section 327.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY...

  8. The Public Services Job Hunt: Observations and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The library science job market is competitive, and library and information science (LIS) students and new graduates often have questions and concerns about how to engage in a successful job hunt. Based on research with employers and interactions with students and alumni, the author offers advice for job-seekers looking for public services…

  9. Job Hunting Behaviors and Employment Status of Recent College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Heather Anne; And Others

    The self-reported employment status, job-hunting behaviors, and career potential of current jobs for liberal arts/natural sciences graduates and nonliberal arts/sciences graduates at the University of Texas at Austin were studied approximately six months to one year after graduation. Sixty percent (151 persons, representing a 21 percent return…

  10. Bee Hunt! Ecojustice in Practice for Earth's Buzzing Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.; Pickering, John

    2010-01-01

    The Bee Hunt! project and curriculum are designed with cultural and environmental sensitivity in mind. In this project, K-12 students develop their awareness and understanding of science and investigate North American pollinator declines. Bees, butterflies, and other pollinators are integrally connected to the pollination of the world's crops for…

  11. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hunting and trapping. 331.3 Section 331.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.3...

  12. Sport Hunting, Predator Control and Conservation of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Craig; Kosmala, Margaret; Cooley, Hilary S.; Brink, Henry; Pintea, Lilian; Garshelis, David; Purchase, Gianetta; Strauss, Megan; Swanson, Alexandra; Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke; Nowell, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities. PMID:19536277

  13. 77 FR 4575 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ..., the Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that: 1. Benefit recreational hunting; 2. Benefit wildlife resources; and 3. Encourage partnership among the public, the... Plan for Implementation; 2. Increasing public awareness of and support for the Sport Wildlife...

  14. Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Packer, Craig; Kosmala, Margaret; Cooley, Hilary S; Brink, Henry; Pintea, Lilian; Garshelis, David; Purchase, Gianetta; Strauss, Megan; Swanson, Alexandra; Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke; Nowell, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities. PMID:19536277

  15. Reward Your Students with an Online Scavenger Hunt!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Do you have a class of students who do excellent work and whom you would like to give an enjoyable reward? Try an "Internet scavenger hunt" for a fun and educational change of pace! This article shares how to run the activity.

  16. Library Scavenger Hunts: A Way out of the Bewilderness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Randall

    1990-01-01

    Describes a "scavenger hunt" approach to teaching research and critical thinking skills to high school and college students. Students are provided with lists of challenging questions, supporting materials (cartoons, quotations, odd facts and humorous excerpts), and clues for developing a research strategy. Examples of questions, clues and answers…

  17. Future-Oriented Coping and Job Hunting among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yueqin; Gan, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of Chinese college students (n = 216), the present study showed that future-oriented coping negatively correlated with perceived pressure and positively correlated with successful job hunting. The relationship between proactive coping and preventive coping was also explored. Structural equation modeling suggested that a sequence…

  18. Using Scavenger Hunts to Familiarize Students with Scientific Journal Articles.

    PubMed

    Lijek, Rebeccah S; Fankhauser, Sarah C

    2016-03-01

    Primary scientific literature can be difficult to navigate for anyone unfamiliar with its foreign, formal structure. We sought to create a fun, easy learning tool to help familiarize students of all ages with the structure of a scientific article. Our main learning objective was for the student to realize that science writing is formulaic-that specific information is found in predictable locations within an article-and that, with an understanding of the formula, anyone can comfortably navigate any journal article and accurately predict what to expect to find in each section. To this end, we designed a Journal Article Scavenger Hunt that requires the user to find and identify a series of commonplace features of a primary research article. The scavenger hunt activity is quick and easy to implement, and is adaptable to various ages and settings, including the classroom, lab, and at outreach events. The questions in the scavenger hunt can be scaled in difficulty and specificity to suit the instructor's needs. Over many years of using this activity, we have received positive feedback from students of all ages, from elementary school students to lay adult-learners as well as science teachers themselves. By making the unknown seem predictable and approachable, the scavenger hunt helps a variety of audiences feel more comfortable with science and more confident in their ability to engage directly with the scientific literature. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27047608

  19. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14... Alaska National Wildlife Refuges in compliance with applicable State and Federal laws. To the extent... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  20. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14... Alaska National Wildlife Refuges in compliance with applicable State and Federal laws. To the extent... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  1. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14... Alaska National Wildlife Refuges in compliance with applicable State and Federal laws. To the extent... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping....

  2. The Hunt for Dwarf Galaxies' Ancestors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    formation had already occurred by this time.Finally, the authors compared the properties of these 73 scaled-back dwarfs to those of high-redshift galaxies that we have already detected with the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, as well as to the detection limits of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission launching in 2018.Patej and Loeb find that, when scaled back to redshifts of z = 6 or 7, the dwarf galaxies would be too faint to detect with current telescopes despite being roughly the same size as high-redshift galaxies weve already detected. But the capabilities of JWST will push into this regime: according to Patej and Loebs calculations, JWST would be able to detect 13 of the 73 galaxies in the sample at a redshift of z = 6, and 9/73 at a redshift of z = 7.Furthermore, the fraction of detectable galaxies would increase if these ancient dwarfs contained large numbers of Population-III-like, massive, bright stars. But even without such a boost, the hunt for the ancestors of local dwarf galaxies appears to be well within JWSTs capabilities!CitationAnna Patej and Abraham Loeb 2015 ApJ 815 L28. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/815/2/L28

  3. Can hunting of translocated nuisance Canada geese reduce local conflicts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holevinski, R.A.; Malecki, R.A.; Curtis, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis) nest or reside in the temperate latitudes of North America. In past years, translocation-the capture and subsequent release of geese at distant locations-has been used to establish resident goose populations and to reduce nuisance problems. However, with new special hunting seasons designed to target resident Canada geese, we can now evaluate translocation as a management tool when hunting is allowed at release sites. We selected 2 study sites, representative of urban and suburban locations with nuisance resident geese, in central and western New York, USA. In June 2003, we translocated 80 neck-banded adult geese, 14 radiomarked adult females, and 83 juveniles 150 km east and southwest from urban and suburban problem sites in western New York to state-owned Wildlife Management Areas. At these same capture sites, we used 151 neck-banded adult geese, 12 radiomarked females, and 100 juveniles as controls to compare dispersal movements and harvest vulnerability to translocated geese. All observations (n = 45) of translocated radiomarked geese were <20 km from release sites, in areas where hunting was permitted. Only 25 of 538 observations (4.6%) of radiomarked geese at control sites were in areas open to hunting. The remainder of observations occurred at nonhunting locations within 10 km of control sites. More translocated adult geese (23.8%) were harvested than control geese (6.6%; ??2 = 72.98, P = 0.0009). More translocated juvenile geese were harvested (22.9%) than juvenile controls (5.0%; ??2 = 72.30, P = 0.0005). Only 7 (8.8%) translocated adult geese returned to the original capture sites during Canada goose hunting seasons. Translocation of adult and juvenile geese in family groups may alleviate nuisance problems at conflict sites through increased harvest, reducing the number of birds returning in subsequent years.

  4. Hunting statistics: what data for what use? An account of an international workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Lebreton, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Hunting interacts with the underlying dynamics of game species in several different ways and is, at the same time, a source of valuable information not easily obtained from populations that are not subjected to hunting. Specific questions, including the sustainability of hunting activities, can be addressed using hunting statistics. Such investigations will frequently require that hunting statistics be combined with data from other sources of population-level information. Such reflections served as a basis for the meeting, ?Hunting Statistics: What Data for What Use,? held on January 15-18, 2001 in Saint-Benoist, France. We review here the 20 talks held during the workshop and the contribution of hunting statistics to our knowledge of the population dynamics of game species. Three specific topics (adaptive management, catch-effort models, and dynamics of exploited populations) were highlighted as important themes and are more extensively presented as boxes.

  5. Spring snow goose hunting influences body composition of waterfowl staging in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A spring hunt was instituted in North America to reduce abundance of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) by increasing mortality of adults directly, yet disturbance from hunting activities can indirectly influence body condition and ultimately, reproductive success. We estimated effects of hunting disturbance by comparing body composition of snow geese and non-target species, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected in portions of south-central Nebraska that were open (eastern Rainwater Basin, ERB) and closed (western Rainwater Basin, WRB; and central Platte River Valley, CPRV) to snow goose hunting during springs 1998 and 1999. Lipid content of 170 snow geese was 25% (57 g) less in areas open to hunting compared to areas closed during hunting season but similar in all areas after hunting was concluded in the ERB. Protein content of snow geese was 3% (14 g) less in the region open to hunting. Greater white-fronted geese had 24% (76 g; n = 129) less lipids in the hunted portion of the study area during hunting season, and this difference persisted after conclusion of hunting season. We found little difference in lipid or protein content of northern pintails in relation to spring hunting. Indirect effects of spring hunting may be considered a collateral benefit regarding efforts to reduce overabundant snow goose populations. Disrupted nutrient storage observed in greater white-fronted geese represents an unintended consequence of spring hunting that has potential to adversely affect reproduction for this and other species of waterbirds staging in the region.

  6. [Differentiation of hunting accident and suicide with rifles].

    PubMed

    Karger, B

    1996-02-01

    Criterias for the differentiation between hunting accidents and suicides are explained and discussed. A thorough investigation of this kind should always include autopsy, examination of the firearm, determination of the shooting distance and examination of the scene including an effort to reconstruct the events. Typical findings in suicides are contact shots, entrance wounds of the head, chest or upper abdomen, downward trajectories and evidence (gunshot residue, backspatter) suggesting a hand had been used to steady the muzzle. Typical findings in hunting accidents are entrance wounds of the extremities, the lower abdomen or the back, worn out or defective safety devices, upward trajectories and trajectories that are incompatible with possible and intended positions of the firearm. Each case has to be examined individually and the findings should be interpreted as an entity. PMID:8852071

  7. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  8. Dimorphic foraging behaviors and the evolution of hominid hunting.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T

    2002-01-01

    In contemporary foraging societies men typically hunt more than women. This observation has played an important role in many reconstructions of hominid evolution. The gender difference in human hunting, likely a product of both ecological and cultural factors, is mirrored by a similar sex difference among nonhuman primates. Existing explanations of such primate behavioral dimorphism are augmented by the recognition of an additional factor that may contribute to differences between males and females in the value of meat. Episodic female immunosuppression is a normal part of reproduction. Because meat is a source of pathogens, females can be expected to exhibit less constant attraction to meat. Sexual dimorphism in the attraction to meat may then contribute to dimorphic foraging specializations, a divergence that is likely augmented by the differential value of insectivory across the sexes. With the rise of cultural transmission of foraging knowledge, dimorphic foraging behaviors would have been reinforced, creating a more comprehensive gender-based division of labor. PMID:12680308

  9. Rodney Hunt supplies gates to Idaho Power's Swan Falls

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Rodney Hunt Co. shipped two 30-foot by 28-foot fabricated steel roller gates to Idaho Power Co.'s Swan Falls Dam Project, where they will be installed as draft tube gates. Rodney Hunt said the gates, each weighing approximately 55 tons, are the largest roller gates the company has manufactured. The company supplied the gates under the terms of a contract worth more than $500,000. The gates were ordered as part of Idaho Power's rehabilitation of Swan Falls Dam, which will double the power plant's capacity to 25 MW. New units will begin producing power in 1993, and the project will be completed in 1994. Elsewhere on the Snake River, Idaho Power intends to increase the capacity of its Twin Falls project to 52 MW from 10 MW. Construction is scheduled to start in June 1993.

  10. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  11. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia's tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  12. Applicability of Age-Based Hunting Regulations for African Leopards

    PubMed Central

    Balme, Guy Andrew; Hunter, Luke; Braczkowski, Alex Richard

    2012-01-01

    In species in which juvenile survival depends strongly on male tenure, excessive trophy hunting can artificially elevate male turnover and increase infanticide, potentially to unsustainable levels. Simulation models show that the likelihood of safe harvests can be improved by restricting offtakes to males old enough to have reared their first cohort of offspring to independence; in the case of African leopards, males were ≥7 years old. Here, we explore the applicability of an age-based approach for regulating trophy hunting of leopards. We conducted a structured survey comprising photographs of known-age leopards to assess the ability of wildlife practitioners to sex and age leopards. We also evaluated the utility of four phenotypic traits for use by trophy hunters to age male leopards in the field. Our logistic regression models showed that male leopard age affected the likelihood of survey respondents identifying the correct sex; notably, males <2 years were typically misidentified as females, while mature males (≥4 years) were sexed correctly. Mature male leopards were also more likely to be aged correctly, as were portrait photographs. Aging proficiency was also influenced by the profession of respondents, with hunters recording the lowest scores. A discriminant model including dewlap size, the condition of the ears, and the extent of facial scarring accurately discriminated among male leopard age classes. Model classification rates were considerably higher than the respective scores attained by survey respondents, implying that the aging ability of hunters could theoretically improve with appropriate training. Dewlap size was a particularly reliable indicator of males ≥7 years and a review of online trophy galleries suggested its wider utility as an aging criterion. Our study demonstrated that an age-based hunting approach is practically applicable for leopards. However, implementation would require major reform within the regulatory framework and the

  13. Demography, not inheritance, drives phenotypic change in hunted bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Traill, Lochran W.; Schindler, Susanne; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Selective harvest, such as trophy hunting, can shift the distribution of a quantitative character such as body size. If the targeted character is heritable, then there will be an evolutionary response to selection, and where the trait is not, then any response will be plastic or demographic. Identifying the relative contributions of these different mechanisms is a major challenge in wildlife conservation. New mathematical approaches can provide insight not previously available. Here we develop a size- and age-based two-sex integral projection model based on individual-based data from a long-term study of hunted bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at Ram Mountain, Canada. We simulate the effect of trophy hunting on body size and find that the inheritance of body mass is weak and that any perceived decline in body mass of the bighorn population is largely attributable to demographic change and environmental factors. To our knowledge, this work provides the first use of two-sex integral projection models to investigate the potential eco-evolutionary consequences of selective harvest. PMID:25114219

  14. Palestine Saw-scaled Vipers hunt disadvantaged avian migrants.

    PubMed

    Yosef, Reuven; Zduniak, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The selection of an ambush-cum-foraging site and proper prey are indispensable for maintaining an adequate energy intake by sit-and-wait predators to optimize survival and future fitness. This is important for snakes, where an ambush site has suitable ambience. We studied the foraging strategy of the Palestine Saw-scaled Viper (Echis coloratus) at an avian migratory stopover site. Following initial observations, we hypothesized that vipers are able to discern the body mass of a perched bird and hunt accordingly. We implemented an experiment where vipers chose between four groups of migratory Blackcaps with different body mass. Prey choice by vipers of both age classes was not random and adults focused on Blackcaps with the lightest body mass. Juveniles displayed a variability of prey choice but selected mainly birds from the lightest categories. We concluded that Saw-scaled Vipers hunt prey based on thermal cues; juveniles practice on different prey groups prior to perfecting their foraging techniques i.e., hunting is a learned process; and that they prefer birds with the lowest body mass. The last because Blackcaps, when on migration, save energy by entering a state of deep torpor in which they sacrifice their vigilance capabilities. PMID:26319368

  15. Deer hunting on Pennsylvania's public and private lands: A two-tiered system of hunters?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stedman, R.C.; Bhandari, P.; Luloff, A.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Finley, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recreational hunting is crucial for controlling white-tailed deer populations. Public land is increasingly important as access to private lands declines. However, differences between public and private land hunters remain unknown. Our study of Pennsylvania hunters revealed differences between private and public land hunters that may pose problems for management. Hunters who only hunted public land had lower harvest rates, especially of antlerless deer, spent less time hunting, were less committed to hunting, were more likely to hunt alone, less likely to belong to a hunting camp, and more likely to live in urban areas. They were less likely to believe that high deer populations could damage forest ecosystems, and less willing to harvest antlerless deer. The implications of these findings, in the context of already-declining hunter capacity to keep deer populations in check, and concomitant declining access to private land, are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  16. Provisioning of Game Meat to Rural Communities as a Benefit of Sport Hunting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004–2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007–2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September–October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013–2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  17. Social and ecological change over a decade in a village hunting system, central Gabon.

    PubMed

    Coad, L; Schleicher, J; Milner-Gulland, E J; Marthews, T R; Starkey, M; Manica, A; Balmford, A; Mbombe, W; Diop Bineni, T R; Abernethy, K A

    2013-04-01

    Despite widespread recognition of the major threat to tropical forest biological diversity and local food security posed by unsustainable bushmeat hunting, virtually no long-term studies tracking the socioecological dynamics of hunting systems have been conducted. We interviewed local hunters and collected detailed hunting data to investigate changes in offtake and hunter characteristics over 10 years (2001-2010) in Dibouka and Kouagna villages, central Gabon, in the context of hunter recollections of longer term trends since the 1950s. To control for changes in hunter behavior, such as trap location and characteristics, we report hunting offtake data per trap. Our results suggest the hunting area was already highly depleted by 2001; local hunters reported that 16 large-bodied prey species had become rare or locally extirpated over the last 60 years. Overall, we observed no significant declines in hunting offtake or changes in species composition from 2001 to 2010, and offtakes per trap increased slightly between 2004 and 2010. However, trapping distance from the villages increased, and there was a switch in hunting techniques; a larger proportion of the catch was hunted with guns in 2010. The number of hunters declined by 20% from 2004 to 2010, and male livelihood activities shifted away from hunting. Hunters with the lowest hunting incomes in 2004 were more likely than successful hunters to have moved away from the village by 2010 (often in response to alternative employment opportunities). Therefore, changes in trap success (potentially related to biological factors) were interacting with system-level changes in hunter number and composition (related to external socioeconomic factors) to produce a relatively static overall offtake. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the small-scale context of hunting to correctly interpret changes or apparent stasis in hunting effort and offtake over time. PMID:23369059

  18. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  19. Lead Exposure in Bald Eagles from Big Game Hunting, the Continental Implications and Successful Mitigation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005–2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009–2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  20. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    PubMed

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  1. Hunting influences the diel patterns in habitat selection by northern pintails Anas acuta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Miller, Michael R.; Overton, Cory T.; Yparraguirre, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Northern pintail Anas acuta (hereafter pintail) populations wintering within Suisun Marsh, a large estuarine managed wetland near San Francisco Bay, California,USA, have declined markedly over the last four decades. The reasons for this decline are unclear. Information on how hunting and other factors influence the selection of vegetation types and sanctuaries would be beneficial to manage pintail populations in SuisunMarsh. During 1991-1993, we radio-marked and relocated female pintails (individuals: N = 203, relocations: N = 7,688) within Suisun Marsh to investigate habitat selection during the non-breeding months (winter). We calculated selection ratios for different vegetation types and for sanctuaries, and examined differences in those ratios between hunting season (i.e. hunting and non-hunting), age (hatchyear and after-hatch-year), and time of day (daylight or night hours). We found that diel patterns in selection were influenced by hunting disturbance. For example, prior to the hunting season and during daylight hours, pintails selected areas dominated by brass buttons Cotula coronopifolia, a potentially important food source, usually outside of sanctuary boundaries. However, during the hunting season, pintails did not select brass buttons during daylight hours, but instead highly selected permanent pools, mostly within sanctuaries. Also, during the hunting season, pintails showed strong selection for brass buttons at night. Sanctuaries provided more area of permanent water pools than within hunting areas and appeared to function as important refugia during daylight hours of the hunting season. Wildlife managers should encourage large protected permanent pools adjacent to hunted wetlands to increase pintail numbers within wetland environments and responsibly benefit hunting opportunities while improving pintail conservation.

  2. Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Taï National Park.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Boesch, H

    1989-04-01

    Hunting is often considered one of the major behaviors that shaped early hominids' evolution, along with the shift toward a drier and more open habitat. We suggest that a precise comparison of the hunting behavior of a species closely related to man might help us understand which aspects of hunting could be affected by environmental conditions. The hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees is discussed, and new observations on a population living in the tropical rain forest of the Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, are presented. Some of the forest chimpanzees' hunting performances are similar to those of savanna-woodlands populations; others are different. Forest chimpanzees have a more specialized prey image, intentionally search for more adult prey, and hunt in larger groups and with a more elaborate cooperative level than savanna-woodlands chimpanzees. In addition, forest chimpanzees tend to share meat more actively and more frequently. These findings are related to some theories on aspects of hunting behavior in early hominids and discussed in order to understand some factors influencing the hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees. Finally, the hunting behavior of primates is compared with that of social carnivores. PMID:2540662

  3. What Enables Size-Selective Trophy Hunting of Wildlife?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas), physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing), and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair) and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%), camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access, wildlife hunters in the

  4. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S.; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts. PMID:26196134

  5. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts. PMID:26196134

  6. Hunting by male lions: ecological influences and socioecological implications.

    PubMed

    Funston; Mills; Biggs; Richardson

    1998-12-01

    In the Kruger National Park, male lions, Panthera leo, acquire most of their food by hunting rather than scavenging. This study, the most intensive to date of male lion ecology, showed that in savanna woodlands, with high buffalo, Syncerus caffer, densities, male lions were frequent and successful hunters. The main prey species of all male group types, but particularly nonterritorial males, was buffalo. By contrast, females preyed more frequently on the most abundant medium-sized ungulates, such as wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and zebra, Equus burchelli. Thus intraspecific prey selection separation was based primarily on intersexual and, to a lesser extent, social differences. Furthermore, both nonterritorial males and pride females located their favoured prey, buffalo and medium-sized ungulates, respectively, more often than other prey. We investigated the influence of several ecological variables on the socioecology of male lions, particularly as we had determined that territorial males spent little time with their pride females and tended to hunt by themselves in their respective male coalitions. Further analysis showed that in a range of ecosystems in southern and eastern Africa the proportion of time territorial males spent with, and thus scavenged from, their pride females was strongly influenced by vegetation structure, and therefore probably by the assemblage of available ungulates. In open systems, territorial males were, therefore, likely to be encountered with pride females, whereas in more wooded areas they were likely to be encountered away from their pride females. We suggest that this is because vegetation structure influences food/prey availability and hunting success and influences territory maintenance and/or cub defence. (c) 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9933529

  7. 50 CFR 32.2 - What are the requirements for hunting on areas of the National Wildlife Refuge System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the field, which we identify in 50 CFR 20.21(j), while on Waterfowl Production Areas, or on certain.... Where we allow turkey and deer hunting, you may use slugs and shot containing lead to hunt these...

  8. Science in 60 – The Hunt for Antarctic Meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, Nina

    2015-12-08

    She's the "coolest" thing in science, searching the ice sheets of Antarctica for meteorites from outer space. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist Nina Lanza has signed up to spend nearly six weeks in a tent on the Antarctic ice sheet. Why would anyone do such a thing? For science, obviously! In the premiere episode of Los Alamos National Laboratory's "Science in 60" video series, Lanza gives us the low-down in 60 seconds on the why and how of hunting meteorites on the ice.

  9. Pursuing the impossible: an interview with Tim Hunt.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Tim Hunt took an undergraduate degree in Natural Sciences at Cambridge in 1964, and his PhD and subsequent work focussed on the control of protein synthesis until 1982, when his adventitious discovery of the central cell cycle regulator cyclin, while he was teaching at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, redirected him to the study of cell cycle regulation. From 1990 to his retirement Tim worked in the Clare Hall Laboratories of Cancer Research UK. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine with Lee Hartwell and Paul Nurse in 2001, and talked to us about the series of coincidences that led him to the prizewinning discovery. PMID:26253553

  10. Flight performance during hunting excursions in Eleonora's falcon Falco eleonorae.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, A; Rosén, M; Akesson, S; Spina, F

    1999-08-01

    Among birds, falcons are high-performance flyers, in many cases adapted for aerial hunting and hence suitable targets for investigating limits to flight performance. Using an optical range finder, we measured flight tracks of Eleonora's falcon (Falco eleonorae), a species breeding in the Mediterranean region and specialised for hunting autumn passage bird migrants, when commuting between their nesting colony and offshore hunting areas (straight transportation flight) and when searching for prey (transecting and searching flight). Airspeed during searching flight was significantly slower than during straight transportation and transecting flight, but there was no significant difference in airspeed between the latter two flight modes. Straight transportation flight was significantly faster than predicted minimum power speed. Also, during straight transportation flight, the falcons responded to head- and tailwinds by increasing their airspeed when flying into the wind. However, they did not show any significant airspeed adjustments with respect to the angle between the track and the heading, as would be expected in birds trying to maintain a constant track direction. Mean sustainable climb rate (during (greater than or equal to) 240 s) was 1.4+/-0.31 m s-1 (mean +/- s.d., N=13), which is rather a high rate for a bird the size of an Eleonora's falcon. The climb rate was used to calculate maximum load-carrying capacity and maximum sustained horizontal flapping flight speed. The mean wingbeat frequency during powered climbing flight was 4.68 Hz, which was used to estimate the mass-specific muscle work. When falcons were leaving the colony for offshore hunting, they gained altitude by slope-soaring when there was an onshore wind. We formulated a simple criterion for the required gliding-flight rate of climb during an initial slope-soaring episode when minimizing the energy cost of reaching a certain altitude far out over the sea (which is where the prey is to be found

  11. Criticisms of the psychopathological interpretation of witch hunts: a review.

    PubMed

    Schoeneman, T J

    1982-08-01

    The psychopathological interpretation of the European witch hunts of the 16th and 17th centuries, which has been prominent in histories of psychiatry, contends that demonology overwhelmed psychiatry in the late middle Ages, with the result that the mentally ill were executed by the thousands as witches. The author reviews the criticisms and contrary evidence that have been brought to bear on this paradigm in the past 20 years, including critiques of its data collection and interpretation, historical evidence which has failed to support its contentions, and questions about its implicit approach to the history and philosophy of science. PMID:7046480

  12. Lead Exposure in Free-Flying Turkey Vultures Is Associated with Big Game Hunting in California

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers. PMID:21494326

  13. Looking for Answers: Developing a Critical Reflective Scavenger Hunt for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Kathleen A.; Stewart, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a scavenger hunt assignment in a freshman orientation course. Uses the idea of the scavenger hunt as a way to locate and utilize campus resources and gain insight into the grading and self-evaluation process. Contains four resources, with sample assignments appended. (NB)

  14. 3 CFR 8567 - Proclamation 8567 of September 24, 2010. National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8567 of September 24, 2010. National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010 8567 Proclamation 8567 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8567 of September 24, 2010 Proc. 8567 National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...

  15. An Empirical Study of the Influence of the Concept of "Job-Hunting" on Graduates' Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chengwen; Hu, Guiying

    2008-01-01

    The concept of job-hunting is an important factor affecting university students' employment. This empirical study shows that while hunting for a job, graduates witness negative correlation between their expectation of the nature of work and the demand for occupational types and the accessibility to a post and monthly income; positive correlation…

  16. 76 FR 43339 - Hunt Fee at Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Hunt Fee at Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, TX AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Implement a Hunt Fee. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...: By U.S. mail to: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Attn: Visitor Services, 500 Gold Ave., SW.,...

  17. Can hunting data be used to estimate unbiased population parameters? A case study on brown bears.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Van de Walle, Joanie; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-06-01

    Quantifying temporal changes in harvested populations is critical for applied and fundamental research. Unbiased data are required to detect true changes in phenotypic distribution or population size. Because of the difficulty of collecting detailed individual data from wild populations, data from hunting records are often used. Hunting records, however, may not represent a random sample of a population. We aimed to detect and quantify potential bias in hunting records. We compared data from a long-term monitoring project with hunting records of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden and investigated temporal trends (1996-2013) in the ratio of yearlings to adult females, yearling mass and adult female mass. Data from hunting records underestimated the decline in yearling and adult female mass over time, most likely owing to the legal protection of family groups from hunting, but reflected changes in the ratio of yearlings to adult females more reliably. Although hunting data can be reliable to approximate population abundance in some circumstances, hunting data can represent a biased sample of a population and should be used with caution in management and conservation decisions. PMID:27303052

  18. Can hunting data be used to estimate unbiased population parameters? A case study on brown bears

    PubMed Central

    Van de Walle, Joanie; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E.; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying temporal changes in harvested populations is critical for applied and fundamental research. Unbiased data are required to detect true changes in phenotypic distribution or population size. Because of the difficulty of collecting detailed individual data from wild populations, data from hunting records are often used. Hunting records, however, may not represent a random sample of a population. We aimed to detect and quantify potential bias in hunting records. We compared data from a long-term monitoring project with hunting records of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden and investigated temporal trends (1996–2013) in the ratio of yearlings to adult females, yearling mass and adult female mass. Data from hunting records underestimated the decline in yearling and adult female mass over time, most likely owing to the legal protection of family groups from hunting, but reflected changes in the ratio of yearlings to adult females more reliably. Although hunting data can be reliable to approximate population abundance in some circumstances, hunting data can represent a biased sample of a population and should be used with caution in management and conservation decisions. PMID:27303052

  19. Acting on Behalf of Youth: Chance Hunt--Seattle Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Few might think there is much of a connection between acting and librarianship, but Chance Hunt says his acting career in Los Angeles provided him with skills he uses today as a youth services librarian, from programming with kids to representing the library at citywide meetings. Hunt oversees system-wide services for children and teens at the…

  20. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting. 32.1 Section 32.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions § 32.1 Opening of wildlife refuge areas to...

  1. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting. 32.1 Section 32.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions § 32.1 Opening of wildlife refuge areas to...

  2. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph, the definitions in 50 CFR 10.12, 18.3, and 23.3 apply to this section. (1) Sport-hunted trophy... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear...

  3. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  4. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  5. 77 FR 52344 - Proposed Information Collection; Annual Certification of Hunting and Sport Fishing Licenses Issued

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...-XXX-FF09W23000] Proposed Information Collection; Annual Certification of Hunting and Sport Fishing.... 669 et seq.) and the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act (16 U.S.C. 777 et seq. except 777e-1... FWS Forms 3-154a (Part I--Certification) and 3- 154b (Part II--Summary of Hunting and Sport...

  6. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  7. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  8. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  9. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraph, the definitions in 50 CFR 10.12, 18.3, and 23.3 apply to this section. (1) Sport-hunted trophy... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear...

  10. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph, the definitions in 50 CFR 10.12, 18.3, and 23.3 apply to this section. (1) Sport-hunted trophy... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear...

  11. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paragraph, the definitions in 50 CFR 10.12, 18.3, and 23.3 apply to this section. (1) Sport-hunted trophy... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 18.30 Polar bear...

  12. Hunted woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) show threat-sensitive responses to human presence.

    PubMed

    Papworth, Sarah; Milner-Gulland, E J; Slocombe, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Responding only to individuals of a predator species which display threatening behaviour allows prey species to minimise energy expenditure and other costs of predator avoidance, such as disruption of feeding. The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts such behaviour in prey species. If hunted animals are unable to distinguish dangerous humans from non-dangerous humans, human hunting is likely to have a greater effect on prey populations as all human encounters should lead to predator avoidance, increasing stress and creating opportunity costs for exploited populations. We test the threat sensitivity hypothesis in wild Poeppigi's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, by presenting human models engaging in one of three behaviours "hunting", "gathering" or "researching". These experiments were conducted at two sites with differing hunting pressures. Visibility, movement and vocalisations were recorded and results from two sites showed that groups changed their behaviours after being exposed to humans, and did so in different ways depending on the behaviour of the human model. Results at the site with higher hunting pressure were consistent with predictions based on the threat sensitivity hypothesis. Although results at the site with lower hunting pressure were not consistent with the results at the site with higher hunting pressure, groups at this site also showed differential responses to different human behaviours. These results provide evidence of threat-sensitive predator avoidance in hunted primates, which may allow them to conserve both time and energy when encountering humans which pose no threat. PMID:23614003

  13. The Jensen and The Hunt and Sternberg Comments: From Penetrating to Absurd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.; Arikawa, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    We praised the comments of Jensen and regard most of the contentions of Hunt and Sternberg as absurd. It is ridiculous to question the validity of the skin color map and its application since meaningful group differences and meaningful correlations between temperature and skin color were found. It was inappropriate for Hunt and Sternberg to…

  14. Embargo on Lion Hunting Trophies from West Africa: An Effective Measure or a Threat to Lion Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre; Doamba, Benoit; Kidjo, Ferdinand Claude; Vermeulen, Cédric; Chardonnet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230–648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123–498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa. PMID:27182985

  15. Embargo on Lion Hunting Trophies from West Africa: An Effective Measure or a Threat to Lion Conservation?

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre; Doamba, Benoit; Kidjo, Ferdinand Claude; Vermeulen, Cédric; Chardonnet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230-648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123-498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa. PMID:27182985

  16. Spring hunting changes the regional movements of migrating greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bechet, A.; Giroux, J.-F.; Gauthier, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    1. Human-induced disturbance such as hunting may influence the migratory behaviour of long-distance migrants. In 1999 and 2000 a spring hunt of greater snow geese Anser caerulescens atlanticus occurred for the first time in North America since 1916, aimed at stopping population growth to protect natural habitats. 2. We evaluated the impact of this hunt on the staging movements of geese along a 600-km stretch of the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec, Canada. 3. We tracked radio-tagged female geese in three contiguous regions of the staging area from the south-west to the north-east: Lake St Pierre, Upper Estuary and Lower Estuary, in spring 1997 (n = 37) and 1998 (n = 70) before the establishment of hunting, and in 1999 (n = 60) and 2000 (n = 59) during hunting. 4. We used multi-state capture-recapture models to estimate the movement probabilities of radio-tagged females among these regions. To assess disturbance level, we tracked geese during their feeding trips and estimated the probability of completing a foraging bout without being disturbed. 5. In the 2 years without hunting, migration was strongly unidirectional from the south-west to the north-east, with very low westward movement probabilities. Geese gradually moved from Lake St Pierre to Upper Estuary and then from Upper Estuary to Lower Estuary. 6. In contrast, during the 2 years with hunting westward movement was more than four times more likely than in preceding years. Most of these backward movements occurred shortly after the beginning of the hunt, indicating that geese moved back to regions where they had not previously experienced hunting. 7. Overall disturbance level increased in all regions in years with hunting relative to years without hunting. 8. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that spring hunting changed the stopover scheduling of this long-distance migrant and might further impact population dynamics by reducing prenuptial fattening. The spring hunt may also have increased crop

  17. The relative importance of direct and indirect effects of hunting mortality on the population dynamics of brown bears.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Jacinthe; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Pelletier, Fanie

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of indirect effects of hunting on populations. In species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), hunting may decrease juvenile survival by increasing male turnover. We aimed to evaluate the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of hunting via SSI on the population dynamics of the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos). We performed prospective and retrospective demographic perturbation analyses for periods with low and high hunting pressures. All demographic rates, except yearling survival, were lower under high hunting pressure, which led to a decline in population growth under high hunting pressure (λ = 0.975; 95% CI = 0.914-1.011). Hunting had negative indirect effects on the population through an increase in SSI, which lowered cub survival and possibly also fecundity rates. Our study suggests that SSI could explain 13.6% of the variation in population growth. Hunting also affected the relative importance of survival and fecundity of adult females for population growth, with fecundity being more important under low hunting pressure and survival more important under high hunting pressure. Our study sheds light on the importance of direct and indirect effects of hunting on population dynamics, and supports the contention that hunting can have indirect negative effects on populations through SSI. PMID:25392469

  18. 43 CFR 2932.14 - Do I need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hunt, trap, or fish? 2932.14 Section 2932.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... hunt, trap, or fish? (a) If you hold a valid State license, you do not need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish. You must comply with State license requirements for these activities....

  19. 43 CFR 2932.14 - Do I need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hunt, trap, or fish? 2932.14 Section 2932.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... hunt, trap, or fish? (a) If you hold a valid State license, you do not need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish. You must comply with State license requirements for these activities....

  20. 43 CFR 2932.14 - Do I need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hunt, trap, or fish? 2932.14 Section 2932.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... hunt, trap, or fish? (a) If you hold a valid State license, you do not need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish. You must comply with State license requirements for these activities....

  1. 43 CFR 2932.14 - Do I need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hunt, trap, or fish? 2932.14 Section 2932.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... hunt, trap, or fish? (a) If you hold a valid State license, you do not need a Special Recreation Permit to hunt, trap, or fish. You must comply with State license requirements for these activities....

  2. Competition drives sophisticated hunting skills of archerfish in the wild.

    PubMed

    Rischawy, Ingo; Blum, Michael; Schuster, Stefan

    2015-07-20

    Several animals are renowned for their cognitive skills, such as tool use, metacognition or social learning. However, it remains puzzling why some species excel whereas others - sometimes even closely related ones - do not. Archerfish show a remarkable assembly of skills in the context of their unique hunting behavior in which they down aerial prey with shots of water. Hoping to find ecological factors behind these skills, we have over the past years regularly traveled to archerfish mangrove habitats in Thailand (Figure 1A). One of our most consistent findings was the presence of other surface-feeding fish, particularly the similar-sized halfbeak Zenarchopterus buffonis, wherever we spotted groups of archerfish (Figure 1A; Supplemental movie S1). We describe here that Zenarchopterus is superbly equipped with water-wave detectors, rapidly detects the impact of prey even in the dark, is active at all times, is usually more numerous than archerfish and supplements its capabilities with visual skills. Without sophisticated additions to their hunting technique archerfish would thus lose most of their downed prey to halfbeaks. We suggest that the evolution of several skills of archerfish may have thus been influenced not only by intraspecific competition [5] but also by competition with other surface-feeding fish species. PMID:26196481

  3. Pack hunting by a common soil amoeba on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Stefan; Rosengarten, Jamila; Koller, Robert; Mulder, Christian; Urich, Tim; Bonkowski, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Soils host the most complex communities on Earth, including the most diverse and abundant eukaryotes, i.e. heterotrophic protists. Protists are generally considered as bacterivores, but evidence for negative interactions with nematodes both from laboratory and field studies exist. However, direct impacts of protists on nematodes remain unknown. We isolated the soil-borne testate amoeba Cryptodifflugia operculata and found a highly specialized and effective pack-hunting strategy to prey on bacterivorous nematodes. Enhanced reproduction in presence of prey nematodes suggests a beneficial predatory life history of these omnivorous soil amoebae. Cryptodifflugia operculata appears to selectively impact the nematode community composition as reductions of nematode numbers were species specific. Furthermore, we investigated 12 soil metatranscriptomes from five distinct locations throughout Europe for 18S ribosomal RNA transcripts of C. operculata. The presence of C. operculata transcripts in all samples, representing up to 4% of the active protist community, indicates a potential ecological importance of nematophagy performed by C. operculata in soil food webs. The unique pack-hunting strategy on nematodes that was previously unknown from protists, together with molecular evidence that these pack hunters are likely to be abundant and widespread in soils, imply a considerable importance of the hitherto neglected trophic link 'nematophagous protists' in soil food webs. PMID:26079718

  4. Hunting strategies used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rômulo RN; Mendonça, Lívia ET; Confessor, Maine VA; Vieira, Washington LS; Lopez, Luiz CS

    2009-01-01

    Hunting for wild animals is stimulated by the many different human uses of faunal resources, and these animals constitute important subsistence items in local communities in the Caatinga region. In order to gain access to these resources, hunters have developed a series of techniques and strategies that are described in the present work. The principal hunting techniques encountered were: waiting, especially directed towards hunting diurnal birds; calling ("arremedo"), a technique in which the hunters imitate the animal's call to attract it to close range; hunting with dogs, a technique mostly used for capturing mammals; tracking, a technique used by only a few hunters who can recognize and follow animal tracks; and "facheado", in which the hunters go out at night with lanterns to catch birds in their nests. Additionally, many animal species are captured using mechanical traps. The types of traps used by the interviewees were: dead-fall traps ("quixó"), iron-jaw snap traps ("arataca"), wooden cages with bait ("arapuca"), iron-cage traps ("gaiola'), "visgo", multi-compartment bird cages ("alçapão"), buried ground traps with pivoted tops ("fojo"), and nooses and cages for carnivorous. The choice of which technique to use depends on the habits of the species being hunted, indicating that the hunters possess a wide knowledge of the biology of these animals. From a conservation perspective, active hunting techniques (waiting, imitation, hunting with dogs, and "facheado") have the greatest impact on the local fauna. The use of firearm and dogs brought greater efficiency to hunting activities. Additional studies concerning these hunting activities will be useful to contribute to proposals for management plans regulating hunting in the region – with the objective of attaining sustainable use of faunal resources of great importance to the local human communities. PMID:19386121

  5. Complementary benefits of tourism and hunting to communal conservancies in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Robin; Weaver, L Chris; Diggle, Richard W; Matongo, Greenwell; Stuart-Hill, Greg; Thouless, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Tourism and hunting both generate substantial revenues for communities and private operators in Africa, but few studies have quantitatively examined the trade-offs and synergies that may result from these two activities. We evaluated financial and in-kind benefit streams from tourism and hunting on 77 communal conservancies in Namibia from 1998 to 2013, where community-based wildlife conservation has been promoted as a land-use that complements traditional subsistence agriculture. We used data collected annually for all communal conservancies to characterize whether benefits were derived from hunting or tourism. We classified these benefits into 3 broad classes and examined how benefits flowed to stakeholders within communities under the status quo and under a simulated ban on hunting. Across all conservancies, total benefits from hunting and tourism increased at roughly the same rate, although conservancies typically started generating benefits from hunting within 3 years of formation as opposed to after 6 years for tourism. Disaggregation of data revealed that the main benefits from hunting were income for conservancy management and food in the form of meat for the community at large. The majority of tourism benefits were salaried jobs at lodges. A simulated ban on trophy hunting significantly reduced the number of conservancies that could cover their operating costs, whereas eliminating income from tourism did not have as severe an effect. Given that the benefits generated from hunting and tourism typically begin at different times in a conservancy's life-span (earlier vs. later, respectively) and flow to different segments of local communities, these 2 activities together may provide the greatest incentives for conservation on communal lands in Namibia. A singular focus on either hunting or tourism would reduce the value of wildlife as a competitive land-use option and have grave repercussions for the viability of community-based conservation efforts in Namibia

  6. Hunting strategies used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rômulo R N; Mendonça, Lívia E T; Confessor, Maine V A; Vieira, Washington L S; Lopez, Luiz C S

    2009-01-01

    Hunting for wild animals is stimulated by the many different human uses of faunal resources, and these animals constitute important subsistence items in local communities in the Caatinga region. In order to gain access to these resources, hunters have developed a series of techniques and strategies that are described in the present work. The principal hunting techniques encountered were: waiting, especially directed towards hunting diurnal birds; calling ("arremedo"), a technique in which the hunters imitate the animal's call to attract it to close range; hunting with dogs, a technique mostly used for capturing mammals; tracking, a technique used by only a few hunters who can recognize and follow animal tracks; and "facheado", in which the hunters go out at night with lanterns to catch birds in their nests. Additionally, many animal species are captured using mechanical traps. The types of traps used by the interviewees were: dead-fall traps ("quixó"), iron-jaw snap traps ("arataca"), wooden cages with bait ("arapuca"), iron-cage traps ("gaiola'), "visgo", multi-compartment bird cages ("alçapão"), buried ground traps with pivoted tops ("fojo"), and nooses and cages for carnivorous. The choice of which technique to use depends on the habits of the species being hunted, indicating that the hunters possess a wide knowledge of the biology of these animals. From a conservation perspective, active hunting techniques (waiting, imitation, hunting with dogs, and "facheado") have the greatest impact on the local fauna. The use of firearm and dogs brought greater efficiency to hunting activities. Additional studies concerning these hunting activities will be useful to contribute to proposals for management plans regulating hunting in the region - with the objective of attaining sustainable use of faunal resources of great importance to the local human communities. PMID:19386121

  7. Effects of hunting on survival of American woodcock in the Northeast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, D.G.; Longcore, J.R.; Clugston, D.A.; Allen, R.B.; Weik, A.; Williamson, S.; Dunn, J.; Palmer, B.; Evans, K.; Staats, W.; Sepik, G.F.; Halteman, W.

    2005-01-01

    Numbers of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) males counted on the annual singing ground survey (SGS) have declined over the last 35 years at an average rate of 2.3% per year in the Eastern Region and 1.8% per year in the Central Region. Although hunting was not thought to be a cause of these declines, mortality caused by hunters can be controlled. Furthermore, there has been no research on effects of hunting mortality on woodcock populations at local and regional levels on the breeding grounds. We used radiotelemetry to determine survival rates and causes of mortality for 913 woodcock captured during fall 1997?2000 on 7 areas in Maine, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Vermont, USA. Three of 7 sites were closed to hunting. For all sites and all years combined, 176 woodcock died, and 130 were censored, of which 39 were censored mortalities. Predation was the major (n = 134, 76%) cause of mortality. Mammals accounted for 56% of the predation, raptors accounted for 25%, and 19% was attributed to unknown predators. On hunted sites, 36% of the total mortality (n = 102) was caused by hunting, 63% by predation, and 1 bird starved. Kaplan-Meier survival curves did not differ between hunted and non-hunted sites among years (P = 0.46). Overall, point estimates of survival did not differ (P = 0.217) between hunted (SR = 0.636, SE = 0.04) and nonhunted sites (SR = 0.661, SE = 0.08). We modeled hazard rates from hunting and natural mortality events using program MARK. Akaike's Information Criterion supported using a model with common constant hazards from both hunting and natural causes for groups of sites. Groupings of sites for hazard rates from natural causes were not influenced by whether a site was hunted or not. Models detected no effects of woodcock age and sex (P = 0.52) on survival. Proportional hazards models comparing hunted and nonhunted sites found no effects of age and sex (P = 0.45), interactions of age, sex, capture weight, and bill length (P > 0.269). Our data

  8. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large

  9. Hunting alters seedling functional trait composition in a Neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Kurten, Erin L; Wright, S Joseph; Carson, Walter P

    2015-07-01

    Defaunation alters trophic interactions between plants and vertebrates, whichmay disrupt trophic cascades, thereby favoring a subset of plant species and reducing diversity. If particular functional traits characterize the favored plant species,.then defaunation may alter community-wide patterns of functional trait composition. Changes in plant functional traits occurring with defaunation may help identify the species interactions affected by defaunation and the potential for other cascading effects of defaunation. We tested the hypotheses that defaunation would (1) disrupt seed dispersal, thereby favoring species whose dispersal agents are not affected (e.g., small birds, bats, and abiotic agents), (2) reduce seed predation, thereby favoring larger-seeded species, and (3) reduce herbivory, thereby favoring species with lower leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf toughness, and wood density. We examined how these six traits responded to vertebrate defaunation caused by hunters or by experimental exclosures among more than-30 000 woody seedlings in a lowland tropical moist forest. Exclosures reduced terrestrial frugivores, granivores, and herbivores, while hunters also reduced volant and arboreal frugivores and granivores. The comparison of exclosures and hunting allowed us to parse the impacts of arboreal and volant species (reduced by hunters only) and terrestrial species (reduced by both hunters and exclosures). The loss of terrestrial vertebrates alone had limited effects on plant trait composition. The additional loss of volant and arboreal vertebrates caused significant shifts in plant species composition towards communities with more species dispersed abiotically, including lianas and low wood-density tree species, and fewer species dispersed by large vertebrates. In contrast to previous studies, community seed mass did not decline significantly in hunted sites. Our exclosure results suggest this is because reducing seed predators disproportionately benefits large

  10. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Mech, L.D.; Vucetich, J.A.; Packer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups. ?? 2011 The Author.

  11. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; Vucetich, John A.; Packer, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups.

  12. Hunted Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) Show Threat-Sensitive Responses to Human Presence

    PubMed Central

    Papworth, Sarah; Milner-Gulland, E. J.; Slocombe, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Responding only to individuals of a predator species which display threatening behaviour allows prey species to minimise energy expenditure and other costs of predator avoidance, such as disruption of feeding. The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts such behaviour in prey species. If hunted animals are unable to distinguish dangerous humans from non-dangerous humans, human hunting is likely to have a greater effect on prey populations as all human encounters should lead to predator avoidance, increasing stress and creating opportunity costs for exploited populations. We test the threat sensitivity hypothesis in wild Poeppigi's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, by presenting human models engaging in one of three behaviours “hunting”, “gathering” or “researching”. These experiments were conducted at two sites with differing hunting pressures. Visibility, movement and vocalisations were recorded and results from two sites showed that groups changed their behaviours after being exposed to humans, and did so in different ways depending on the behaviour of the human model. Results at the site with higher hunting pressure were consistent with predictions based on the threat sensitivity hypothesis. Although results at the site with lower hunting pressure were not consistent with the results at the site with higher hunting pressure, groups at this site also showed differential responses to different human behaviours. These results provide evidence of threat-sensitive predator avoidance in hunted primates, which may allow them to conserve both time and energy when encountering humans which pose no threat. PMID:23614003

  13. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013.

    PubMed

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C Scott

    2015-05-01

    The 'drive hunting' of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 'bottlenose' dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  14. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. PMID:26332105

  15. Does hunting regulate cougar populations? A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Hilary S; Wielgus, Robert B; Koehler, Gary M; Robinson, Hugh S; Maletzke, Benjamin T

    2009-10-01

    Many wildlife species are managed based on the compensatory mortality hypothesis, which predicts that harvest mortality (especially adult male mortality) will trigger density-dependent responses in reproduction, survival, and population growth caused via reduced competition for resources. We tested the compensatory mortality hypothesis on two cougar (Puma concolor) populations in Washington, USA (one heavily hunted and one lightly hunted). We estimated population growth, density, survival, and reproduction to determine the effects of hunting on cougar population demography based on data collected from 2002 to 2007. In the heavily hunted population, the total hunting mortality rate (mean +/- SD) was 0.24 +/- 0.05 (0.35 +/- 0.08 for males, 0.16 +/- 0.05 for females). In the lightly hunted population, the total hunting mortality rate was 0.11 +/- 0.04 (0.16 +/- 0.06 for males, 0.07 +/- 0.05 for females). The compensatory mortality hypothesis predicts that higher mortality will result in higher maternity, kitten survival, reproductive success, and lower natural mortality. We found no differences in rates of maternity or natural mortality between study areas, and kitten survival was lower in the heavily hunted population. We rejected the compensatory mortality hypothesis because vital rates did not compensate for hunting mortality. Heavy harvest corresponded with increased immigration, reduced kitten survival, reduced female population growth, and a younger overall age structure. Light harvest corresponded with increased emigration, higher kitten survival, increased female population growth, and an older overall age structure. Managers should not assume the existence of compensatory mortality when developing harvest prescriptions for cougars. PMID:19886499

  16. The Trophy Hunting of African Lions: Scale, Current Management Practices and Factors Undermining Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ∼558,000 km2, which comprises 27–32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation. PMID:24058491

  17. Hunting, livelihoods and declining wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents (n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting (n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  18. Hunting, Livelihoods and Declining Wildlife in the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madhu; Htun, Saw; Zaw, Than; Myint, Than

    2010-08-01

    The Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, North Myanmar and three contiguous protected areas, comprise some of the largest expanses of natural forest remaining in the region. Demand for wildlife products has resulted in unsustainable exploitation of commercially valuable species resulting in local extirpation of vulnerable species. Camera trap, track and sign, and questionnaire-based surveys were used to examine (a) wildlife species targeted by hunters, (b) the importance of wild meat for household consumption, and (c) the significance of hunting as a livelihood activity for resident villages. Certain commercially valuable species highly preferred by hunters were either completely absent from hunt records (tiger, musk deer and otter) or infrequently obtained during actual hunts (bear, pangolin). Species obtained by hunters were commonly occurring species such as muntjacs with low commercial value and not highly preferred by hunters. Fifty eight percent of respondents ( n = 84) indicated trade, 27% listed subsistence use and 14% listed human-wildlife conflict as the main reason for hunting ( n = 84). Average amount of wild meat consumed per month is not significantly higher during the hunting season compared to the planting season (paired t-test, P > 0.05). Throughout the year, the average amount of fish consumed per month was higher than livestock or wild meat (Friedman test, P < 0.0001). Hunting is driven largely by trade and wild meat, while not a critical source of food for a large number of families could potentially be an important, indirect source of access to food for hunting families. Findings and trends from this study are potentially useful in helping design effective conservation strategies to address globally prevalent problems of declining wildlife populations and dependent human communities. The study provides recommendations to reduce illegal hunting and protect vulnerable species by strengthening park management through enforcement, increasing the

  19. A case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome diagnosed after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Min; Kim, Da Rae; Park, Ji Yoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Kim, Se Yun; Kim, Jin Sug; Lee, Yu Ho; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Moon, Ju-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo; Lee, Tae-Won

    2015-12-01

    We report the first case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) diagnosed after kidney transplantation in Korea. RHS is a disease caused by latent varicella-zoster characterized to involve geniculate ganglion of the seventh cranial nerve. Patients who have undergone kidney transplantation can be easily affected by viral infections because of their immune-compromised status. A 35-year-old man with hypertensive end-stage renal disease underwent kidney transplantation. Two months after surgery, the recipient was diagnosed with RHS and treated with antivirals and steroids. However, after using the antiviral agents for the recommended duration, facial paralysis occurred as a new presentation and he required further treatment. Otalgia and periauricular vesicles improved, but the facial palsy remained. PMID:26779429

  20. Pediatric Ramsay Hunt Syndrome: Analysis of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Aydoğdu, İmran; Ataç, Enes; Saltürk, Ziya; Atar, Yavuz; Özdemir, Erdi; Uyar, Yavuz; Arslanoğlu, Ahmet; Berkiten, Güler

    2015-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is a disorder characterized by herpetic eruptions on the auricle, facial paralysis, and vestibulocochlear dysfunction and is attributed to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in the geniculate ganglion. Although it is a common cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis, children are not usually affected. The diagnosis is based on history and physical findings. Treatment of RHS uses a combination of high-dose corticosteroids and acyclovir. This paper presents three cases diagnosed as RHS in the pediatric age group in association with the literature review. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of careful examination and early initiation of therapy in suspected cases of RHS. PMID:26435868

  1. The emergence of defective predators who never hunt by themselves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueting; Pan, Qiuhui; Kang, Yibin; He, Mingfeng

    2013-06-01

    We propose a lattice Monte Carlo model of two populations, predators and prey. We divide predators into cooperative predators and defective predators. Cooperative predators participate in hunting. On the other hand, defective predators only participate to dominate, i.e. take possession of, the food when a kill has already been made by a cooperative predator. Numerous factors have been taken into account in our research, such as individual mobility, predation and hunger time. The model we have constructed displays the features of the population that evolve through time and the spatial distribution of the population. We focus on the emergence of defective predators and how the parameters affect the system. The results indicate that prey can profit from the appearance of these defective predators in some specific situations. It has even been shown that the emergence of defective predators can sometimes save endangered systems.

  2. Hunt for improved carbon capture picks up speed

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    A high-throughput metal-organic framework synthesis instrument in action. Berkeley Lab chemist Jeffrey Long's lab will soon host a round-the-clock, robotically choreographed hunt for carbon-hungry materials. The Berkeley Lab chemist leads a diverse team of scientists whose goal is to quickly discover materials that can efficiently strip carbon dioxide from a power plant's exhaust, before it leaves the smokestack and contributes to climate change. They're betting on a recently discovered class of materials called metal-organic frameworks, which boast a record-shattering internal surface area. A sugar cube-sized piece, if unfolded and flattened, would more than blanket a football field. The crystalline material can also be tweaked to absorb specific molecules. More: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/05/26/carbon-capture-search/

  3. Coalbed gas; Hunt for quality basins goes abroad

    SciTech Connect

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Boyer, C.M. II; Kelafant, J.A. )

    1992-10-05

    This paper reports that spurred on by success of the U.S. coalbed gas industry, a worldwide hunt for the next San Juan-type coalbed gas basin is under way. This search is taking both major and independent exploration companies form Australia to Zimbabwe. The goal is to find high quality coal basins and areas that not only contain large volumes of gas in place but also have the potential for high gas production rates. Given the widespread distribution of coal-bearing strata around the world, a reasonable assumption is that high-quality basins with commercial levels of coalbed gas production do exist. Thick, gassy coal seams are present on all populated continents as documented by coal production statistics and numerous methane-related mining disasters. In some countries, such as China, the potential gas resources contained in the coal seams may dwarf the conventional gas resource base.

  4. The 2013 Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal: Thomas Douglas Petes.

    PubMed

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue; Hieter, Philip

    2013-05-01

    The Genetics Society of America annually honors members who have made outstanding contributions to genetics. The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal recognizes a lifetime contribution to the science of genetics. The Genetics Society of America Medal recognizes particularly outstanding contributions to the science of genetics over the past 32 years. The George W. Beadle Award recognizes distinguished service to the field of genetics and the community of geneticists. The Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes individuals or groups who have had a significant, sustained impact on genetics education at any level, from kindergarten through graduate school and beyond. The Novitski Prize recognizes an extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in solving significant problems in biological research through the application of genetic methods. We are pleased to announce the 2013 awards. PMID:23633133

  5. The 2012 Thomas Hunt Morgan medal: Kathryn V. Anderson.

    PubMed

    Wolfner, Mariana F; Schedl, Tim

    2012-06-01

    The Genetics Society of America annually honors members who have made outstanding contributions to genetics. The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal recognizes a lifetime contribution to the science of genetics. The Genetics Society of America Medal recognizes particularly outstanding contributions to the science of genetics over the past 31 years. The George W. Beadle Medal recognizes distinguished service to the field of genetics and the community of geneticists. The Elizabeth W. Jones Award for Excellence in Education recognizes individuals or groups who have had a significant, sustained impact on genetics education at any level, from kindergarten through graduate school and beyond. The Novitski Prize recognizes an extraordinary level of creativity and intellectual ingenuity in solving significant problems in biological research through the application of genetic methods. We are pleased to announce the 2012 awards. PMID:22701044

  6. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer.

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Gino, J.; Kilgo, John, C.; Comer, Christopher, E.; Drennan, Cory, D.; Osborn, David, A.; Miller, Karl, V.

    2003-12-31

    D'Angelo, Gino, J., John C. Kilgo, Christopher E. Comer, Cory D. Drennan, David A. Osborn, and Karl V. Miller. 2003. Effects of controlled dog hunting on movements of female white-tailed deer. In: Proceedings of the Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies. 57:317-325. This article explores the relationship between controlled dog hunting and the movements of female white tailed deer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The data suggests that short term, controlled dog hunting has little long-term effect on adult, female white-tailed deer movement on the Savannah River Site.

  7. Establishing hunting regulations and allowable harvest of mallards in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geis, A.D.; Martinson, R.K.; Anderson, D.R.

    1969-01-01

    As a major part of establishing hunting regulations each year in the United States, data for the mallard ( A m platyrhymhos) are examined extensively to estimate the effect of various harvest strategies on the breeding population the following spring. This requires estimates of the breeding-population level and of the production, harvest, and mortality rates. Predictions made at the time hunting regulations are established have been in general agreement with more reliable estimates made after the hunting season when data from banding, kill, and wing surveys are available.

  8. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  9. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Among Farmers: The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006–2008), aged 19–66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85–1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52–2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439

  10. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia. PMID:24445136

  12. A 9,000-year-old caribou hunting structure beneath Lake Huron

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, John M.; Lemke, Ashley K.; Sonnenburg, Elizabeth P.; Reynolds, Robert G.; Abbott, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most pivotal questions in human history necessitate the investigation of archaeological sites that are now under water. Nine thousand years ago, the Alpena-Amberley Ridge (AAR) beneath modern Lake Huron was a dry land corridor that connected northeast Michigan to southern Ontario. The newly discovered Drop 45 Drive Lane is the most complex hunting structure found to date beneath the Great Lakes. The site and its associated artifacts provide unprecedented insight into the social and seasonal organization of prehistoric caribou hunting. When combined with environmental and simulation studies, it is suggested that distinctly different seasonal strategies were used by early hunters on the AAR, with autumn hunting being carried out by small groups, and spring hunts being conducted by larger groups of cooperating hunters. PMID:24778246

  13. A 9,000-year-old caribou hunting structure beneath Lake Huron.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, John M; Lemke, Ashley K; Sonnenburg, Elizabeth P; Reynolds, Robert G; Abbott, Brian D

    2014-05-13

    Some of the most pivotal questions in human history necessitate the investigation of archaeological sites that are now under water. Nine thousand years ago, the Alpena-Amberley Ridge (AAR) beneath modern Lake Huron was a dry land corridor that connected northeast Michigan to southern Ontario. The newly discovered Drop 45 Drive Lane is the most complex hunting structure found to date beneath the Great Lakes. The site and its associated artifacts provide unprecedented insight into the social and seasonal organization of prehistoric caribou hunting. When combined with environmental and simulation studies, it is suggested that distinctly different seasonal strategies were used by early hunters on the AAR, with autumn hunting being carried out by small groups, and spring hunts being conducted by larger groups of cooperating hunters. PMID:24778246

  14. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  15. Effect of hunting on annual survival of grey ducks in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) banded in New Zealand between 1957 and 1974 to test 2 null hypotheses: (1) hunting mortality is completely additive to natural sources of mortality, and (2) hunting mortality is completely compensated by changes in natural mortality. We modeled annual survival as a function of survival in the absence of hunting and the probability of death from hunting. The complete compensation hypothesis was rejected, but we were unable to reject the completely additive hypothesis. There was no evidence of sex- or age-specificity for the relationship between kill rate and annual survival rate. We used simulated data to evaluate model performance. Parameter estimates were unbiased despite the inclusion of estimates that lay outside the bounds of the parameter space, although model-based variance estimates were consistently less than empirical variances. Our results imply that harvest-restrictions may be useful in effecting change in annual survival rates of grey ducks.

  16. [2010-2011 Federal Student Aid Handbook with Active Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication is intended for financial aid administrators and counselors who help students begin the aid process--filing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), verifying information, and making corrections and other changes to the information reported on the FAFSA. The Federal Student Aid Handbook consists of the Application and…

  17. Your business in court and at federal agencies: 2010 - 2011.

    PubMed

    Reiss, John B; Crowder, Dawn; Simons, Brian; Pleskov, Igor; Davis, Tiffany; Nugent, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This year the government aggressively pursued Manufacturers under the enhanced provisions of the False Claims Act (FCA), as well as under the provisions of the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (FDCA). In addition, the government pursued actions against individual executives under the Responsible Corporate Officer Doctrine ("RCO Doctrine") because it does not believe sanctions against the companies provide sufficient deterrence to inappropriate behavior. Companies need to focus on implementing effective compliance programs in order to prevent the occurrence of allegedly improper activity. It should be noted that the existence of an effective program will not protect executives from liability under the RCO Doctrine if improper behavior takes place. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) has undertaken a number of initiatives during the past year in an attempt to counter claims that its review processes for domestic products is driving the development of drugs and devices to overseas markets. The Agency also has improved its capacity to review products imported from overseas by undertaking initiatives with foreign agencies and stationing more FDA employees in foreign countries. The FDA increased the number of warning letters and other enforcement actions. The FDA added two new topics of enhanced authority during the year. One was an expansion of its regulatory authority over foods, and the second was new authority to regulate certain tobacco products. The former is being subjected to some review by the courts, and the scope of its authority over tobacco is the subject of ongoing major litigation. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are unlikely to experience significant change regarding their regulation of Manufacturers. The FTC, as it has for many years, continues to try to prevent "reverse" payments to generic drug manufacturers by Innovator Manufacturers to diminish generic drug competition, and proposed legislation is before Congress. The SEC still appears focused on the Foreign Corporate Practices Act with respect to enforcement against pharmaceutical and device manufacturers. Federal preemption of State law continues to be a topic of concern, with Court's taking different positions on the effect of the various Supreme Court decisions made in the last two years. PMID:24620420

  18. First 5 Kern Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    Kern County Children and Families Commission (First 5 Kern) is funded by the Proposition 10 ballot initiative to support services for children prenatal to age five in California. The state revenue comes from an extra 50-cent tax on tobacco products, and is distributed according to the proportion of live births in each county. Following a…

  19. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Luquero, Francisco J; Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-03-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1-35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures. PMID:23364271

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of imported shigellosis in Korea, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Youn, Seung-Ki; Lee, Sangwon; Choi, Yeon Hwa

    2013-06-01

    Shigellosis is a global disease as food poisoning by infection of Shigella spp (S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei). In Korea, approximately 500 cases of shigellosis have reported every year since 2004, and imported shigellosis is increasing gradually from 2006 in particular. According to increase of numbers of overseas travelers, the numbers of patients diseased with imported shigellosis is also increasing. We need continuous surveillance studies network (SSN) for control of imported shigellosis. We studied epidemiological characteristic of imported shigellosis by using database of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) from 2010 to 2011. The imported shigellosis is analyzed on correlation with variable factors such as sex, age, symptom, visited country as well as Shigella spp in the database. Total 399 patients diseased with shigellosis have been reported between 2010 and 2011, The 212 patients (53.1%) among them were disease with imported shigellosis and the 205 patients (96.7%) were diagnosed as definite shigellosis. Shigella sonnei (65.6%) and Shigella flexneri (20.3%) were isolated in order. Clinical symptoms of the shigellosis were diarrhea (96.5%), abdominal pain (54.7%), fever (52.8%), chill (31.6%), and weakness (21.7% etc) in order. Duration of diarrhea was 1 to 5 days, the number of diarrhea was mostly more than 10 times, and type of stool was almost yellow stool. Almost shigellosis was occurred in the travelers visited to Asia (98.1%). Particularly, the occurrence rate of shigellosis was highest in traveler visited to Southeast Asia which is India (21.7%), Cambodia (19.8%), Philippines (17.9%), and Vietnam (9.0%) in order. According to increase of traveler to Southeast Asia, imported Shigellosis also increased. We need to strengthen the public health and hygiene, which is infection prevention rules, eating properly-cook food, washing hands, drinking boiled water, for traveler to Asia. The quarantine and surveillance system to control imported shigellosis is need continually in Korea. PMID:24159548

  2. Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne; Schmidt, Jeff; Quereshi, Yusuf; Dickman, Anneliese; Henken, Rob

    2011-01-01

    For the past 25 years, the Public Policy Forum has compiled and analyzed data from southeast Wisconsin's public school districts to produce an annual report on trends in educational performance and demographics. This year's report, however, may take on greater importance than those of previous years in light of the monumental impacts of the new…

  3. Washington State Board of Education Strategic Plan, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Washington State Legislature significantly changed the role of the State Board of Education (SBE). While the Board retains some administrative duties, SBE is now mandated to play a broad leadership role in strategic oversight and policy for K-12 education in the state. This paper presents the strategic plan of Washington State Board…

  4. English Language Learners and Their Academic Progress: 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    This is the 2010-11 annual report on the academic progress of English language learners in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The purpose of the report is to: (1) Describe the demographic characteristics of students classified as English Language Learners (ELL) in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS); (2) Provide data regarding ELL…

  5. MCPS Special Education at a Glance 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) "Special Education at a Glance," which includes a copy of the "Guide to Planning and Assessing School-Based Special Education Programs," provides in a single document, information about the special education population at each Montgomery County (Maryland public school, including…

  6. Queensland 2010-2011: A Summer of Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroulis, J.

    2012-04-01

    "I love a sunburnt country, A land of sweeping plains, Of ragged mountain ranges, Of droughts and flooding rains. I love her far horizons, I love her jewel-sea, Her beauty and her terror, The wide brown land for me." (Dorothea Mackellar OBE, 1885-1968). This second stanza from Mackellar's famous poem "My Country", beautifully sums up the Australian environment. In late 2010-early 2011, the "droughts and flooding rains" were the perfect terms to describe the climatic variability and the resulting flooding impacts experienced in many parts of Queensland under an enhanced La Niña as part of the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) climate pattern, with over 75% of Queensland being declared a disaster zone. This contrasts with the severe drought that had gripped many parts of Australia over the previous 8 years which saw water storage levels plummet, and resulted in 35% of Queensland being 'drought declared' as at April 2010. On the Darling Downs in southern Queensland, over 100,000 ha of land was inundated by the Condamine River due to flooding in early 2011. The river which is generally <100 m wide was seven kilometres wide at the widest point during the floods. However, the erosive impacts of the floods on largely tilled floodplains was relatively low with most erosion confined to the bed and banks of the river. In Grantham, where 13 lives were lost, flooding was especially hazardous because of the combined depth and velocity of floodwaters and the rapid rise of floodwaters across the floodplain. Floodwaters were ~2.0-2.5 m deep across the northern parts of the floodplain with a maximum velocity of ~2-3 m/s. The rate of rise was estimated at ~12 m/hour, indicating that it would have taken only 10-15 minutes to rise to full depth. However, despite detailed river and flood gauging in the more urbanised catchments such as the Brisbane River valley, this is by far the exception rather than the rule throughout mainland Australia. The Queensland floods highlight the pressing and urgent need for an accurate and more intensive network of river gauging and sediment monitoring. In a country of "droughts and flooding rains" and in the face of climate change, this need is now imperative.

  7. Developments in mycotoxin analysis: an update for 2010 - 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2010 and mid-2011. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Analytical methods for mycotoxins conti...

  8. Sustainable NREL, Biennial Report, FY 2010-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Slovensky, M.; Daw, J.

    2012-09-01

    This document reports on NREL's 'Campus of the Future,' which leverages partnerships and showcases sustainable energy on and near the NREL site. It is unique in that the report is based on GRI key performance indicators, that support NREL's sustainability goals.

  9. Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) hunt green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) were observed hunting green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda. During 2 h 39 min, I observed two cases of successful hunting and one case of unsuccessful hunting in a Ficus saussureana tree. Red-tailed monkeys stalked the pigeons until they were within 2-3 m, and then jumped and caught them. In both successful cases, blue monkeys (C. mitis) ran to the hunting site from adjacent trees in order to poach the prey, and the red-tailed monkeys fled. One of these red-tailed monkeys dropped the pigeon while fleeing, and the blue monkey climbed down from the tree to search for it. This is the first record of cercopithecoid monkeys hunting birds that are outside of the nest and moving freely, and also the first record of red-tailed monkeys hunting vertebrates. However rare it may be, the repeated hunting attempts using similar techniques and the immediate attempt of blue monkeys to poach the prey suggest that this type of hunting was not a one-time event that happened by chance. Blue monkeys and an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in and around the fig tree did not attempt to hunt. The hunting of volant birds may be enabled by the small body size and the quick movements of red-tailed monkeys. PMID:16467957

  10. The Significance of African Lions for the Financial Viability of Trophy Hunting and the Maintenance of Wild Land

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000–US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5–17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km2 that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km2), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km2). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their

  11. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2) that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2)), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2)). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their

  12. Isotopic evidence for Last Glacial climatic impacts on Neanderthal gazelle hunting territories at Amud Cave, Israel.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Gideon; Hovers, Erella; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Middle Paleolithic site of Amud Cave, Israel, was occupied by Neanderthals at two different time periods, evidenced by two chronologically and stratigraphically distinct depositional sub-units (B4 and B2/B1) during MIS 4 and MIS 3, respectively. The composition of both hunted large fauna and naturally-deposited micromammalian taxa is stable at the site over time, despite a ∼ 10 ky gap between the two occupation phases. However, while gazelle is the most ubiquitous hunted species throughout the occupation, isotopic analysis showed that there is a marked change in Neanderthal hunting ranges between the early (B4) and late (B2/B1) phases. Hunting ranges were reconstructed by comparing oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotopes from gazelle tooth enamel with modern isotope data from the Amud Cave region. This region is characterized by extensive topographic, lithological, and pedological heterogeneity. During the early occupation phase negative oxygen isotope values, low radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, and low Sr concentrations reveal restricted gazelle hunting in the high elevations west of Amud Cave. In the late occupation phase, hunting ranges became more diverse, but concentrate at low elevations closer to the site. Climatic proxies indicate that conditions were drier in the early occupation phase, which may have pushed gazelle populations into higher, more productive foraging areas. This study showed that Neanderthals adjusted their hunting territories considerably in relation to varying environmental conditions over the course of occupation in Amud Cave. It highlights the utility of multiple isotope analysis in enhancing the resolution of behavioral interpretations based on faunal remains and in reconstructing past hunting behaviors of Paleolithic hominins. PMID:25957654

  13. Effects of hunting and season of fire on wild turkey populations in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, William, F.; Kilgo, John, C.; Guynn, David, C.; Davis, James, R.

    2002-07-31

    This report assesses impacts to wild turkey populations from hunting and prescribed fire. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) To compare survival rates and causes of mortality of wild turkey gobblers between hunted and unhunted populations; (2) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on nesting success, survival and habitat use of wild turkey hens; (3) To determine the effects of dormant versus growing season prescribed burns on the availability of wild turkey plant foods.

  14. Spatial tools for modeling the sustainability of subsistence hunting in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Levi, Taal; Shepard, Glenn H; Ohl-Schacherer, Julia; Wilmers, Christopher C; Peres, Carlos A; Yu, Douglas W

    2011-07-01

    Subsistence hunting provides a crucial food source for rural populations in tropical forests, but it is often practiced unsustainably. We use the empirical observation that subsistence hunters are central-place foragers to develop three "bio-demographic" hunting models of increasing complexity and realism for assessing the sustainability of hunting of an indicator species. In all our models, we calculate the spatial pattern of depletion of an indicator species (here, a large-bodied primate) across a landscape. Specifically, we show how to identify the area surrounding a human settlement that is expected to suffer local extinction. Our approach is an improvement over well-known sustainability indices of hunting, which are prone to error and do not provide clear links to policy prescriptions. Our first approach models the long-term effect of a single settlement and (1) can be parameterized with easily obtainable field data (such as settlement maps and knowledge of the major weapon used), (2) is simple enough to be used without requiring technical skill, and (3) reveals the asymptotic relationship between local human density and the level of game depletion. Our second model allows multiple settlements with overlapping hunting zones over large spatial scales. Our third model additionally allows temporal changes in human population size and distribution and source-sink dynamics in game populations. Using transect and hunting data from two Amazonian sites, we show that the models accurately predict the spatial distribution of primate depletion. To make these methods accessible, we provide software-based tools, including a toolbox for ArcGIS, to assist in managing and mapping the spatial extent of hunting. The proposed application of our models is to allow the quantitative assessment of settlement stabilization approaches to managing hunting in Amazonia. PMID:21830720

  15. Sharp gene pool transition in a population affected by phenotype-based selective hunting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigatti, E.; Sá Martins, J. S.; Roditi, I.

    2005-06-01

    We use a microscopic model of population dynamics, a modified version of the well known Penna model, to study some aspects of microevolution. This research is motivated by recent reports on the effect of selective hunting on the gene pool of bighorn sheep living in the Ram Mountain region, in Canada. Our model finds a sharp transition in the structure of the gene pool as some threshold for the number of animals hunted is reached.

  16. Insights into the origins of fish hunting in venomous cone snails from studies of Conus tessulatus.

    PubMed

    Aman, Joseph W; Imperial, Julita S; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Zhang, Min-Min; Aguilar, Manuel; Taylor, Dylan; Watkins, Maren; Yoshikami, Doju; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Biggs, Jason; Teichert, Russell W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2015-04-21

    Prey shifts in carnivorous predators are events that can initiate the accelerated generation of new biodiversity. However, it is seldom possible to reconstruct how the change in prey preference occurred. Here we describe an evolutionary "smoking gun" that illuminates the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting among marine cone snails, resulting in the adaptive radiation of fish-hunting lineages comprising ∼100 piscivorous Conus species. This smoking gun is δ-conotoxin TsVIA, a peptide from the venom of Conus tessulatus that delays inactivation of vertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels. C. tessulatus is a species in a worm-hunting clade, which is phylogenetically closely related to the fish-hunting cone snail specialists. The discovery of a δ-conotoxin that potently acts on vertebrate sodium channels in the venom of a worm-hunting cone snail suggests that a closely related ancestral toxin enabled the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting, as δ-conotoxins are highly conserved among fish hunters and critical to their mechanism of prey capture; this peptide, δ-conotoxin TsVIA, has striking sequence similarity to these δ-conotoxins from piscivorous cone snail venoms. Calcium-imaging studies on dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons revealed the peptide's putative molecular target (voltage-gated sodium channels) and mechanism of action (inhibition of channel inactivation). The results were confirmed by electrophysiology. This work demonstrates how elucidating the specific interactions between toxins and receptors from phylogenetically well-defined lineages can uncover molecular mechanisms that underlie significant evolutionary transitions. PMID:25848010

  17. Insights into the origins of fish hunting in venomous cone snails from studies of Conus tessulatus

    PubMed Central

    Aman, Joseph W.; Imperial, Julita S.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Zhang, Min-Min; Aguilar, Manuel; Taylor, Dylan; Watkins, Maren; Yoshikami, Doju; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Biggs, Jason; Teichert, Russell W.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2015-01-01

    Prey shifts in carnivorous predators are events that can initiate the accelerated generation of new biodiversity. However, it is seldom possible to reconstruct how the change in prey preference occurred. Here we describe an evolutionary “smoking gun” that illuminates the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting among marine cone snails, resulting in the adaptive radiation of fish-hunting lineages comprising ∼100 piscivorous Conus species. This smoking gun is δ-conotoxin TsVIA, a peptide from the venom of Conus tessulatus that delays inactivation of vertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels. C. tessulatus is a species in a worm-hunting clade, which is phylogenetically closely related to the fish-hunting cone snail specialists. The discovery of a δ-conotoxin that potently acts on vertebrate sodium channels in the venom of a worm-hunting cone snail suggests that a closely related ancestral toxin enabled the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting, as δ-conotoxins are highly conserved among fish hunters and critical to their mechanism of prey capture; this peptide, δ-conotoxin TsVIA, has striking sequence similarity to these δ-conotoxins from piscivorous cone snail venoms. Calcium-imaging studies on dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons revealed the peptide’s putative molecular target (voltage-gated sodium channels) and mechanism of action (inhibition of channel inactivation). The results were confirmed by electrophysiology. This work demonstrates how elucidating the specific interactions between toxins and receptors from phylogenetically well-defined lineages can uncover molecular mechanisms that underlie significant evolutionary transitions. PMID:25848010

  18. Drivers of change in hunter offtake and hunting strategies in Sendje, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gill, David J C; Fa, John E; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Kümpel, Noëlle F

    2012-12-01

    Economic development in Africa is expected to increase levels of bushmeat hunting through rising demand for meat and improved transport infrastructure. However, few studies have tracked long-term changes in hunter behavior as a means of testing this prediction. We evaluated changes in hunter behavior in a rural community in Equatorial Guinea over a period of rapid national economic growth, during which time road access to the regional capital greatly improved. We conducted offtake surveys (Supporting Information) over 3 7-week periods at the same time of year in 1998, 2003, and 2010 and conducted hunter and household interviews (Supporting Information) in 2003 and 2010. We tested whether relations existed among catch, hunting effort, hunting strategy, and income earned through hunting and other livelihoods in 2003 and 2010. Although village offtake increased from 1775 kg in 1998 to 4172 kg in 2003, it decreased in 2010 to 1361 kg. Aggregate catch per unit effort (i.e., number of carcasses caught per hunter and per trap) decreased from 2003 to 2010, and the majority of hunters reported a decrease in abundance of local fauna. Although these results are indicative of unsustainable hunting, cumulative changes in offtake and catch per unit effort were driven by a contraction in the total area hunted following an out-migration of 29 of the village's hunters, most of whom left to gain employment in the construction industry, after 2003. Hunters operating in both 2003 and 2010 hunted closer to the village because an increased abundance of elephants posed a danger and because they desired to earn income through other activities. Our study provides an example of national economic development contributing to a reduction in the intensity and extent of hunting. PMID:22830627

  19. 50 CFR 18.30 - Polar bear sport-hunted trophy import permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 10.12, 18.3, and 23.3 apply to this section. (1) Sport-hunted trophy means a mount, rug or other... Division of Management Authority at the address provided at 50 CFR 2.1(b). You must use an official... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Polar bear sport-hunted trophy...

  20. Resumption of traditional drive hunting of dolphins in the Solomon Islands in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oremus, Marc; Leqata, John; Baker, C. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The ‘drive hunting’ of dolphins has a long history in the Solomon Islands, specifically at the island of Malaita. In 2010, the most active village, Fanalei, suspended hunting in exchange for financial compensation from an international non-governmental organization but resumed hunting again in early 2013. Here, we report on a visit to Fanalei in March 2013 to document the species and number of dolphins killed in the renewed hunting. Detailed records for the 2013 hunting, up to the time of our visit, included at least 1500 pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), 159 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and 15 ‘bottlenose’ dolphins, probably Tursiops truncatus. Molecular identification confirmed two of the species, pantropical spotted and spinner dolphins. A summary of all available records from 1976 to 2013 documented a minimum total of 15 454 dolphins killed by the Fanalei villagers alone. We also found the local price of a dolphin tooth had increased from about US$0.14 (SBD$1) in 2004 to about US$0.70 (SBD$5) in 2013. The large number of dolphins killed and the apparent incentive for future hunting offered by the increasing commercial value of teeth, highlight an urgent need to monitor hunts and assess the abundance and trends in local populations. PMID:26064656

  1. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.

    1999-05-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy`s INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians.

  2. How much land is needed for feral pig hunting in Hawai'i?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Jacobi, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Hunting is often considered to be incompatible with conservation of native biota and watershed functions in Hawai'i. Management actions for conservation generally exclude large non-native mammals from natural areas, thereby reducing the amount of land area available for hunting activities and the maintenance of sustainable game populations. An approach which may be useful in addressing the necessary minimum amount of land area allocated for hunting in Hawai'i is to determine the amount of land area necessary for sustaining populations of hunted animals to meet current levels harvested by the public. We ask: What is the total amount of land necessary to provide sustained-yield hunting of game meat for food at the current harvest level on Hawai'i Island if only feral pigs (Sus scrofa) were to be harvested? We used a simplistic analysis to estimate that 1 317.6 km2-1 651.4 km2 would be necessary to produce 187 333.6 kg of feral pig meat annually based on the range of dressed weight per whole pig, the proportion of a pig population that can be sustainably removed annually, and the density of pig populations in the wild. This amount of area comprises 12.6-15.8% of the total land area of Hawai'i Island, but more likely represents 27.6-43.5% of areas that may be compatible with sustained-yield hunting.

  3. Who Bites the Bullet First? The Susceptibility of Leopards Panthera pardus to Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Braczkowski, Alex Richard; Balme, Guy Andrew; Dickman, Amy; Macdonald, David Whyte; Fattebert, Julien; Dickerson, Tristan; Johnson, Paul; Hunter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Reliable data is fundamentally important for managing large carnivore populations, and vital for informing hunting quota levels if those populations are subject to trophy hunting. Camera-trapping and spoor counts can provide reliable population estimates for many carnivores, but governments typically lack the resources to implement such surveys over the spatial scales required to inform robust quota setting. It may therefore be prudent to shift focus away from estimating population size and instead focus on monitoring population trend. In this paper we assess the susceptibility of African leopards Panthera pardus to trophy hunting. This has management ramifications, particularly if the use of harvest composition is to be explored as a metric of population trend. We explore the susceptibility of different leopard age and sex cohorts to trophy hunting; first by examining their intrinsic susceptibility to encountering trophy hunters using camera-traps as surrogates, and second by assessing their extrinsic susceptibility using photographic questionnaire surveys to determine their attractiveness to hunters. We show that adult male and female leopards share similar incident rates to encountering hunters but adult males are the most susceptible to hunting due to hunter preference for large trophies. In contrast, sub-adult leopards rarely encounter hunters and are the least attractive trophies. We suggest that our findings be used as a foundation for the exploration of a harvest composition scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo provinces where post mortem information is collected from hunted leopards and submitted to the local provincial authorities. PMID:25860139

  4. Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

    2011-02-01

    Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) . PMID:20825444

  5. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burger, J

    1999-05-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy's INEEL lands are ever opened to pubic access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians. PMID:10330305

  6. Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, K. A.; Coad, L.; Taylor, G.; Lee, M. E.; Maisels, F.

    2013-01-01

    Humans have hunted wildlife in Central Africa for millennia. Today, however, many species are being rapidly extirpated and sanctuaries for wildlife are dwindling. Almost all Central Africa's forests are now accessible to hunters. Drastic declines of large mammals have been caused in the past 20 years by the commercial trade for meat or ivory. We review a growing body of empirical data which shows that trophic webs are significantly disrupted in the region, with knock-on effects for other ecological functions, including seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Plausible scenarios for land-use change indicate that increasing extraction pressure on Central African forests is likely to usher in new worker populations and to intensify the hunting impacts and trophic cascade disruption already in progress, unless serious efforts are made for hunting regulation. The profound ecological changes initiated by hunting will not mitigate and may even exacerbate the predicted effects of climate change for the region. We hypothesize that, in the near future, the trophic changes brought about by hunting will have a larger and more rapid impact on Central African rainforest structure and function than the direct impacts of climate change on the vegetation. Immediate hunting regulation is vital for the survival of the Central African rainforest ecosystem. PMID:23878333

  7. Changing patterns of goose harvest on California public hunting areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, J.P.; Hicks, J.M.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    We summarized hunter visits, success, and the magnitude and species-subspecies composition of tho goose harvest recorded on California public hunting areas (PHAs) during 1950-89. Of six geographic regions, the Northeast accounted for the largest portion of the PHA harvest (55%); most of the remainder occurred in the Sacramento (30%) and Imperial (10%) Valley regions. Harvest, hunter visits, and success were low during the 1950s, but increased during the 1960s as new PHAs were added and data from Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs), where about half of California's PHA goose harvest occurs, became available. Success and harvest reflected declining goose abundance during the 1970s; however, hunter visits remained high on most PHAs because ducks were abundant. During the 1980s, declining populations of greater white-fronted geese, Anser albifrons frontalis, and cackling Canada geese, Branta canadensis minima, prompted restrictive regulations resulting in low harvest and success. Hunter visits were further reduced because of declining duck abundance and overall declines in hunter numbers. White-fronted geese were most prominent in the Northeast and Suisun Marsh harvest, but the lesser snow goose, Chen caerulescens caerulescens, was more important in other regions. Overall, the cackling Canada goose was the third most common goose harvested. The harvest of most geese peaked during 1965-74, coinciding with a peak in hunter visits, and then declined. However, the harvest of Canada geese (includes unknown proportions of western, B. c. moffitti, Taverner's, B. c. taverneri, and lesser, B. c. parvipes) and Ross' geese, Chen rossi, increased slightly throughout the study period. PHA harvest averaged 9-15% of the total state goose harvest during 1960-89. Success on PHAs was greater than statewide success until the 1980's, when restrictive regulations were imposed in zones encompassing many Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Basin PHAs. White

  8. A new 'Jackson Hunt' model for monotectic composite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöcker, C.; Ratke, L.

    1999-06-01

    Directional solidification of monotectic alloys can lead under certain conditions of growth velocity and temperature gradient in the melt to composite microstructures with a rodlike appearance. For a theoretical description most researchers applied the Jackson and Hunt model of rod eutectic growth and predicted a relation between the mean rod distance R and the solidification velocity v0, as v0R2=const. similar to eutectics. The comparison between theory and experiments always led to discrepancies not yet resolved. In the approach presented here we propose an additional mode of mass transport in front of the zone coupled growth, since in our mind the main difference between monotectic and eutectic solidification is the liquid phase state of the (rod) L2 phase growing simultaneously within a nearly perfectly pure solid matrix. We assume that the thermocapillary effect causes convection at the surface of the liquid L2 phase. This Marangoni convection induces a flow field in front of the solidification front and has a strong influence on the solute transport, depending on the local temperature gradient and the Peclet number. We find a new relation between R and v0 in the case of small Peclet numbers and discuss some consequences on the stability of composite growth.

  9. A hydrodynamic sensory antenna used by killifish for nocturnal hunting

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Jason S.; Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The perception of sensory stimuli by an animal requires several steps, commencing with the capture of stimulus energy by an antenna that, as the interface between the physical world and the nervous system, modifies the stimulus in ways that enhance the animal's perception. The mammalian external ear, for example, collects sound and spectrally alters it to increase sensitivity and improve the detection of directionality. In view of the morphological diversity of the lateral-line system across species and its accessibility to observation and experimental intervention, we sought to investigate the role of antennal structures on the response characteristics of the lateral line. The surface-feeding killifish Aplocheilus lineatus is able to hunt in darkness by detecting surface capillary waves with the lateral-line system atop its head. This cephalic lateral line consists of a stereotyped array of 18 mechanosensitive neuromasts bordered by fleshy ridges. By recording microphonic potentials, we found that each neuromast has a unique receptive field defined by its sensitivity to stimulation of the water's surface. The ridges help determine these receptive fields by altering the flow of water over each neuromast. Modification of the hydrodynamic environment by the addition of a supplemental ridge changes the pattern of water movement, perturbs the receptive fields of adjacent neuromasts and impairs the fish's localization ability. On the basis of electrophysiological, hydrodynamic and behavioral evidence, we propose that the ridges constitute a hydrodynamic antenna for the cephalic lateral line. PMID:21562172

  10. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements Showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M. Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec. 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approx. 46 mb) and 585 K (approxi. 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: 1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; 2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; 3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  11. Trajectory Hunting: Analysis of UARS Measurements showing Rapid Chlorine Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, M.Y.; Santee, M. L.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Mergenthaler, J. M.; Kumer, J. B.; Tabazadeh, A.

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory hunting (i.e., a technique to find air parcels sampled at least twice over the course of a few days) is applied to analyze Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) measurements in conjunction with the AER photochemical box model. In this study, we investigate rapid chlorine activation in the Arctic lower stratosphere on 29 Dec 1992 associated with a polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event. Six air parcels that have been sampled twice were followed along 5-day trajectories at the 465 K (approximately 46 mb) and 585 K (approximately 22 mb) levels. A detailed sensitivity study with the AER. photochemical box model along these trajectories leads to the following conclusions for the episode considered: (1) model results are in better agreement with UARS measurements at these levels if the UKMO temperature is decreased by at least 1-2 K; (2) the NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) PSC formation scheme produces results in better agreement with observations than the STS (supercooled ternary solution) scheme; (3) the model can explain the UARS measurements at 585 K, but under-estimates the ClO abundance at 465 K, suggesting some inconsistency between the UARS measurements at this level.

  12. Bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Syal, Rajan; Tyagi, Isha; Goyal, Amit

    2004-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 10% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. Bilateral herpes zoster oticus can sometime occur in immunocompromised patients, though incidence is very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: Diabetic male, 57 year old presented to us with bilateral facial palsy due to herpes zoster oticus. Patient was having bilateral mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Patient was treated with appropriate metabolic control, anti-inflammatory drugs and intravenous acyclovir. Due to uncontrolled diabetes, glucocorticoids were not used in this patient. Significant improvement in hearing status and facial nerve functions were seen in this patient. CONCLUSIONS: Herpes zoster causes severe infections in diabetic patients and can be a cause of bilateral facial palsy and bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Herpes zoster in diabetic patients should be treated with appropriate metabolic control, NSAIDS and intravenous acyclovir, which we feel should be started at the earliest. Glucocorticoids should be avoided in diabetic patients. PMID:15575957

  13. Bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome in a diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Syal, Rajan; Tyagi, Isha; Goyal, Amit

    2004-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 10% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. Bilateral herpes zoster oticus can sometime occur in immunocompromised patients, though incidence is very rare. Case presentation Diabetic male, 57 year old presented to us with bilateral facial palsy due to herpes zoster oticus. Patient was having bilateral mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Patient was treated with appropriate metabolic control, anti-inflammatory drugs and intravenous acyclovir. Due to uncontrolled diabetes, glucocorticoids were not used in this patient. Significant improvement in hearing status and facial nerve functions were seen in this patient. Conclusions Herpes zoster causes severe infections in diabetic patients and can be a cause of bilateral facial palsy and bilateral Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Herpes zoster in diabetic patients should be treated with appropriate metabolic control, NSAIDS and intravenous acyclovir, which we feel should be started at the earliest. Glucocorticoids should be avoided in diabetic patients. PMID:15575957

  14. LEECH: Hunting for Planets with LBTI-LMIRcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisenring, Jarron; Skemer, A.; LEECH Survey Team

    2014-01-01

    In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4-meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reducing the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L’ (3.8 microns) with LMIRcam, as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 microns) of other similar surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. The goals of LEECH are to (1) discover new exoplanets, (2) characterize the atmospheres of newly discovered exoplanets, (3) characterize the architectures of nearby planetary systems, and (4) establish meaningful constraints on the prevalence of wide-separation exoplanets.

  15. Duck harvest on public hunting areas in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Hicks, J.M.; Fleskes, J.P.; Connelly, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    We summarized hunter visits and success, and the magnitude and species composition of the duck harvest recorded on California public hunting areas (PHAs) during 1950-87. Hunter visits and harvest increased during 1950-74 as new PHAs were added, then declined concurrently with duck populations. Of six geographic regions, the Sacramento Valley, with numerous PHAs and the largest duck concentrations, accounted for the largest portion of PHA hunter visits (28%) and harvest (35%). Duck population levels, regulations, and hunter numbers affected PHA hunter success. Success was highest during 1955-59 but declined with no consistent trend after 1960. Species vulnerability, abundance, distribution, and hunter preference affected harvest composition. Northern pintails, Anas acuta, averaged 27% of the PHA harvest but declined in importance after 1974. Green-winged teal, A. crecca, the most important species in southern regions, averaged 21% of the PHA harvest. Mallards, A. platyrhynchos, averaged 16% of the PHA harvest but increased in importance after 1974 to become the most common duck bagged after 1983. PHA harvest comprised a small (4-16%) portion of the total state harvest. However, this portion increased from 1950-70 because of increased hunter visits to new PHAs and after 1970 because hunter success on PHAs did not decline as on other areas. PHA hunters tended to harvest fewer preferred species and more vulnerable species, as proportions of total bag, than did other hunters. The continued decline in numbers of waterfowl hunters presents important challenges for management of waterfowl areas in California.

  16. New England's Other Witch-hunt: The Hartford Witch-hunt of the 1660s and Changing Patterns in Witchcraft Prosecution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Classifies witchcraft prosecution into three periods in New England during the seventeenth century. Focuses on the witch-hunt in Hartford, Connecticut, the trial of Katherine Harrison, and the period of skepticism toward witchcraft prosecution. Addresses the role of Governor John Winthrop, Jr. in this skepticism and the legal procedures in…

  17. Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Lewis, Jerome; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Noss, Andrew; Hattori, Shiho; Hirai, Masaaki; Kamgaing, Towa O W; Carpaneto, Giuseppe; Germi, Francesco; Márquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Duda, Romain; Gallois, Sandrine; Riddell, Michael; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates) and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates). We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1) of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas. PMID:27589384

  18. Integrating Sustainable Hunting in Biodiversity Protection in Central Africa: Hot Spots, Weak Spots, and Strong Spots

    PubMed Central

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  19. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  20. Chaos and crises in a model for cooperative hunting: A symbolic dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2009-12-01

    In this work we investigate the population dynamics of cooperative hunting extending the McCann and Yodzis model for a three-species food chain system with a predator, a prey, and a resource species. The new model considers that a given fraction σ of predators cooperates in prey's hunting, while the rest of the population 1-σ hunts without cooperation. We use the theory of symbolic dynamics to study the topological entropy and the parameter space ordering of the kneading sequences associated with one-dimensional maps that reproduce significant aspects of the dynamics of the species under several degrees of cooperative hunting. Our model also allows us to investigate the so-called deterministic extinction via chaotic crisis and transient chaos in the framework of cooperative hunting. The symbolic sequences allow us to identify a critical boundary in the parameter spaces (K ,C0) and (K ,σ) which separates two scenarios: (i) all-species coexistence and (ii) predator's extinction via chaotic crisis. We show that the crisis value of the carrying capacity Kc decreases at increasing σ, indicating that predator's populations with high degree of cooperative hunting are more sensitive to the chaotic crises. We also show that the control method of Dhamala and Lai [Phys. Rev. E 59, 1646 (1999)] can sustain the chaotic behavior after the crisis for systems with cooperative hunting. We finally analyze and quantify the inner structure of the target regions obtained with this control method for wider parameter values beyond the crisis, showing a power law dependence of the extinction transients on such critical parameters.

  1. Geo-Spatial Aspects of Acceptance of Illegal Hunting of Large Carnivores in Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Gangaas, Kristin E.; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P.; Andreassen, Harry P.

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human – wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7–15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3–4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  2. Sexual dimorphism in relation to big-game hunting and economy in modern human populations.

    PubMed

    Collier, S

    1993-08-01

    Postcranial skeletal data from two recent Eskimo populations are used to test David Frayer's model of sexual dimorphism reduction in Europe between the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Frayer argued that a change from big-game hunting and adoption of new technology in the Mesolithic reduced selection for large body size in males and led to a reduction in skeletal sexual dimorphism. Though aspects of Frayer's work have been criticized in the literature, the association of big-game hunting and high sexual dimorphism is untested. This study employs univariate and multivariate analysis to test that association by examining sexual dimorphism of cranial and postcranial bones of two recent Alaskan Eskimo populations, one being big-game (whale and other large marine mammal) hunting people, and the second being salmon fishing, riverine people. While big-game hunting influences skeletal robusticity, it cannot be said to lead to greater sexual dimorphism generally. The two populations had different relative sexual dimorphism levels for different parts of the body. Notably, the big-game hunting (whaling) Eskimos had the lower multivariate dimorphism in the humerus, which could be expected to be the structure under greatest exertion by such hunting in males. While the exertions of the whale hunting economic activities led to high skeletal robusticity, as predicted by Frayer's model, this was true of the females as well as the males, resulting in low sexual dimorphism in some features. Females are half the sexual dimorphism equation, and they cannot be seen as constants in any model of economic behavior. PMID:8372937

  3. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  4. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale

  5. Sink populations in carnivore management: cougar demography and immigration in a hunted population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hugh S; Wielgus, Robert B; Cooley, Hilary S; Cooley, Skye W

    2008-06-01

    Carnivores are widely hunted for both sport and population control, especially where they conflict with human interests. It is widely believed that sport hunting is effective in reducing carnivore populations and related human-carnivore conflicts, while maintaining viable populations. However, the way in which carnivore populations respond to harvest can vary greatly depending on their social structure, reproductive strategies, and dispersal patterns. For example, hunted cougar (Puma concolor) populations have shown a great degree of resiliency. Although hunting cougars on a broad geographic scale (> 2000 km2) has reduced densities, hunting of smaller areas (i.e., game management units, < 1000 km2), could conceivably fail because of increased immigration from adjacent source areas. We monitored a heavily hunted population from 2001 to 2006 to test for the effects of hunting at a small scale (< 1000 km2) and to gauge whether population control was achieved (lambda < or = 1.0) or if hunting losses were negated by increased immigration allowing the population to remain stable or increase (lambda > or = 1.0). The observed growth rate of 1.00 was significantly higher than our predicted survival/fecundity growth rates (using a Leslie matrix) of 0.89 (deterministic) and 0.84 (stochastic), with the difference representing an 11-16% annual immigration rate. We observed no decline in density of the total population or the adult population, but a significant decrease in the average age of independent males. We found that the male component of the population was increasing (observed male population growth rate, lambda(OM) = 1.09), masking a decrease in the female component (lambda(OF) = 0.91). Our data support the compensatory immigration sink hypothesis; cougar removal in small game management areas (< 1000 km2) increased immigration and recruitment of younger animals from adjacent areas, resulting in little or no reduction in local cougar densities and a shift in population

  6. Functional Responses of Retaliatory Killing versus Recreational Sport Hunting of Leopards in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Swanepoel, Lourens H.; Somers, Michael J.; Dalerum, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Predation strategies in response to altering prey abundances can dramatically influence the demographic effects of predation. Despite this, predation strategies of humans are rarely incorporated into quantitative assessments of the demographic impacts of humans killing carnivores. This scarcity largely seems to be caused by a lack of data. In this study, we contrasted predation strategies exhibited by people involved in retaliatory killing and recreational sport hunting of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the Waterberg District Municipality, South Africa. We predicted a specialist predation strategy exemplified by a type II functional response for retaliatory killing, and a generalist strategy exemplified by a type III functional response for recreational sport hunting. We could not distinguish between a type I, a type II, or a type III functional response for retaliatory killing, but the most parsimonious model for recreational sport hunting corresponded to a type I functional response. Kill rates were consistently higher for retaliatory killing than for recreational sport hunting. Our results indicate that retaliatory killing of leopards may have severe demographic consequences for leopard populations, whereas the demographic consequences of recreational sport hunting likely are less dramatic. PMID:25905623

  7. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    PubMed

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison), to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus), a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey. PMID:25389760

  8. Influence of Group Size on the Success of Wolves Hunting Bison

    PubMed Central

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison), to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus), a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2–6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9–13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey. PMID:25389760

  9. Assessing the energy landscape of CAPRI targets by FunHunt.

    PubMed

    London, Nir; Schueler-Furman, Ora

    2007-12-01

    RosettaDock has repeatedly created high-resolution structures of protein complexes in the CAPRI experiment, thanks to the explicit modeling of conformational changes of the monomers at the side chain level. These models can be selected based on their energy. During the search for the lowest-energy model, RosettaDock samples a deep funnel around the native orientation, but additional funnels may appear in the energy landscape, especially in cases where backbone conformational changes occur upon binding. We have previously developed FunHunt, a Support Vector Machine-based classifier that distinguishes the energy funnels around the native orientation from other funnels in the energy landscape. Here we assess the ability of FunHunt to help in model selection in the CAPRI experiment. For all of 12 recent CAPRI targets, FunHunt clearly identifies a near-native funnel in comparison to the funnel around the lowest energy model identified by the RosettaDock global search protocol. FunHunt is also able to choose a near-native orientation among models submitted by predictor groups, demonstrating its general applicability for model selection. This suggests that FunHunt will be a valuable tool in coming CAPRI rounds for the selection of models, and for the definition of regions that need further refinement with restricted backbone flexibility. PMID:17803233

  10. Prey-Capture Strategies of Fish-Hunting Cone Snails: Behavior, Neurobiology and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Baldomero M; Seger, Jon; Horvath, Martin P; Fedosov, Alexander E

    2015-09-01

    The venomous fish-hunting cone snails (Conus) comprise eight distinct lineages evolved from ancestors that preyed on worms. In this article, we attempt to reconstruct events resulting in this shift in food resource by closely examining patterns of behavior, biochemical agents (toxins) that facilitate prey capture and the combinations of toxins present in extant species. The first sections introduce three different hunting behaviors associated with piscivory: 'taser-and-tether', 'net-engulfment' and 'strike-and-stalk'. The first two fish-hunting behaviors are clearly associated with distinct groups of venom components, called cabals, which act in concert to modify the behavior of prey in a specific manner. Derived fish-hunting behavior clearly also correlates with physical features of the radular tooth, the device that injects these biochemical components. Mapping behavior, biochemical components and radular tooth features onto phylogenetic trees shows that fish-hunting behavior emerged at least twice during evolution. The system presented here may be one of the best examples where diversity in structure, physiology and molecular features were initially driven by particular pathways selected through behavior. PMID:26397110

  11. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a hunting dog and its diphtheria toxin antibody titer.

    PubMed

    Katsukawa, Chihiro; Komiya, Takako; Umeda, Kaoru; Goto, Minami; Yanai, Tokuma; Takahashi, Motohide; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Iwaki, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans is a zoonotic pathogen that produces diphtheria toxin and causes a diphtheria-like illness in humans. The organism is known to infect and circulate among dogs, which can then transmit it to humans. Furthermore, previous studies have found that C. ulcerans is carried by wild animals, including game animals. In the present study, we tested hunting and companion dogs for the presence of toxigenic C. ulcerans and succeeded in isolating the bacterium from a hunting dog. Moreover, several hunting dogs had serum diphtheria antitoxin titers that were higher than the titers required for protection in humans, suggesting a history of exposure to toxigenic Corynebacterium strains. Notably, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and tox gene sequencing demonstrated that the isolate from the hunting dog clustered with previously characterized C. ulcerans strains isolated from wild animals, as opposed to groups of isolates from humans and companion dogs. Interestingly, the wild animal cluster also contains an isolate from an outdoor breeding dog, which could have formed a bridge between isolates from wild animals and those from companion dogs. The results presented herein provide insight into the mechanism by which the zoonotic pathogen C. ulcerans circulates among wild animals, hunting and companion dogs, and humans. PMID:26853714

  12. Changes in horn size of Stone's sheep over four decades correlate with trophy hunting pressure.

    PubMed

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Bonenfanti, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Selective harvest may lead to rapid evolutionary change. For large herbivores, trophy hunting removes males with large horns. That artificial selection, operating in opposition to sexual selection, can lead to undesirable consequences for management and conservation. There have been no comparisons of long-term changes in trophy size under contrasting harvest pressures. We analyzed horn measurements of Stone's rams (Ovis dalli stonei) harvested over 37 years in two large regions of British Columbia, Canada, with marked differences in hunting pressure to identify when selective hunting may cause a long-term decrease in horn growth. Under strong selective harvest, horn growth early in life and the number of males harvested declined by 12% and 45%, respectively, over the study period. Horn shape also changed over time: horn length became shorter for a given base circumference, likely because horn base is not a direct target of hunter selection. In contrast, under relatively lower hunting pressure, there were no detectable temporal trends in early horn growth, number of males harvested, or horn length relative to base circumference. Trophy hunting is an important recreational activity and can generate substantial revenues for conservation. By providing a reproductive advantage to males with smaller horns and reducing the availability of desirable trophies, however, excessive harvest may have the undesirable long-term consequences of reducing both the harvest and the horn size of rams. These consequences can be avoided by limiting offtake. PMID:27039527

  13. Subsistence hunting of Cuniculus paca in the middle of the Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, J; El Bizri, H R; Figueira, J E C

    2014-08-01

    Ungulates, large primates and caviomorfs are cited by Amazonian hunters as preferred species. In this research, paca (Cuniculus paca) hunting was investigated in relation to water levels and the lunar cycle. In eight years of monitoring in the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, the killing of 625 pacas was registered in five monitored communities. Paca hunting took place mainly at night and the most commonly used method is "spotlighting". A positive correlation between the number of pacas killed and water level (rs=0.890; p<0.0001) was found. At least 37% of the pacas were hunted when moon illumination level was less than 10%, before moonrise or after moonset. In the Boa Esperança community, capture of paca tended to decrease on nights with high moon illumination (rs= -0.663; p=0.067). At the same time, an expressive catch-per-unity-effort decrease was also observed in this community (r2= -0.881; p<0.001), allowing us to predict unsustainable hunting levels for the next decade. The stock of animals in these areas could be continuously replaced if surrounding areas consisted of continuous forests. However, continuous hunting and deforestation force local hunters to travel longer distances to kill prey such as pacas. The confirmation of the relation between paca habits and lunar illumination and water level, a pattern described by local hunters, demonstrates the potential value of participatory research and the possibility of integrating traditional knowledge into scientific knowledge. PMID:25296203

  14. Lead pollution from waterfowl hunting in wetlands and rice fields in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Romano, Marcelo; Ferreyra, Hebe; Ferreyroa, Gisele; Molina, Fernando V; Caselli, Andrea; Barberis, Ignacio; Beldoménico, Pablo; Uhart, Marcela

    2016-03-01

    The pollution of wetlands by lead derived from waterfowl hunting with lead shot was investigated. We determined soil pellet density and Pb concentration in soil, water and vegetation in natural wetlands and rice fields in central-eastern Santa Fe province, Argentina. Pellet density varied greatly among hunting sites (between 5.5-141 pellets/m(2)) and pellets were present in some control sites. Soil Pb concentration in most hunting sites (approximately 10-20 mg kg(-1)) was not much higher than in control sites (~5-10 mg kg(-1)), with the exception of the site with highest pellet density, which also had a high Pb soil concentration. In water, on the other hand, Pb concentration was similar in all sites (~4-7 μg L(-1)), both control and hunting, and higher than reference values for aquatic media. Lead was also present in vegetation, including grasses and rice crops, in almost all cases. Most soil-collection sites were slightly acidic, and were frequently flooded. These results strongly suggest that metallic Pb from spent shot is oxidized and dissolved due to wetland conditions. Thus, the pollutant is readily mobilized and distributed across all wetland areas, effectively homogenizing its concentration in locations with and without hunting activities. The replacement of lead by nontoxic materials in pellets appears to be the only effective way to prevent Pb pollution in wetlands. PMID:26745298

  15. Large carnivores response to recreational big game hunting along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, T.E.; Smith, D.W.; Haroldson, M.A.; Buotte, P.C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Quigley, H.B.; Cherry, S.; Tyres, D.; Frey, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem contains the rare combination of an intact guild of native large carnivores, their prey, and differing land management policies (National Park versus National Forest; no hunting versus hunting). Concurrent field studies on large carnivores allowed us to investigate activities of humans and carnivores on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) northern boundary. Prior to and during the backcountry big-game hunting season, we monitored movements of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and cougars (Puma concolor) on the northern boundary of YNP. Daily aerial telemetry locations (September 1999), augmented with weekly telemetry locations (August and October 1999), were obtained for 3 grizzly bears, 7 wolves in 2 groups of 1 pack, and 3 cougars in 1 family group. Grizzly bears were more likely located inside the YNP boundary during the pre-hunt period and north of the boundary once hunting began. The cougar family tended to be found outside YNP during the pre-hunt period and moved inside YNP when hunting began. Wolves did not significantly change their movement patterns during the pre-hunt and hunting periods. Qualitative information on elk (Cervus elaphus) indicated they moved into YNP once hunting started, suggesting that cougars followed living prey or responded to hunting activity, grizzly bears focused on dead prey (e.g., gut piles, crippled elk), and wolves may have taken advantage of both. Measures of association (Jacob's Index) were positive within carnivore species but inconclusive among species. Further collaborative research and the use of new technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry collars will advance our ability to understand these species, the carnivore community and its interactions, and human influences on carnivores.

  16. A rare case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome following temporomandibular joint surgery.

    PubMed

    Lehman, H; Rushinek, H

    2015-08-01

    Surgical approaches to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have been designed specifically to minimize injury to the temporal branch of the facial nerve. In spite of this, facial nerve dysfunction occurs in 1-32% of patients undergoing TMJ surgery. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by peripheral facial paralysis that often involves other cranial nerves, mostly cranial nerve VIII. The pathology is attributed to the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. The diagnosis is based mostly on history and physical findings. Surgical procedures have been known to reactivate varicella zoster virus, but Ramsay Hunt syndrome subsequent to TMJ surgery has not been described yet. This report describes a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with TMJ surgery. Because of the relatively high incidence of facial nerve dysfunction associated with TMJ surgery, patients with varicella zoster virus reactivation may initially be misdiagnosed with iatrogenic facial palsy, or vice versa. PMID:25864001

  17. Animal movements in the Kenya Rift and evidence for the earliest ambush hunting by hominins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Reynolds, Sally C.; Rucina, Stephen M.; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Animal movements in the Kenya Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and trace nutrient distribution. These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. We use this approach to create a landscape reconstruction of Olorgesailie, a key site in the East African Rift with abundant evidence of large-mammal butchery between ~1.2 and ~0.5 Ma BP. The site location in relation to limited animal routes through the area show that hominins were aware of animal movements and used the location for ambush hunting during the Lower to Middle Pleistocene. These features explain the importance of Olorgesailie as a preferred location of repeated hominin activity through multiple changes in climate and local environmental conditions, and provide insights into the cognitive and hunting abilities of Homo erectus while indicating that their activities at the site were aimed at hunting, rather than scavenging.

  18. Varicella-zoster virus distribution in Ramsay Hunt syndrome revealed by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Murakami, S; Nakashiro, Y; Mizobuchi, M; Hato, N; Honda, N; Gyo, K

    1998-03-01

    The pathogenesis of facial nerve paralysis and vestibulo-cochlear dysfunction of Ramsay Hunt syndrome remains unclear as varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has not been demonstrated in the lesions. Using the polymerase chain reaction, we detected VZV genomes not only in the vesicles on the auricles or oral cavity but also in the facial nerve sheath, middle ear mucosa and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The VZV genome was undetectable in the same kinds of clinical samples obtained from control patients with facial nerve paralysis of other etiologies. The results indicated that VZV spreads widely in the neural components, mucocutaneous tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. The present study will facilitate better understanding of the pathogenesis of facial nerve paralysis, vertigo, hearing impairment and other cranial nerve dysfunction of Ramsay Hunt syndrome. PMID:9583779

  19. Animal movements in the Kenya Rift and evidence for the earliest ambush hunting by hominins.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Reynolds, Sally C; Rucina, Stephen M; King, Geoffrey C P

    2015-01-01

    Animal movements in the Kenya Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and trace nutrient distribution. These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. We use this approach to create a landscape reconstruction of Olorgesailie, a key site in the East African Rift with abundant evidence of large-mammal butchery between ~1.2 and ~0.5 Ma BP. The site location in relation to limited animal routes through the area show that hominins were aware of animal movements and used the location for ambush hunting during the Lower to Middle Pleistocene. These features explain the importance of Olorgesailie as a preferred location of repeated hominin activity through multiple changes in climate and local environmental conditions, and provide insights into the cognitive and hunting abilities of Homo erectus while indicating that their activities at the site were aimed at hunting, rather than scavenging. PMID:26369499

  20. Animal movements in the Kenya Rift and evidence for the earliest ambush hunting by hominins

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, Simon; Owenga, Peter; Reynolds, Sally C.; Rucina, Stephen M.; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal movements in the Kenya Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and trace nutrient distribution. These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. We use this approach to create a landscape reconstruction of Olorgesailie, a key site in the East African Rift with abundant evidence of large-mammal butchery between ~1.2 and ~0.5 Ma BP. The site location in relation to limited animal routes through the area show that hominins were aware of animal movements and used the location for ambush hunting during the Lower to Middle Pleistocene. These features explain the importance of Olorgesailie as a preferred location of repeated hominin activity through multiple changes in climate and local environmental conditions, and provide insights into the cognitive and hunting abilities of Homo erectus while indicating that their activities at the site were aimed at hunting, rather than scavenging. PMID:26369499

  1. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  5. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game...

  6. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game...

  7. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game...

  8. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game...

  9. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game...

  10. 50 CFR 32.7 - What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .../or sport fishing? 32.7 Section 32.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Provisions § 32.7 What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing? Refuge units open to hunting and/or sport fishing in accordance with the provisions of subpart A of this part and §§...

  11. 50 CFR 32.7 - What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../or sport fishing? 32.7 Section 32.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Provisions § 32.7 What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing? Refuge units open to hunting and/or sport fishing in accordance with the provisions of subpart A of this part and §§...

  12. 50 CFR 32.7 - What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .../or sport fishing? 32.7 Section 32.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Provisions § 32.7 What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing? Refuge units open to hunting and/or sport fishing in accordance with the provisions of subpart A of this part and §§...

  13. 50 CFR 32.7 - What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .../or sport fishing? 32.7 Section 32.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Provisions § 32.7 What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing? Refuge units open to hunting and/or sport fishing in accordance with the provisions of subpart A of this part and §§...

  14. 50 CFR 32.7 - What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .../or sport fishing? 32.7 Section 32.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Provisions § 32.7 What refuge units are open to hunting and/or sport fishing? Refuge units open to hunting and/or sport fishing in accordance with the provisions of subpart A of this part and §§...

  15. Vulnerability of nontarget goose species to hunting with electronic snow goose calls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caswell, J.H.; Afton, A.D.; Caswell, F.D.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1999, use of electronic calls has been legal for hunting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter snow geese) during special seasons or times of day when other waterfowl species could not be hunted in prairie Canada. Prior to expanding the use of electronic calls for hunting snow geese during fall hunting seasons, effects of these calls on nontarget goose species must be examined. Accordingly, we examined the vulnerability of Canada (Branta canadensis) and white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) (dark geese) to electronic snow goose calls and 3 goose decoy sets (dark, mixed, and white) during the 1999 fall hunting seasons in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Canada geese were 2.3 times more likely to fly within gun range (P<0.001) and the mean number killed/hour/hunter was 2.5 times greater (P=0.043) during control periods when hunters were silent or used traditional calling methods (i.e., hand-held and voice calls) than when hunters used electronic snow goose calls. Flock response and kill rate for Canada geese declined as proportions of white decoys increased in decoy sets (P<0.001). White-fronted geese were 1.8 times more likely to fly within gun range (P=0.050) and the mean number killed/hour/hunter was 5.0 times greater (P=0.022) during control periods than during periods when electronic snow goose calls were used. Flock response for white-fronted geese also declined as the proportion of white decoys increased in decoy sets (P<0.001). The legalization of electronic snow goose calls during fall hunting seasons in prairie Canada should not result in increased harvest of nontarget dark geese.

  16. When top predators become prey: Black bears alter movement behaviour in response to hunting pressure.

    PubMed

    Stillfried, Milena; Belant, Jerrold L; Svoboda, Nathan J; Beyer, Dean E; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The trade-off between predator avoidance and foraging is a key decision making factor that shapes an organism's adaptive behaviour and movement patterns. Human hunters act as top predators to influence the behaviour of free-ranging mammals, including large carnivorous species such as black bears (Ursus americanus). Analysing the effects of hunting on animal behavioural patterns is essential for understanding the extent to which animals detect and respond to human-induced disturbances. To this end, we assessed whether black bear movement behaviour changed with varying risk from spatially and temporally heterogeneous human predation. Levels of risk were categorized as either low (disturbance from dog training; n=19 bears) or high (disturbance from hunting activities; n=11 bears). Road types were either paved (risk due to vehicles) or non-paved (risk due to hunters) and were used as proxies for hunting effort and amount of disturbance. We began by testing the null hypothesis that bears' distribution before the onset of human disturbance is spatially random. Next, to test temporal movement adjustment between the low and high risk levels, we measured the distance to the nearest road and the road crossing frequency using mixed effects models with risk level, time of day and sex as predictor variables. As disturbance near non-paved roads increased due to the start of the hunting activity, the mean distances of bears to non-paved roads increased while the mean distances of bears to paved roads decreased, despite the continual risk of vehicle collision. These behavioural responses were observed during day and night, with the frequency of crossing paved roads at night five times greater than in daytime during the hunting season. Our findings demonstrate that black bears are able to detect risky places and adjust their spatial movements accordingly. More specifically, bears can perceive changes in the level of risk from human hunting activities on a fine temporal scale. PMID

  17. Validation of self-reported and hospital-diagnosed atrial fibrillation: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Malmo, Vegard; Langhammer, Arnulf; Bønaa, Kaare H; Loennechen, Jan P; Ellekjaer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-reported atrial fibrillation (AF) and diagnoses from hospital registers are often used to identify persons with AF. The objective of this study was to validate self-reported AF and hospital discharge diagnoses of AF among participants in a population-based study. Materials and methods Among 50,805 persons who participated in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3), 16,247 participants from three municipalities were included. Individuals who reported cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or hypertension in the main questionnaire received a cardiovascular-specific questionnaire. An affirmative answer to a question on physician-diagnosed AF in this second questionnaire defined self-reported AF diagnoses in the study. In addition, AF diagnoses were retrieved from hospital and primary care (PC) registers. All AF diagnoses were verified by review of hospital and PC medical records. Results A total of 502 HUNT3 participants had a diagnosis of AF verified in hospital or PC records. Of these, 249 reported their AF diagnosis in the HUNT3 questionnaires and 370 had an AF diagnosis in hospital discharge registers before participation in HUNT3. The sensitivity of self-reported AF in HUNT3 was 49.6%, specificity 99.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) 66.2%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.4%. The sensitivity of a hospital discharge diagnosis of AF was 73.7%, specificity 99.7%, PPV 88.5%, and NPV 99.2%. Conclusion Use of questionnaires alone to identify cases of AF has low sensitivity. Extraction of diagnoses from health care registers enhances the sensitivity substantially and should be applied when estimates of incidence and prevalence of AF are studied. PMID:27354826

  18. Pre-Clovis mastodon hunting 13,800 years ago at the Manis site, Washington.

    PubMed

    Waters, Michael R; Stafford, Thomas W; McDonald, H Gregory; Gustafson, Carl; Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Olsen, Jesper V; Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-21

    The tip of a projectile point made of mastodon bone is embedded in a rib of a single disarticulated mastodon at the Manis site in the state of Washington. Radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis show that the rib is associated with the other remains and dates to 13,800 years ago. Thus, osseous projectile points, common to the Beringian Upper Paleolithic and Clovis, were made and used during pre-Clovis times in North America. The Manis site, combined with evidence of mammoth hunting at sites in Wisconsin, provides evidence that people were hunting proboscideans at least two millennia before Clovis. PMID:22021854

  19. The Hundred Year Hunt for the Red Sprite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Schmidt, M.

    2003-12-01

    This presentation reviews an NSF Informal Science Education project directed by the PO of an ongoing NSF Physical Meteorology/Aeronomy-sponsored research program on red sprites. For over 100 years, anecdotal reports and citations in the literature have persisted of strange luminous apparitions occurring high above thunderstorms. They were long discounted by the scientific community - until 1989, when by pure chance, a video revealed two giant pillars of light extending tens of kilometers above a thunderstorm. Since then, thousands of events, now called sprites, have been imaged, many by the PI. Mesospheric sprites, at 40 to 90 km altitude, are induced by lightning discharges having highly unusual characteristics. Science is now gradually unraveling the nature of the giant lightning discharges which spawn sprites. In the process we have found even more unusual electrical discharges above thunderstorms, suggesting that many new discoveries await to be made. We produced and are distributing a planetarium DVD/video program (42 minutes length) entitled, "The Hundred Year Hunt for the Red Sprite." It documents the application of the scientific method to unraveling this century old mystery surrounding strange lights in the night sky. We also contrasted this story of discovery to the pseudo-science prevalent today in topics such as UFOs. With distribution to numerous planetaria and science centers, we believe over 200,000 persons will eventually view this program (which has won three major video production awards). Our long term goal is to inspire planetarium visitors to undertake their own self-directed learning programs. A companion educational web site (www.Sky-Fire.TV) allows students and adults sufficiently motivated by the planetarium experience to further investigate sprites and related basic science topics. The highly interactive web site challenges visitors to test their knowledge of sprites and lightning by participating in an on-line 20 question quiz game, which

  20. 50 CFR 32.52 - North Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations (50 CFR 27.42 and specific regulations in part 32). We prohibit hunting, taking, and attempting to... listed in alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Alligator River...

  1. 50 CFR 32.52 - North Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regulations (50 CFR 27.42 and specific regulations in part 32). We prohibit hunting, taking, and attempting to... listed in alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Alligator River...

  2. 50 CFR 32.52 - North Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations (50 CFR 27.42 and specific regulations in part 32). We prohibit hunting, taking, and attempting to... listed in alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Alligator River...

  3. 50 CFR 32.21 - Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.21 Alaska. Alaska refuges are opened to hunting, fishing and trapping pursuant to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Pub. L. 96-487, 94 Stat. 2371). Information regarding specific...

  4. Witch-Hunting at Crucible University: The Power and Peril of Competing Organizational Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.; Hartley, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The literature on organizational culture underscores the benefits of a strong culture--its capacity to draw people together through shared values and norms. Yet, the formation of a powerful ideology also has the capacity to promote divisiveness and to alienate those who fail to conform. This study employs Frank W. Lutz's witch-hunting framework in…

  5. 78 FR 66061 - Notice of Hunting and Trapping Restrictions Within the Skilak Wildlife Recreation Area (Skilak...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... animals (as practical matter in the area, fur animals would include lynx, coyote, beaver, red fox and... taking of lynx, coyote, and wolf within the area under State of Alaska hunting regulations. Under this... in the Skilak Wildlife Recreation Area (Skilak Loop Management Area) to allow taking of lynx,...

  6. "I Know I'm Unlovable": Desperation, Dislocation, Despair, and Discourse on the Academic Job Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Failure, according to the academic canonical narrative, is anything other than a tenure-track professorship. The academic job hunt is fraught with unknowns: a time of fear, hope, and despair. This personal narrative follows the author's three-year journey from doctoral candidate, to visiting assistant professor, to the unemployment line. Using a…

  7. 75 FR 6056 - Establishment of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Council will provide advice on wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that (1) benefit recreational hunting; (2) benefit wildlife resources; and (3) encourage partnerships among the public, the sporting... for Implementation; (b) Increasing public awareness and support for the Sport Wildlife Trust Fund;...

  8. After the Makah Whale Hunt: Indigenous Knowledge and Limits to Multicultural Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the racist backlash against the Makah tribe for their treaty-protected right to hunt whales. It then explains some core epistemological aspects of indigenous peoples' struggles that are outside discussions in multicultural education. This article also offers a contribution to our understanding of schools as political…

  9. Refining reproductive parameters for modelling sustainability and extinction in hunted primate populations in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Mark; Anderson, Matt; Montes, Daniel; Pérez, Pedro; Mayor, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Primates are frequently hunted in Amazonia. Assessing the sustainability of hunting is essential to conservation planning. The most-used sustainability model, the 'Production Model', and more recent spatial models, rely on basic reproductive parameters for accuracy. These parameters are often crudely estimated. To date, parameters used for the Amazon's most-hunted primate, the woolly monkey (Lagothrix spp.), come from captive populations in the 1960s, when captive births were rare. Furthermore, woolly monkeys have since been split into five species. We provide reproductive parameters calculated by examining the reproductive organs of female Poeppig's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii), collected by hunters as part of their normal subsistence activity. Production was 0.48-0.54 young per female per year, and an interbirth interval of 22.3 to 25.2 months, similar to parameters from captive populations. However, breeding was seasonal, which imposes limits on the maximum reproductive rate attainable. We recommend the use of spatial models over the Production Model, since they are less sensitive to error in estimated reproductive rates. Further refinements to reproductive parameters are needed for most primate taxa. Methods like ours verify the suitability of captive reproductive rates for sustainability analysis and population modelling for populations under differing conditions of hunting pressure and seasonality. Without such research, population modelling is based largely on guesswork. PMID:24714614

  10. 77 FR 55755 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Register on July 18, 2008 (73 FR 41237). NAICS 11, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, includes 46... business status caused by a large number of varying receipts based size standards (see 69 FR 13130 (March 4, 2004) and 57 FR 62515 (December 31, 1992)). At the beginning of the current comprehensive...

  11. 78 FR 16464 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... information technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice will be summarized and/or included in... assist Federal and state agencies in administering the Sport Fish and Wildlife Restoration grant programs.... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: National Survey of Fishing, Hunting,...

  12. Ghost Hunting as a Means to Illustrate Scientific Methodology and Enhance Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing popularity of television shows featuring paranormal investigations has led to a renewed enthusiasm in ghost hunting activities, and belief in the paranormal in general. These shows typically feature a group of investigators who, while claiming to utilize proper scientifically correct methodologies, violate many core scientific…

  13. Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Geraldine E.; Richards, Michael; Riedel, Julia; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. PMID:23530185

  14. 77 FR 39983 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Fluoropolymeric Shot Coatings as Nontoxic for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY66 Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval... INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen, at 703-358-1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird...

  15. Wolf-pack (Canis lupus) hunting strategies emerge from simple rules in computational simulations.

    PubMed

    Muro, C; Escobedo, R; Spector, L; Coppinger, R P

    2011-11-01

    We have produced computational simulations of multi-agent systems in which wolf agents chase prey agents. We show that two simple decentralized rules controlling the movement of each wolf are enough to reproduce the main features of the wolf-pack hunting behavior: tracking the prey, carrying out the pursuit, and encircling the prey until it stops moving. The rules are (1) move towards the prey until a minimum safe distance to the prey is reached, and (2) when close enough to the prey, move away from the other wolves that are close to the safe distance to the prey. The hunting agents are autonomous, interchangeable and indistinguishable; the only information each agent needs is the position of the other agents. Our results suggest that wolf-pack hunting is an emergent collective behavior which does not necessarily rely on the presence of effective communication between the individuals participating in the hunt, and that no hierarchy is needed in the group to achieve the task properly. PMID:21963347

  16. Effects of remedial sport hunting on cougar complaints and livestock depredations.

    PubMed

    Peebles, Kaylie A; Wielgus, Robert B; Maletzke, Benjamin T; Swanson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Remedial sport hunting of predators is often used to reduce predator populations and associated complaints and livestock depredations. We assessed the effects of remedial sport hunting on reducing cougar complaints and livestock depredations in Washington from 2005 to 2010 (6 years). The number of complaints, livestock depredations, cougars harvested, estimated cougar populations, human population and livestock populations were calculated for all 39 counties and 136 GMUs (game management units) in Washington. The data was then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of complaints and depredations in the current year with the number of cougars harvested the previous year. As expected, we found that complaints and depredations were positively associated with human population, livestock population, and cougar population. However, contrary to expectations we found that complaints and depredations were most strongly associated with cougars harvested the previous year. The odds of increased complaints and livestock depredations increased dramatically (36 to 240%) with increased cougar harvest. We suggest that increased young male immigration, social disruption of cougar populations, and associated changes in space use by cougars - caused by increased hunting resulted in the increased complaints and livestock depredations. Widespread indiscriminate hunting does not appear to be an effective preventative and remedial method for reducing predator complaints and livestock depredations. PMID:24260291

  17. Now Hunt's back in the job, here's the top issues he needs to address.

    PubMed

    2016-07-20

    Jeremy Hunt is back in his office at Richmond House, home of the Department of Health in London, for the foreseeable future - and against expectations. Even he must have thought that his time was up. Attention will now focus on what he should do next given his new lease of life, so here's what Nursing Standard would like him to tackle first. PMID:27440321

  18. To Please the Animal Master: The Innu Hunting Way of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loring, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    Examines the ways in which the Innu people interact with the flora and fauna of their lands in northern Quebec and Labrador, Canada. Describes Innu methods for adapting to the harsh environment and discusses their folkways regarding the hunting of and preparation of meals made from local animals. (MAB)

  19. The Library Scavenger Hunt: Teaching Library Skills in Introductory Sociology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasberg, Davita Silfen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Challenges the assumption that library skills are not a legitimate aspect of sociology courses. Argues that library skills are learned most effectively through an active process of participation and experience. Suggests and describes a library scavenger hunt as an effective learning exercise. (DB)

  20. A Botanical Treasure Hunt: A Fun and Educational Tree Identification Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Marty; Gaynor, John J.; Cribben, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Shares an approach to tree identification that can be adapted to use with all levels from middle school through college. Stresses student involvement and cooperation in a botanical scavenger hunt. Describes the development of the treasure map and how to use the guide sheet. (DDR)