Science.gov

Sample records for 20th electronics division

  1. Energy use of U.S. consumer electronics at the end of the 20th century

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Karen; Meier, Alan

    2000-08-31

    The major consumer electronics in U.S. homes accounted for over 10 percent of U.S. residential electricity consumption, which is comparable to the electricity consumed by refrigerators or lighting. We attribute 3.6 percent to video products, 3.3 percent to home office equipment, and 1.8 percent to audio products. Televisions use more energy than any other single product category, but computer energy use now ranks second and is likely to continue growing. In all, consumer electronics consumed 110 THw in the U.S. in 1999, over 60 percent of which was consumed while the products were not in use.

  2. Stockpile Stewardship's 20th Anniversary

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried; Gottemoeller, Rose; Reis, Victor H.; McMillan, Charles; Rohlfing, Joan; Hurricane, Omar; Hagengruber, Roger; Taylor, John

    2015-10-22

    A short oral history of the NNSA's Stockpile Stewardship Program, produced in association with the 20th anniversary of the program. It features Siegfried Hecker, Rose Gottemoeller, Victor Reis, Charles McMillan, Joan Rohlfing, Omar Hurricane, Roger Hagengruber, and John Taylor.

  3. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    SciTech Connect

    Baggett, N.V.

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  4. 20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was less expensive…

  5. The Neglected Majority--20th Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    It is the 20th anniversary of the release of Dale Parnell's landmark book "The Neglected Majority". In this book, Parnell pointed out that for too long America's educational system has focused on the highest and lowest achievers. He made the case that most of those students in the middle two high school quartiles neither prepare for nor aspire to…

  6. The Space Electronics Division: Research for Today and Tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video gives an overview of work being done by the different branches of the Space Electronics Division at LeRC. The video highlights electron beam, solid state, high speed circuit design, and high frequency communication research.

  7. Great Universalist of the 20TH Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershtein, S. S.

    2013-06-01

    One of the most prominent physicists of the 20th century, Lev Davidovich Landau, was at the same time a great universalist who made fundamental contributions in diverse areas of physics: quantum mechanics, solid state physics, theory of magnetism, phase transition theory, nuclear and particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED), low-temperature physics, fluid dynamics, atomic collision theory, theory of chemical reactions, and other disciplines.

  8. [Mexico's healthcare in the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Fajardo Ortiz, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present Mexico's healthcare in the 20th century. This was a process that was based on illustrated rationalism, positivism and neopositivism. Knowledge and science used to veer away from all aspects of charity and beneficence. Liberal legacy were favourable to government stocks and the state managed to raise a considerable amount of financial and human resources. PMID:12602086

  9. 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, on May 7-9, 1986, is documented herein. During the 3 days, 23 technical papers were presented by experts from the United States and Western Europe. A panel discussion by an International group of experts on future directions In mechanisms was also presented; this discussion, however, is not documented herein. The technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, thermal/mechanical/hydraulic actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and computerized mechanisms synthesis.

  10. Antimatter and 20th century science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gary

    2005-03-01

    This article gives an outline of the history of antimatter from the concept first introduced in 1898 up to the present day and is intended to complement the article 'Antihydrogen on Tap’ on page 229. It is hoped that it will provide enough historical background material along with interesting snippets of information for teachers to feel informed about the topic when in the classroom. Antimatter is the perfect example of 20th century science incorporating quantum mechanics and relativity, and showing progression from a theoretical idea to mass production within the space of 100 years. The final section is about using the idea of antihydrogen in the classroom.

  11. Planetary Missions of the 20th Century*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, V. I.; Huntress, W. T.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2002-09-01

    Among of the highlights of the 20th century were flights of spacecraft to other bodies of the Solar System. This paper describes briefly the missions attempted, their goals, and fate. Information is presented in five tables on the missions launched, their goals, mission designations, dates, discoveries when successful, and what happened if they failed. More detailed explanations are given in the accompanying text. It is shown how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation. Initially, only the USA and USSR sent missions to the Moon and planets. Europe and Japan joined later. The USSR carried out significant research in Solar System exploration until the end of the 1980s. The Russian Federation no longer supports robotic planetary exploration for economic reasons, and it remains to be seen whether the invaluable Russian experience in planetary space flight will be lost. Collaboration between Russian and other national space agencies may be a solution.

  12. Milestones in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    2014-01-01

    From its very beginning, the 20th century represented the period of the main breakthrough for allergology as a clinical and scientific entity. The first years of this period were extraordinarily exciting because of the discovery of the anaphylactic reaction in 1902 and its clinical diagnosis as 'local anaphylaxis', 'serum sickness' (1903) or even as 'anaphylactic shock' (1907). The term 'allergy' was coined in 1906 and led to the recognition of allergic diseases as a pathogenetic entity. The first patient organization of hay fever sufferers was founded in Germany in 1900, the same year in which the very first report on immunotherapy was published in New York. In 1911 the era of actual immunotherapy started in London, becoming scientific with the first double-blind study in 1956, and still today being regarded as the backbone of allergology. In 1919 it was shown that allergy could be transferred by blood, in 1921 by serum (Prausnitz-Küstner test) and in 1966 the mystic 'reagins' were recognized as immunoglobulin (Ig) E. The development of the radioallergosorbent test for quantifying specific IgE antibody was a diagnostic landmark for allergists all over the world. The history of allergy diagnosis started with the introduction of a 'functional skin test', named the patch test in 1894. The scratch test was described in 1912 and the patch test in 1931. From 1908 the skin was tested by intracutaneous injections, and from 1930 by a 'puncture test' (a precursor of the prick test) which has been in worldwide use in modified variations since 1959. The rub test ('friction test') was added in 1961. Systematically applied provocation tests started with conjunctival provocation (1907), followed by nasal and bronchial provocation with allergens (1914 and 1925). PMID:24925382

  13. Solar Eclipse May 20th as Seen by Hinode

    NASA Video Gallery

    An annular solar eclipse took place in the late hours of May 20th, into the 21st, 2012, and was visible from the ground in southern China, Japan, and the western United States. Hinode is in a low-E...

  14. The Presidential Timeline of the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Paul; Flowers, Betty S.; Tothero, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the "The Presidential Timeline of the 20th Century," a newly unveiled website jointly created by the Learning Technology Center of The University of Texas at Austin and The National Archives' 12 presidential libraries. This web-based resource provides access to the continually growing store of digitized assets from the…

  15. Personal reminiscences of ophthalmology giants of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Tasman, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper records personal reminiscences of seven 20th century ophthalmologists who each in his own way metaphorically split the atom and, thereby, changed ophthalmology forever. In addition to their major contributions, they each shared some very desirable traits. They were gentlemen who were devoted to their families and their families to them. PMID:23768923

  16. Educational Expansion and Social Mobility in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Sociologists consider inequality in educational attainment to be a major cause of inequality between people in their chances of occupying a more advantageous class position. However, there is dispute as to whether educational inequality according to social class background declined during the 20th century. What is not in doubt is the expansion of…

  17. 78 FR 48468 - Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... determination was published in the Federal Register on June 10, 2013 (Volume 78 FR Pages 34672-34674). At the... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site... to workers of Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, including on-site leased...

  18. How probable was the 20th century global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Markonis, Yannis

    2016-04-01

    The increase of global mean temperature during the 20th century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is very plausible due to the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, climate model projections suggest that the global mean temperature will further rise during the 21st century. While the vast majority of scientists have endorsed IPCC's conclusions, not a few individual scientists, have expressed a disagreement regarding the validity of climate model projections. In this study, the answer to a fundamental question is sought. That is, how probable was the global warming of the 20th century considering only recorded and reconstructed global mean temperatures values, and assuming that the global mean temperature is a stationary stochastic process. In order to answer this question, a stationary stochastic model is set that incorporates (a) the observed autocorrelation structure of the global mean temperature, (b) past observations of global mean temperature and (c) global, regional and site-specific reconstructions of global mean temperature changes during the last two millennia. Based on an intense Monte Carlo simulation, the probability of a global mean temperature trend with equal or greater slope than the observed one in the 20th century is presented.

  19. Conference Report: 20th Power and Energy Society Annual Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Takao, Tomoaki

    The 20th Power and Energy Society Annual Conference was held on August 18-20, 2009 at Shibaura Institute of Technology. The total number of technical papers was 352, and technical sessions were 47 (46 oral sessions and 1 poster session). An invited lecture, a panel discussion, technical exhibitions and two technical tours were organized. All events were very well attended and the final enrollment attained to 881 registrations. The conference was successfully closed by the great contribution of all participants. The outline of the conference is reported in this article.

  20. [The 20th century: 100 years of misfortune and splendor].

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliéxer

    2005-01-01

    The 20th century has been one of the most intense and convulsive periods in the History of humanity. A century of paradoxes and contrasts, it began with optimism, it witnessed the apocalypse of two world wars, and finished with unimaginable scientific progress that gave us a new civilization that we cannot yet grasp. In this century, significant events happened that shaped our time and projected their results toward an immediate future. Some of these were providential in understanding man's life, fighting against illnesses and prolonging life, and others were of undeniable social importance for humanity. Some knowledge was based on the work of others. Philosophy was embedded in mathematics, as was science in philosophy, while politics and the economy exercised so decisive an influence in our way of feeling and living that culture and society were affected to the core. Within that century the biggest technological revolution of all the time was also created, as transcendent as it was unimaginable, which put mankind on the road to the stars with the moon landing and in the process created the information society whose signature symbol, the internet, emerged as a new demiurge. However, the 20th century, with all its misfortune and splendor, paradoxes and contrasts, creation and destruction, was the most transcendent in the whole of history and it bequeaths to the future a promising horizon in the search for a renovated meaning of life and a yearning for peaceful coexistence for the whole humanity. PMID:15754756

  1. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2001-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  2. CREAM Observation of January 20th Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Y.; Ahn, H. S.; Allison, P.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Beatty, J. J.; Bigongiari, G.; Boyle, P.; Childers, J. T.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Hyun, H. J.; Jeon, J. A.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, J. K.; Lee, M. H.; Lutz, L.; Maestro, P.; Malinine, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Minnick, S.; Mognet, S. I.; Nam, S. W.; Nutter, S.; Park, H.; Park, I. H.; Park, N. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sina, R.; Swordy, S.; Wakely, S.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Zei, R.; Zinn, S. Y.

    2005-12-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) balloon instrument, designed to detect and measure the composition and spectra of high energy galactic cosmic ray particles, had its maiden flight on December 16 2004 and was afloat and taking data during the January 20th solar flare. The CREAM instrument consists of a finely segmented silicon charge detector, a timing charge detector, and several layers of scintillating fiber hodoscopes, as well as a calorimeter and transition radiation detectors to measure cosmic-ray energies above several hundred GeV. While the latter were not designed to be triggered by solar particles, signals were seen in the silicon charge detector and several layers of hodoscopes at the onset of the giant solar flare, indicating that solar flare particles were passing through the instrument. We will review our measurements and analysis of the data recorded during the solar flare.

  3. The Expression of Emotions in 20th Century Books

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R. Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We report here trends in the usage of “mood” words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more “emotional” than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language. PMID:23527080

  4. Contagious rhythm: infectious diseases of 20th century musicians.

    PubMed

    Sartin, Jeffrey S

    2010-07-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock 'n' roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

  5. Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Sartin, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syphilis, and chronic viral hepatitis. More contemporary rock musicians have experienced an epidemic of hepatitis C infection and HIV/AIDS related to intravenous drug use and promiscuity. Musical innovation is thus often accompanied by diseases of neglect and overindulgence, particularly infectious illnesses, although risky behavior and associated infectious illnesses tend to decrease as the style matures. PMID:20660936

  6. Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes

  7. Tornado activity in Greece within the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, J. T.

    2010-07-01

    Tornado activity is associated with extreme convective weather which can cause extended damage and even in some cases the loss of life. The complex inland terrain of Greece along with the Ionian Sea at the west and the Aegean Sea at the east appear to be a favorable area for fury phenomena such as tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of tornado activity in Greece for the period 1900-1999 are presented. The spatial distribution of tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds reveals the vulnerability of specific geographical areas, such as the west Greece and the south Aegean Sea. As far as the intra annual variability is concerned, the maximum of tornado activity dominates within the cold period of the year (October-March) while according to the daily distribution, tornadoes happen frequently during the warm hours of the day. It is remarkable to mention that in Greece, within the 20th century, the tornado activity caused the loss of 4 lifes, the injury of 40 people and numerous damages on human constructions and cultivations.

  8. Tornado activity in Greece within the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsaggouras, J.

    2009-09-01

    Tornado activity is associated with extreme convective weather which can cause extended damages and even more in some cases the loss of life. The complex inland terrain of Greece along with the Ionion Sea at the west and the Aegean Sea at the east appear to be a favorable area for fury phenomena such as tornado, waterspouts and funnel clouds. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of tornadoes activity in Greece for the period 1910-1999 are presented. The spatial distribution of tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds reveals the vulnerability of specific geographical areas to tornado activity, such as the western Greece and the southern Aegean Sea. As far as the intra annual variability is concerned, the maximum of tornadoes activity dominates within the cold period of the year (October-March) while according to the daily distribution, tornadoes happen frequently during the warm hours of the day. Furthermore, especially for the cases after 1957, the prevailing synoptic conditions during the tornado activity, based on the analysis of the 500 hPa Geopotential Heights from the archives of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), were examined, in order to identify the weather patterns associated with the tornado genesis and development. It is remarkable to mention that in Greece, within the 20th century, the tornado activity caused the loss of 4 lifes, the injury of 40 people and numerous damages on human constructions and cultivations.

  9. Health in Barbados in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Walrond, E R

    2001-09-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Barbados was described as the most unhealthy place in the British Empire; at the end of the century, it is considered amongst the healthiest of developing countries. At the start of the century the statistics were harsh; for example, there was an infant mortality rate of 400 per 1000 live births. It is now between 10 and 15 per 1000 live births. In the last two-thirds of the century, there was a series of ongoing revolutions in Education, Public Health and Hospital Services that affected the health status favourably. The revolution in education was enhanced by the provision of University education starting with Medicine at Mona, Jamaica. Training of doctors expanded to Barbados in 1967 and has been an essential ingredient in the medical care revolution of the last third of the century. In 1953, the first Public Health Centre was opened and Barbados can now boast the most modern public health and primary care facilities. However, modern lifestyles are associated with an epidemic of obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. HIV/AIDS has emerged as a major problem. Health in the 21st century will need to look at lifestyles--the effects of the internal combustion engine, the availability of tools of violence, the lure of 'illegal drugs', personal relationships and gender as well as the driving forces behind the associated lifestyles. PMID:11824009

  10. Essential shift: Scientific revolution in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismay, David K.

    1993-05-01

    With the publishing of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica in 1687, a scientific paradigm was established that clearly dominated society for two and half centuries. Many historians of science have identified the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory, formulated c.1927, as having completed a scientific revolution that ended the reign of classical Newtonian science. A rival claim to contemporary scientific revolution, however, has been put forward by Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels school of thermodynamics based on Prigogine's work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Using the historical consensus model of scientific revolution first articulated by Thomas S. Kuhn in 1962, this analysis examines the extent to which the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory and the work of IIya Prigogine complete the conceptual, scientific paradigm-shift necessary for a scientific revolution. The resulting historical evidence shows that the Copenhagen interpretation did not complete a paradigm-shift; instead, it was a self-revelation by the scientific community which revealed the essence and fundamental limitations of Newtonian science. Evidence further indicates that the valid claim to scientific revolution in the 20th century lies with the contemporary work of Prigogine and the Brussels school. By abandoning the deterministic, mechanical world-view of the Newtonian paradigm and accepting a new reality of process and irreversible time, Prigogine and his associates have established the foundations for a revolutionary new scientific paradigm.

  11. Islamic medical ethics in the 20th century.

    PubMed Central

    Rispler-Chaim, V

    1989-01-01

    While the practice of Western medicine is known today to doctors of all ethnic and religious groups, its standards are subject to the availability of resources. The medical ethics guiding each doctor is influenced by his/her religious or cultural background or affiliation, and that is where diversity exists. Much has been written about Jewish and Christian medical ethics. Islamic medical ethics has never been discussed as an independent field of ethics, although several selected topics, especially those concerning sexuality, birth control and abortions, have been more discussed than others. Islamic medical ethics in the 20th century will be characterised on the basis of Egyptian fatawa (legal opinions) issued by famous Muslim scholars and several doctors. Some of the issues discussed by Islamic medical ethics are universal: abortions, organ transplants, artificial insemination, cosmetic surgery, doctor-patient relations, etc. Other issues are typically Islamic, such as impediments to fasting in Ramadan, diseases and physical conditions that cause infringement of the state of purity, medicines containing alcohol, etc. Muslims' attitudes to both types of ethical issues often prove that pragmatism prevails and the aim is to seek a compromise between Islamic heritage and the achievements of modern medicine, as long as basic Islamic dogma is not violated. PMID:2614792

  12. The 20th Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Retreat report.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Simons, Jonathan W; Soule, Howard R

    2014-06-01

    The 20th Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was held from October 24 to 26, 2013, in National Harbor, Maryland. This event is held annually for the purpose of convening a diverse group of leading experimental and clinical researchers from academia, industry, and government to present and discuss critical and emerging topics relevant to prostate cancer (PCa) biology, and the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PCa patients, with a focus on results that will lend to treatments for the most life-threatening stages of this disease. The themes that were highlighted at this year's event included: (i) mechanisms of PCa initiation and progression: cellular origins, neurons and neuroendocrine PCa, long non-coding RNAs, epigenetics, tumor cell metabolism, tumor-immune interactions, and novel molecular mechanisms; (ii) advancements in precision medicine strategies and predictive biomarkers of progression, survival, and drug sensitivities, including the analysis of circulating tumor cells and cell-free tumor DNA-new methods for liquid biopsies; (iii) new treatments including epigenomic therapy and immunotherapy, discovery of new treatment targets, and defining and targeting mechanisms of resistance to androgen-axis therapeutics; and (iv) new experimental and clinical epidemiology methods and techniques, including PCa population studies using patho-epidemiology. PMID:24719035

  13. Psychophysiology by the end of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Bechtereva, N P

    2000-03-01

    The first real breakthrough in the research of brain organization and thinking in the 20th century was made in neurophysiological investigations performed in direct contact with different sites of the brain, which became possible in diagnosis and treatment. The second breakthrough is happening at present. It is based on the opportunities provided by the non-invasive technique. The theory of the unique character of the brain system consisting of rigid and flexible elements maintaining thinking was created as well as concepts on the reliability in the system, of the error detector and intrinsic protective mechanisms of the brain. In the clinic these data enabled us to help patients who had lost various functions due to stroke. In confirmation with the above theory it was revealed that the same task could be solved in the brain by systems consisting of different elements due to environmental changes or even direction of attention. Data on the functional properties or every zone of the cortex and subcortex as well as cerebellum are rapidly increasing in number. The first priority lies in neurophysiologically penetrating into the physiological character and micromosaic of the activation sites of PET. The main aim of future brain research lies in the investigation of the fine physiological rearrangements which underlie thinking, i.e. deciphering its brain code. This is going to be the basis for the third, extremely valid breakthrough in the research on brain organization of thinking. PMID:10677649

  14. Nutrition and food commodities in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Martini, Sharon A; Phillips, Marshall

    2009-09-23

    Nutrition in the 20th century is examined with respect to changes in the American diet due to changes in the economy and evolution from an agrarian to an industrialized society. The American farm family diet from two regions of the United States during the 1930s is studied on the basis of overall availability of food commodities. A discussion of the diet staples and differences in farm family health is presented and related to nutritional deficiencies. Beginning in the 1920s through the early 1930s dietary deficiencies became a major focus of public health officials in the United States. Identification of the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institutes of Health. Medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into basic chemical research and clinical trials to assess the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nutrients for improving human health and nutrition. Chemists played an important role in the discovery of vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients, validating the efficacy through tedious clinical trials. They developed synthetic vitamins affording food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to capitalize upon fortifying foods for consumers. The American chemist was also responsible for the development of commodities to maximize crop yield through pesticides and fertilizers. PMID:19719130

  15. 20th Century Northern hemisphere jet stream variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmecheri, S.; Babst, F.; Trouet, V.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The latitudinal position of the Northern hemisphere Jet stream (NHJ) modulates both long term climate trends and the occurrence and frequency of extreme weather events. Precipitation anomalies in particular are associated with NHJ variability and the resulting floods/droughts can have considerable societal and economic impacts. Therefore a better understanding of NHJs role in regional climate is essential in assessing the natural and socio-economic impacts of projected future change in NHJ features. We developed a new climatology of the 300 hPa NHJ based on its seasonally explicit latitudinal position. We used the 20th Century Reanalysis V2 (20CR) data at monthly resolution from 1930-2012 to define the latitudinal position of NHJ as the latitude with the greatest 300 hPa scalar wind speed (m s-1). From these data, we identified four seasons with coherent NHJ patterns (January-February, April-May, July-August, and October-November) and detected longitudinal sectors (total of 15 sectors for all the seasons) where the seasonal jet shows strong spatial coherence. We examined the influence of seasonal NHJ position on the geographical distribution of precipitation and temperature patterns for all sectors. Furthermore, we compared NHJ positions to atmospheric circulation indices at inter-annual and multi-decadal time scales. We found a significant relationship between the NHJ position and the North Atlantic and Arctic oscillations for all seasons and across the majority of longitudinal sectors. In addition to this, our NHJ data set supports a connection with ocean-atmosphere interactions over the northern Pacific Ocean on various time scales: we found significant correlations between the North Pacific Jet and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation for all seasons and with El Niño Southern Oscillation for the winter season. Our results emphasize the importance of the seasonal and spatial characteristics of NHJ, as well as climate teleconnections, when considering regional

  16. [The history of sleep research in the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Mathis, J

    1995-12-12

    Not until the 19th century theories on sleep were based upon experimental findings in animal and humans. The so-called 'hypnotoxin theory' culminated, when Legendre and Piéron successfully induced sleep in a dog by transmission of cerebrospinal fluid from a dog deprived of sleep. The main discussion concerning the origin of sleep has been the question if sleep is a passive or an active state. Similarities with coma, the positive Babinski sign and pathoanatomical findings in patients who died after encephalitis lethargica were the arguments for the 'deafferentiation hypothesis'. Bremer's classical brainstem-transsections in cats confirmed this idea. Pavlov was the major representative of the idea that sleep was due to a general inhibition of the brain. Hess induced physiological sleep in cats by electrical stimulation of the diencephalon, proving the active nature of sleep. The introduction of the EEG in animals by Caton and in humans by Berger allowed for the first time the measurement of sleep depth without waking the sleeper. After discovery of the REM sleep periods by Aserinsky and Kleitman in 1953 and the demonstration of periodical sleep cycles by Dement and Kleitman, polysomnography with simultaneous whole night recording of EEG, EMG, electrooculogram and other physiological parameters was established as the major diagnostic tool in sleep disorders. One of the most important questions about the function of sleep is still unresolved. NREM sleep is believed to have a restorative function, whereas REM sleep might be involved in learning processes. According to the sleep interpretation of Sigmund Freud, the dream content represents endogenous wishes which cannot be expressed during wakefulness because of an internal 'sensor'. A more recent theory by Hobson explains the dreams by a very unspecific brainstem activity occurring during REM sleep which projects to the frontal brain and activates stored memory. The most important sleep disease of the 20th century is

  17. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    needed not only to serve minority populations but also to serve as mentors and role models for prospective and current students. The first African-American resident to graduate from the Bellevue Residency Program did indeed treat the underserved, as Dr. Vincent founded the Vincent Sanatorium, dedicated to treating African-American patients, and training African-American nurses and doctors. Over the course of the 20th century, Bellevue Hospital has trained increasing numbers of African-American physicians. It is hoped that, like their predecessor, Dr. Vincent, they will provide care to underserved communities and to the community as a whole, as well as serve as role models for generations to come. PMID:15040520

  18. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessa, Markus

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (NSM20). The Meeting was held in Tampere on August 25 through August 27, 2003, hosted by the Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT). NSM20 provided a truly international forum for the discussion of the state-of-the-art semiconductor physics, technology, and industry in Scandinavia, and highlighted selected results achieved elsewhere in the world. While the earlier meetings the first held in the 1960's and since then every other year on rotating basis in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden focused on silicon technologies, the Tampere Meeting was concerned more than ever with optoelectronics, which has become an unexpectedly strong field of research and industry in Northern Europe. An excellent array of keynote speakers provided the audience with the latest developments in all the main fields of the Meeting and together with other speakers fostered new ideas that have the potential for further advancement of these strategic sciences and technologies. There were over 100 registered participants, presenting a total of 100 scientific contributions. From these contributions 62 manuscripts were accepted for publication in the Proceedings, representing all the key areas of the Meeting. There was the largest number of industrial sponsors of any Nordic Semiconductor Meeting, which was a remarkable thing in the current world economic cycle. In fact, the organization of NSM20 would not have been possible without the support from ORC, IEEE Finland Section, Institute of Physics of TUT, Chroma Technology Corp. (USA), Coherent Tutcore Oy (Finland), Europractice c/o YOLE Development (France), EV Group GmbH (Austria), Instrumentti Mattila Oy (Finland), FAB Support Ab (Sweden), Keithley Instruments Inc. (UK), Modulight Inc. (Finland), Nokia Oyj (Finland), Oxford Instruments GmbH (Germany), Oy SV Vacuumservice Ab (Finland), Scandinavian Airlines Systems

  19. Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (<1700 m3/capita/yr or ratio >0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (<1000 m3/capita/yr) has risen considerably, from 2% (29 million people) in 1900, up to 19% (1.2 billion people) in 2005. Geographically these concern mainly northern African regions, the Middle East, Pakistan and parts of India and Northern China. The region of

  20. Optical receiver sensitivity analysis for electronic code division multiple access over passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yamei; Liang, Siyuan; Wang, Liqian; Chen, Xue

    2010-12-01

    Optical receiver sensitivity for electronic code division multiple access over a passive optical network (ECDMA-PON) is analyzed theoretically. Compared with TDM system, ECDMA-PON offers better receiver sensitivity due to coding gain. Fundamental simulation results are provided to show its validity.

  1. Charge division using carbon filaments for obtaining coordinate information from detection of single electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, F.; Shapiro, S.; Ashford, V.; McShurley, D.; Reif, R.; Lirth, D.W.G.S.; Williams, S.

    1985-09-01

    Seven micron diameter Carbon filaments forming the anode of a multiwire proportional chamber have been used to detect single electrons. Charge division techniques applied to the 5 cm long wire resulted in a position resolution of sigma/L < 2% for a collected signal charge of 30 fC.

  2. Performance analysis of electronic code division multiple access based virtual private networks over passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadarajah, Nishaanthan; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai

    2008-03-01

    A solution for implementing multiple secure virtual private networks over a passive optical network using electronic code division multiple access is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The multiple virtual private networking capability is experimentally demonstrated with 40 Mb/s data multiplexed with a 640 Mb/s electronic code that is unique to each of the virtual private networks in the passive optical network, and the transmission of the electronically coded data is carried out using Fabry-Perot laser diodes. A theoretical scalability analysis for electronic code division multiple access based virtual private networks over a passive optical network is also carried out to identify the performance limits of the scheme. Several sources of noise such as optical beat interference and multiple access interference that are present in the receiver are considered with different operating system parameters such as transmitted optical power, spectral width of the broadband optical source, and processing gain to study the scalability of the network.

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ALONG 20TH STREET NORTH WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ALONG 20TH STREET NORTH WITH EMPIRE BUILDING (CENTER RIGHT), WOODWARD BUILDING (CENTER), JOHN HAND BUILDING (TOP LEFT), BROWN MARX BUILDING (BOTTOM LEFT), THE FOUR BUILDINGS THAT COMPRISE THIS NATIONAL REGISTER HISTORIC DISTRICT - Heaviest Corner on Earth (Commercial), First Avenue, North & Twentieth (20th) Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Investigating student learning in upper-division laboratory courses on analog electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetzer, Mackenzie

    2015-03-01

    There are many important learning goals associated with upper-division laboratory instruction; however, until recently, relatively little work has focused on assessing the impact of these laboratory-based courses on students. As part of an ongoing, in-depth investigation of student learning in upper-division laboratory courses on analog electronics, we have been examining the extent to which students enrolled in these courses develop a robust and functional understanding of both canonical electronics topics (e.g., diode, transistor, and op-amp circuits) and foundational circuits concepts (e.g., Kirchhoff's laws and voltage division). This focus on conceptual understanding is motivated in part by a large body of research revealing significant student difficulties with simple dc circuits at the introductory level and by expectations that students finish electronics courses with a level of understanding suitable for building common, practical circuits in a real-world environment. Recently, we have extended the scope of our investigation to include more laboratory-focused learning goals such as the development of (1) troubleshooting proficiency and (2) circuit chunking and design abilities. In this talk, I will highlight findings from written questions and interview tasks that have been designed to probe student understanding in sufficient depth to identify conceptual and reasoning difficulties. I will also use specific examples to illustrate the ways in which this research may inform instruction in upper-division laboratory courses on analog electronics. This work has been supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DUE-1323426, DUE-1022449, DUE-0962805, and DUE-0618185.

  5. The impact of new media on 20th century astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    2002-07-01

    This paper offers a few comments on the impact and changing sociology of astronomy information handling over the past century (especially its last third), drifting from individual measurements or records to catalogues and data centres, and moving recently from information hubs to distributed digital research facilities including the current projects of so-called `virtual observatories'. After an introductory part and some notes on personal experience, the paper discusses data centres, methodologies, electronic publishing, as well problems and challenges inherited from the new media: fragility, security and ethics, not to forget the most important one, quality.

  6. 1. Copy of early 20th Century lithograph looking north showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Copy of early 20th Century lithograph looking north showing aerial view of company. Rendering owned by the Crawford Auto- aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd, Cleveland, Ohio. - Winton Motor Carriage Company, Berea Road & Madison Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Writing by 20th-Century Women Reflects Era's Female-Male Conflict, Critics Argue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Angus

    1986-01-01

    Two women's study of writing by women in the 20th century found unexpectedly bitter and persistent anxiety and female-male conflict and a common theme of confinement and suppression of emotions and thoughts. (MSE)

  8. 9. Copy of early 20th century rendering of bird's eye ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Copy of early 20th century rendering of bird's eye view of plant looking north. Rendering owned by the Weatherhead Company. - Cleveland-Chandler Motors Corporation, 300 East 131st Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. 3. Copy of early 20th century lithograph, aerial rendering, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Copy of early 20th century lithograph, aerial rendering, looking south. Rendering owned by Baker Materials Handling Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio. - Rauch & Lang Carriage Company, West Twenty-fifth Street & Monroe Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. 1. Copy of early 20th century lithograph showing aerial view, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Copy of early 20th century lithograph showing aerial view, looking west. Rendering owned by Baker Materials Handling Corpation, Cleveland Ohio. - Rauch & Lang Carriage Company, West Twenty-fifth Street & Monroe Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 2. Copy of early 20th century photograph showing Euclid Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Copy of early 20th century photograph showing Euclid Avenue facade, looking norh. Photograph owned by H.D. Koblitz. - F. B. Stearns Company, Euclid & Lakeview Avenues, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. 10. Copy of early 20th century photograph of building 'A' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Copy of early 20th century photograph of building 'A' and tennis court looking north. Photograph owned by the Weatherhead Company. - Cleveland-Chandler Motors Corporation, 300 East 131st Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic

  14. Wavelength Division Multiplexing Scheme for Radio-Frequency Single Electron Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas R.; Pellerano, F. A.; Stahle, C. M.; Aidala, K.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We describe work on a wavelength division multiplexing scheme for radio-frequency single electron transistors. We use a network of resonant impedance matching circuits to direct applied rf carrier waves to different transistors depending on carrier frequency. Using discrete components, we made a two-channel demonstration of this concept and successfully reconstructed input signals with small levels of cross coupling. A lithographic version of the rf circuits had measured parameters in agreement with electromagnetic modeling, with reduced cross capacitance and inductance, and should allow 20 to 50 channels to be multiplexed.

  15. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF AXIAL FIBRILS, OUTER ENVELOPE, AND CELL DIVISION OF CERTAIN ORAL SPIROCHETES

    PubMed Central

    Listgarten, M. A.; Socransky, S. S.

    1964-01-01

    Listgarten, M. A. (Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Forsyth Dental Center, Boston, Mass.), and S. S. Socransky. Electron microscopy of axial fibrils, outer envelope, and cell division of certain oral spirochetes. J. Bacteriol. 88:1087–1103. 1964.—The ultrastructure of axial fibrils and outer envelopes of a number of oral spirochetes was studied in thin sections and by negative contrast. The axial fibrils measured 150 to 200 A in diameter. Only one end of each fibril was inserted subterminally into the protoplasmic cylinder by means of a 400 A wide disc. The free ends of fibrils inserted near one end of the cylinder extended toward, and overlapped in close apposition, the free ends of fibrils inserted at the other end. In thin sections, some axial fibrils showed a substructure, suggestive of a dense central core. The outer envelopes of most spirochetes appeared to consist of 80 A wide polygonal structural subunits. However, in one large spirochete, the outer envelope demonstrated a “pin-striped” pattern. Cell division in a pure culture of Treponema microdentium was studied by negative contrast. Results suggested that this organism divides by transverse fission, the outer envelope being last to divide. During the course of division, new axial fibrils appeared to originate on either side of the point of constriction of the protoplasmic cylinder. Flagellalike extensions which were found in rapidly dividing organisms were due to protruding axial fibrils, and appeared to be the result of cell division. Some evidence is presented to support the concept of a homologous origin for axial fibrils and flagella. Images PMID:14219024

  16. Centenarian scientists: an unusual cluster newly formed in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Sri Kantha, S

    2001-12-01

    From biographical data sources on ranking scientists, I was able to identify 35 centenarians. Among these, only one (Michel Chevereul from France) lived before the 20th century. Since the remaining 34 individuals became centenarians only from 1965, I propose that centenarian scientists are an unusual cluster, first formed in the 20th century. Among these, all except one (Alice Hamilton) were men. Six centenarian scientists, including Hamilton, had received professional medical training. The nationality ranks of the 34 centenarian scientists identified in the 20th century show 26 Americans, 6 British, one German and one French. Four of the 26 Americans were immigrants from Europe. At least three centenarians, namely Michael Heidelberger, Nathaniel Kleitman and Victor Hamburger, belong to the 'Nobel class' category, being pioneers in the disciplines of immunochemistry, sleep physiology and neuroembryology respectively. PMID:11918440

  17. The electronics technology policy of the NLR Informatics Division: The NLR electronics CAE infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathijssen, R. W.; Aartman, L. J.; Manders, P. J. H. M.; Slot, H.

    1991-01-01

    The NLR Infrastructure for Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) of Electronics (NICE) was introduced to solve problems due to the fact that CAE tools generally do not match mutually, with a view to the development of information systems for aerospace applications in which advanced electronics play an important role. CAE is used more and more to improve quality and reduce development time. Because most CAE tools generally do not match mutually, it is difficult to manage the design information present in the various tools and to exchange this information. NICE is based on an integrated set of local area networks, connected to the NLR computer network facilities. This is a basis for adding new tools for circuit simulation and analysis. Improved access to the tools and to the design information leads toward shorter development cycles of advanced electronics.

  18. Retrospective on Educational Testing and Assessment in the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marguerite M.; Madaus, George F.; Horn, Catherine L.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the growth of the U.S. testing industry since the 1900s. Discusses the technical developments that have encouraged the use of standardized testing and contributed to the growth of the testing industry. Attempts to quantify the expansion of the testing marketplace through the 20th century. Includes references. (CMK)

  19. 1. Photocopy of early 20th century rendering showing aerial veiw, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of early 20th century rendering showing aerial veiw, looking south. Rendering owned by the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Peerless Motor Car Company, East Ninety-third Street & Quincy Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. 2. Photocopy of early 20th century drawing, looking south from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of early 20th century drawing, looking south from the air. Drawing owned by the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Peerless Motor Car Company, East Ninety-third Street & Quincy Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. 4. Photocopy of early 20th century photo of the bridge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of early 20th century photo of the bridge. Donated to HAER for its collection at the Library of Congress; donation courtesy of the Erie Railroad Company. - Erie Railway, Moodna Creek Viaduct, Moodna Creek, Orrs Mill Road, Salisbury Mills, Orange County, NY

  2. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  3. Cultivating Swedishness? Examples of Imagined Kinship during the First Half of the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomasson, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Different representations of "Swedishness," as expressions of altered kinds of imagined kinship in the Swedish educational system during the first half of the 20th century, are discussed. It is argued that even though the curriculum changed, from a more religious one focusing on fostering loyalty and moral commitment to "God, the…

  4. From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedrossian, Mindy J.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

  5. 1. Photocpy of early 20th century photograph, looking east, of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocpy of early 20th century photograph, looking east, of east facade of assembly building on Euclid Ave. Photo owned by the Cleveland Public Library. - Ford Motor Company, Cleveland Branch Assembly Plant, Euclid Avenue & East 116th Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. 2. Photocopy of early 20th century photo, showing the Euclid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of early 20th century photo, showing the Euclid Avenue facade of the branch assembly building. Photograph owned by the Cleveland Public Library. - Ford Motor Company, Cleveland Branch Assembly Plant, Euclid Avenue & East 116th Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Continuous Improvement: Building for the Future. Superintendent's 20th Annual Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Superintendent's 20th Annual Report, a comprehensive overview of Hawaii's public schools for school year 2008-09. This report contains essential progress indicators and measures, as well as highlights and comparisons of core educational data presented in a concise and user-friendly format. Appended are: (1) Glossary; (2)…

  8. The 20th scientific conference of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Fox, Howard S

    2014-03-01

    The 20th conference of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology will be held March 26-29, 2014. It features the latest in research examining the intersection of neuroscience, immunology and pharmacology, relevant for human health and disease. Particular emphases are placed on HIV and other infectious diseases, and abused substances, including illicit drugs and alcohol. PMID:24573530

  9. From Card Catalogues to WebPACs: Celebrating Cataloguing in the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper provides an overview of cataloging in the 20th century. Highlights include: (1) issues in 1901, including the emerging cooperative cataloging system and the work of Charles Ammi Cutter; (2) the 1908 code, i.e., "Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries," published in British and American editions; (3) the Vatican rules, a code of rules…

  10. 10. Photocopy, WATER TOWERS, late 19th or early 20th century. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy, WATER TOWERS, late 19th or early 20th century. Original Photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF899 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  11. VIEW OF LARGE COMPANY HOUSE, CA. 1904, ON 20TH STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LARGE COMPANY HOUSE, CA. 1904, ON 20TH STREET BETWEEN CAMBRIA AND SOMERSET AVENUES LOOKING NORTHEAST. (See WINDBER, TOWN OF, HAER No. PA-322, for historical and descriptive data.) - Berwind-White Coal Mining Company, House, 510 Twentieth Street, Windber, Somerset County, PA

  12. Mothers and Daughters in 20th Century Native American and Immigrant Autobiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannan, Helen M.

    The bulk of testimony in the writings and recorded histories of the daughters of immigrants and the first generation of Native Americans educated in American schools in the late 19th and early 20th centuries reveals that, although the ties between female generations became more tangled with the strains of acculturation, the bonds were stretched…

  13. Visual Preferences of Young School Children for Paintings from the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuscevic, Dubravka; Kardum, Goran; Brajcic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of young school children in the visual preferences of paintings from the 20th century. The study was conducted at 4 elementary schools around Split, Croatia. A total of 200 children participated in the study, of which 87 were girls and 113 were boys aged 6-10 years. Visual preference testing…

  14. Blackness and Whiteness as Historical Forces in the 20th Century United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greason, Walter

    2009-01-01

    At the core of the epistemology of black identity in the 20th century United States is the assertion that freedom is a human right, not a privilege to be earned. By the late 19th century, an ideology of racial uplift had emerged that revolved around four concepts--compassion, service, education, and a commitment to social and economic justice for…

  15. The wings of Daedalus: The convergence of myth and technology in 20th century culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowitt, Mark E.; Kaplan, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century, age-old human fantasies of leaving the Earth and touching the stars have been fulfilled by advances in space science and technology, whose roots are threaded through our history. Current advances are so explosive that the fundamental orientation of Western culture is being radically altered.

  16. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (20th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 11-14, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    This volume comprises the papers presented at the 1998 conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council. This PTC'98 gathering focused on "Coping with Convergence." These 20th anniversary conference proceedings present at least one contribution on 59 countries and territories. The 120 papers in this volume are arranged chronologically,…

  17. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  18. Flight Operations reunion for the Apollo 11 20th anniversary of the first manned lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The following major areas are presented: (1) the Apollo years; (2) official flight control manning list for Apollo 11; (3) original mission control emblem; (4) foundations of flight control; (5) Apollo-11 20th anniversary program and events; (6) Apollo 11 mission operations team certificate; (7) Apollo 11 mission summary (timeline); and (8) Apollo flight control team photographs and biographies.

  19. Hydrologic Drought of Water Year 2006 Compared with Four Major Drought Periods of the 20th Century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Water Year 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006) was a year of extreme hydrologic drought and the driest year in the recent 2002-2006 drought in Oklahoma. The severity of this recent drought can be evaluated by comparing it with four previous major hydrologic droughts, water years 1929-41, 1952-56, 1961-72, and 1976-81. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, completed an investigation to summarize the Water Year 2006 hydrologic drought and compare it to the four previous major hydrologic droughts in the 20th century. The period of water years 1925-2006 was selected as the period of record because before 1925 few continuous record streamflow-gaging sites existed and gaps existed where no streamflow-gaging sites were operated. Statewide annual precipitation in Water Year 2006 was second driest and statewide annual runoff in Water Year 2006 was sixth driest in the 82 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service Climate Divisions from Water Year 2006 are compared to those during four previous major hydrologic droughts to show how rainfall deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. Only two of the nine climate divisions, Climate Division 1 Panhandle and Climate Division 4 West Central, had minor rainfall deficits, while the rest of the climate divisions had severe rainfall deficits in Water Year 2006 ranging from only 65 to 73 percent of normal annual precipitation. Regional streamflow patterns for Water Year 2006 indicate that Oklahoma was part of the regionwide below-normal streamflow conditions for Arkansas-White-Red River Basin, the sixth driest since 1930. The percentage of long-term stations in Oklahoma (with at least 30 years of record) having below-normal streamflow reached 80 to 85 percent for some days in August and November 2006. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging sites with periods of record ranging from 62 to 78 years were selected to show how streamflow

  20. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mahowald, Natalie; Kloster, Silvia; Engelstaedter, S.; Moore, Jefferson Keith; Mukhopadhyay, S.; McConnell, J. R.; Albani, S.; Doney, Scott C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Curran, M. A. J.; Flanner, Mark G.; Hoffman, Forrest M; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Mayewski, P. A.; Neff, Jason; Rothenberg, D.; Thomas, E.; Thornton, Peter E; Zender, Charlie S.

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  1. Parkinsonism and Neurological Manifestations of Influenza Throughout the 20th and 21st Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Julie; Smeyne, Richard J.; Jang, Haeman; Miller, Bayard; Okun, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Given the recent paper by Jang et al. on “A Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus” which reported a novel animal model of parkinsonism, we aimed to perform a complete historical review of the 20th and 21st century literature on parkinsonism and neurological manifestations of influenza. Scope There were at least twelve major flu pandemics reported in the literature in the 20th and 21st century. Neurological manifestations most prevalent during the pandemics included delirium, encephalitis, ocular abnormalities, amyotrophy, myelopathy, radiculopathy, ataxia and seizures. Very little parkinsonism was reported with the exception of the 1917 cases originally described by von Economo. Conclusions To date there have been surprisingly few cases of neurological issues inclusive of parkinsonism associated with influenza pandemics. Given the recent animal model of H5N1 influenza associated parkinsonism, the medical establishment should be prepared to evaluate for the re-emergence of parkinsonism during future outbreaks. PMID:20650672

  2. Impact of 20th Century Wars on the Development of Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, Justin; Pait, T Glenn

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of neurosurgical casualties suffered during the wars of the 20th century had a significant impact on the formation and early growth of neurosurgery as a specialty. This chapter explores how the evolution of military tactics and weaponry along with the circumstances surrounding the wars themselves profoundly influenced the field. From the crystallization of intracranial projectile wound management and the formal recognition of the specialty itself arising from World War I experiences to the radical progress made in the outcomes of spinal-cord-injured soldiers in World War II or the fact that the neurosurgical training courses commissioned for these wars proved to be the precursors to modern neurosurgical training programs, the impact of the 20th century wars on the development of the field of neurosurgery is considerable. PMID:27035828

  3. Lunar and Planetary Robotic Exploration Missions in the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Moroz, V. I.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2003-07-01

    The prospect of traveling to the planets was science fiction at the beginning of the 20th Century and science fact at its end. The space age was born of the Cold War in the 1950s and throughout most of the remainder of the century it provided not just an adventure in the exploration of space but a suspenseful drama as the US and USSR competed to be first and best. It is a tale of patience to overcome obstacles, courage to try the previously impossible and persistence to overcome failure, a tale of both fantastic accomplishment and debilitating loss. We briefly describe the history of robotic lunar and planetary exploration in the 20th Century, the missions attempted, their goals and their fate. We describe how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation.

  4. Observed multivariable signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, Benjamin D.; Solomon, Susan; Bonfils, Céline; Zelinka, Mark D.; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Beltran, Francisco; Fyfe, John C.; Johannesson, Gardar; Mears, Carl; Ridley, David A.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Wentz, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively muted warming of the surface and lower troposphere since 1998 has attracted considerable attention. One contributory factor to this "warming hiatus" is an increase in volcanically induced cooling over the early 21st century. Here we identify the signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic activity in multiple observed climate variables. Volcanic signals are statistically discernible in spatial averages of tropical and near-global SST, tropospheric temperature, net clear-sky short-wave radiation, and atmospheric water vapor. Signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic eruptions are also detectable in near-global averages of rainfall. In tropical average rainfall, however, only a Pinatubo-caused drying signal is identifiable. Successful volcanic signal detection is critically dependent on removal of variability induced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

  5. Canada's Fraser River Basin transitioning from a nival to a hybrid system in the late 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, D. H.; Gao, H.; Shi, X.; Dery, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser River Basin (FRB) is the largest river draining to the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and it provides the world's most abundant salmon populations. With recent climate change, the shifting hydrologic regime of the FRB is evaluated using hydrological modeling results over the period 1949 to 2006. To quantify the contribution of snowmelt to runoff generation, the ratio RSR, defined as the division of the sum of the snowmelt across the watershed by the integrated runoff over the water year, is employed. Modeled results for RSR at Hope, BC — the furthest downstream hydrometric station of the FRB — show a significant decrease (from 0.80 to 0.65) in the latter part of the 20th century. RSR is found to be mainly suppressed by a decrease of the snowmelt across the FRB with a decline with 107 mm by 26 % along the simulation period. There is also a prominent shift in the timing of streamflow, with the spring freshet at Hope, BC advancing 30 days followed by reduced summer flows for over two months. The timing of the peak spring freshet becomes even earlier when moving upstream of the FRB owing to short periods of time after melting from the snow source to the rivers.

  6. Proceedings of the 20th anniversary conference: Water management in the '90s. A time for innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Hon, K.

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings contains papers presented at the 20th anniversary conference of ASCE's Water Resources Planning and Management Division held in Seattle, Washington, May 1-5, 1993. The conference theme is an acknowledgement of the need for water resources professionals to face major challenges in managing diminishing supplies for ever-increasing demands, in protecting valuable watersheds from urban and agricultural pollution, and in building and maintaining critical infrastructure with limited financial resources. The papers in this proceedings reflect a practical, problem-solving focus with emphasis on novel solutions for current and near future challenges. Included are papers from three symposia held as part of the conference: (1) Urban runoff and the Environment, (2) Water Supply and Conservation, and (3) the National Drought Study. Other topics covered include: computer-aided decision support systems, the Endangered Species Act impact on major water systems, international disasters, geographic information systems, global warming, and hydropower planning. Individual papers are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  7. A Revised Estimate of 20th Century Global Mean Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, C.; Morrow, E.; Kopp, R. E., III; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2014-12-01

    One of the primary goals of paleo-sea level research is to assess the stability of ice sheets and glaciers in warming climates. In this context, the 20th century may be thought of as the most recent, recorded, and studied of all past episodes of warming. Over the past decade, a consensus has emerged in the literature that 20th century global mean sea level (GMSL), inferred from tide gauge records, rose at a mean rate of 1.6-1.9 mm/yr. This sea-level rise can be attributed to multiple sources, including thermal expansion of the oceans, ice sheet and glacier mass flux, and anthropogenic changes in land water storage. The Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC summarized the estimated contributions of these sources over 1901-1990 and computed a total rate, using a bottom-up approach, of ~1.0 mm/yr, which falls significantly short of the rate inferred from tide gauge records. Using two independent probabilistic approaches that utilize models of glacial isostatic adjustment, ocean dynamics, and the sea-level fingerprints of rapid land-ice melt to analyze tide gauge records (Kalman smoothing and Gaussian process regression), we are able to close the 20th century sea-level budget and resolve the above enigma. Our revised estimate for the rate of GMSL rise during 1901-1990 is 1.1-1.3 mm/yr (90% credible interval). This value, which is ~20-30% less than previous estimates, suggests that the change in the GMSL rate from the 20th century to the last two decades (2.7 ± 0.4 mm/yr, consistent with past estimates) was greater than previous estimates. Moreover, since some forward projections of GMSL change into the next century are based in part on past estimates of GMSL change, our revised rate may impact projections of GMSL rise for the 21st century and beyond.

  8. [Anti-positivist inspiration in European medical historiography in the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the most important anti-positivist (the neo-romantic, socio-cultural and relativistic) currents in 20th century European medical historiography. The author discusses the genesis of the anti-positivist opposition in the medical historiography, starting with a presentation of the main points of the positivist programme, and shows the reasons behind the earlier broad reception of this programme by medical historians from the medical profession. The author attributes the emergence of an anti-positivist opposition in this milieu mainly to the medical progress which occurred in the first half of the 20th century and which induced some doctors, engaged in research into medical history, to reject the positivist model of teaching and replace it wit another. This factor played a leading role in the formation of the socio-cultural and relativist currents. According to the author, the second important factor in the birth of this opposition is the 20th century progress in the methodology of historical research, which freed itself from the constraints of positivist scientism as the only acceptable method of interpreting facts. The author also discusses the socio-cultural and political conditions which led to the formation and spread of the neo-romantic movement solely in Germany. The article presents the programme principles and the most important representatives of anti-positivist currents in European (mainly German) and the circumstances behind the reception of each current by the community of medical historians, and presents the development prospects of Polish medical historiography on the treshold of the 20th and 21st centuries, in connection with the research into this field of science undertaken by a large and continuously growing number of university-educated researchers. PMID:12934578

  9. Catholic Nursing Sisters and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bearing witness,” a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224

  10. The process of Danish nurses' professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we address how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present 'nursing' to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discussion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published between 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses' knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to emerge was driven by a professional interest in describing nursing as an independent profession. PMID:25238323

  11. Inconsistencies and Fallacies: IPCC 20th Century Simulations, Multi-Model Ensembles and Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, N. L.

    2009-12-01

    The IPCC used an experiment that had approximately 20 different climate models fit the temperature history of the 20th century. A remarkably good and convincing fit was obtained by combining selected models into a multi-model ensemble. This may be seen in figure 9.5 of the AR4 Scientific Basis report. The fallacy is that each modeling group used different forcings, effectively simulating a different imaginary planet. Since the IPCC models differ by more than 2-1 in climate sensitivity it would be quite amazing if they could all agree on temperature in the late 20th century when CO2 was rapidly increasing. Allowing each model to be excited by different forcings effectively makes the model be a rather complicated curve fitting program. If one accepts that the models are being used to do curve fitting then the supposedly better results obtained by averaging multiple models is easily explainable as the reduction of error that results from averaging approximations to a function with uncorrelated errors. Finally the late 20th century temperature rise is too small for a 3 degree climate sensitivity for doubling of CO2 and the explanations for the warming shortfall that rely on aerosol cooling or ocean warming are easily refuted.There may be alternative explanations for the shortfall or it may be that climate sensitivity is much lower than projected by the IPCC.

  12. Changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beusen, Arthur; van Beek, Rens; Bouwman, Lex; Mogollón, José; Middelburg, Jack

    2016-04-01

    Dramatic world-wide changes occurred during the 20th century in both nutrient delivery and in-stream retention. In this paper, we use a combined nutrient-input, hydrology, in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Global nutrient delivery almost doubled due to expanding agriculture and increasing wastewater discharge. Nutrient retention also increased by a factor of two as a result of the rapidly growing number of dams and reservoirs. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers. River export to coastal seas increased during the 20th century from 19 to 37 Tg yr-1 of N and 2 to 4 Tg yr-1 of P. There are important differences in riverine N:P export ratios in various parts of the world resulting from the interplay of multiple processes and economic activities in different river basins. Increasing nutrient loading of freshwater systems is a threat to water quality. Furthermore, the global river export increase in the molar N:P ratio during recent decades may affect the ecology within both the river basins and the coastal system. This ratio change may be driven by the recent stagnation of P fertilizer use in most industrialized countries, in comparison to the ever increasing N fertilizer use.

  13. Responses of Multi-Aged Music Students to Mid-20th-Century Art Music: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation replicates previous research into K-12 students' responses to mid-20th-century art music. The study extends that research to include undergraduates and graduates as well as an additional group of graduate students who had taken a 20th-century music class. Children's responses showed remarkable consistency and indicated that…

  14. Sea Level did not Accelerate in the Last Quarter of the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL)collects quality-controlled sea levels from tide gages on all seas, and tabulates them at www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/psmsl(underline)individual(underline)stations.html. I examined annual average sea levels (Ra in column 6) for generally open-coast tide gages having data at the years defining quarter points in the 20th century: 1900, 1925, 1950, 1975, 2000. Gages lacking data for a given date, say 1975, were assumed to qualify if they had data for one year, plus or minus, of the missing data, i. e., for 1974 or 1976 in this example. This examination of data from gages on all seas identified 54 gages with data for the last three of the five dates, which included 26 gages with data for the last four of the five dates, which included 7 gages with data for all five dates. This means that sea-level change during the last quarter (Q4) of the 20th century could be compared at 54 sites with sea-level change in Q3, at 26 sites with sea- level change in Q2, and at 7 sites with sea-level change in Q1, providing 87 tests of the widely reported acceleration in rate of sea-level rise at the end of the 20th century. If sea level is rising at an accelerating rate, then sea-level rise during Q4 should almost always exceed sea-level rises in Q1, Q2, and Q3 of the 20th century. Of the 87 tests, 44 showed more sea-level rise in Q4, and 43 showed less sea-level rise in Q4, compared to the earlier quarters. Thus there is no evidence for an accelerating rise in sea level at the end of the 20th century from these quality-controlled data. The data do indicate that sea-level changes are synchronized over long reaches of shoreline (Sturges, 1990), and sites where gages are imbedded in deposits of clastic sediment have higher apparent sea-level rise attributable to sediment compaction. Beach erosion on the East Coast of the U.S. is widely attributed to the acceleration of sea-level rise, yet all 8 long-term gages at this coast show significantly LESS

  15. [Lódź--centre of medical sciences development at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Social and economical changes in Lódź transforming the town into a strong textile industry centre at the turn of 19th and 20th century stimulated the development of medical sciences and professional activity. Between 1800 and 1914 a 600-fold increase in the number of inhabitants occured - a demographic phenomenon unknown in Europe at that time. This led to specific sanitary and hygiene conditions, negatively affecting the population's health. In these social and economic conditions, with Russian occupant unwillingness to act, medical professionals and other social groups, in particular founders ot the textile industry--K. Scheibler, I. Poznanski, I. Heinzel, I. Kunitzer and others spontaneously acted to solve urgent medical problems. In this period a number of modern private and public hospitals such as neuro-psychiatric " Kochanówka" hospital, paediatric "Anna-Maria" hospital, factory-owned hospitals and other social aid centres were organised. These institutions, apart clinical activities for the society, held scientific research. A number of scientists were active in Lódź at that time: Stanisław Bartoszewicz, Józef Brudzinski, Józef Kollnski, Jan Mazurkiewicz, Witold Chodźko, Tadeusz Mogielnicki, Józef Maybaum-Marzynski, Stanislaw Serkowski, Stanislaw Skalski, Emanuel Sonnenberg and others. They were involed in new fields of medical research, such as paediatric diseases, neurological and psychiatric diseases, neoplastic diseases, infectious diseases and occupational medicine. All these activities were co-ordinated by: Lódź Medical Association, Lódź Division of the Warsaw Society of Hygiene, Industrial Medicine Assocation and Tuberculosis League. At the turn of the 19th and 20th century Lódź was listed among well known centres of modern diagnostic and therapeutic methods in the menagement of tuberculosis, childhood diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. Professional skills and scientific activity of physicians form Lódź, their efforts in

  16. How unusual is the 20th century within the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khider, D.; Stott, L. D.; Saikku, R.; Partin, J. W.; Jackson, C. S.; Hammond, D. E.; Newton, A.; Thunell, R.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 150 years, global temperatures have increased by 0.6°C. It has been suggested that this increase in temperature, especially since 1980, has been unprecedented over the past millennium. In order to put the current warming trend into context, various efforts are underway to reconstruct the longer pre-instrumental history of climate variability. Here, we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) for the Common Era by combining five high-resolution records of Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca from different locations within the Indonesian Seas. The much broader spatial coverage and enhanced temporal resolution of this composite record allows us to assess whether the observed 20th century warming and the rate of 20th century temperature change within IPWP have been unprecedented in the past two millennia. The novelty of this study is in our approach to uncertainty quantification, which entails Monte-Carlo simulations that simultaneously take into account both age model and proxy uncertainties. First, we used a Monte-Carlo process (n=10,000) to generate possible age models for each sedimentary record used in the composite. This Monte-Carlo approach takes into consideration the analytical uncertainty in the 14C and 210Pb measurements used for chronology, the uncertainty in the calibration curve and the reservoir age, and the subjective nature of the interpolation scheme. Second, we take into consideration two sources of error in the SST estimates: the analytical uncertainty for the Mg/Ca results, which was assumed to be normally distributed and independent from sample to sample, and the uncertainty in the calibration equation, which was assumed to be dependent (i.e. each Monte-Carlo record is converted using a solution of the calibration equation). To do so, we use a Bayesian approach to enumerate possible solutions of the calibration equation. Finally, we binned the resulting SSTs into 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year non

  17. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances. PMID:24983802

  18. External control of 20th century temperature by natural and anthropogenic forcings.

    PubMed

    Stott, P A; Tett, S F; Jones, G S; Allen, M R; Mitchell, J F; Jenkins, G J

    2000-12-15

    A comparison of observations with simulations of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model shows that both natural and anthropogenic factors have contributed significantly to 20th century temperature changes. The model successfully simulates global mean and large-scale land temperature variations, indicating that the climate response on these scales is strongly influenced by external factors. More than 80% of observed multidecadal-scale global mean temperature variations and more than 60% of 10- to 50-year land temperature variations are due to changes in external forcings. Anthropogenic global warming under a standard emissions scenario is predicted to continue at a rate similar to that observed in recent decades. PMID:11118145

  19. 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Aref

    2000-08-27

    The 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2000, was held in Chicago, IL, from August 27 - September 2, 2000. It was 32 years since the last of these congresses had been held in USA. A record number of researchers in the mechanical engineering sciences attended and presented their work. The Congress provided an opportunity for the US mechanics community to act as international hosts. Several universities, professional societies, private foundations and individuals, and Federal agencies provided financial support for the Congress.

  20. JPL 2-to-the-20th-power channel 300 MHz bandwidth digital spectrum analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, G. A., Jr.; Wilck, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    A million (two to the 20th power) channel, 300 MHz bandwidth, digital spectrum analyzer was considered. The design, fabrication, and maintenance philosophy of the modular, pipelined, fast fourier transform (FFT) hardware are described. The spectrum analyzer will be used to examine the region from 1.4 GHz to 26 GHz for radio frequency interference which may be harmful to present and future tracking missions of the Deep Space Network. The design has application to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence signals and radio science phenomena.

  1. Dr Charles Thomas Jackson's (1805-80) life after death: the 20th century mythology.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Richard

    2007-08-01

    References to Dr Charles Thomas Jackson in 20th century anaesthesia literature and biographical dictionaries and encyclopedias emphasize his maniacal insanity and its relation to his usurpations of the discoveries of others, including the controversy with William TG Morton concerning the honour of the discovery of surgical anaesthesia. In 1873, seven years before his death, he experienced sudden collapse and paralysis requiring hospitalization. Seminal 19th century brain research before his hospitalization correlated the signs and symptoms of his illness with pathology found at his autopsy. PMID:17641787

  2. Historical perspective: Arthur Kornberg, a giant of 20th century biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Lehman, I Robert

    2008-06-01

    For physics, the period from the beginning to the middle of the 20th century was one of great scientific excitement and revolutionary discovery. The analogous era for biochemistry, and its offspring, molecular biology, was the second half of the 20th century. One of the most important and influential leaders of this scientific revolution was Arthur Kornberg. The DNA polymerase, which he discovered in 1955 and showed to have the remarkable capacity to catalyze the template-directed synthesis of DNA, contributed in major ways to the present-day understanding of how DNA is replicated and repaired, and how it is transcribed. The discovery of DNA polymerase also permitted the development of PCR and DNA sequencing, upon which much of modern biotechnology is based. Kornberg's studies of DNA replication, which spanned a period of nearly 30 years, culminated in a detailed biochemical description of the mechanism by which a chromosome is replicated. The final years of Kornberg's life were devoted to the study of polyphosphate, which he was convinced had a crucial role in cellular function. PMID:18467101

  3. 20th century atmospheric deposition and acidification trends in lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Heard, Andrea M; Sickman, James O; Rose, Neil L; Bennett, Danuta M; Lucero, Delores M; Melack, John M; Curtis, Jason H

    2014-09-01

    We investigated multiple lines of evidence to determine if observed and paleo-reconstructed changes in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in Sierra Nevada lakes were the result of changes in 20th century atmospheric deposition. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) (indicator of anthropogenic atmospheric deposition) and biogenic silica and δ(13)C (productivity proxies) in lake sediments, nitrogen and sulfur emission inventories, climate variables, and long-term hydrochemistry records were compared to reconstructed ANC trends in Moat Lake. The initial decline in ANC at Moat Lake occurred between 1920 and 1930, when hydrogen ion deposition was approximately 74 eq ha(-1) yr(-1), and ANC recovered between 1970 and 2005. Reconstructed ANC in Moat Lake was negatively correlated with SCPs and sulfur dioxide emissions (p = 0.031 and p = 0.009). Reconstructed ANC patterns were not correlated with climate, productivity, or nitrogen oxide emissions. Late 20th century recovery of ANC at Moat Lake is supported by increasing ANC and decreasing sulfate in Emerald Lake between 1983 and 2011 (p < 0.0001). We conclude that ANC depletion at Moat and Emerald lakes was principally caused by acid deposition, and recovery in ANC after 1970 can be attributed to the United States Clean Air Act. PMID:25078969

  4. Assortative mating and differential fertility by phenotype and genotype across the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Laidley, Thomas; Belsky, Daniel W.; Fletcher, Jason M.; Boardman, Jason D.; Domingue, Benjamin W.

    2016-01-01

    This study asks two related questions about the shifting landscape of marriage and reproduction in US society over the course of the last century with respect to a range of health and behavioral phenotypes and their associated genetic architecture: (i) Has assortment on measured genetic factors influencing reproductive and social fitness traits changed over the course of the 20th century? (ii) Has the genetic covariance between fitness (as measured by total fertility) and other traits changed over time? The answers to these questions inform our understanding of how the genetic landscape of American society has changed over the past century and have implications for population trends. We show that husbands and wives carry similar loadings for genetic factors related to education and height. However, the magnitude of this similarity is modest and has been fairly consistent over the course of the 20th century. This consistency is particularly notable in the case of education, for which phenotypic similarity among spouses has increased in recent years. Likewise, changing patterns of the number of children ever born by phenotype are not matched by shifts in genotype–fertility relationships over time. Taken together, these trends provide no evidence that social sorting is becoming increasingly genetic in nature or that dysgenic dynamics have accelerated. PMID:27247411

  5. Life expectancy of the 20th century Venda: a compilation of skeletal and cemetery data.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, E N; Steyn, M; Loots, M

    2008-01-01

    Little information is available on the 20th century mortality rates of rural black South African groups, such as the Venda. The purpose of this study was to apply abridged life tables in order to estimate life expectancy from both skeletal remains and death registry information of modern South African communities. Comparisons were also made with prehistoric and contemporary groups as a means to better evaluate life expectancy for this time period. The sample consisted of 160 skeletons of known Venda origin and burial registry information for 1364 black South Africans from the Rebecca Street and Mamelodi Cemeteries in Pretoria, South Africa. Standard anthropological techniques were applied to determine sex and estimate age from the skeletal remains. The stationary and non-stationary life table models were used to analyse the data. A high rate of child mortality, low juvenile and adult mortality with a steady increase in mortality after the age of 30 years was observed for both the Venda and the cemetery samples. Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy was shown to increase for black South Africans. However, due to the widespread HIV infection/AIDS of the 21st century, infant and young adult mortality rates continue to rise at such a speed that the decline in mortality seen for South Africans in the last 50 years will most likely to be lost in the next decade due to this disease. PMID:18555996

  6. Assortative mating and differential fertility by phenotype and genotype across the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Conley, Dalton; Laidley, Thomas; Belsky, Daniel W; Fletcher, Jason M; Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W

    2016-06-14

    This study asks two related questions about the shifting landscape of marriage and reproduction in US society over the course of the last century with respect to a range of health and behavioral phenotypes and their associated genetic architecture: (i) Has assortment on measured genetic factors influencing reproductive and social fitness traits changed over the course of the 20th century? (ii) Has the genetic covariance between fitness (as measured by total fertility) and other traits changed over time? The answers to these questions inform our understanding of how the genetic landscape of American society has changed over the past century and have implications for population trends. We show that husbands and wives carry similar loadings for genetic factors related to education and height. However, the magnitude of this similarity is modest and has been fairly consistent over the course of the 20th century. This consistency is particularly notable in the case of education, for which phenotypic similarity among spouses has increased in recent years. Likewise, changing patterns of the number of children ever born by phenotype are not matched by shifts in genotype-fertility relationships over time. Taken together, these trends provide no evidence that social sorting is becoming increasingly genetic in nature or that dysgenic dynamics have accelerated. PMID:27247411

  7. Frontiers in neurodegeneration--new insights and prospects--20th HUPO BPP Workshop: 15 September 2013, Yokohama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Schrötter, Andreas; El Magraoui, Fouzi; Gröttrup, Bernd; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Park, Young Mok; Grinberg, Lea T

    2014-06-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 20th workshop in Yokohama, Japan, September 15, 2013. The focus of the autumn workshop was on new insights and prospects of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24903697

  8. Flood Hazard Trends in the Mekong River during the 20th century due to monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Jose; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2013-04-01

    Flood trends were investigated in four stations of the lower Mekong River. Two types of changes were accounted for: trend in the mean and trend in the variance of the time series. A trend in the mean implies that the average flood events changed with time. A trend in variance implies that the frequency of low and high magnitude floods changed with time (Merz et al., 2012). Results showed that average flood events decreased during the 20th century. However, due to an increase in variance, the frequency of high magnitude floods increased towards the end of the 20th century (Delgado et al., 2010). This increase could not be detected by usual trend tests like Mann Kendall test or the ordinary least squares regression. The results agree with Katz and Brown (1992), who showed that variance changes are more important that changes in mean, when it comes to flood frequency trends. To investigate possible causes for the detected changes in flood variance, we looked at several large scale atmospheric circulation patterns cited in the literature. The Western Pacific monsoon index (Wang, 2001) showed the greatest resemblance with the flood data. A test of step change in variance was conducted which revealed a coinciding step change in variance between annual maximum discharge and the Western Pacific monsoon. A statistical model where monsoon variance forces flood frequency in the 20th century was tested. The results were statistically significant. This has the advantadge of by-passing the use of precipitation, which in this region is collected in a rather sparse network. Concerning climate change projections, a dynamic index like the Western Pacific monsoon index is better simulated by climate models than tropical precipitation (Wang, 2004, Douville et al. 2005). Another important result is the attribution of the detected changes. The Mekong River basin is located in a transition zone between the Indian and the Pacific oceans. Our results showed that the interannual variability

  9. Selected characteristics of meteorological elements and their trends since the mid-20th century in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasko, Pavel; Švec, Marek; Šťastný, Pavel; Kajaba, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of some characteristics of air temperature, air humidity, precipitation and snow cover at selected meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia was performed for the period 1951 to 2012. Stations represent lowland regions (up to 300 meters), mid-altitude regions (300 to 800 meters) and high altitude mountain regions (above 1000 m). Series of highest annual maximum air temperature show obvious gradual increase from 80s of the 20th century on all selected stations and also the occurrence of new record values in the last years of the analyzed period 1951 -2012. In most stations the absolute maximum air temperature for 1951 - 2012 period was recorded during July 2007, whereas the highest annual maximum temperatures were recorded predominantly during the month of August in Slovakia. Values of annual maximum of mean daily temperature show evident upward trend and at some stations the highest mean daily temperature was recorded just in recent years (e.g. at station Sliač in 2012). Positive trends of the lowest annual minimum temperature at selected stations in the period 1951-2012 are not so significant and it is evident that the lowest annual minimum air temperature didn't drop as low as in the past, respectively they didn't reach record values as in the 50s or 80s of the 20-th century. Changes of minimum and maximum monthly precipitation totals during the year indicate that the number of cases with extremely low monthly total was increasing. Although frequency of occurrence of extremely high monthly precipitation totals was rather chaotic, in some recent years the observed values of monthly precipitation totals represented the absolutely highest monthly values for entire analyzed period 1951-2012. On the other hand, towards the end of this period, cases when minimum monthly precipitation totals were close to zero also became more common. Very significant is the trend in the lowest annual relative humidity in the 1951-2012 period

  10. Determination and characterization of 20th century global sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chung-Yen

    In this study, we provide a determination of the 20th Century (1900--2002) global sea level rise, the associated error budgets, and the quantifications of the various geophysical sources of the observed sea level rise, using data and geophysical models. We analyzed significant geographical variations of the global sea level including those caused by the steric component (heat and salinity) in the ocean, and the self-gravitational signal as a result of ice sheets melting, including the effects of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) since the Pleistocene. In particular, relative sea level data from long-term (longest is 150 year records) and over 600 tide gauge sites globally from PSMSL and other sources, and geocentric sea level data from multiple satellite altimetry (1985--2005) have been used to determine and characterize 20th century global sea level rise. Altimeter and selected tide gauge sea level data have been used for the 20th century sea level determination, accounting for relative biases between the altimeters, effects of sea level corresponding to oceanic thermal expansion, vertical motions affecting tide gauge measurements, self gravitations, and barotropic ocean response. This study is also characterized by the roles of the polar ocean in the global sea level study and addressing the question whether there is a detectable sea level rise acceleration during the last decade. Vertical motions have been estimated by combining geocentric sea level measurements from satellite altimetry (TOPEX/POSEIDON) and long-term relative (crust-fixed) sea level records from global tide gauges using the Gauss-Markov (GM) model with stochastic constraints. The study provided a demonstration of improved vertical motion solutions in semi-enclosed seas and lakes, including Fennoscandia and the Great Lakes region, showing excellent agreement with independent GPS observed radial velocities, or with predictions from GIA models. In general, the estimated uncertainty of the observed

  11. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total

  12. Effect of aluminum on cellular division and photosynthetic electron transport in Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas acidophila.

    PubMed

    Perreault, François; Dewez, David; Fortin, Claude; Juneau, Philippe; Diallo, Amirou; Popovic, Radovan

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated aluminum's effect on cellular division and the photosynthetic processes in Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas acidophila at pH 3.0, at which Al is present mostly as Al(3+), AlSO(4) (+), and Al(SO(4))(2) (-). These algal species were exposed to 100, 188, and 740 microM Al, and after 24 h cell-bound Al was significantly different from control only for the highest concentration tested. However, very different effects of Al on algal cellular division, biomass per cell, and photosynthetic activity were found. Aluminum stimulated cell division but decreased at some level biomass per cell in C. acidophila. Primary photochemistry of photosynthesis, as Photosystem II quantum yield, and energy dissipation via nonphotochemical activity were slightly affected. However, for E. gracilis, under the same conditions, Al did not show a stimulating effect on cellular division or photosynthetic activity. Primary photochemical activity was diminished, and energy dissipation via nonphotochemical pathways was strongly increased. Therefore, when Al is highly available in aquatic ecosystems, these effects may indicate very different response mechanisms that are dependent on algal species. PMID:20821518

  13. Raman analysis of complex pigment mixtures in 20th century metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Clara Bratt; Sanyova, Jana; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-11-01

    The pigment composition of six painted metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant dating from the second half of the 20th century belonging to the Danish royal collection were studied using Raman microscopy. By focusing a 785 nm laser with a 50× objective on particles in paint cross sections, it was possible to identify the following 20 compounds: hematite, goethite, chrome red/orange, chrome yellow, zinc chrome yellow, carbon black, toluidine red PR3, chlorinated para red PR4, dinitroaniline orange PO5, phthalocyanine blue PB15, indanthrone blue PB60, ultramarine, Prussian blue, lead white, anatase, rutile, calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, gypsum and dolomite. The components were frequently present in complex pigment mixtures. Additional information was obtained by elemental analysis with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to identify cobalt blue, zinc white and cadmium red, as well as to indicate the presence of zinc white in some pigment mixtures. The study allowed a comparison between the industrially applied preparation layers and the artistic paint layers applied by the heraldic painter. Differences in the choice of paint and pigment types were observed on the earliest knight shields, demonstrating a general delay of industrial materials into artist paints. PMID:26023056

  14. Composition of `Marbrite Fauquez' 20th-century opalescent glass: results of historical study and laboratory analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekeyser, L.; Wouters, H. J. M.; Ligovich, G.; Verdonck, A.; De Clercq, H.

    Belgian Marbrite Fauquez opalescent glass is an innovative material developed at the take-off of the 20th century. S.A. Verreries de Fauquez produced this from 1922 onwards. Low maintenance requirements and appropriate properties in terms of hygienic aspects make these mass coloured glass plates popular as finishes for bathrooms, kitchens, hospitals, store fronts, decorative façade cladding,... Since production of Marbrite stopped in the 1960s, replacement of its applications in the framework of restoration procedures is almost impossible. Limited knowledge of the composition and production results in the lack of a proper conservation strategy. In order to improve the existing knowledge a historical research was conducted. Archive records including patents, literature, building specifications, plans, journals, advertisements, interviews with former directors of the glassworks, etc. were considered and evaluated. Onsite lifted samples of Marbrite glass were submitted to a laboratory investigation using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed crucial information about the original formula and components. This paper discusses the composition of Marbrite, a peculiar Belgian opalescent glass. This interdisciplinary research - a cooperation between the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage - aims to improve the knowledge of Marbrite glass in order to develop repair and renovation techniques.

  15. Distinct causes for two principal U.S. droughts of the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerling, Martin; Quan, Xiao-Wei; Eischeid, Jon

    2009-10-01

    Diagnosis of observational and climate model data reveals that the two major U.S. droughts of the 20th Century had distinct causes. Drought severity over the Southern Plains during 1946-1956 is very likely attributable to remote influences of global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The Southern Plains and adjacent Southwest are regions particularly sensitive to SST variability, and strong La Niña events that occurred during 1946-1956 exposed that region's drought vulnerability. Drought severity over the Northern Plains during 1932-1939 was likely triggered instead by random atmospheric variability. The Northern Plains lies within a region of comparatively low sensitivity to SST variability, and that region's drought exhibited little sensitivity to SST conditions during the Dust Bowl period. Our results indicate that the southern portions of the Great Plains lie within an epicenter of potentially skillful drought predictions for which an ocean observing system is also a vital drought early warning system.

  16. Changing Polygenic Penetrance on Phenotypes in the 20th Century Among Adults in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Dalton; Laidley, Thomas M.; Boardman, Jason D.; Domingue, Benjamin W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates changes in genetic penetrance—defined as the association between an additive polygenic score and its associated phenotype—across birth cohorts. Situating our analysis within recent historical trends in the U.S., we show that, while height and BMI show increasing genotypic penetrance over the course of 20th Century, education and heart disease show declining genotypic effects. Meanwhile, we find genotypic penetrance to be historically stable with respect to depression. Our findings help inform our understanding of how the genetic and environmental landscape of American society has changed over the past century, and have implications for research which models gene-environment (GxE) interactions, as well as polygenic score calculations in consortia studies that include multiple birth cohorts. PMID:27456657

  17. The 20th anniversary of EMBnet: 20 years of bioinformatics for the Life Sciences community

    PubMed Central

    D'Elia, Domenica; Gisel, Andreas; Eriksson, Nils-Einar; Kossida, Sophia; Mattila, Kimmo; Klucar, Lubos; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The EMBnet Conference 2008, focusing on 'Leading Applications and Technologies in Bioinformatics', was organized by the European Molecular Biology network (EMBnet) to celebrate its 20th anniversary. Since its foundation in 1988, EMBnet has been working to promote collaborative development of bioinformatics services and tools to serve the European community of molecular biology laboratories. This conference was the first meeting organized by the network that was open to the international scientific community outside EMBnet. The conference covered a broad range of research topics in bioinformatics with a main focus on new achievements and trends in emerging technologies supporting genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics analyses such as high-throughput sequencing and data managing, text and data-mining, ontologies and Grid technologies. Papers selected for publication, in this supplement to BMC Bioinformatics, cover a broad range of the topics treated, providing also an overview of the main bioinformatics research fields that the EMBnet community is involved in. PMID:19534734

  18. Cajal-Retzius cell physiology: just in time to bridge the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Mienville, J M

    1999-12-01

    Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells were discovered at the end of the 19th century but, surprisingly, the exploration of their physiological properties is only now beginning, as we near the end of the 20th century. A few papers addressing these properties have appeared recently, but incomplete data generally give the arguably misleading impression that CR cells are similar to other neocortical neurons, and therefore may perform analogous functions. It is one of the motives of this review to dispel such conceptions. Although CR cells display features of 'regular' neurons, including excitability and responsiveness to neurotransmitters, their function is probably limited to the primary implementation of cortical circuits. A strong indication in support of this idea is the fact that CR cells appear at the onset of neocorticogenesis and disappear at the end of neuronal migration. PMID:10600996

  19. A personal retrospective on the second half of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Nicholas Leibovic, K

    2013-06-01

    During the Second World War scientists and engineers were involved as never before in all technical phases of the war effort. It included intelligence, logistics and large scale automated computation. Much of this required team work which led to the adoption of interdisciplinary perspectives and found expression after the war in new fields of enquiry such as cybernetics, biophysics and artificial intelligence. While Europe was recovering from its devastation, the United States entered an unprecedented age of prosperity beginning in the 1940s and 50s. The political and budgetary environment was favorable for scientific research and it was felt in Europe as well as the U.S.A. I discuss some of these conditions and the figures associated with the work that became the foundation for advances throughout the second half of the 20th century and conclude with a few observations on quantitative neuroscience and the problem of representation. PMID:23313751

  20. Transformations in understanding the health impacts of air pollutants in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2009-02-01

    The transformations of air pollution in the 20th century are well known. The century opened with urban atmospheres polluted by the combustion products of burning coal: smoke and sulfur dioxide. At the millennium these pollutants had almost vanished, replaced by the pollutants, both primary and secondary, a function of fossil-fuelled vehicles. However transitions in terms of health outcomes have been equally dramatic. Fine particulate matter causes notable cardiovascular problems such as increased incidence of stroke and heart attack, although the mechanism remains somewhat unclear. Cancer inducing air pollutants remain a concern, but in addition more recently there has been a rising interest in the presence of neurotoxins and endocrine disrupting substances in the environment.

  1. Brief Communication: Global reconstructions of glacier mass change during the 20th century are consistent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzeion, B.; Leclercq, P. W.; Cogley, J. G.; Jarosch, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass change obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the years 2003-2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist in estimates on regional scales.

  2. Roald Amundsen among the Magneticians: Polar Geophysics in the early 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) is best known as a polar explorer, the first to lead a team to the South Pole in 1911. He did, however, have a serious interest in science, in particular, in geomagnetism. His expedition through the Northwest Passage above Canada in 1903 to 1906 and his Maud expedition through the Arctic ice in 1918 to 1925 included full complements of magnetic instrumentation. He and his magnetic researchers collaborated with the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and with the Prussian Geomagnetic Observatory in Potsdam for training, instruments, and research programs. Amundsen's expeditions provided magnetic and other geophysical data for important geographical regions, while gaining support for polar and geophysical research generally. His work is part of a broader 20th-century story that includes the International Polar Years and the International Geophysical Year.

  3. Brief Communication: Global glacier mass loss reconstructions during the 20th century are consistent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzeion, B.; Leclercq, P. W.; Cogley, J. G.; Jarosch, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century that were published in recent years are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass loss obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the years 2003-2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist in estimates on regional scales.

  4. A possible 20th-century slowdown of southern ocean deep water formation

    PubMed

    Broecker; Sutherland; Peng

    1999-11-01

    Chlorofluorocarbon-11 inventories for the deep Southern Ocean appear to confirm physical oceanographic and geochemical studies in the Southern Ocean, which suggest that no more than 5 x 10(6) cubic meters per second of ventilated deep water is currently being produced. This result conflicts with conclusions based on the distributions of the carbon-14/carbon ratio and a quasi-conservative property, PO(4)(*), in the deep sea, which seem to require an average of about 15 x 10(6) cubic meters per second of Southern Ocean deep ventilation over about the past 800 years. A major reduction in Southern Ocean deep water production during the 20th century (from high rates during the Little Ice Age) may explain this apparent discordance. If this is true, a seesawing of deep water production between the northern Atlantic and Southern oceans may lie at the heart of the 1500-year ice-rafting cycle. PMID:10550046

  5. RTG's for space exploration at the end of the 20th century. [radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Art

    1989-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) as energy conversion devices for spacecraft designed for weak-sunlight environments is discussed. The two upcoming missions Galileo and Ulysses will both use general-purpose heat source RTGs. Two other missions that are planned for the mid-nineties and will carry RTGs onboard are the comet rendezvous asteroid flyby and Cassini. Another mission that might become a program start in the last decade of the 20th century is Solarprobe, which is most likely to use modular RTGs. Several other missions that are in different planning stages that are in need of RTGs to meet their power requirements are the Mars rover sample return, planetary (Mars) penetrators, microspacecraft, and the Mars Egg. All of these missions are discssed, stressing their RTG requirements.

  6. Magnetic fields greater than 10 to the 20th power gauss. [in astrophysical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerche, I.; Schramm, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    Zaumen (1976) found that spontaneous pair production in a uniform magnetic field should be a feasible process for field strengths at least of the order of 10 to the 20th power gauss. This note points out that a magnetic field of this order of magnitude is most unlikely to occur in realistic astrophysical situations because of the large dynamical and quantum-mechanical effects such a field would produce. It is suggested that Zaumen's calculation would probably have little bearing on the suspected evolution of astrophysical systems since other processes (either dynamical or quantum-mechanical) apparently limit the field strength before such high magnetic fields would be reached. An upper limit of about 10 to the 16th power gauss is obtained by considering the isotropy of the 3-K blackbody radiation, the formation of collapsed objects in very high magnetic fields, and magnetic bremsstrahlung processes in quantum electrodynamics.

  7. CHANGES in SKIN TANNING ATTITUDES Fashion Articles and Advertisements in the Early 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jo M.; Ghaferi, Jessica M.; Cummins, Deborah L.; Mamelak, Adam J.; Schmults, Chrys D.; Parikh, Mona; Speyer, Lark-Aeryn; Chuang, Alice; Richardson, Hazel V.; Stein, David

    2009-01-01

    Historical reviews suggest that tanning first became fashionable in the 1920s or 1930s. To quantitatively and qualitatively examine changes in tanning attitudes portrayed in the popular women's press during the early 20th century, we reviewed summer issues of Vogue and Harper's Bazaar for the years 1920, 1927, 1928, and 1929. We examined these issues for articles and advertisements promoting skin tanning or skin bleaching and protection. We found that articles and advertisements promoting the fashionable aspects of tanned skin were more numerous in 1928 and 1929 than in 1927 and 1920, whereas those promoting pale skin (by bleaching or protection) were less numerous. These findings demonstrate a clear shift in attitudes toward tanned skin during this period. PMID:19846688

  8. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  9. The history of blood transfusion prior to the 20th century--part 2.

    PubMed

    Learoyd, P

    2012-12-01

    Although there are a number of descriptions of 'blood infusion' in antiquity, it was the publication of the discovery of the circulation of blood in 1628 by William Harvey and the work of Christopher Wren and Robert Boyle in 1663 on the infusion of different materials into dogs that paved the way to the possible practical attempts at actual blood transfusion. Although these early experiments, principally by Richard Lower in England and Jean Denis in France provided valuable information regarding inter-species incompatibility and the problems of blood coagulation, it was not until the work of James Blundell in the early part of the 19th century that blood transfusion was used as a means of blood replacement. However, blood transfusion was not to become an accepted therapeutic possibility until the discovery of practical anticoagulation and the ABO blood groups at the start of the 20th century. PMID:23016954

  10. Changing Polygenic Penetrance on Phenotypes in the 20(th) Century Among Adults in the US Population.

    PubMed

    Conley, Dalton; Laidley, Thomas M; Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates changes in genetic penetrance-defined as the association between an additive polygenic score and its associated phenotype-across birth cohorts. Situating our analysis within recent historical trends in the U.S., we show that, while height and BMI show increasing genotypic penetrance over the course of 20(th) Century, education and heart disease show declining genotypic effects. Meanwhile, we find genotypic penetrance to be historically stable with respect to depression. Our findings help inform our understanding of how the genetic and environmental landscape of American society has changed over the past century, and have implications for research which models gene-environment (GxE) interactions, as well as polygenic score calculations in consortia studies that include multiple birth cohorts. PMID:27456657

  11. Long run trends in the heights of European men, 19th-20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Timothy J; Bray, Bernice E

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents 5-yearly data on the height of young adult men in 15 Western European countries for birth cohorts from the middle of the 19th to the end of the 20th century. The results indicate that from the 1870s to the 1970s average height increased by around 11 cm, or more than 1cm per decade. The main finding is that for the northern and middle European groups of countries the gains in height were most rapid in the period 1911-15 to 1951-55, a period that embraced two World Wars and the Great Depression but also witnessed advances in public health and hygiene. For the southern countries growth was fastest in the period 1951-55 to 1976-80. These findings suggest that advances in height were determined not only by income and living standards but also by a variety of other socioeconomic trends. PMID:20399715

  12. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  13. On the Cause of the Great North Atlantic Hurricane Drought of the Late 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, K.

    2015-12-01

    By all sensible metrics, North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity underwent a pronounced decline from the middle of the 20th Century through the 1980s, and then recovered. A rich literature is devoted to the causes is this hurricane drought, with some arguing that it is part of a natural, multi-decadal oscillation of North Atlantic climate, and others pointing to time-varying radiative forcing as the main cause of the drought. In this work I show that the net variability of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity in the second half of the 20th Century has two spectral peaks: One around a single decade and another at a period close to 70 years. I hypothesize that the longer period variability, of which the drought was a part, was principally owing to time-varying radiative forcing, while the quasi-decadal signal is part of a natural oscillation of North Atlantic climate. To test this hypothesis, I present evidence that the two main contributors to time-varying radiative forcing over the period were CO2 variations and aerosol forcing brought about by a combination of sulfate originating in European sulfur emissions and natural mineral dust from the Sahara, and then show that most of the longer-period variations can be statistically explained by a combination of these two forcing agents, at the same time demonstrating that the spatial pattern on this variability is consistent with the radiative forcing hypothesis. On the other hand, the spatial pattern of the quasi-decadal variations is closely aligned with that of the EOFs of natural variability in a large suite of unforced, coupled climate models, suggesting that this quasi-decadal signal is part of a natural oscillation of the North Atlantic climate.

  14. Atmospheric Weather Noise Characteristics in 20th Century Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colfescu, Ioana; Schneider, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    The statistical characteristics of the atmospheric internal variability (hereafter weather noise) for surface pressure (PS) in 20th century simulations of a coupled general circulation model are documented. The weather noise is determined from post-industrial (1871-1998) Community Climate System Model 3 simulations by removing the SST and externally forced responses from the total fields.The forced responses are found from atmosphere-only simulations forced by the SST and external forcing of the coupled runs. The spatial patterns of the main modes of weather noise variability of the noise are found for boreal winter and summer from empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses performed globally, and for various regions, including the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and the equatorial Pacific. The temporal characteristics of the modes are illustrated by power spectra and probability density functions (PDF) of the principal components (PC). Our findings show that, for two different realizations of weather noise, the variability is dominated by large scale spatial structures of the weather noise that resemble observed patterns, and that their relative amplitudes in the CGCM and AGCM simulations are very similar. The regional expression of the seasonally dependent AO-like or AAO-like dominant global pattern is also found in the regional analyses, giving similar PCs. The PCs in the CGCM and the corresponding SST forced AGCM simulations are uncorrelated, but the spectra and PDFs of the CGCM and AGCM PCs are similar. The temporal structures of the PCs are white at timescales larger than few months, so that these modes can be thought of as stochastic forcings (in time) for the climate system. The PDFs of the weather noise PCs are not statistically distinguishable from Gaussian distributions with the same standard deviation. The PDFs do not change substantially between the first and second half of the 20th century.

  15. Complex climate controls on 20th century oak growth in Central-West Germany.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Dagmar A; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David C; Esper, Jan; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Löffler, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    We analyze interannual to multi-decadal growth variations of 555 oak trees from Central-West Germany. A network of 13 pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and 33 sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) site chronologies is compared with gridded temperature, precipitation, cloud-cover, vapor pressure and drought (i.e., Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI) fluctuations. A hierarchic cluster analysis identifies three groups for each oak species differentiated by ecologic settings. When high precipitation is primarily a characteristic for one Q. robur and one Q. petraea cluster, the other clusters are more differentiated by prevailing temperature conditions. Correlation analysis with precipitation and vapor pressure reveals statistically significant (P < or = 0.05) correlations for June (r = 0.51) and annual (r = 0.43) means. Growth of both species at dry sites correlates strongly with PDSI (r = 0.39, P < or = 0.05), and weakly with temperature and cloud-cover. In natural stands, Q. robur responds more strongly to water depletion than Q. petraea. Twenty-one-year moving correlations show positive significant growth response to both PDSI and precipitation throughout the 20th century, except for the 1940s - an anomalously warm decade during which all oak sites are characterized by an increased growth and an enhanced association with vapor pressure and temperature. We suggest that the wider oak rings that are exhibited during this period may be indicative of a nonlinear or threshold-induced growth response to drought and vapor pressure, and run counter to the general response of oak to drought and precipitation that normally would result in suppressed growth in a warmer and drier environment. As the wide rings are formed during the severe drought period of the 20th century, a complex model seems to be required to fully explain the widespread oak growth. Our results indicate uncertainty in estimates of future growth trends of Central European oak forests in a warming and

  16. [Psychiatry at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries].

    PubMed

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1998-01-01

    The author makes an attempt at considering the most important achievements in psychiatry which have taken place in the global scale during the passing century, and the direction taken up by the development of global psychiatry in the coming century. The 20th century was characterised not only by the impressive development of science, thanks to which completely new possibilities opened up for global psychiatry, but also by the presence of extreme events that took place as a result of false ideologies such as fascism and communism. In the 20th century concepts like homicide, holocaust, the extermination of the mentally ill, experiments on people that are prohibited by the ethics of medicine and the elementary rules of humanity, etc. The paper includes the achievements of diagnosis and therapy of psychiatric disorders and the latest organisational solutions as well as the perspectives for further development of psychiatry. The author also implies the aims that psychiatry has to take up due to the numerous threats from our civilization: the technical-technological development, pollution of the natural environment, the negative changes in human values, the rising brutality in interhuman relations due to racial, national and religious conflicts and terrorism, the disappearing feeling of being safe in society, vision of hunger and poverty in many countries on a few continents, the danger of an epidemic outbreak of new unknown diseases caused by viral mutations, or genetics--the possible negative effects of genetic engineering (cloning of humans), etc. The author tries to define the role of psychiatry in preventing the threats of civilization. PMID:9920993

  17. Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kloster, Silvia; Mahowald, Natalie; Randerson, Jim; Thornton, Peter E; Hoffman, Forrest M; Levis, Sam; Lawrence, Peter J.; Feddema, Johan J.; Oleson, Keith; Lawrence, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN) and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite-based estimates in terms of magnitude and spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Long-term trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005). We obtained substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997 2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite-based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000 2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we predicted a slight downward trend in global fire emissions caused by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and also by increases in fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend during the last three decades of the 20th century as a result of climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO-induced drought conditions.

  18. EDITORIAL: The 20th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-20 The 20th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Brian; Ecke, Wolfgang; Jones, Julian; Tatam, Ralph; Willsch, Reinhardt

    2010-09-01

    Welcome to our special issue on fibre optic sensors. Fibre optic sensors were first suggested in the patent literature in the mid 1960s as an innovative means for making measurements. This proposed a surface finish measurement tool with high precision and resulted in an instrument that remains available today. Much has happened since, with significant innovation in the techniques through which light propagating whilst guided in a fibre can be unambiguously, repeatedly and predictably modulated in response to an external phenomenon. The technique offers not only the precision mentioned earlier but also inherent electromagnetic immunity, the capability to sense at long distances, light weight, small size and a multiplicity of network architectures, all of which can be interrogated from a single point. Even so, fibre sensors is a niche technology, attractive only when its very special features offer substantial user benefit. There are, however, many such niches exemplified in the electrical power supply industry, in gyroscopes for navigational instruments, in hydrophones and geophones. Then there are the distributed sensing architectures that enable useful measurements of pressure, strain and temperature fields affecting the optical properties of the fibre itself to map these parameter fields as a function of position along lengths of fibre to many tens of kilometres. The fibre sensing concept spawned its own research community, and the international conference on Optical Fibre Sensors first appeared in 1983 in London then emerged into a series travelling from Europe to the Americas and into the Asia-Pacific region. The 20th in the series took place in Edinburgh at the end of 2009 and this special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents extended versions of some of the papers that first appeared at the conference. The science and technology of fibre sensing have evolved significantly over the history of the conference, drawing on developments in optical

  19. The investigation of ionospheric response to total eclipses on 29th March, 2006 and on 20th March, 2015 based on HF oblique sounding data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertogradov, G. G.; Vertogradova, E. G.

    2016-09-01

    The investigation of ionosphere response to solar eclipses was carried out. Maximum observable frequencies were analyzed during two eclipses on 29th March, 2006 and on 20th March, 2015 on several oblique sounding paths which were within the range of solar flux obscuration. The model describing local changes in the ionosphere, caused by the obscuration of solar flux during eclipse, is suggested. The computer simulation of HF radiowave propagation during the eclipses was carried out on the basis of this model, while quiet ionosphere was described by IRI-2012 model. It is shown that this approach gives adequate description of HF channel during eclipses for all propagation paths under consideration while the parameters of the model were the same for all paths. As the result of computer simulation time delays of ionosperic responses during eclipses were obtained (~1800-2000 s). It was found that maximum depletion of electron concentration reached 85% in D-region for both eclipses. The electron density depletions at height of F2-peak were 48% and 34% for eclipse on 29th March, 2006 and on 20th March, 2015 respectively.

  20. Fault Interaction and Stress Triggering of 20th Century Earthquakes in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitz, F.; Vergnolle, M.; Calais, E.

    2001-12-01

    A cluster of exceptionally large earthquakes in the interior of Asia occurred from 1905 to 1967: the 1905 M8.0 Tsetserleg and M8.4 Bolnai earthquakes, the 1931 M8.0 Fu Yun earthquake, the 1957 M8.1 Gobi-Altai earthquake, and the 1967 M7.1 Mogod earthquake. Each of the larger (M>8) earthquakes involved strike-slip faulting averaging more than 5 meters and rupture lengths of several hundred km. Available geologic data indicate that long-term slip rates are small, no more than 1-2 mm/yr, on each of the East-West trending faults which ruptured in the Bolnai and Gobi-Altai earthquakes, suggesting that earthquakes as large as those which occurred in the 20th century have repeat times of several 1000s of years. This raises the question as to how so many large earthquakes in this region could occur within a 62 year time interval, especially since distances of about 400 km separate the respective rupture areas. We propose that the occurrences of these and many smaller earthquakes are related and that their locations and style of faulting are controlled to a large extent by stress changes generated by the compounded static deformation of the preceding earthquakes and subsequent viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and upper mantle beneath Mongolia. We first estimate a spherically layered viscoelastic model constrained by the 1997-2001 GPS velocity field in Western Mongolia [Vergnolle et al., 2001]. A salient feature of the viscoelastic model is a low-viscosity ductile region occupying roughly the top 200 km of the mantle. Using the succession of 20th century earthquakes as sources of deformation, we then analyze the time-dependent change in Coulomb failure stress (Δ CFF). Stress evolution on the viscoelastic model consists of localized large stress steps at the times of occurrence of the source earthquakes followed by diffusion of stress pulses away from these sources. At remote interaction distances, static Δ CFF values are very small. However, modeled postseismic

  1. Madeira Extreme Floods: 2009/2010 Winter. Case study - 2nd and 20th of February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, V.; Marques, J.; Silva, A.

    2010-09-01

    Floods are at world scale the natural disaster that affects a larger fraction of the population. It is a phenomenon that extends it's effects to the surrounding areas of the hydrographic network (basins, rivers, dams) and the coast line. Accordingly to USA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) flood can be defined as:"A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties from: Overflow of inland or tidal waters; Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; Mudflow; Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above." A flash flood is the result of intense and long duration of continuous precipitation and can result in dead casualties (i.e. floods in mainland Portugal in 1967, 1983 and 1997). The speed and strength of the floods either localized or over large areas, results in enormous social impacts either by the loss of human lives and or the devastating damage to the landscape and human infrastructures. The winter of 2009/2010 in Madeira Island was characterized by several episodes of very intense precipitation (specially in December 2009 and February 2010) adding to a new record of accumulated precipitation since there are records in the island. In February two days are especially rainy with absolute records for the month of February (daily records since 1949): 111mm and 97mm on the 2nd and 20th respectively. The accumulated precipitation ended up with the terrible floods on the 20th of February causing the lost of dozens of human lives and hundreds of millions of Euros of losses The large precipitation occurrences either more intense precipitation in a short period or less intense precipitation during a larger period are sometimes the precursor of

  2. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is illustrated

  3. Reorganization of the flood-prone atmospheric patterns at the onset of the 20th century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Bruno; Vogel, Hendrik; Anselmetti, Flavio

    2015-04-01

    studied regions. Comparing all the flood reconstructions over the last 250 years aims at tracking these atmospheric pathways and their possible changes over time. Strong similarities in flood frequency are observed from 1750 to 1900 for the western part (Cévennes, Southern French Alps), while no convincing correlation appears between the other records. Around 1900, a drastic change appears with strong similarities between records of the eastern part (Southern Alps, SE French Alps and NW Italian Alps). In particular, the flood frequency largely increased in the Cévennes during the first part of the 20th century, while this period is one of the most 'quiet' in all other records. Hence, these results suggest a reorganization of the flood-prone atmospheric patterns at the onset of the 20th century.

  4. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Calbó, J.; Wild, M.

    2012-07-01

    Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC) and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain) since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866-2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant) increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous studies, especially

  5. Reconstructing 20th Century Summer Precipitation on the South-Central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, J. L.; Hudson, A. M.; Overpeck, J. T.; Cole, J. E.; Liu, K.; Wang, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced significant increases in temperature over the 20th century, but trends in precipitation are less clear, as station precipitation records are sparse and satellite observations only extend back to 1979. Here we use the sediment record from Ngamring Co, a closed-basin, freshwater lake in south-central Tibet, to assess summer precipitation over the last century. Ngamring Co is located in a watershed without glaciers, so recent changes in runoff and lake level are independent of the influence of glacial ice volume. The first principal component of the Ngamring Co grain size dataset is highly correlated with median grain size and covaries significantly with local July-August precipitation from the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). From 1979 to 2007, median grain size decreases with increasing July-August precipitation and increases with decreasing July-August precipitation. There is prominent multidecadal variability in the 20th century grain size record, including a gradual decline in median grain size from 1900 to 1930, a gradual increase in median grain size from 1930 to 1990, and a rapid decline in median grain size since 1990. Median grain size values from 2000-2007 are the lowest in the 107-year record, suggesting the most abundant monsoon precipitation in the last 107 years has occurred in the last decade. Satellite images of the lake also confirm an increase in lake area since the early 1990s, but also show the greatest lake area occurred in the 1970s. Thus, although summer precipitation and lake area do covary, precipitation does not seem to control grain size by influencing lake area. We presently hypothesize that increased July-August precipitation causes enhanced erosion of the fine-grained sediment (likely paleolake sediments and loess) that blankets the slopes surrounding the lake. The ensuing runoff and deposition of this sediment into the lake then results in a decline in median grain size within the lake

  6. Numerical simulation of global temperature change during the 20th century with the IAP/LASG GOALS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yufu; Shi, Guangyu; Yu, Yongqiang

    2004-04-01

    The IAP/LASG GOALS coupled model is used to simulate the climate change during the 20th century using historical greenhouse gases concentrations, the mass mixing ratio of sulfate aerosols simulated by a CTM model, and reconstruction of solar variability spanning the period 1900 to 1997. Four simulations, including a control simulation and three forcing simulations, are conducted. Comparison with the observational record for the period indicates that the three forcing experiments simulate reasonable temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature change. The global warming during the 20th century is caused mainly by increasing greenhouse gas concentration especially since the late 1980s; sulfate aerosols offset a portion of the global warming and the reduction of global temperature is up to about 0.11°C over the century; additionally, the effect of solar variability is not negligible in the simulation of climate change over the 20th century.

  7. Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. PMID:24421913

  8. Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2003-01-01

    We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

  9. Effects of Irrigation on Global Climate During the 20th Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puma, M. J.; Cook, B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have documented the effects of modern ]day irrigation on regional and global climate, but none, to date, have considered the time ]varying impact of steadily increasing irrigation rates on climate during the 20th century. We investigate the impacts of observed irrigation changes over this century with two ensemble simulations using an atmosphere general circulation model. Both ensembles are forced with transient climate forcings and observed sea surface temperatures from 1902 to 2000; one ensemble includes irrigation specified by a time ]varying data set of irrigation water withdrawals. Early in the century, irrigation is primarily localized over southern and eastern Asia, leading to significant cooling in boreal summer (June.August) over these regions. This cooling spreads and intensifies by century fs end, following the rapid expansion of irrigation over North America, Europe, and Asia. Irrigation also leads to boreal winter (December.February) warming over parts of North America and Asia in the latter part of the century, due to enhanced downward longwave fluxes from increased near ]surface humidity. Precipitation increases occur primarily downwind of the major irrigation areas, although precipitation in parts of India decreases due to a weaker summer monsoon. Irrigation begins to significantly reduce temperatures and temperature trends during boreal summer over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropics beginning around 1950; significant increases in precipitation occur in these same latitude bands. These trends reveal the varying importance of irrigation ]climate interactions and suggest that future climate studies should account for irrigation, especially in regions with unsustainable irrigation resources.

  10. 20th century ethane variability from polar firn air and implications for the methane budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltzman, E. S.; Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, K. M.; Battle, M. O.; Montzka, S. A.; Tang, Q.; Prather, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Methane and ethane are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and they impact both atmospheric chemistry and climate. Both gases are emitted from fossil fuels and biomass burning, while methane alone has large sources from wetlands, agriculture, landfills and wastewater. Here we use measurements in firn air from Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct the atmospheric variability of ethane during the 20th century. Ethane levels rose from early in the century until the 1980’s when the trend reverses, with a period of decline over the next 20 years. This variability is primarily driven by changes in ethane emissions from fossil fuels that peaked in the 1960’s and 1970’s at 14-16 Tg/y and dropped to 8-10 Tg/y before the end of the century. The reduction in fossil-fuel sources is likely related to changes in light hydrocarbon recovery during petroleum production and use. The ethane-based emission history implies that the decline in the fossil-fuel source of methane may have started prior to the 1980’s and that the magnitude of the decline is larger than previous estimates.

  11. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  12. Solar radiation measurements from coordinated radiosonde flights during the 20th March 2015 solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Williams, Paul; Nicoll, Keri

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation sensors can be carried on standard weather balloon packages and provide additional information about the atmosphere's vertical structure beyond the traditional thermodynamic measurements [1]. An interesting set of circumstances for such sensors occurs during a solar eclipse, which provides a rapidly changing solar radiation environment within the duration of a typical free balloon flight. Coordinating several launches of solar radiation measuring radiosondes brings a good likelihood of at least one being above any cloud during the maximum eclipse, allowing solar eclipse radiation measurements for comparison with theory. For the 20th March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44N, 0.94W), Lerwick (60.15N, 1.13W) and Reykjavik (64.13N, 21.90W), straddling the path of the eclipse. All three balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. These approaches, which are essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. [1] K.A. Nicoll and R.G. Harrison, Balloon-borne disposable radiometer Rev Sci Instrum 83, 025111 (2012) doi: 10.1063/1.3685252

  13. Newly identified historical tornadoes in the Czech Republic from 16th to the 20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacinová, Martina; Munzar, Jan; Franc, Marek

    2007-02-01

    Tornadoes have occurred in the territory of the Czech Republic throughout history. Although their frequency and intensity are not as high as in the USA, they can cause severe damage as well. That is why a systematic effort to document individual occurrences of this dangerous meteorological phenomenon as far as possible back into the past began in the 1990s. The aim of this investigation is to extend the first European catalogue of tornadoes originally published by Wegener [Wegener A., 1917. Wind-und Wasserhosen in Europe], by the addition of these cases from the Czech Republic. This paper adds further to Setvák, Šálek and Munzar [ Setvák M., Šálek M., Munzar J., 2003. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic—from medieval chronicles to the internet society. Atmos. Res. 67-68, 589-605], who reported the earliest documented tornado in the land of the Czech Republic which occurred in AD 1119 in Prague. In so doing, it presents recently discovered tornado cases from the 16th to the early 20th centuries, found in a variety of historical sources since the last ECSS conference held in Prague in 2002. In particular we will focus on the case from Jablonec nad Nisou (northern Bohemia) in 1925, which was probably the first case in the Czech Republic with accompanying photographic documentation of damage caused by a tornado.

  14. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th) century.

    PubMed

    Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C M; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. PMID:24421913

  15. Stationarity analysis of historical flood series in France and Spain (14th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriendos, M.; Coeur, D.; Lang, M.; Llasat, M. C.; Naulet, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Barrera, A.

    Interdisciplinary frameworks for studying natural hazards and their temporal trends have an important potential in data generation for risk assessment, land use planning, and therefore the sustainable management of resources. This paper focuses on the adjustments required because of the wide variety of scientific fields involved in the reconstruction and characterisation of flood events for the past 1000 years. The aim of this paper is to describe various methodological aspects of the study of flood events in their historical dimension, including the critical evaluation of old documentary and instrumental sources, flood-event classification and hydraulic modelling, and homogeneity and quality control tests. Standardized criteria for flood classification have been defined and applied to the Isère and Drac floods in France, from 1600 to 1950, and to the Ter, the Llobregat and the Segre floods, in Spain, from 1300 to 1980. The analysis on the Drac and Isère data series from 1600 to the present day showed that extraordinary and catastrophic floods were not distributed uniformly in time. However, the largest floods (general catastrophic floods) were homogeneously distributed in time within the period 1600-1900. No major flood occurred during the 20th century in these rivers. From 1300 to the present day, no homogeneous behaviour was observed for extraordinary floods in the Spanish rivers. The largest floods were uniformly distributed in time within the period 1300-1900, for the Segre and Ter rivers.

  16. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago. PMID:25865777

  17. High-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition in Rhode Island over the past approximately 180 years was constructed using a sediment core from the anoxic Pettaquamscutt River basin. The record showed significantly more structure than has hitherto been reported and revealed four distinct maxima in PAH flux. The characteristic increase in PAH flux at the turn of the 20th century was captured in detail, leading to an initial maximum prior to the Great Depression. The overall peak in PAH flux in the 1950s was followed by a maximum that immediately preceded the 1973 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo. During the most recent portion of the record, an abrupt increase in PAH flux between 1996 and 1999 has been found to follow a period of near constant fluxes. Because source-diagnostic ratios indicate that petrogenic inputs are minor throughout the record, these trends are interpreted in terms of past variations in the magnitude and type of combustion processes. For the most recent PAH maximum, energy consumption data suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause for the increase in PAH flux. Systematic variations in the relative abundance of individual PAHs in conjunction with the above changes in flux are interpreted in relation to the evolution of combustion processes. Coronene, retene, and perylene are notable exceptions, exhibiting unique down-core profiles. PMID:12542290

  18. Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries.

    PubMed

    Held, I M; Delworth, T L; Lu, J; Findell, K L; Knutson, T R

    2005-12-13

    The Sahel, the transition zone between the Saharan desert and the rainforests of Central Africa and the Guinean Coast, experienced a severe drying trend from the 1950s to the 1980s, from which there has been partial recovery. Continuation of either the drying trend or the more recent ameliorating trend would have far-ranging implications for the economy and ecology of the region. Coupled atmosphere/ocean climate models being used to simulate the future climate have had difficulty simulating Sahel rainfall variations comparable to those observed, thus calling into question their ability to predict future climate change in this region. We describe simulations using a new global climate model that capture several aspects of the 20th century rainfall record in the Sahel. An ensemble mean over eight realizations shows a drying trend in the second half of the century of nearly half of the observed amplitude. Individual realizations can be found that display striking similarity to the observed time series and drying pattern, consistent with the hypothesis that the observations are a superposition of an externally forced trend and internal variability. The drying trend in the ensemble mean of the model simulations is attributable to anthropogenic forcing, partly to an increase in aerosol loading and partly to an increase in greenhouse gases. The model projects a drier Sahel in the future, due primarily to increasing greenhouse gases. PMID:16322101

  19. The 20th century Danish facial cleft population--epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Christensen, K

    1999-03-01

    Since Dr. Fogh-Andersen's legendary 1942 thesis, the Danish facial cleft population has been one of the most extensively studied in terms of epidemiology and genetic-epidemiology. The etiology of cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is still largely an enigma, and different results concerning environmental and genetic risk factors are obtained in different countries and regions. This may be due to etiological heterogeneity between settings. Therefore, an in-depth studied area with an ethnically homogeneous population, such as Denmark, has provided one of the best opportunities for progress in CLP etiological research. The present review summarizes epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies conducted in the 20th century Danish facial cleft population. Furthermore, analyses of sex differences, time trends and seasonality for more than 7000 CLP cases born in Denmark in the period 1936 to 1987 are presented. The review also points toward the excellent opportunities for continued etiological CLP research in Denmark in the 21st century using already established resources and an on-going prospective cohort study of 100,000 pregnant women. PMID:10213053

  20. Dental health of the late 19th and early 20th century Khoesan.

    PubMed

    Botha, D; Steyn, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performed on a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early 20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material from two European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to compile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencies were calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%), periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus (44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated that the group under study had an average rate of attrition compared to other southern African populations. Frequency and intensity data were compared to several other samples from both the pre-contact and contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcome of the study suggested that the group under study was most likely in a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with those of groups from a low socio-economic status. PMID:25882044

  1. Quantifying 20th century deposition in complex estuarine environment: An example from the Hudson River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.; Haberman, M.

    2010-09-01

    Sediment processes in estuaries are controlled by the interaction of factors that include tides, fresh water inputs, bed morphology, sediment supply, and hydrodynamics. The interaction of these factors strongly influences the pattern of sediment deposition. The ability to quantify sediment deposition on a regional scale will improve the understanding of the underlying processes, and provide valuable information for managing estuarine systems. This paper describes our approach for obtaining the deposition pattern and quantifying the amount of 20th century impacted sediments in the Haverstraw Bay section of the Hudson River Estuary. Through the combination of high-resolution seismic data and rapidly acquired geochemical information from numerous sediment cores, we estimate that our study site experiences an average sediment accumulation rate of ˜3 mm/y and that ˜75,000 t/y or ˜10% of the annual total sediment input measured at the Poughkeepsie, NY gauging station (USGS) is stored in this reach of the Hudson River on ˜100 y timescales. A detailed analysis of the depositional pattern indicates that the accumulation rate varies considerably throughout the study area ranging from non-depositional to >8 mm/y. Our data also clearly indicate that the dredged channel in Haverstraw Bay is currently the main focus of deposition in this area.

  2. Comparative analysis of spatial and seasonal variability: Austrian precipitation during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulla, Christoph; Penlap, Edouard K.; Haas, Patrick; Formayer, Herbert

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to demonstrate the usability of objective methods to study the variability of precipitation and hence to contribute to a better understanding of spatial and seasonal variability of Austria's precipitation climate during the 20th century.This will be achieved by regionalizing the intra-annual variability of seasonal precipitation distributions during three non-overlapping 33 year samples (1901-33, 1934-66, 1967-99). Monthly precipitation totals were extracted at 31 Austrian stations from a homogenized long-term climate dataset provided by the Austrian weather service. Three statistical techniques, namely cluster analysis (CLA), rotated empirical orthogonal functions (REOFs) and an unsupervised learning procedure of artificial neural networks (ANNs), were utilized to find homogeneous precipitation regions.The results of summer (June, July, August (JJA)) and winter (December, January, February (DJF)) seasons are presented. The resulting homogeneous precipitation regions depend on season, period and method in this order. Hence, differences introduced by using different methods are small compared with those inferred by investigating different episodes and especially with those related to the seasons.During winter, three homogeneous precipitation regions are found, independent from the period considered. These regions can be assigned to different airflows dominating Austria's climate and triggering precipitation events during the cold season. The situation during summer is more complicated. Thus, at least four clusters are necessary to record the circumstances, which are caused by spatially inhomogeneous convective events such as thunderstorms.

  3. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  4. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (< 100 years) shifts of ??? 2-4??C in Chesapeake Bay (CB) temperature ???2100, 1600, 950, 650, 400 and 150 years before present (years BP) reconstructed from magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) paleothermometry. These include large temperature excursions during the Little Ice Age (???1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dominating north american forest pathology issues of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, William L

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT The profession of forest pathology evolved in the early decades of the 20th century from a science describing microorganisms that infect trees to a discipline that was required to deal with numerous disease outbreaks. The foundations of the science were carried from Europe to the "New World" and initially dealt with decay and the resource losses it caused. The profession was forced to shift direction quickly because it was called upon to address major diseases caused by the introduction of pathogens from other continents; notably organisms inciting chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease, and white pine blister rust. Changes in natural ecosystems that resulted from a legacy of poor forest practice, land abuse, and an increase in plantation monocultures gave rise to other disease problems when host-pathogen balances in natural ecosystems were disturbed. Further, the need for large numbers of tree seedlings resulted in numerous nursery disease problems. Although many of the principles of general plant pathology had application to the study of forest diseases, the long-term nature of forests requires varied approaches to their study and management. Today, the science continues to evolve as the complexities of forest ecosystems unfold. PMID:18943872

  6. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    PubMed

    Petôvári, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well. PMID:20938058

  7. Introduction: contexts and concepts of adaptability and plasticity in 20th-century plant science.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Marci; Peirson, B R Erick

    2015-04-01

    Nowhere is the problem of understanding the complex linkages between organisms and their environments more apparent than in the science of plants. Today, efforts by scientists to predict and manage the biological consequences of shifting global and regional climates depend on understanding how organisms respond morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally to changes in their environments. Investigating organismal "adaptability" (or "plasticity") is rarely straightforward, prompting controversy and discourse among and between ecologists and agricultural scientists. Concepts like agro-climatic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and genotype-environment interaction (GxE) are key to those debates, and their complex histories have imbued them with assumptions and meanings that are consequential but often opaque. This special section explores the diverse ways in which organismal adaptability has been conceptualized and investigated in the second half of the 20th century, and the multifarious political, economic, environmental, and intellectual contexts in which those conceptions have emerged and evolved. The papers in this section bring together perspectives from the histories of agriculture, population ecology, evolutionary theory, and plant physiology, cutting across Asian, North American, and British contexts. As a whole, this section highlights not only the diversity of meanings of "adaptability" and "plasticity," but also the complex linkages between those meanings, the scientific practices and technologies in which they are embedded, and the ends toward which those practices and technologies are employed. PMID:25641218

  8. North Atlantic wave height trends as reconstructed from the 20th century reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Feng, Yang; Swail, V. R.

    2012-09-01

    This study reports on the 1871-2010 trends in significant wave heights (Hs) in the North Atlantic, as statistically reconstructed from the 20th century reanalysis (20CR) ensemble of mean sea level pressure (SLP) fields. The 20CR SLP data set for the North Atlantic has been reported to be homogeneous since 1871, although it has discontinuities before 1949 in other regions. A multivariate regression model with lagged dependent variable is used to represent the SLP-Hs relationship. It is calibrated and validated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis of Hs and SLP for the period 1981-2010.Trends in the reconstructed annual mean and maximum Hs are found to be consistent with those derived from two dynamical wave reanalysis data sets (MSC50 and ERA40), which indicates robustness of the trend estimates. The trend patterns of extreme Hs generally feature increases in the northeast North Atlantic with decreases in the mid-latitudes; but there are seasonal variations. The main features of the patterns of trends over the last half century or so are also seen in the last 140-yr period (1871-2010). However, the trend magnitudes are much greater in the last half century than in the 140 years.

  9. René leriche and the development of 20(th) century surgery.

    PubMed

    Ioncioaia, Bogdan; Bud, Ioan Teodor; Muresan, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    René Leriche (1879-1955) was a 20(th) century French surgeon generally known in medicine for the syndrome that carries his name, namely the Leriche syndrome in the aorto-iliac occlusive disease. This paper is published to mark the commemoration of 60 year since Leriche's death. Although Dr. Leriche's legacy resides in the domain of vascular medicine, his research enclosed bone pathology and surgical management of pain. Having his surgical training done under professors Mathieu Jaboulay and Antonin Poncet, his friendship and association with Alexis Carrel and William Halsted have contributed to René Leriche's development as a surgeon, researcher and thinker. Following the footsteps of his mentors, he produced outstanding clinical and academic work which had earned him a good reputation among his students and colleagues. Surgeons such as Jean Kunlin, Jao Cid dos Santos, Michael DeBakey, René Fontaine and others came to study and learn from him. These future generations of surgeons would themselves bring much contribution to the understanding and treatment of vascular diseases and medicine in general. René Leriche pioneered medicine with his research and ideas. His assiduous work of teaching, research and clinical practice made his influence last to our present. PMID:27004042

  10. René leriche and the development of 20th century surgery

    PubMed Central

    IONCIOAIA, BOGDAN; BUD, IOAN TEODOR; MURESAN, MIRCEA

    2016-01-01

    René Leriche (1879–1955) was a 20th century French surgeon generally known in medicine for the syndrome that carries his name, namely the Leriche syndrome in the aorto-iliac occlusive disease. This paper is published to mark the commemoration of 60 year since Leriche’s death. Although Dr. Leriche’s legacy resides in the domain of vascular medicine, his research enclosed bone pathology and surgical management of pain. Having his surgical training done under professors Mathieu Jaboulay and Antonin Poncet, his friendship and association with Alexis Carrel and William Halsted have contributed to René Leriche’s development as a surgeon, researcher and thinker. Following the footsteps of his mentors, he produced outstanding clinical and academic work which had earned him a good reputation among his students and colleagues. Surgeons such as Jean Kunlin, Jao Cid dos Santos, Michael DeBakey, René Fontaine and others came to study and learn from him. These future generations of surgeons would themselves bring much contribution to the understanding and treatment of vascular diseases and medicine in general. René Leriche pioneered medicine with his research and ideas. His assiduous work of teaching, research and clinical practice made his influence last to our present. PMID:27004042

  11. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    Switzerland has experienced a number of severe precipitation events during the last few decades, such as during the 14-16 November of 2002 or during the 21-22 August of 2005. Both events, and subsequent extreme floods, caused fatalities and severe financial losses, and have been well studied both in terms of atmospheric conditions leading to extreme precipitation, and their consequences [e.g. Hohenegger et al., 2008, Stucki et al., 2012]. These examples highlight the need to better characterise the frequency and severity of flooding in the Alpine area. In a larger framework we will ultimately produce a high-resolution data set covering the entire 20th century to be used for detailed hydrological studies including all atmospheric parameters relevant for flooding events. In a first step, we downscale the aforementioned two events of 2002 and 2005 to assess the model performance regarding precipitation extremes. The complexity of the topography in the Alpine area demands high resolution datasets. To achieve a sufficient detail in resolution we employ the Weather Research and Forecasting regional climate model (WRF). A set of 4 nested domains is used with a 2-km resolution horizontal resolution over Switzerland. The NCAR 20th century reanalysis (20CR) with a horizontal resolution of 2.5° serves as boundary condition [Compo et al., 2011]. First results of the downscaling the 2002 and 2005 extreme precipitation events show that, compared to station observations provided by the Swiss Meteorological Office MeteoSwiss, the model strongly underestimates the strength of these events. This is mainly due to the coarse resolution of the 20CR data, which underestimates the moisture fluxes during these events. We tested driving WRF with the higher-resolved NCEP reanalysis and found a significant improvement in the amount of precipitation of the 2005 event. In a next step we will downscale the precipitation and wind fields during a 6-year period 2002-2007 to investigate and

  12. Lens and cataract research of the 20th century: a review of results, errors and misunderstandings.

    PubMed

    Hockwin, Otto; Kojima, Masami; Müller-Breitenkamp, Ursula; Wegener, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Lens and cataract research from a clinical, biophysical, biological and mainly biochemical point of view has a long tradition. Already since the beginning of the 20th century research relating to the chemical composition and metabolism of the lens was conducted. With these analyses an attempt was made to understand the existence and maintenance of lens transparency and the mechanisms leading to lens opacities. Around the middle of the century the stationary analyses measuring the content of certain substances in the lens were more and more replaced by the search for dynamic metabolic processes responsible for lens growth, maintenance of transparency and possibly active participation in lens function (such as accommodation). Also the disturbances as a result of ageing or the formation of lens opacities have been investigated and resulted partially in the elucidation of reaction chains, leading from a trigger to the formation of a cataract. Lens biochemistry is no longer a closed book to us, but there are still many question marks. Why were we not able to solve more problems around lens and cataract? The research effort with a remarkable financial input and a great number of scientists worldwide during the second half of the century does not correspond to the results obtained. There must be something wrong with our strategy, our interpretation of the results or even both. We would like to stress some points which might be regarded as errors or misunderstandings in the lens research community, thus preventing a better outcome of the enormous investment of work and money. A great disadvantage is the missing cooperation between clinicians and epidemiologists on one hand and basic lens researchers on the other. Especially the ignorance of basic researchers regarding the clinical problems of the lens and of cataracts might be to blame for several 'errors and misunderstandings'. It is not even so long ago since the slitlamp microscope examination of animals belonged to the

  13. Effects of The NAO/ao Fluctuations Upon Precipitation Over Sardinia In The 20th Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, A.

    The effects at regional scale of decadal fluctuation of the NAO/AO on the 20th cen- tury precipitation over Sardinia will be analyzed. Decadal variations of precipitation will initially be described, by use of the Standardized Anomaly Index (Katz &Glantz, 1986) based on two indicators: the cumulated precipitation (the classical approach) and the number of rainy days. A clear decreasing trend in the last two deacdes, statis- tically significant at the 1% level, will be highlighted. A short survey of connections with MSLP and 500hPA Geopotential Height fields will be used to give an overview of dependence of Sardinia (regional) precipitation on synoptic-scale and planetary scale features. In the following part, three different paradigms of the NAO/AO will be used: the classical two point obscillation, the PCA analysis of MSLP (Thompson &Wallace, 1998) and the centers of action approach (Machel et al., 1998). The results of the anal- ysis of the effects of NAO/AO (described in the former three ways) on precipitation will enable to discuss how such a teleconnection influences regional precipitation on this part of the Mediterranean. Statistical significance of each result will be provided during the presentation. Katz, R., Glantz, M., 1986. "Anatomy of a Rainfall Index". Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 764-771. Mächel, M., Kapala, A., Flohn, H., 1998. "Behaviour of the Centers of Action above the Atlantic since 1881. Part I: Characteristics of seasonal and interannual Variability". Int. Jou. of Climatol., 18, 1-22. Thopson, D. W. J., Wallace, J. M., 1998. "The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields". Geoph. Res. Let., 25, 1297- 1300.

  14. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Sherstyukov, Boris G.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Knight, Richard W.; Enloe, Jesse G.; Stroumentova, Nina S.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Førland, Eirik; Hannsen-Bauer, Inger; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Aleksandersson, Hans; Mescherskaya, Anna V.; Karl, Thomas R.

    2007-04-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interest, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by U.S. National Climatic Data Center and Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. Data from these archives (approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses) are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. We use four indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index was developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Nesterov, (3) Modified Nesterov, and (4) Zhdanko Indices (these indices were developed and widely used in Russia). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) statistically significant increases in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires were found. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of "dry weather summer days" during the past 60 yr. This study is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires and with observed changes in drought statistics in agricultural regions of Northern Eurasia.

  15. 20th century precipitation changes in the Sahel region: sensitivity studies with ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, D.; Baumgartner, D.; Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    The 20th century has seen an enormous growth in population and industrialization. These changes are accompanied, among others, by a substantial increase in aerosol emission. To learn more about associated consequences for the climate system we have carried out a comparatively large set of transient sensitivity studies with the global atmosphere only climate model ECHAM5-HAM, using aerosol emission data from NIES (National Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan) and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Hadley Center. The sensitivity studies cover the period from 1870 to 2005 and comprise ensembles of simulations (up to 13 members per ensemble), which allow to address the role of different aerosol species, greenhouse gases, and prescribed sea surface temperatures. We present a preliminary analysis of these global simulation data for the Sahel region (land within 20W / 35E / 10N / 20N). The annual cycle as well as the overall temporal evolution of precipitation in the Sahel according to CRU (Climate Research Unit, UK) is captured well by the model simulations: two comparatively wet phases in the 1930s and 1950s, a more or less continuous decline thereafter, and a renewed increase in precipitation since the 1980s. This decline / renewed incline since the 1950s is, however, about twice as strong in the CRU data than in the model data. The sensitivity studies reveal SSTs as a prominent factor for the time evolution of precipitation, while the atmosphere only effect of aerosols plays a minor role for the modeled precipitation. The observation based prescribed SSTs may, however, encapsulate and aerosol effect already.

  16. Conceptual Revolution of the 20th Century Leading to One Grand Unified Concept -- The Quantum Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekantan, B. V.

    2014-07-01

    Concepts and the relations between concepts are the basis for all our scientific understanding and explanation of the wide variety of constituents and phenomena in nature. Some of the fundamental concepts like space, time, matter, radiation, causality, etc. had remained unchanged for almost four hundred years from the time of the dawn of science. However all these underwent a drastic transformation in the 20th century because of two reasons. One, in the light of certain experimental findings two radical theories namely theory of relativity and theory of quantum mechanics replaced the classical theory that had dominated since Newton's time. Secondly, the science-technology spiral resulted in the discovery of very many new features of the universe both on the micro scale and on the mega scale. There was an exponential increase in our knowledge. These new facts could not be fitted into the old concepts. Apart from drastic revision, many new concepts had to be brought in. Despite all this, one very encouraging trend has been to discern a holistic synthesis and unification of the different concepts -- an endeavor that has been helped by experiments over a wide scale of energy and distances and most importantly from theoretical insights triggered by mathematical underpinnings. These developments in physics and astrophysics are pointing to one grand concept, namely, the "quantum vacuum" endowed with certain special properties, as the substratum from which all the constituents of the universe as well as the processes of the universe emerge, including the creation of the universe itself. This is the view, at least of some of the scientists. In this brief article the essence of these approaches toward unification is highlighted. Maybe life sciences can take a clue from these developments in physical sciences.

  17. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  18. The 20th-century development and expansion of Louisiana shelf hypoxia, Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Senn, D.B.; DiMarco, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Since systematic measurements of Louisiana continental-shelf waters were initiated in 1985, hypoxia (oxygen content <2 mg L-1) has increased considerably in an area termed the dead zone. Monitoring and modeling studies have concluded that the expansion of the Louisiana shelf dead zone is related to increased anthropogenically derived nutrient delivery from the Mississippi River drainage basin, physical and hydrographical changes of the Louisiana Shelf, and possibly coastal erosion of wetlands in southern Louisiana. In order to track the development and expansion of seasonal low-oxygen conditions on the Louisiana shelf prior to 1985, we used a specific low-oxygen foraminiferal faunal proxy, the PEB index, which has been shown statistically to represent the modern Louisiana hypoxia zone. We constructed a network of 13 PEB records with excess 210Pb-derived chronologies to establish the development of low-oxygen and hypoxic conditions over a large portion of the modern dead zone for the last 100 years. The PEB index record indicates that areas of low-oxygen bottom water began to appear in the early 1910s in isolated hotspots near the Mississippi Delta and rapidly expanded across the entire Louisiana shelf beginning in the 1950s. Since ???1950, the percentage of PEB species has steadily increased over a large portion of the modern dead zone. By 1960, subsurface low-oxygen conditions were occurring seasonally over a large part of the geographic area now known as the dead zone. The long-term trends in the PEB index are consistent with the 20th-century observational and proxy data for low oxygen and hypoxia. ?? 2009 US Government.

  19. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Construction of Canada’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. Its varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue into the 21st century. The first major research observatory built with public funding on the West Coast of North America, it was Canada’s first ‘big science’ project. DAO welcomed scientists from around the world to use its 1.8m telescope designed by John Stanley Plaskett working in close collaboration with the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, OH. Their original design was copied seven times around the globe, the last occasion being in the 1960s. From Day 1 the DAO welcomed the public for viewing and interaction with the small scientific staff whose early efforts would today be characterized as ‘Key Projects’. Those efforts included measuring the radial velocities of O and B stars that, interpreted through Oort’s ideas of differential rotation, determined the most reliable estimate of the size and mass of the Milky Way available until radio astronomical techniques emerged in the 1950s. The first organic molecule in interstellar space, CH, was discovered by a DAO astronomer. The first, very puzzling estimate of ~3K for the temperature of interstellar space was deduced from interstellar CN observations a year after interstellar CH and CN were discovered. DAO’s heritage of innovative instrumentation continues to the present day where expertise in optically efficient, mechanically stable spectrographs and adaptive optics are much in evidence at Mauna Kea’s CFHT, Gemini and Subaru observatories. In 2009 the DAO was designated a National Historic Site. This presentation will draw links between DAO, developments of Canadian astronomy and the emergence of Mauna Kea as an exceptional global astronomical reserve.

  20. Meteorological Effects of Land Cover Changes in Hungary during the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drüszler, Á.; Vig, P.; Csirmaz, K.

    2012-04-01

    Geological, paleontological and geomorphologic studies show that the Earth's climate has always been changing since it came into existence. The climate change itself is self-evident. Therefore the far more serious question is how much does mankind strengthen or weaken these changes beyond the natural fluctuation and changes of climate. The aim of the present study was to restore the historical land cover changes and to simulate the meteorological consequences of these changes. Two different land cover maps for Hungary were created in vector data format using GIS technology. The land cover map for 1900 was reconstructed based on statistical data and two different historical maps: the derived map of the 3rd Military Mapping Survey of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Synoptic Forestry Map of the Kingdom of Hungary. The land cover map for 2000 was derived from the CORINE land cover database. Significant land cover changes were found in Hungary during the 20th century according to the examinations of these maps and statistical databases. The MM5 non-hydrostatic dynamic model was used to further evaluate the meteorological effects of these changes. The lower boundary conditions for this mesoscale model were generated for two selected time periods (for 1900 and 2000) based on the reconstructed maps. The dynamic model has been run with the same detailed meteorological conditions of selected days from 2006 and 2007, but with modified lower boundary conditions. The set of the 26 selected initial conditions represents the whole set of the macrosynoptic situations for Hungary. In this way, 2×26 "forecasts" were made with 48 hours of integration. The effects of land cover changes under different weather situations were further weighted by the long-term (1961-1990) mean frequency of the corresponding macrosynoptic types, to assume the climatic effects from these stratified averages. The detailed evaluation of the model results were made for three different meteorological

  1. A Comparison of Variable Total and Ultraviolet Solar Irradiance Inputs to 20 th Century Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foukal, P. V.

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of spaceborne radiometry has shown that the total solar irradiance variation over the past two activity cycles was approximately proportional to the weighted difference between areas of dark spots and bright faculae and enhanced network. Empirical models of ultraviolet irradiance variation indicate that its behavior is dominated by changes in area of the bright component alone, whose photometric contrast increases at shorter wavelength.This difference in time behavior of total and UV irradiances could help to discriminate between their relative importance in forcing of global warming. Our recent digitization of archival Ca K images from Mt Wilson and NSO provides the first direct measurement of variations in area of the bright component, extending between 1915 and 1999 (previous models have relied on the sunspot number or other proxies to estimate the bright - component contribution). We use these more direct measurements to derive the time behavior of solar total and UV irradiance variation, over this period .We find that they are significantly different;the total irradiance variation accounts for over 80 percent of the variance in global temperature during this period, while the ultraviolet irradiance variation accounts for only about 20 percent. The amplitude of total irradiance variation in our model is smaller than required to influence global warming,in current climate models.Also, the impact of sulfate aerosol variations on the extended cooling between the 1940's and 1970's must be better understood before the significance of correlations between 20 th century global warming, and any solar activity index can be properly assessed. Despite these caveats, the lower correlation we find between global temperature and UV,compared to total, irradiance requires consideration in the search for physical mechanisms linking solar activity and climate. This work was supported in part under NASA grant NAG5-7607 to CRI, Inc., and NAG5-10998 to the Applied Physics

  2. Images of Commitment: 20th Century Women Artists. A Fine Art Print Program: Junior/Senior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordich, Diane D.

    This teacher's resource guide is designed to accompany resource packets that include fine art reproductions. The resource introduces students to the accomplishments and contributions of eight 20th century women artists: Isabel Bishop; Jenny Holzer; Kathe Kollwitz; Maya Ying Lin; Mary Ellen Mark; Maria Martinez; Alice Neel; and Faith Ringgold. This…

  3. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    PubMed

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them. PMID:26824058

  4. DIGEST MATERIALS FOR IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA REPERTORY. VOLUME 4, 20TH CENTURY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, JUNE

    PREPARED AS PART OF "PROJECT IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA REPERTORY," THIS VOLUME CONTAINS CURRICULAR MATERIALS REPRESENTING THE 20TH CENTURY PERIOD. A MUSICAL HISTORY OF THE PERIOD IS GIVEN, AS WELL AS HISTORIES OF THE COMPOSERS AND THEIR INDIVIDUAL COMPOSITIONS. THE MATERIALS ARE PREPARED FOR 3 DEGREES OF TECHNICAL…

  5. Representations of Technology in the "Technical Stories" for Children of Otto Witt, Early 20th Century Swedish Technology Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge…

  6. The Elementary School Library Collection: A Guide to Books and Other Media, Phases 1-2-3. 20th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homa, Linda L., Ed.; And Others

    This collection development aid lists more than 10,000 titles of children's materials available in a variety of formats (in addition to print materials, the guide also includes sound recordings, video cassettes, microcomputer software programs, CD-ROM products, and videodiscs). This 20th anniversary edition contains several special features,…

  7. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  8. Gender, Identity, Missions, and Empire: Letters from Christian Teachers in China in the Early 20th and 21st Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Mary Shepard

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a historically-informed comparative study that juxtaposes the lives of three missionary educators in China in the early 20th century with three Christian educators in China today. Data sources included hundreds of letters from the women written in China to their families and friends over several decades and…

  9. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century (1910s-1930s). In the main,…

  10. Beyond the Standard Measures: Physical Education's Impact on the Dialogue about Obesity in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrynn, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    As numerous Homans' lecturers have attested, Amy Morris Homans was a significant and visionary leader who set the foundation for women's physical education for the first half of the 20th century. Her reign at the Boston Normal School for Gymnastics (BNSG) was ironclad, and through the BNSG she controlled her student's lives, including their…

  11. Some Thoughts on the Race Against Time and Inherent Vice: Preservation Program Development in Late 20th Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark

    This paper traces the roots of the current library preservation movement and its evolution during the second half of the 20th century. It also looks at some of the contemporary shifts in thinking about preservation and changes in practice that are being explored by libraries. Finally the paper draws some conclusions as to the scope of programs in…

  12. Phenology in Germany in the 20th century : methods, analyses and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaber, Jörg

    2002-07-01

    The length of the vegetation period (VP) plays a central role for the interannual variation of carbon fixation of terrestrial ecosystems. Observational data analysis has indicated that the length of the VP has increased in the last decades in the northern latitudes mainly due to an advancement of bud burst (BB). This phenomenon has been widely discussed in the context of Global Warming because phenology is correlated to temperatures. Analyzing the patterns of spring phenology over the last century in Southern Germany provided two main findings: - The strong advancement of spring phases especially in the decade before 1999 is not a singular event in the course of the 20th century. Similar trends were also observed in earlier decades. Distinct periods of varying trend behavior for important spring phases could be distinguished. - Marked differences in trend behavior between the early and late spring phases were detected. Early spring phases changed as regards the magnitude of their negative trends from strong negative trends between 1931 and 1948 to moderate negative trends between 1948 and 1984 and back to strong negative trends between 1984 and 1999. Late spring phases showed a different behavior. Negative trends between 1931 and 1948 are followed by marked positive trends between 1948 and 1984 and then strong negative trends between 1984 and 1999. This marked difference in trend development between early and late spring phases was also found all over Germany for the two periods 1951 to 1984 and 1984 to 1999. The dominating influence of temperature on spring phenology and its modifying effect on autumn phenology was confirmed in this thesis. However, - temperature functions determining spring phenology were not significantly correlated with a global annual CO2 signal which was taken as a proxy for a Global Warming pattern. - an index for large scale regional circulation patterns (NAO index) could only to a small part explain the observed phenological variability in

  13. EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap), N-Division Experimental Physics. Annual report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, D.

    1995-10-01

    The experimental groups in the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) program continue to perform front-line research with trapped and extracted highly charged ions (HCI) in the areas of ion/surface interactions, atomic spectroscopy, electron-ion interaction and structure measurements, highly charged ion confinement, and EBIT development studies. The ion surface/interaction studies which were initiated five years ago have reached a stage where they an carry out routine investigations, as well as produce breakthrough results towards the development of novel nanotechnology. At EBIT and SuperEBIT studies of the x-ray emission from trapped ions continue to produce significant atomic structure data with high precision for few electron systems of high-Z ions. Furthermore, diagnostics development for magnetic and laser fusion, supporting research for the x-ray laser and weapons programs, and laboratory astrophysics experiments in support of NASA`s astrophysics program are a continuing effort. The two-electron contributions to the binding energy of helium like ions were measured for the first time. The results are significant because their precision is an order of magnitude better than those of competing measurements at accelerators, and the novel technique isolates the energy corrections that are the most interesting. The RETRAP project which was initiated three years ago has reached a stage where trapping, confining and electronic cooling of HCI ions up to Th{sup 80+} can be performed routinely. Measurements of the rates and cross sections for electron transfer from H{sub 2} performed to determine the lifetime of HCI up to Xe{sup q+} and Th{sup q+} (35 {le} q {le} 80) have been studied at mean energies estimated to be {approximately} 5 q eV. This combination of heavy ions with very high charges and very low energies is rare in nature, but may be encountered in planned fusion energy demonstration devices, in highly charged ion sources, or in certain astrophysical events.

  14. Disastrous floods and landslides in Portugal in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresma, Ivânia; Zêzere, José Luis

    2010-05-01

    The record and analysis of statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses have been made worldwide in recent years. The development of natural disasters databases is crucial for risk management purposes, because it allows improving systems of indicators on disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales. During the last century, Portugal was affected by several destructive natural disasters, namely of hydrologic (floods) and geomorphologic (landslides) origin. However, only recently risk prevention and management was assumed to be a national priority by the Portuguese Government. The basic information on past floods and landslides that occurred in Portugal is disperse and incomplete, and this is a shortcoming for the implementation of effective disaster mitigation measures, particularly when it is expectable an increase of frequency, magnitude, dimension and complexity of the hydro-geomorphologic phenomena resulting from climate change. In this work we present a preliminary assessment of hydro-geomorphologic disasters occurred in Portugal during the 20th century, based on the systematic survey of daily national newspapers. We included into a database those floods and landslides that produced, alternatively, dead people, injured people, missing people, evacuated and homeless. A total of 937 hydro-geomorphologic events were registered. In addition to physical and material damages, these events produced economic losses amounting to millions Euros. Our attention will focus on the geographic distribution and the temporal dimension of disastrous floods and landslides occurred in Portugal, and the temporal trends of hydro-geomorphologic disasters will be presented. The preliminary results shown that disastrous floods and landslides have been more frequent on the most populated regions of Portugal: the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto. In addition, data shows that disastrous hydrologic and geomorphologic phenomena were more

  15. Changing Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in Europe's Climate of the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein Tank, Albertus Maria Gerardus

    2004-10-01

    This thesis aims at increasing the knowledge on past changes in extremes through the analysis of historical records of observations at meteorological stations. The key question addressed is: How did the extremes of daily surface air temperature and precipitation change in Europe's climate of the 20th century, and what can we learn from this? The contents is structured along the lines of four follow-up questions: Are the available observational datasets adequate to analyse extremes? Which trends are observed for the daily extremes of surface air temperature and precipitation? Can the observed changes in temperature extremes in recent decades be regarded as a fingerprint of anthropogenic climate change? Do the observed changes guide the development of temperature scenarios for our future climate? Europe is one of the regions of the world that lacked a readily available and accessible dataset of high-resolution observational series with sufficient density and quality to study extremes. Such a dataset was developed for temperature and precipitation and used to detect statistically significant and non-trivial changes in extremes. The temperature trends indicate a coarsening of our climate and the precipitation trends indicate an increase of wet extremes. The calculated trends represent changes that can be due to natural internal processes within the climate system and/or external forcing, which can either be natural (solar irradiance, volcanic aerosols, ozone, etc.) or anthropogenic (greenhouse gases, etc.). Comparisons between the trend patterns of temperature extremes in the station records, the patterns associated with natural variability in the observations, and the patterns of future warming and natural variability as simulated by a climate model reveal fingerprints of anthropogenic warming over Europe. The last part of this thesis goes beyond the observations of the climate of the past and speculates on future changes in extremes. It presents a 'what- if scenario

  16. Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In

  17. Visions for the 20th International Epidemiological Association's World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014).

    PubMed

    Monsour, B B; Johnston, J M; Hennessy, T W; Schmidt, M I; Krieger, N

    2012-03-01

    During August 17th-21st, 2014, the University of Alaska Anchorage, along with other local, state, and federal agencies throughout Alaska, will host the 20(th) International Epidemiological Association's (IEA) World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014). The theme for this Congress is "Global Epidemiology in a Changing Environment: The Circumpolar Perspective." The changing environment includes the full range of environments that shape population health and health inequities from the physical to the social and economic. Our circumpolar perspective on these environments includes views on how political systems, work, immigration, Indigenous status, and gender relations and sexuality affect the global world and the health of its people. Suggestions and insights from the 3(rd) North American Congress of Epidemiology (2011) and the first-ever joint regional workshop co-organized by the IEA North American Region and the IEA Latin American and Caribbean Region held at the 19(th) IEA World Congress of Epidemiology (2011) have helped direct the focus for WCE 2014. Since the Arctic regions are feeling the effects of climate change first, we believe focusing on the emerging data on the health impacts of climate change throughout the world will be an important topic for this Congress. This will include a broad range of more traditional epidemiology areas such as infectious disease epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, health disparities, and surveillance and emergency preparedness. Addressing health inequities and promoting health equity is likewise a key concern of the Congress. This Congress will also host presentations on injury epidemiology, occupational health, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, maternal and child health, surveillance and field epidemiology, mental health, violence (from self-directed, e.g., suicide, to interpersonal to structural), psychoactive substance use (including tobacco), and measures of subjective health. Attention will be given to

  18. Variation in surface air temperature of China during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Willie; Dutta, Koushik; Legates, David R.; Velasco, Victor; Zhang, Weijia

    2011-10-01

    The 20th century surface air temperature (SAT) records of China from various sources are analyzed using data which include the recently released Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project dataset. Two key features of the Chinese records are confirmed: (1) significant 1920s and 1940s warming in the temperature records, and (2) evidence for a persistent multidecadal modulation of the Chinese surface temperature records in co-variations with both incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere as well as the modulated solar radiation reaching ground surface. New evidence is presented for this Sun-climate link for the instrumental record from 1880 to 2002. Additionally, two non-local physical aspects of solar radiation-induced modulation of the Chinese SAT record are documented and discussed.Teleconnections that provide a persistent and systematic modulation of the temperature response of the Tibetan Plateau and/or the tropospheric air column above the Eurasian continent (e.g., 30°N-70°N; 0°-120°E) are described. These teleconnections may originate from the solar irradiance-Arctic-North Atlantic overturning circulation mechanism proposed by Soon (2009). Also considered is the modulation of large-scale land-sea thermal contrasts both in terms of meridional and zonal gradients between the subtropical western Pacific and mid-latitude North Pacific and the continental landmass of China. The Circum-global teleconnection (CGT) pattern of summer circulation of Ding and Wang (2005) provides a physical framework for study of the Sun-climate connection over East Asia. Our results highlight the importance of solar radiation reaching the ground and the concomitant importance of changes in atmospheric transparency or cloudiness or both in motivating a true physical explanation of any Sun-climate connection. We conclude that ground surface solar radiation is an important modulating factor for Chinese SAT changes on multidecadal to centennial timescales. Therefore, a

  19. Rumours about the Po Valley earthquakes of 20th and 29th May 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Longa, Federica; Crescimbene, Massimo; Camassi, Romano; Nostro, Concetta

    2013-04-01

    The history of rumours is as old as human history. Even in remote antiquity, rumours, gossip and hoax were always in circulation - in good or bad faith - to influence human affairs. Today with the development of mass media, rise of the internet and social networks, rumours are ubiquitous. The earthquakes, because of their characteristics of strong emotional impact and unpredictability, are among the natural events that more cause the birth and the spread of rumours. For this reason earthquakes that occurred in the Po valley the 20th and 29th May 2012 generated and still continue to generate a wide variety of rumours regarding issues related to the earthquake, its effects, the possible causes, future predictions. For this reason, as occurred during the L'Aquila earthquake sequence in 2009, following the events of May 2012 in Emilia Romagna was created a complex initiative training and information that at various stages between May and September 2012, involved population, partly present in the camp, and then the school staff of the municipalities affected by the earthquake. This experience has been organized and managed by the Department of Civil Protection (DPC), the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), the Emilia Romagna region in collaboration with the Network of University Laboratories for Earthquake Engineering (RELUIS), the Health Service Emilia Romagna Regional and voluntary organizations of civil protection in the area. Within this initiative, in the period June-September 2012 were collected and catalogued over 240 rumours. In this work rumours of the Po Valley are studied in their specific characteristics and strategies and methods to fight them are also discussed. This work of collection and discussion of the rumours was particularly important to promote good communication strategies and to fight the spreading of the rumours. Only in this way it was possible to create a full intervention able to supporting both the local institutions and

  20. Global reconstructed daily storm surge levels from the 20th century reanalysis (1871-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Alba; Camus, Paula; Castanedo, Sonia; Mendez, Fernando; Medina, Raul

    2015-04-01

    The study of global patterns of wind and pressure gradients, and more specifically, their effect on the sea level variation (storm surge), is a key issue in the understanding of recent climate changes. The local effect of storm surges on coastal areas (zones particularly vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level), is also of great interest in, for instance, flooding risk assessment. Studying the spatial and temporal variability of storm surges from observations is a difficult task to accomplish since observations are not homogeneous in time and scarce in space, and moreover, their temporal coverage is limited. The development of a global storm surge database (DAC, Dynamic Atmospheric Correction by Aviso, Carrère and Lyard, 2003) fulfils the lack of data in terms of spatial coverage, but not regarding time extent since it only includes last couple of decades (1992-2014). In this work, we propose the use of the 20CR ensemble (Compo et al., 2011) which spans from 1871 to 2010 to statistically reconstruct storm surge at a global scale and for a long period of time. Therefore, the temporal and spatial variability of storm surges can be fully studied and with much less effort than performing a dynamical downscaling. The statistical method chosen to carry out the reconstruction is based on multiple linear regression between an atmospheric predictor and the storm surge level at daily scale (Camus et al., 2014). The linear regression model is calibrated and validated using daily mean sea level pressure fields (and gradients) from the ERA-interim reanalysis and daily maxima surges from DAC. The obtained daily database of maximum daily surges has allowed us to estimate global trends at a centennial scale and analyse the effect of the changing climate on storm surges during the 20th century. Hence, this work improves the knowledge on historical storm-surge conditions and provides helpful information to the community concern on marine climate evolution and

  1. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, John C. H.; Wehner, Michael F.

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical

  2. 5. Photocopy of map (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of map (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 77, Dr. 124, sht. 19-1) 'Drawn and sketched by Robt. Redmayne' February 20th, 1856 'A MAP OF THE U.S. MILITARY RESERVE AT BENICIA CAL.' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  3. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century, PMID:22822609

  4. Europe experienced a "warming hole" in autumn in the second half of the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahynova, M.; Pokorna, L.; Huth, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent global warming has not been ubiquitous - there might be seasons, regions, and time periods with clearly discernible zero or downward air temperature trends. Regions that are not warming or are even cooling - also known as "warming holes" - have been previously detected mainly in autumn in the second half of the 20th century in large parts of North America as well as in central and eastern Europe. In this study we use daily maximum and minimum temperature (TX and TN, respectively) and daily temperature range (DTR) at 136 stations from the ECA&D database in Europe and the Mediterranean in the period 1961-2000 to precisely locate their seasonal and sub-seasonal trends in space and within the course of the year, and to assess the effect of circulation changes on these observed trends. Linear trends are calculated for moving "seasons" of differing lengths (10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 days), each shifted by one day. Thus we obtain 365 values of "moving trends" for each station and each variant of season length. The day-to-day variability of these trends is greatest for short "seasons" of 10 and 20 days. Trends of the 90-day seasons are the most stable throughout the year and also bear the lowest trend magnitudes. Cluster analysis of the annual course of "moving trends" reveals relatively well-defined regions with similar trend behavior. Over most of Europe, the observed warming is greatest in winter, and the highest trend magnitudes are reached by TN in eastern Europe. Two regions stand out of this general picture: in Iceland and the Mediterranean, winter shows almost no trends, while in summer we see a pronounced warming. Significant autumn cooling centered on mid-November was found in eastern and southeastern Europe for both TX and TN; in many other regions trends are close to zero in the same period. Other clearly non-warming (or even cooling) periods occur in western and central Europe in April and June. Trends of DTR are largely inconclusive and no general picture

  5. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyukov, B. G.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.; Knight, R. W.; Enloe, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interests, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network (Gleason et al. 2002) and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by NCDC an RIHMI. Data from these archives are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. Within the boundaries of the former USSR, each of the archives, GHCN and GSDN, includes more than 2100 stations with only approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses. We use three indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index uses only daily data on maximum temperature and precipitation and is developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Modified Nesterov, and (3) Zhdanko Indices (these indices are developed and widely used in Russia; their computation requires synoptic daytime data on temperature and humidity and daily precipitation and snow on the ground). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the entire Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) we found a statistically significant increase in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of the "dry weather summer days" during the past sixty

  6. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-10-26

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

  7. Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, J. H.; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

    2014-07-01

    Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

  8. The little death: Rigoni-Stern and the problem of sex and cancer in 20th-century biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Natalie B

    2015-06-01

    Approaches to the organization and conduct of cancer research changed dramatically throughout the 20th century. Despite marked differences between the epidemiological approaches of the first half of the century and molecular techniques that gained dominance in the 1980s, prominent 20th-century researchers investigating the link between sexual activity and anogenital cancers continuously invoked the same 1842 treatise by Italian surgeon Domenico Rigoni-Stern, who is said to originate the problem of establishing a causal link between sex and cancer. In this article, I investigate 20th-century references to Rigoni-Stern as a case of a broader phenomenon: scientists situating their work through narratives of venerated ancestors, or originators. By explaining shifting versions of originator narratives in light of their authors' cultural context and research practices, we can reimagine as meaningful cultural symbols the references that previous scholars have treated as specious rhetorical maneuvers. In this case, references to Rigoni-Stern provide an interpretive anchor for American scientists to construct continuity between their work and a diverse historical legacy of cancer research. PMID:26477198

  9. ​​​History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, MH; Azizi, F

    2010-01-01

    Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in London in 1849 to contamination of the drinking water supply with human excreta. Despite his finding, the causative agent of this dreaded illness was unidentified until later in the 19th century. In 1854, Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) an anatomist from Italy and then in 1883, Robert Koch (1843-1910) the German bacteriologist, discovered ‘vibrio cholerae’ as the etiologic agent. During the major pandemics of cholera in 19th and 20th centuries this illness reached Iran and led to vast depopulation and a crucial impact on the country’s socioeconomic status. Poor public health conditions, lack of a well-organized public health authority for implementing preventive and quarantine measures as well as Iran’s specific geographic location were the main facilitating factors of the emergence of various epidemics, including cholera in Iran. The present paper briefly reviews the cholera outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:25197514

  10. The controversial early brightening in the first half of 20th century: A contribution from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Aparicio, A. J. P.

    2014-04-01

    A long-term decrease in downward surface solar radiation from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming") followed by a multi-decadal increase up to the present ("brightening") has been detected in many regions worldwide. In addition, some researchers have suggested the existence of an "early brightening" period in the first half of the 20th century. However, this latter phenomenon is an open issue due to the opposite results found in literature and the scarcity of solar radiation data during this period. This paper contributes to this relevant discussion analyzing, for the first time in Southern Europe, the atmospheric column transparency derived from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain) for the period 1911-1928. This time series is one of the three longest datasets during the first quarter of the 20th century in Europe. The results showed the great effects of the Katmai eruption (June 1912, Alaska) on transparency values during 1912-1913 with maximum relative anomalies around 8%. Outside the period affected by this volcano, the atmospheric transparency exhibited a stable behavior with a slight negative trend without any statistical significance on an annual and seasonal basis. Overall, there is no evidence of a possible early brightening period in direct solar radiation in Madrid. This phenomenon is currently an open issue and further research is needed using the few sites with available experimental records during the first half of the 20th century.

  11. 20th Century Reanalysis Project Ensemble Gateway: 56 Estimates of World Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, and Wind, 1871-2010

    DOE Data Explorer

    This site provides data from the 20th Century Reanalysis Project, offering temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind predictions in 200 km sections all around the earth from 1871 to 2010, every 6 hours, based on historical data. The ensemble mean and standard deviation for each value were calculated over a set of 56 simulations. Data for each of the 56 ensemble members are included here. The dataset consists of files in netCDF 4 format that are available for download from the National Energy Research. The goal of the 20th Century Reanalysis Project is to use a Kalman filter-based technique to produce a global trophospheric circulation dataset at four-times-daily resolution back to 1871. The only dataset available for the early 20th century consists of error-ridden hand-drawn analyses of the mean sea level pressure field over the Northern Hemisphere. Modern data assimilation systems have the potential to improve upon these maps, but prior to 1948, few digitized upper-air sounding observations are available for such a reanalysis. The global tropospheric circulation dataset will provide an important validation check on the climate models used to make 21st century climate projections....[copied from http://portal.nersc.gov/project/20C_Reanalysis/

  12. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World…

  13. Proceedings of the 20th International Linac Conference (Linac 2000) Vol. 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex

    2001-01-04

    The eConf archive is a repository for full-text and eprint proceedings. It is designed to allow free, direct distribution of conference proceedings via a stable electronic archive that collects electronically-produced proceedings, indexes them, permanently archives them, and facilitates access to them over the Web.

  14. Astronomers to Mark 20th Anniversary of the Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    On August 23, scientists will mark the 20th anniversary of the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA), the most powerful, flexible and widely-used radio telescope in the world. "Twenty years ago, the VLA brought dramatic new observing capabilities to the world's astronomers, and today there is hardly a branch of astronomy that has not been profoundly impacted by the prolific research output of this radio telescope," said Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The anniversary will be marked in a ceremony at NRAO's Array Operations Center in Socorro, NM. The keynote speaker for this ceremony will be U.S. Senator Pete V. Domenici, R-NM. Also speaking will be Dr. Rita Colwell, NSF Director; Dr. Anneila Sargent, president-elect of the American Astronomical Society; Vanden Bout; Dr. Riccardo Giacconi, president of Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI); Dr. Paul Martin, chairman of the AUI board of trustees; and Dr. Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA operations. "More than 2,200 researchers from hundreds of institutions around the world have used the VLA for more than 10,000 observing projects," said Vanden Bout. "Research conducted at the VLA has had a major impact across the entire breadth of astronomy, from nearby objects such as the Sun and planets of our own Solar System, to forming galaxies and quasars billions of light-years away in the farthest reaches of the Universe," Vanden Bout added. Major discoveries made by the VLA have ranged from the surprising detection of water ice on Mercury, the nearest planet to the Sun, to the first detection of radio emission from a Gamma Ray Burster in 1997. The VLA also discovered the first "Einstein Ring" gravitational lens in 1987, and the first "microquasar" within our own Milky Way Galaxy in 1994. Over the past two decades, the VLA also has made major contributions to our understanding of active regions on the Sun, the physics of superfast "cosmic jets" of material

  15. Water and turf: fluoridation and the 20th-century fate of waterworks engineers.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, E

    1996-01-01

    Once central figures in American public health, waterworks engineers are no longer involved in many decisions made about the public water supplies. This paper argues that the profession's response to the early fluoridation movement of the 1940s and 1950s marked a change in the relationship between waterworks engineers and the other constitutive groups in public health and contributed to the disenfranchisement of the waterworks profession. Sensing a potentially divisive issue, two leaders of the profession, Abel Wolman and Linn Enslow, took steps they hoped would prevent a rift within the profession and allow waterworks engineering to continue its association with the wider public health community. Although the leaders saw the fluoridation issue differently, neither encouraged the profession to consider it openly or to take up the broader question of what limits, if any, should be placed on treating water supplies to meet human needs. Instead, they opted to locate authority for fluoridation outside the waterworks profession with dentists, doctors, and public health administrators. As a result, waterworks engineers conceded a great deal of the status and prestige associated with decision-making roles in community health issues and have largely faded from view. Images p1313-a p1314-a PMID:8806387

  16. Assessment of 20th century global-mean thermosteric sea level rise from CMIP5 climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyssignac, Benoit; Angelique, Melet

    2016-04-01

    More than 93% of the energy excess associated with anthropogenic climate change. The resulting ocean warming and thermal expansion is a leading contributor to global mean sea level (GMSL) rise. Confidence in projections of GMSL rise therefore depends on the ability of climate models to reproduce global mean thermosteric sea level (GMTSL) rise over the 20th century. In this study, we compare the GMTSL of climate models of the Coupled Models Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to observations over 1961-2005. Although the model-ensemble mean is within the uncertainty of observations, the model ensemble exhibits a large spread. We aim at explaining the departure of CMIP5 climate models 20th century GMTSL from observations. We show that climate models' GMTSL rise linearly depends on the time integrated radiative forcing F (under continuously increasing radiative forcing). The constant of proportionality (nu) expresses the transient thermosteric sea level response of the climate system. nu depends on the fraction of excess heat stored in the ocean, the expansion efficiency of heat, the climate feedback parameter and the ocean heat uptake efficiency. Most models show noticeably the same fraction of excess heat stored in the ocean and the same expansion efficiency of heat that are consistent with observations. This is unlike the climate feedback parameter and the ocean heat uptake efficiency, which are significantly different across climate models. These differences in climate feedback parameter and ocean heat uptake efficiency along with differences in time-integrated F across models explain most of the departure of CMIP5 climate models 20th century GMTSL from observations.

  17. 20th century acidification and warming as recorded in two alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (South Poland, Europe).

    PubMed

    Gasiorowski, Michał; Sienkiewicz, Elwira

    2010-02-01

    Sediment profiles of two alpine lakes located in the Tatra Mountains, the Toporowy Staw Nizni (TSN) and the Zielony Staw Gasienicowy (ZSG), were studied for their chronology, lithology, diatom and cladoceran remains. The sediment sequences, 50cm long from TSN and 30cm long from ZSG, were deposited during the last 1000 and 300 years, respectively. Vertical changes in lithology, diatom and Cladocera allow the reconstruction of three periods in the lakes' evolution: mild climatic conditions during Medieval Warm Period (MWP, only in TSN), severe conditions between the end of 14th and 19th centuries, identified as the Little Ice Age (LIA), and 20th century warming. The LIA was recorded in the sediments of both lakes in the form of intensified erosion and lower lake ecosystem productivity, as indicated by organic matter lower content, changes in diatom species composition, and decline in Daphnia. The 20th century was a time of acidification in both lakes. The scale of acidification was assessed based on the decline in diatom-inferred pH (DI-pH). DI-pH dropped by 1.2 pH units during the last century in TSN and by 0.4 pH unit in ZSG. The decline of DI-pH was noted in both lakes, but its intensity was clearly higher in TSN due to the lower acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of this lake. The lower pH during the final decades of the 20th century was lethal to some water organisms while attracting others, such as Daphnia. The Daphnia population increased after the pH drop, probably due to the high food flexibility of this genus. A similar increase was not observed in ZSG, where planktonivorous fishes were introduced in the 1940s, which effectively limited the crustacean plankton density. PMID:19896170

  18. Intercomparison of 20th century tropical climate model hindcasts and coral δ18O data using a forward proxy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. M.; Evans, M. N.; Ault, T. R.; Cole, J. E.; Emile-Geay, J.

    2009-12-01

    Forward modeling of climate proxies enables identification of uncertainties in the interpretation of high resolution proxy archives in a manner that is complementary to classical inverse methods. By coupling proxy models to climate model output driven with realistic external forcings, a framework for assessment of their consistency with proxy observations over long timescales is created. Here we model reef coral oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) as a function of sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-surface salinity (SSS), the latter a linear proxy for the isotopic composition of seawater in the tropics. We first validate this model against a comprehensive network of 20th century coral δ18O measurements. When driven with historical SST and SSS data for the last ~50 years, the forward model is able to capture the spatial and temporal pattern of ENSO variability observed in the corals better than a univariate SST-based model, hence establishing the skill of this bivariate model. We then drive the forward model with SST and SSS from 20th-century simulations of state-of-the-art climate models, such as GFDL CM2.0 (run 1 c3m; Delworth et al, 2006, Wittenberg et al, 2006), to assess the ability of climate models to reproduce tropical climate variability. GFDL CM2.0 forward modeled coral δ18O accurately reproduces the spatio-temporal pattern of the observed coral δ18O trend over the 20th century, and furthermore suggests the trend was primarily driven by increased SSTs. However, the magnitude of the modeled trend is smaller than observed in the corals, suggesting that coral physiology has reacted in a non-linear fashion to the observed climatic forcing, or that GFDL CM2.0's tropical response to external climate forcing is too small. Instead, variance in GFDL modeled corals is dominated by strong interannual variability that is much greater than that observed in corals. The temporal evolution of modeled ENSO variance and frequency over the 20th century is also markedly

  19. Testing late 20th century El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability against new coral-based estimates of natural variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, K. M.; Westphal, N.; Sayani, H. R.; Di Lorenzo, E.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Charles, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives large changes in global climate patterns from year to year, yet its sensitivity to continued anthropogenic greenhouse forcing is poorly constrained by both climate models and observational data. Here we analyze over 670 years worth of new, monthly-resolved fossil coral records of ENSO spanning the last 7,000 years. The new records are based on the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of U/Th-dated fossil corals from Christmas (2°N, 157°W) and Fanning (4°N, 160°W) Islands, located in the heart of the ENSO region. The corals document a highly variable ENSO, with reductions in ENSO variance of up to 60% documented in the last millennium and at several points through the reconstruction. Maximum ENSO variance is observed in the early 17th century, when values were up to 15% larger than present. There is no evidence for a precessionally-driven trend in ENSO variance from 6,000 years ago to present that some paleodata and coupled global climate models document. If there is an insolation-related signal in ENSO variance, our data suggest that it is overwhelmed by the large range of natural variability in ENSO. The average ENSO variance for the fossil coral database is 40% lower than late 20th century ENSO variance estimates derived from the fossil corals' modern counterparts. In order to test whether late 20th century ENSO variance is significantly larger than the long-term average implied by the fossil coral data, we employ a Monte Carlo-based approach that uses output from a 2,000-yr-long unforced simulation of the GFDL CM2.1 coupled GCM (Wittenberg, 2009). We first confirm that the model-based distribution of ENSO variance is consistent with the fossil coral-based distribution, which suggests that at least some of the current class of coupled climate models are capable of simulating the intrinsic variability in ENSO reasonably well. We then generate 10,000 pairs of modern and fossil 'pseudocoral' databases, drawing

  20. The influence of inequality on the standard of living: worldwide anthropometric evidence from the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Blum, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    We provide empirical evidence on the existence of the Pigou-Dalton principle. The latter indicates that aggregate welfare is - ceteris paribus - maximized when incomes of all individuals are equalized (and therefore marginal utility from income is as well). Using anthropometric panel data on 101 countries during the 19th and 20th centuries, we determine that there is a systematic negative and concave relationship between height inequality and average height. The robustness of this relationship is tested by means of several robustness checks, including two instrument variable regressions. These findings help to elucidate the impact of economic inequality on welfare. PMID:23352274

  1. Using the PDSI to Estimate Summer Stream Discharge in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Implications for 20th Century Riparian Habitat Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, L.; Meyer, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    predictors of discharge (α < 0.05). The 1930s Dust Bowl drought was one of the most severe droughts in the past 300 years; from 1934-1935, average August discharge was reduced by 25-40% with respect to the anomalously wet early 20th century pluvial. Discharge estimates using reconstructed PDSI values for the 2- and 10-year MCA droughts (PDSI = -6 and -5, respectively) indicate that 60% of stream reaches where beaver were active in the late Holocene became ephemeral in these droughts. This analysis is supported by observations during the extreme drought of the 2000s, when ephemeral flow occurred along streams with known historical beaver activity in northern Yellowstone. Model predictions indicate that by 2030-2039 the GYE will endure persistent severe drought (mean annual PDSI = -4 to -6) (Dai, 2011), thus riparian area is likely to decrease in the coming decades. The early 20th century has been suggested to be an ideal reference for riparian habitat restoration despite anomalously wet conditions unlike current or likely future climate. Future efforts to restore riparian habitat by reducing elk browsing and increasing beaver damming will be hampered by reduced flows on small streams.

  2. [Reform of the medical education in the early 20th century America and the Flexner Report of 1910].

    PubMed

    Hwang, S I

    1994-01-01

    Reform of the medical education in the early 20th century America caused many consequences in the various aspects of the medical fields as well as the improvement of the medical education itself such as the reinforcement of the laboratory training in the basic science courses and hospital instruction in the clinical courses. The reform brought about the direct or indirect elimination of the irregular sectarian practitioners and the minority groups such as black and women from the medical market place, established the concrete position of the regular physicians in the American society, reinforced the biomedical aspects which would become the general tendency in the 20th century Western medicine. And the author stressed that the reform was neither initiated nor invoked but just accelerated by the so-called Flexner Report of 1910, rather it had been performed through the processes of the interaction and struggle between the various contradictory trends, tendencies, and forces such as american Medical Association (AMA), some leading medical educators and scientists, medical colleges, and philanthropic foundations in the socio-cultural millieu gradually moving to favor the "science". PMID:11618917

  3. The health transition and biological living standards: adult height and mortality in 20th-century Spain.

    PubMed

    Spijker, Jeroen J A; Cámara, Antonio D; Blanes, Amand

    2012-07-01

    This paper seeks new insights concerning the health transition in 20th century Spain by analyzing both traditional (mortality-based) and alternative (anthropometric-based) health indicators. Data were drawn from national censuses, vital and cause-of-death statistics and seven National Health Surveys dating from 1987 to 2006 (almost 100,000 subjects aged 20-79 were used to compute cohort height averages). A multivariate regression analysis was performed on infant mortality and economic/historical dummy variables. Our results agree with the general timing of the health transition process in Spain as has been described to date insofar as we document that there was a rapid improvement of sanitary and health care related factors during the second half of the 20th century reflected by a steady decline in infant mortality and increase in adult height. However, the association between adult height and infant mortality turned out to be not linear. In addition, remarkable gender differences emerged: mean height increased continuously for male cohorts born after 1940 but meaningful improvements in height among female cohorts was not attained until the late 1950s. PMID:21924964

  4. Changes in the African American female profile as depicted in fashion magazines during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Yehezkel, Shaul; Turley, Patrick K

    2004-04-01

    This study evaluated changes in the profiles of African American women presented in fashion magazines during the 20th century. Twenty-six variables were measured on a total of 119 profile photographs collected from various fashion magazines published in the 1940s through the 1990s. The photographs were divided into 6 groups corresponding to the decade in which they were published. A 1-way analysis of variance was performed, and between-group differences were examined with a Tukey multiple comparison procedure. Significant between-group differences (P <.01) were found for anteroposterior lip position, nasolabial angle, and interlabial angle, with increased fullness and more anteriorly positioned lips in the more recent decades. No significant differences were found for the frontonasal angle, the nasal tip angle, and the relationship of the chin to the upper face (total facial angle). Esthetic standards for the African-American female profile changed during the 20th century and, similar to the standards for the white profile, show a trend toward fuller and more anteriorly positioned lips. PMID:15067255

  5. A time-series analysis of the 20th century climate simulations produced for the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Francisco; Perron, Pierre; Gay-García, Carlos; Martínez-López, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    In this paper evidence of anthropogenic influence over the warming of the 20th century is presented and the debate regarding the time-series properties of global temperatures is addressed in depth. The 20th century global temperature simulations produced for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report and a set of the radiative forcing series used to drive them are analyzed using modern econometric techniques. Results show that both temperatures and radiative forcing series share similar time-series properties and a common nonlinear secular movement. This long-term co-movement is characterized by the existence of time-ordered breaks in the slope of their trend functions. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that while natural forcing factors may help explain the warming of the first part of the century, anthropogenic forcing has been its main driver since the 1970's. In terms of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, significant anthropogenic interference with the climate system has already occurred and the current climate models are capable of accurately simulating the response of the climate system, even if it consists in a rapid or abrupt change, to changes in external forcing factors. This paper presents a new methodological approach for conducting time-series based attribution studies. PMID:23555866

  6. Have there been changes in the epidemiology of sexual abuse of children during the 20th century?

    PubMed

    Leventhal, J M

    1988-11-01

    Have there been changes in the epidemiology of sexual abuse of children during the 20th century? To explore this question, a comparison was made between the results of the survey conducted by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the 1940s of women in the United States, the majority of whom were born between 1900 and 1929, and the results of more recent studies of the epidemiology of sexual abuse. In Kinsey's study, 24% of 4,441 women reported at least one episode of sexual abuse before adolescence; in 49% of the episodes, the perpetrator was not known to the child and, in 50%, the abuse did not involve bodily contact. These findings are compared to the results of more recent epidemiologic surveys, particularly Russell's study conducted in San Francisco in 1978. Although there are important differences in the methodologies used by Kinsey and Russell, it is likely that changes have occurred in the prevalence and nature of sexual abuse in the 20th century. Russell described a higher prevalence of sexual abuse, a greater proportion of perpetrators who were relatives or adults known to the child, and a greater proportion of serious types of sexual abuse. PMID:3186358

  7. Response of the everglades ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Willard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The ridge and slough landscape of the Florida Everglades consists of a mosaic of linear sawgrass ridges separated by deeper-water sloughs with tree islands interspersed throughout the landscape. We used pollen assemblages from transects of sediment cores spanning sawgrass ridges, sloughs, and ridge-slough transition zones to determine the timing of ridge and slough formation and to evaluate the response of components of the ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management. These pollen data indicate that sawgrass ridges and sloughs have been vegetationally distinct from one another since initiation of the Everglades wetland in mid-Holocene time. Although the position and community composition of sloughs have remained relatively stable throughout their history, modern sawgrass ridges formed on sites that originally were occupied by marshes. Ridge formation and maturation were initiated during intervals of drier climate (the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age) when the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted southward. During these drier intervals, marsh taxa were more common in sloughs, but they quickly receded when precipitation increased. Comparison with regional climate records suggests that slough vegetation is strongly influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation variability, even under 20th-century water management practices. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. The Destiny of an Eastern Observatory Follows the Dramatic One of this Part of Europe During the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    Founded at the dawn of the 20th century (1908), the Astronomical Observatory of Bucharest had an evolution that followed the destiny of its country. After about half a century along which it lives the usual life of any European institution for research and education, it leaves the education after the World War II, becoming an institute of the Academy. A short period of progress is followed by an unprecedented, total isolation, even from the neighbouring countries. The fall of the communist system in the last decade of the 20th century brings new endeavours, but also a hard competition with the worldwide astronomy. What is important is that in each situation the Romanian astronomers have found the interior resources to resist and to keep the national astronomy competitive, at least as regards some of its fields. Moreover, by setting the South-Eastern Branch of the European Astronomical Society, it wishes to contribute to the finding of local solutions, with the goal of increasing the level of astronomy in countries that face the same problems, the same difficulties.

  9. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    PubMed

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor. PMID:21936227

  10. Baseband Feedback Frequency-Division Multiplexing with Low-Power dc-SQUIDs and Digital Electronics for TES X-Ray Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Takei, Y.; Yamamoto, R.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Kohjiro, S.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-08-01

    We are developing frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) systems with baseband feedback for TES X-ray microcalorimeter arrays for use with the DIOS mission. To meet the requirement of limited cooling capacity at cryogenic temperatures, we developed low-power and FDM-optmized dc-SQUIDs. To make maximum use of the SQUIDs, we also developed digital electronics using FPGA evaluation boards and ADC/DAC FMC daughter cards, and evaluated signal-to-noise ratios and gain-bandwidth products.

  11. International dimensions of higher education in nursing in Canada: tapping the wisdom of the 20th century while embracing possibilities for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Linda D; Paul, Pauline; Burgess-Pinto, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    New focus on the internationalization of universities occurred in the late 20th century and higher education in nursing has been quick to embrace the opportunities. In this manuscript, writers provide a brief overview of the nursing and more general literature from the late 20th century relating to key dimensions of internationalization, as well as present data from a survey conducted in 1995-96 of the international activities and dimensions at Canadian faculties/schools of nursing. While it is clear that nurses in Canadian universities were engaged in significant international endeavours in the 20th century, the literature and our experience suggest that the extent of such activity has increased substantially in recent years. Discussion centres on examination of how knowledge generated in the 20th century can inform current internationalization initiatives and on identification of key questions that merit consideration as we move forward in the 21st century. PMID:17402933

  12. The 20th annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: building a generation of robotists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Kosinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 20 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  13. Effect of anthropogenic aerosol forcing on climate change in the North Pacific Ocean during the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, M.; Watanabe, S.; Kawamiya, M.; Nozawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Reliable future projection by the climate or Earth system model is crucial for the issue on future climate change. For the reliable future projection, uncertainty of the aerosol effect on the climate change should be reduced, because the uncertainty has been large. Therefore, it is essential to understand the effect of anthropogenic aerosol forcing on climate change in the 20th century. In this study, we have assessed the effect by a comparison between the 20th century historical simulations (20C and piAero) with the aerosol forcing fluctuated realistically over time and fixed in the pre-industrial condition by MIROC-ESM. We focus on the climate change in the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) due to anthropogenic aerosol emitted from China in the late 20th century. In the comparison between the two simulations, there has been little difference in the global mean surface temperature (SAT) from 1851 to 1900. Then the difference appears and reaches to about 0.2 deg. C in 1950's. After 1960, the difference in SAT between the two experiments become large. For SST change in the NPO, small positive trend is found after 1900 in the piAero, but not found in the 20C. Thus, the SST difference in the NPO between the two experiments is significant after 1900. While the positive SST trend in the NPO has been large in the piAero after 1960, SST in the Central NPO shows the negative trend in the 20C. These enlarge SST difference between the two experiments. The negative SST trend in the Central NPO in the 20C is likely to be attributable to an increase of aerosol emission from China. The aerosol increase, which is also found in the NPO, makes solar insolation into the surface decrease mainly through the aerosol indirect effect. This effect decreases SST. Also, the effect is seen in the boreal spring and summer. However, the effect is not found in the piAero. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the principal natural variability in the NPO, has been investigated. Linear trend of

  14. Multi-season climate synchronized forest fires throughout the 20th century, northern Rockies, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Penelope; Heyerdahl, Emily K; Gibson, Carly E

    2008-03-01

    We inferred climate drivers of 20th-century years with regionally synchronous forest fires in the U.S. northern Rockies. We derived annual fire extent from an existing fire atlas that includes 5038 fire polygons recorded from 12,070,086 ha, or 71% of the forested land in Idaho and Montana west of the Continental Divide. The 11 regional-fire years, those exceeding the 90th percentile in annual fire extent from 1900 to 2003 (>102,314 ha or approximately 1% of the fire atlas recording area), were concentrated early and late in the century (six from 1900 to 1934 and five from 1988 to 2003). During both periods, regional-fire years were ones when warm springs were followed by warm, dry summers and also when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) was positive. Spring snowpack was likely reduced during warm springs and when PDO was positive, resulting in longer fire seasons. Regional-fire years did not vary with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or with climate in antecedent years. The long mid-20th century period lacking regional-fire years (1935-1987) had generally cool springs, generally negative PDO, and a lack of extremely dry summers; also, this was a period of active fire suppression. The climate drivers of regionally synchronous fire that we inferred are congruent with those of previous centuries in this region, suggesting a strong influence of spring and summer climate on fire activity throughout the 20th century despite major land-use change and fire suppression efforts. The relatively cool, moist climate during the mid-century gap in regional-fire years likely contributed to the success of fire suppression during that period. In every regional-fire year, fires burned across a range of vegetation types. Given our results and the projections for warmer springs and continued warm, dry summers, forests of the U.S. northern Rockies are likely to experience synchronous, large fires in the future. PMID:18459335

  15. Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

    2005-11-01

    At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

  16. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region.

    PubMed

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-09-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946-1975; 1976-2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24223283

  17. The concept of personality in 19th-century French and 20th-century American psychology.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Foschi, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Since the 1920s, the road to the acknowledgement of personality psychology as a field of scientific psychology that has individuality as its object began with the founding of the discipline by Gordon W. Allport. Historians of psychology have made serious attempts to reconstruct the cultural, political, institutional, and chronological beginnings of this field in America in the 20th century. In this literature, however, an important European tradition of psychological studies of personality that developed in France in the 2nd half of the 19th century has been overlooked. The aim of this article is to cast some light on this unexplored tradition of psychological personality studies and to discuss its influence on the development of the scientific study of personality in the United States. PMID:12817602

  18. Antagonism and accommodation: interpreting the relationship between public health and medicine in the United States during the 20th century.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, A M; Gardner, M

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the course of the 20th century, many observers have noted important tensions and antipathies between public health and medicine. At the same time, reformers have often called for better engagement and collaboration between the 2 fields. This article examines the history of the relationship between medicine and public health to examine how they developed as separate and often conflicting professions. The historical character of this relationship can be understood only in the context of institutional developments in professional education, the rise of the biomedical model of disease, and the epidemiologic transition from infectious disease to the predominance of systemic chronic diseases. Many problems in the contemporary burden of disease pose opportunities for effective collaborations between population-based and clinical interventions. A stronger alliance between public health and medicine through accommodation to a reductionist biomedicine, however, threatens to subvert public health's historical commitment to understanding and addressing the social roots of disease. PMID:10800418

  19. Infectious Diseases in Transplantation--Report of the 20th Nantes Actualités Transplantation Meeting.

    PubMed

    Haspot, Fabienne; Halary, Franck Albert

    2015-12-01

    The 20th Nantes Actualités Transplantation (NAT) meeting was held on June 11, 2015, and June 12, 2015. This year, the local organizing committee selected an update on infectious diseases in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. With an attendance of close to 170 clinicians, researchers, students, engineers, technicians, invited speakers, and guests from North and South America, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, and France, the meeting was well attended. Invited speakers' expertise covered basic as well as translational microbiology, immunology, transplantation, and intensive care medicine. This report identifies a number of advances presented during the meeting in the care and management of infectious diseases in transplantation and immunocompromised patients. New antiviral immune responses and their modulation by pathogens in addition to novel antimicrobial therapeutic strategies, cell therapies, and genomic analysis were discussed. PMID:26627674

  20. [Cycles of German yellow fever research in the first half of the 20th century: protagonists and interests].

    PubMed

    Hinz-Wessels, Annette

    2008-01-01

    This article examines for the case of yellow fever research in Germany in the first half of the 20th century how political and military conditions affected the interests of scientific research. As a tropical disease, yellow fever was unknown in Germany and very rare in the German colonies and thus of little scientific or political interest. But this changed once the National Socialists began pursuing their wars of conquest. In preparation for a new colonial empire and a military mission in Africa, yellow fever research became increasingly important. The chief beneficiary of this development was the Robert Koch-Institute in Berlin, where Eugen Haagen worked after his time as a researcher in the Yellow Fever Laboratory in New York. In collaboration with the army and the industry, he used human experiments in his efforts to develop a vaccine for mass production. Ultimately, the vaccine's application was prevented by the German surrender in North Africa. PMID:19137979

  1. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  2. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaba, Mariama

    2015-07-01

    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society. PMID:26111839

  3. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, B.A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  4. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24223283

  5. A selected review of abstracts from the 20th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO).

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-07-01

    20th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuro-Oncology, San Antonio, TX, USA, 18-22 November 2015 The Society for Neuro-Oncology is the largest neuro-oncology meeting in the USA that meets annually and provides a multiday venue that showcases new brain cancer clinical trial results and basic research primarily pertaining to gliomas. The Society for Neuro-Oncology 2015 meeting comprising one education day, 2 days of premeetings and 3 days of presentation, over 200 oral presentations and 900 abstracts provides an overview of contemporary neuro-oncology that includes metastatic disease of the central nervous system as well as primary brain tumors. This review attempts to highlight select abstracts presented at this year's meeting in a short summary that provides a synopsis of a large and multifaceted meeting. PMID:27230972

  6. Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guojian; Cai, Wenju

    2013-01-01

    The positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) increases global mean temperature, and contributes to a negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere. This interannual relationship of a high global mean temperature associated with a negative SAM, however, is opposite to the relationship between their trends under greenhouse warming. We show that over much of the 20th century this relationship undergoes multidecadal fluctuations depending on the intensity of ENSO. During the period 1925-1955, subdued ENSO activities weakened the relationship. However, a similar weakening has occurred since the late 1970s despite the strong ENSO. We demonstrate that this recent weakening is induced by climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result highlights a rare situation in which climate change signals emerge against an opposing property of interannual variability, underscoring the robustness of the recent climate change. PMID:23784087

  7. The history of ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’ as a mental disorder in the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of conceptualizations of female sexual problems, and ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’ in particular, throughout the 20th century, especially in relation to psychiatry and mental illness. Recent findings In the past 15 years, there has been an increase in both medical and public discourse about ‘Female Sexual Dysfunction’. I discuss a variety of literature sources dealing with female sexual problems, where these are understood variously as problems of developmental psychopathology, as technical phenomena to be resolved through education, or as medical problems to be addressed pharmaceutically. Summary The stigma of mental illness shapes much recent discussion of female sexual problems, as does the legacy of the postwar critique of psychodynamic psychiatry. PMID:20802336

  8. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  9. The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20th Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?

    PubMed Central

    Hermalin, Albert I.; Lowry, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908–1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20th century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument. PMID:22904585

  10. [Mild radium therapy: radiation medicine-, life-, body- and personal hygiene remedies in the first half of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2005-01-01

    During the first half of the 20th century numerous drugs, foodstuffs and cosmetics were brought on the market, whose supposed effects were explained with their weak radioactivity. Their subtle radiation was believed to stimulate the vital forces of the body, thus leading to recovery from illness, or to an improvement in beauty and to rejuvenation. Among others, bath and drinking waters enriched with radioactive materials were advertised for this purpose. The then known radioactive medicines included preparations of healing earth, the so-called Salus-Oil, the TRUW preparations, and "Radithor", which was popular in the United States. There were also radioactive foodstuffs (butter, chocolate, rusk) and cosmetics. This mild radiotherapy may be characterised as a form of bio-dynamistic healing. PMID:16382691

  11. Borders, Laborers, and Racialized Medicalization Mexican Immigration and US Public Health Practices in the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, US public health and immigration policies intersected with and informed one another in the country's response to Mexican immigration. Three historical episodes illustrate how perceived racial differences influenced disease diagnosis: a 1916 typhus outbreak, the midcentury Bracero Program, and medical deportations that are taking place today. Disease, or just the threat of it, marked Mexicans as foreign, just as much as phenotype, native language, accent, or clothing. A focus on race rendered other factors and structures, such as poor working conditions or structural inequalities in health care, invisible. This attitude had long-term effects on immigration policy, as well as on how Mexicans were received in the United States. PMID:21493932

  12. 2014 Beller Lectureship: Chinese Physicists Educated in the Great Britain during the First Half of the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    More than 30 Chinese students went to Great Britain to study physics during the first half of the 20th century. They were concentrated in London University (13), Cambridge University (9), Edinburgh University (5) and Manchester University (3) and so on. All these students returned to China after finishing their study and most of them later became excellent physicists. They contributed to the development of physics in China. Based on newly discovered primary materials concerning these Chinese physicists, I examine their study in UK and subsequent accomplishments after their return to China. I will then analyze these British-trained Chinese physicists and compare them with those studying in Japan and America. I would argue that Chinese physicists educated in Britain have high degree of specialization as a whole and formed unique style. They made certain unique contributions to Chinese physics development.

  13. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  14. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females. PMID:26256129

  15. An Eight-Century High-Resolution Paleoclimate Record From the Cariaco Basin: Baseline Variability and the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, D. E.; Thunell, R. C.; Kaplan, A.; Tappa, E. J.; Peterson, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    The Cariaco Basin, Venezuela is well-positioned to record a detailed history of surface ocean changes along the southern margin of the Caribbean and the tropical Atlantic. Varved, high deposition rate sediments deposited under anoxic conditions and an abundance of well-preserved microfossils result in one of the few marine records capable of preserving evidence of interannual- to decadal-scale climate variability in the tropical Atlantic. Here we present Mg/Ca and stable oxygen isotope data with sub-decadal resolution derived from sediments deposited over the last 800 years. Mg/Ca measured on the planktic foraminifer Globigerina bulloides from a Cariaco Basin sediment core strongly correlates with spring (March-May) instrumental SSTs between AD 1870 and 1990. The long-term record displays a surprising amount of variability for a tropical location. The temperature swings are not necessarily related to local upwelling variability, but instead represent wider conditions in the Caribbean and western tropical Atlantic. The Mg/Ca-SST record also captures the decadal and multidecadal variability observed in global land and sea surface temperature anomalies, and correlates with Atlantic tropical storm and hurricane frequency over the late-19th and 20th centuries. On average, 20th century temperatures are not the warmest in the entire record, but they do show the largest increase in magnitude and fastest rate of SST change over the last eight hundred years. Stable oxygen isotope data also correlate well with instrumental SSTs, but not over the full instrumental record. Poor correlations with early instrumental SST data suggest a salinity overprint. However, reconstructing δ- water variability using combined Mg/Ca and δ18O data is not straightforward as the δ- water/salinity relationship varies seasonally in the Cariaco Basin. Comparisons with percent titanium data suggest intervals of both local and regional surface salinity changes over the length of the record.

  16. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David; Opuni, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR) time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of λ against the null that λ = 0 (logarithmic model) and against the null that λ = 1 (linear model). We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR) on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log transform. PMID:19698144

  17. The 20th Century evolution of energy budgets and meridional transports in two AMIP-like experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The 20th century evolution and spatial patterns of the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA), atmospheric, and surface energy budgets (EB) are investigated in this work. These are computed as the balance between the radiative and heat fluxes at the TOA and at the surface. Total, atmospheric and oceanic meridional energy transports are computed from the EBs. Two AMIP-like ensemble simulations are considered: Integrated Forecast System (IFS) simulations of the ERA-20CM experiment, and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either Sea-Surface Temperatures (SST) and Sea-Ice Cover (SIC) or aerosol concentrations to climatological values. The recent decades estimates of the EB are in reasonable agreement in the two models, while they are not for what concerns the global scale evolution. Particularly, in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at Top of Atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. The impact of aerosols, as evidenced by the sensitivity experiments with ECHAM5-HAM, is seen to set up an inter-hemispheric gradient in the TOA and surface budget after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total poleward transport in the Northern Hemisphere and decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. This feature is not found in ERA-20CM. SST variations do not seem to induce long-term variations in the patterns of TOA budget and related total meridional transport. Nevertheless most of the surface and atmospheric budget and transport inter-annual variability is attributable to the evolution of SST, and much more agreement is observed among the two models in this respect. Reference: Lembo V, Doris F, Martin W, and Lionello P (2015) Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the 20th Century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments, Clim. Dyn., subm.

  18. Presence and possible cause of periodicities in 20th-century extreme coastal surge: Belfast Harbour, Northern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orford, Julian; Murdy, Joanne

    2015-10-01

    Identifying 20th-century periodic coastal surge variation is strategic for the 21st-century coastal surge estimates, as surge periodicities may amplify/reduce future MSL enhanced surge forecasts. Extreme coastal surge data from Belfast Harbour (UK) tide gauges are available for 1901-2010 and provide the potential for decadal-plus periodic coastal surge analysis. Annual extreme surge-elevation distributions (sampled every 10-min) are analysed using PCA and cluster analysis to decompose variation within- and between-years to assess similarity of years in terms of Surge Climate Types, and to establish significance of any transitions in Type occurrence over time using non-parametric Markov analysis. Annual extreme surge variation is shown to be periodically organised across the 20th century. Extreme surge magnitude and distribution show a number of significant cyclonic induced multi-annual (2, 3, 5 & 6 years) cycles, as well as dominant multi-decadal (15-25 years) cycles of variation superimposed on an 80 year fluctuation in atmospheric-oceanic variation across the North Atlantic (relative to NAO/AMO interaction). The top 30 extreme surge events show some relationship with NAO per se, given that 80% are associated with westerly dominant atmospheric flows (+ NAO), but there are 20% of the events associated with blocking air massess (- NAO). Although 20% of the top 30 ranked positive surges occurred within the last twenty years, there is no unequivocal evidence of recent acceleration in extreme surge magnitude related to other than the scale of natural periodic variation.

  19. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 20th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME 09) (Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009) Selected papers from the 20th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME 09) (Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    This special section of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 20th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2009), which was held in Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009. The MME workshop series started in 1989 in Twente and was the first European event created in the field of micro machining technology for developing micro components, micro sensors, micro actuators, and micro systems. Over the last two decades the MEMS community has grown considerably, and the MME workshops have sustained this progress through annual meetings all around Europe: Twente (The Netherlands, 1989), Berlin (Germany, 1990), Leuven (Belgium, 1992), Neuchatel (Switzerland, 1993), Pisa (Italy, 1994), Copenhagen (Denmark, 1995), Barcelona (Spain, 1996), Southampton (United Kingdom, 1997), Ulvik (Norway, 1998), Gif-sur-Yvette (France, 1999), Uppsala (Sweden, 2000), Cork (Ireland, 2001), Sinaia (Romania, 2002), Delft (The Netherlands, 2003), Leuven (Belgium, 2004), Goteborg (Sweden, 2005), Southampton (United Kingdom, 2006), Guimaraes (Portugal, 2007) and Aachen (Germany, 2008). For twenty years, MME conferences have provided an excellent opportunity to bring together many, predominantly European, scientists and engineers to present and discuss the latest developments in this field. For the 20th anniversary of the MicroMechanics Europe Workshop, 115 papers from 23 countries were submitted. Selected contributions were presented during four poster sessions, including short oral presentations. A very interesting feature of the MME workshops is their ability to promote young researchers. Six invited speakers from research centres and industry also gave an overview on advanced technological, characterization and simulation tools. The two day workshop was attended by 185 delegates from 22 countries all over Europe, and from Japan, Taiwan, USA and Mexico. On behalf of the MME 2009 Program Committee, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all authors of

  20. Analysis of Oceans' Influence on Spring Time Rainfall Variability Over Southeastern South America during the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Verónica; Barreiro, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Southeastern South America (SESA) rainfall presents large variability from interannual to multidecadal times scales and is influenced by the tropical Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans. At the same time, these tropical oceans interact with each other inducing sea surface temperature anomalies in remote basins through atmospheric and oceanic teleconnections. In this study we employ a tool from complex networks to analyze the collective influence of the three tropical oceans on austral spring rainfall variability over SESA during the 20th century. To do so we construct a climate network considering as nodes the observed Niño3.4, Tropical North Atlantic (TNA), and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) indices, together with an observed or simulated precipitation (PCP) index over SESA. The mean network distance is considered as a measure of synchronization among all these phenomena during the 20th century. The approach allowed to uncover large interannual and interdecadal variability in the interaction among nodes. In particular, there are two main synchronization periods characterized by different interactions among the oceanic and precipitation nodes. Whereas in the '30s El Niño and the TNA were the main tropical oceanic phenomena that influenced SESA precipitation variability, during the '70s they were El Niño and the IOD. Simulations with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reproduced the overall behavior of the collective influence of the tropical oceans on rainfall over SESA, and allowed to study the circulation anomalies that characterized the synchronization periods. In agreement with previous studies, the influence of El Niño on SESA precipitation variability might be understood through an increase of the northerly transport of moisture in lower levels and advection of cyclonic vorticity in upper levels. On the other hand, the interaction between the IOD and PCP can be interpreted in two possible ways. One possibility is that both nodes (IOD and PCP) are forced

  1. Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, J. H.; Zanchettin, D.; Chamarro, E. M.; Lohmann, K.

    2013-12-01

    Paleoceanographic reconstructions have revealed recent changes in oceanic heat transport into the Arctic that are unprecedented over the past 2000 to 3000 years [Spielhagen et al., 2011; Dylmer et al., 2013]. The 20th century increase in heat transport is related to intensified Atlantic Water advection and manifests itself in terms of changes in foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical tracers. Here we present results from an ensemble of three simulations covering the last millennium (850 - 2005 CE). The experiments were conducted in the framework of PMIP3/CMIP5 using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model for paleo applications (MPI-ESM-P). The model features the same grids (ECHAM6: T63/L47, MPIOM:1.5°/L40) as the standard CMIP5 model (MPI-ESM-LR [Jungclaus et al., 2013]) but does not include dynamic vegetation. External forcings are applied following the PMIP3 protocol [Schmidt et al., 2011]. Combining forced simulations over pre-industrial times with those over the last 150 years enables us to put changes observed in the modern period in context with a period where only natural forcing agents were active. Additional long unperturbed control simulations serve to discriminate between forced and internally-generated variability. For the northward oceanic heat transports in the northern North Atlantic and in the Nordic Seas all simulations show pronounced multi-centennial variations and an unprecedented increase in the 20th century. The changes in heat transport can be traced back to changes in the gyre circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic with some local amplification. We investigate the reason for the changes in ocean circulation and atmospheric variability modes and discuss the implications for the role of ocean lateral transports for Arctic amplification of global climate change. Dylmer, C.V. et al. [2013], Northward advection of Atlantic water in the eastern Nordic Seas over the last 3000yr., Clim. Past., 9, 1505-1518. Jungclaus, J.H. et al. [2013

  2. Systematic recover of long high-resolution rainfall time series recorded by pluviographs during the 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.; Deidda, Roberto; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Piga, Enrico; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    During most of the 20th century, precipitation has been continuously measured by means of the so-called "pluviographs", i.e. rain gauges including a mechanical apparatus for continuously recording the depth of water from precipitation on specific strip charts, usually on a weekly basis. The signal recorded on such strips was visually examined by trained personnel on a regular basis, in order to extract the daily precipitation totals and the maximum precipitation intensities over short periods (from a few minutes to hours). The rest of the high-resolution information contained in the signal was usually not extracted, except for specific cases. A systematic recovering of the entire information at high temporal resolution contained in these precipitation signals would provide a fundamental database to improve the characterization of historical rainfall climatology during the previous century. The Department of Land Engineering of the University of Cagliari has recently developed and tested an automatic software, based on image analysis techniques, which is able to acquire the scanned images of the pluviograph strip charts, to automatically digitise the signal and to produce a digital database of continuous precipitation records at the highest possible temporal resolution, i.e. 5 to 10 minutes. Along with that, a significant amount of daily precipitation totals from the late 19th and the 20th century, either elaborated from pluviograph strip charts or simply derived from bucket rain gauges, still exists in paper form, but it has never been digitalized. Within a project partly-funded by the Operational Programme of the European Union "Italia-Francia Marittimo", the Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia and the University of Cagliari will recover both the high-resolution rainfall signals and the older time series of daily totals recorded by a large number of pluviographs belonging to the historical monitoring networks of the island of Sardinia. Such data

  3. Isotope Reanalysis for 20th century: Reproduction of isotopic time series in corals, tree-rings, and tropical ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, K.

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, an isotope-incorporated GCM simulation for AD1871 to AD2008 nudged toward the so-called "20th Century Reanalysis (20CR)" atmospheric fields is conducted. Beforehand the long-term integration, a method to downscale ensemble mean fields is proposed, since 20CR is a product of 56-member ensemble Kalman filtering data assimilation. The method applies a correction to one of the ensemble members in such a way that the seasonal mean is equal to that of the ensemble mean, and then the corrected member is inputted into the isotope-incorporated GCM (i.e., IsoGSM) with the global spectral nudging technique. Use of the method clearly improves the skill than the cases of using only a single member and of using the ensemble means; the skill becomes equivalent to when 3-6 members are directly used. By comparing with GNIP precipitation isotope database, it is confirmed that the 20C Isotope Reanalysis's performance for latter half of the 20th century is just comparable to the other latest studies. For more comparisons for older periods, proxy records including corals, tree-rings, and tropical ice cores are used. First for corals: the 20C Isotope Reanalysis successfully reproduced the δ18O in surface sea water recorded in the corals at many sites covering large parts of global tropical oceans. The comparison suggests that coral records represent past hydrologic balance information where interannual variability in precipitation is large. Secondly for tree-rings: δ18O of cellulose extracted from the annual rings of the long-lived Bristlecone Pine from White Mountain in Southern California is well reproduced by 20C Isotope Reanalysis. Similar good performance is obtained for Cambodia, too. However, the mechanisms driving the isotopic variations are different over California and Cambodia; for California, Hadley cell's expansion and consequent meridional shift of the submerging dry zone and changes in water vapor source is the dominant control, but in Cambodia

  4. Key role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Sumant; Guan, Bin; Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo

    2011-08-01

    The Great Plains of North America are susceptible to multi-year droughts, such as the 1930s ‘Dust Bowl’. The droughts have been linked to SST variability in the Pacific and Atlantic basins. This observationally rooted analysis shows the SST influence in multi-year droughts and wet episodes over the Great Plains to be significantly more extensive than previously indicated. The remarkable statistical reconstruction of the major hydroclimate episodes attests to the extent of the SST influence in nature, and facilitated evaluation of the basin contributions. We find the Atlantic SSTs to be especially influential in forcing multi-year droughts; often, more than the Pacific ones. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), in particular, contributed the most in two of the four reconstructed episodes (Dust Bowl Spring, 1980s fall wetness), accounting for almost half the precipitation signal in each case. The AMO influence on continental precipitation was provided circulation context from analysis of NOAA's 20th Century Atmospheric Reanalysis. A hypothesis for how the AMO atmospheric circulation anomalies are generated from AMO SSTs is proposed to advance discussion of the influence pathways of the mid-to-high latitude SST anomalies. Our analysis suggests that the La Nina-US Drought paradigm, operative on interannual time scales, has been conferred excessive relevance on decadal time scales in the recent literature.

  5. ["W. Bölsche's precious book". Freud and German evolutionism in the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Amouroux, Rémy

    2004-01-01

    Wilhelm Bölsche (1861-1939) is the author of a poetic history of the evolution of love entitled Das Liebesleben in der Natur (1898-1903). This work, inspired by the writings of biologist Ernst Haeckel, was greatly successful in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Freud kept a copy of the three volumes in his London library and cites the text in his lectures on an Introduction to psychoanalysis. Bölsche develops an Entwicklungsgeschichte (history of evolution) of the distinguishing sexuality of several types of love (oral, anal and urinary). In addition, he describes the "zoological reactionary" homosexual and ties this sexual behaviour to the history of the development of anal sexuality. This paper will address an excerpt on this topic from Bölsche's text that has been translated for the occasion. The task at hand is to prepare the ground for a study of German evolutionism, both popular and scientific, and its ties to psychoanalysis. PMID:15368944

  6. [Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978). The tradition of idealistic morphology in the German botanical sciences of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Meister, Kay

    2005-01-01

    During the first half of the 19th century, idealistic morphology developed into an influential research program in the German biosciences. This program was based on the concept of an ideal connection existing between various living beings. The growth of Darwinian thought and its new paradigm of historical explanation supplanted the idealistic morphology. Yet in the first half of the 20th century the principles of idealistic morphology experienced a powerful revival. Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978) was one of the most significant figures in this renaissance. Guided by the ideas of J.W. von Goethe, Troll established a research program rejecting causal, functional, and phylogenetic explanations as well as the idea of evolutionary adaptation. Instead, he attempted to create a 'pure' morphology based on the descriptions of various plant species. Governed by some explicitly metaphysical presumptions, Troll based his theory on the description of the organismal Gestalt. In consequence, his theory was actually a return to the proper idealistic morphology as it was known in the early 19th century. It lead German botanical morphology to a period of methodological and epistemological return. PMID:16602487

  7. [Veterinary relations between Germany and Turkey on the military level at the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Doğanay-Feldhaus, S

    1991-09-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the veterinary relations between Turkey and Germany intensified at the military level. After the Balkan Wars there were urgent attempts to reorganize the army, which lead to the visit of a German military mission under General L. von Sanders, who was appointed to review the army. Along with other members of the German military mission A. Thieme (1881-1949) belonged to the staff of the Turkish Army's Supreme Command as orderly officer and as advisory army veterinarian. During the First World War (1914-1918) there were 44 German veterinary officers, 23 in Turkish and 21 in German uniform. The veterinary officers in Turkish formations were assigned to the military mission, where the veterinary major Dr. K. Dreyer served as official adviser. Moreover mixed German-Turkish special units were formed under German leadership in Turkey, which included German veterinary officers in German uniform. The higher salaries were paid to the German veterinary officers than their Turkish colleagues by the Turkish government. As far as can gathered three German officers perished in Turkey. PMID:1954861

  8. Fighting for Anatomy. Overview regarding two prestigious Romanian anatomists of the 20th century: Victor Papilian and Grigore T. Popa.

    PubMed

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    During many centuries, the progress of Anatomy was based on the perseverant and laborious activities done by anatomists. Their work can be considered as a fight for Anatomy. A particular problem arouse when this fight is excessively done and it limits the ability to correctly analyze the contribution made by other scientists in the same domain. This situation was identified at different personalities who lived in the same time and were involved in the same fundamental field of research. If, theoretically, the similarities between scientists should get them closer, in order to have a better communication, the antagonisms can lead them to rivalry. Our paper exemplifies a historical case in which the personages are Victor Papilian (1888-1956) and Grigore T. Popa (1892-1948). The resemblances between these two famous Romanian anatomists from the first half of the 20th century induced an evident scientific rivalry. Papilian and Popa brought a significant contribution in anatomy. Each of them was very much appreciated by his students. It is interesting that both of them had achievements in literature. We present the reasons of their disagreement and its consequences. Paradoxically, not the contrasts, but the resemblances between their strong characters produced a sort of animosity between them. This attitude diminished in time and their successors - Ioan Albu from the Cluj Faculty of Medicine and Ion Iancu from the Jassy Faculty of Medicine - had a long lasting and successful cooperation. PMID:27151732

  9. Trends in Streamflow, River Ice, and Snowpack for Coastal River Basins in Maine During the 20th Century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2002-01-01

    Trends over the 20th Century were examined in streamflow, river ice, and snowpack for coastal river basins in Maine. Trends over time were tested in the timing and magnitude of seasonal river flows, the occurrence and duration of river ice, and changes in snowpack depth, equivalent water content, and density. Significant trends toward earlier spring peak flow and earlier center-of-volume runoff dates were found in the extended streamflow record spanning 1906-21 and 1929-2000. Only one of the six coastal rivers in the study analyzed for trends in cumulative runoff had a significant change in total annual runoff volume. Last spring river-ice-off dates at most coastal streamflow-gaging stations examined are trending to earlier dates. Trends in later fall initial onset of ice also are evident, although these trends are significant at fewer stations than that observed for ice-off dates. Later ice-on dates in the fall and (or) earlier ice-off dates in the spring contribute to a statistically significant decrease over time in the total number of days of ice occurrence at most gaging stations on coastal rivers in Maine. The longest, most complete snow records in coastal Maine indicate an increase in snow density for the March 1 snow-survey date during the last 60 years. The historical trends in streamflow, ice, and snow are all consistent with an earlier onset of hydrologic spring conditions in coastal Maine.

  10. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would require measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Impacts of 20th century aerosol emissions on the South Asian monsoon in the CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Andrew; Guo, Liang; Highwood, Eleanor

    2014-05-01

    Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in GHG-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthropogenic aerosol-only experiments. Comparison of these single-forcing runs with the all-forcings historical experiment suggests aerosol emissions have dominated South Asian monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades. By examining the 25 available all-forcings historical experiments, we show that models including aerosol indirect effects dominate this negative trend. Indeed, models including only the direct radiative effect of aerosol show an increase in monsoon rainfall, suggesting the dominance of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and planetary warming on monsoon rainfall in those models. The mechanism may be due to the indirect and direct effects acting in unison to suppress the monsoon, or to stronger local aerosol loading in the group of models containing indirect effects. The disparity between the two groups of models needs to be urgently investigated in the event that the suggested future decline in Asian anthropogenic aerosol emissions inherent to the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) used for future climate projection turns out to be optimistic.

  12. 20th-Century “medical Marco Polos” in the origins of preventive cardiology and cardiovascular disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Henry

    2012-03-01

    In mid-20th century, several streams of knowledge converged to create the new academic discipline of cardiovascular disease epidemiology and the new practice of preventive cardiology. One stream was modern cardiology, with the ability to diagnose myocardial infarction, to characterize and count its victims, and to report vital statistics on cardiovascular causes of death. Another stream came from burgeoning clinical and laboratory research and greater understanding of the underlying processes of atherosclerosis and hypertension. A third stream came from the observations of intellectually curious "medical Marco Polos," who brought back from travels their tales of unusual population frequencies of heart attacks, along with ideas about sociocultural causes. This led to more formal research about cardiovascular disease risk and causes among populations and about mechanisms in the clinic and laboratory. The broad river of investigation thus formed produced a risk paradigm of the multiple biologic, behavioral, and societal factors in causal pathways to the common cardiovascular diseases. An evidence base was built for sound clinical and public health approaches to prevention. Here, the author tells brief stories about 5 early and particularly observant world travelers and their influence on knowledge and thinking about prevention. PMID:22470931

  13. On the mechanisms of decadal variability of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation over the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Daling Li; Zhang, Liping; Wu, Lixin

    2015-09-01

    The decadal variability of the North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO) over the 20th century is examined from a long-term integration of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis. The NPGO is reflected by the second dominant pattern of sea surface height (SSH) variability in SODA, with a north-south dipole structure over the northeast Pacific. SSH anomalies in this region exhibit distinct decadal variability with a significant spectrum peak at approximately 18 years. The upper-ocean heat budget reveals that this dipole structure associated with the NPGO is predominantly due to the anomalous Ekman pumping and Ekman advection induced by the surface wind. The NPGO mode in SODA reanalysis originates from atmosphere stochastic noise (North Pacific Oscillation) which has a meridional dipole pattern but no preferred time scale. The oceanic planetary wave, particularly the advective baroclinic mode, integration of atmospheric stochastic noise leads to a spatial resonance with preferred decadal time scale. The limitation of current study is also discussed.

  14. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches.

    PubMed

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20(th) century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920-1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers. PMID:25712271

  15. Observational and model evidence of global emergence of permanent, unprecedented heat in the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries.

    PubMed

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Scherer, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Given the severe impacts of extreme heat on natural and human systems, we attempt to quantify the likelihood that rising greenhouse gas concentrations will result in a new, permanent heat regime in which the coolest warm-season of the 21(st) century is hotter than the hottest warm-season of the late 20(th) century. Our analyses of global climate model experiments and observational data reveal that many areas of the globe are likely to permanently move into such a climate space over the next four decades, should greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase. In contrast to the common perception that high-latitude areas face the most accelerated response to global warming, our results demonstrate that in fact tropical areas exhibit the most immediate and robust emergence of unprecedented heat, with many tropical areas exhibiting a 50% likelihood of permanently moving into a novel seasonal heat regime in the next two decades. We also find that global climate models are able to capture the observed intensification of seasonal hot conditions, increasing confidence in the projection of imminent, permanent emergence of unprecedented heat. PMID:22707810

  16. Predicting U.S. food demand in the 20th century: a new look at system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, Mukund; Cellier, Francois E.; LaFrance, Jeffrey T.

    1998-08-01

    The paper describes a new methodology for predicting the behavior of macroeconomic variables. The approach is based on System Dynamics and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. A four- layer pseudo-hierarchical model is proposed. The bottom layer makes predications about population dynamics, age distributions among the populace, as well as demographics. The second layer makes predications about the general state of the economy, including such variables as inflation and unemployment. The third layer makes predictions about the demand for certain goods or services, such as milk products, used cars, mobile telephones, or internet services. The fourth and top layer makes predictions about the supply of such goods and services, both in terms of their prices. Each layer can be influenced by control variables the values of which are only determined at higher levels. In this sense, the model is not strictly hierarchical. For example, the demand for goods at level three depends on the prices of these goods, which are only determined at level four. Yet, the prices are themselves influenced by the expected demand. The methodology is exemplified by means of a macroeconomic model that makes predictions about US food demand during the 20th century.

  17. Louis Nico Marie Duysens (March 15, 1921-September 8, 2015): a leading biophysicist of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Pulles, M P J

    2016-06-01

    Louis Nico Marie (L. N. M.) Duijsens (Duysens) was one of the giants in the biophysics of photosynthesis. His PhD thesis "Transfer of Excitation Energy in Photosynthesis" (Duysens, 1952) is a classic; he introduced light-induced absorption difference spectroscopy to photosynthesis research and proved the existence of reaction centers, introducing advanced methods from physics to understand biological processes. Further, it is his 1959-1961 seminal work, with Jan Amesz, that provided evidence for the existence of the series scheme for the two light reactions in oxygenic photosynthesis. In one word, he was one of the master biophysicists of the 20th century-who provided direct measurements on many key intermediates, and made us understand the intricacies of photosynthesis with a simplicity that no one else ever did. We present here our personal perspective of the scientist that Lou Duysens was. For an earlier perspective, see van Grondelle and van Gorkom (Photosynth Res 120: 3-7, 2014). PMID:27039907

  18. The death of "Till death us do part": the transformation of pair-bonding in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Pinsof, William M

    2002-01-01

    During the last half of the 20th century within Western civilization, for the first time in human history, divorce replaced death as the most common endpoint of marriage. In this article I explore the history of this death-to-divorce transition, the forces associated with the transition, and what the transition may have revealed about the human capacity for monogamous, lifelong pair-bonding. The impact and consequences of the transition for the generations that came of age during it and immediately afterwards are examined, with particular attention to the emergence of new, alternative pair-bonding structures such as cohabitation and nonmarital co-parenting. The article highlights the inability of the dichotomous marriage-versus-being-single paradigm to encompass the new pair-bonding structures and the normalizing of divorce. Precepts for a new, more encompassing, veridical and humane pair-bonding paradigm are presented, and some of their implications for social policy, family law, social science, and couple and family therapy are elaborated. PMID:12140958

  19. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20th century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920–1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers. PMID:25712271

  20. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2011-03-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the

  1. Impacts of the EA and SCA patterns on the 20th century NAO-winter precipitation relationship in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas-Bru, Laia; McDermott, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Much of the 20th century multi-decadal variability in the NAO-winter precipitation relationship over the N. Atlantic / European sector can be ascribed to the combined effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and either the East Atlantic pattern (EA) or the Scandinavian pattern (SCA). The NAO, EA and SCA indices employed here are defined as the three leading vectors of the cross-correlation matrix calculated from monthly sea-level pressure anomalies for 138 complete winters from the 20CRv2 dataset (Compo et al., 2011). Winter precipitation data over Europe for the entire 20th century is derived from the high resolution CRU-TS3.1 climate dataset (Mitchell and Jones, 2005). Here we document for the first time, that different NAO/EA and NAO/SCA combinations systematically influence winter precipitation conditions in Europe as a consequence of NAO dipole migrations. We find that the zero-correlated line of the NAO-winter precipitation relationship migrates southwards when the EA is in the opposite phase to the NAO. This can be related to a south-westwards migration of the NAO dipole under these conditions, as shown by teleconnectivity maps. Similarly, a clockwise movement of the NAO-winter climate correlated areas occurs when the phase of the SCA is opposite to that of the NAO, reflecting a clockwise movement of the NAO dipole under these conditions. An important implication of these migrations is that they influence the spatial and temporal stationarity of climate-NAO relationships. As a result, the link between winter precipitation patterns and the NAO is not straightforward in some regions such as the southern UK, Ireland and France. For instance, much of the inter-annual variability in the N-S winter precipitation gradient in the UK, originally attributed to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of the NAO, reflects the migration of the NAO dipole, linked to linear combinations of the NAO and the EA. Our results indicate that when the N-S winter

  2. 20th Century Trends In The Maximum And Minimum Temperatures In Colorado’s San Juan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, I.; Miller, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    We examine the maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperature changes in San Juan Mountain (SJM) region of southwestern Colorado between 1895-2005. We analyze monthly averaged observations from 6 National Weather Service (NWS) stations between 1895-1949, and 25 NWS stations between 1950-2005. These changes are evaluated on annual, seasonal and monthly bases. Annually, our results suggest a long-term gradual warming trend in Tmin and no such discernable trend in Tmax. However, between 1990 and 2005, the region experiences a rapid warming trend with both Tmax and Tmin increasing by 1 degree C. Between 1950 and 1985, there is a regional cooling trend during which there are significant decreases in Tmax and almost no trend in Tmin. Similar to the annual trends, only Tmin shows a gradual warming trend during the 20th century during all seasons. Furthermore, during fall and summer, there is a lower correlation between Tmax and Tmin as compared to winter and spring. Between 1990-2005, Tmax increases more than Tmin during summer and spring, whereas Tmin shows greater increases during winter. We also examine Tmax and Tmin trends from 23 Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites in the region between 1984-2005. We find strong correlation between NWS and SNOTEL observations, both annually and seasonally. Between 1990-2005, the largest warming at the SNOTEL sites occurs during summer while it is largest during winter at the NWS sites. Spatially, there are similar increases in Tmax and Tmin except in the central mountain region, where increases in Tmin started earlier and are greater. Physical mechanisms for these observed trends in Tmax and Tmin will be discussed.

  3. Surface solar radiation in 20th century Europe: dimming and brightening as seen by ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, D.; Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    The 20th century has seen a tremendous population growth and industrialization on a global scale. One particular 'hot spot' of these developments is Europe. These changes were accompanied, among others, by a substantial increase in aerosol emission. To learn more about associated consequences for the climate system we have carried out a comparatively large set of transient sensitivity studies with the global atmosphere only climate model ECHAM5-HAM, using aerosol emission data from NIES (National Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan) and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Hadley Center. The sensitivity studies cover the period from 1870 to 2005 and comprise ensembles of simulations (up to 13 members per ensemble), which allow to address the role of different aerosol species, greenhouse gases, and prescribed sea surface temperatures. Analyzing these simulation data for Europe, we find a clear decrease of surface solar radiation (SSR) from about 1950 to 1980, followed by a renewed increase. This dimming / brightening is well known from observational data. The modeled and observed magnitude of the phenomenon are in good agreement, although dimming in the model ceases too early. One possible explanation for the latter could lie with the prescribed aerosol emissions, in particular too weak SO2 emissions or a too early reduction of black carbon emissions. Modeled SSR changes show substantial regional differences in magnitude and timing, again in line with observations. The model data further suggests a substantial random / natural variability / cloud component with regard to SSR changes under all sky conditions. While some ensemble members show a much more pronounced dimming than the ensemble average, others show hardly any dimming. Interestingly, the brightening signal after 1990 is found to be more robust in this respect. Surface temperatures bear some imprint of the SSR changes, especially in Eastern Europe, but the dominant

  4. P values are only an index to evidence: 20th- vs. 21st-century statistical science.

    PubMed

    Burnham, K P; Anderson, D R

    2014-03-01

    Early statistical methods focused on pre-data probability statements (i.e., data as random variables) such as P values; these are not really inferences nor are P values evidential. Statistical science clung to these principles throughout much of the 20th century as a wide variety of methods were developed for special cases. Looking back, it is clear that the underlying paradigm (i.e., testing and P values) was weak. As Kuhn (1970) suggests, new paradigms have taken the place of earlier ones: this is a goal of good science. New methods have been developed and older methods extended and these allow proper measures of strength of evidence and multimodel inference. It is time to move forward with sound theory and practice for the difficult practical problems that lie ahead. Given data the useful foundation shifts to post-data probability statements such as model probabilities (Akaike weights) or related quantities such as odds ratios and likelihood intervals. These new methods allow formal inference from multiple models in the a prior set. These quantities are properly evidential. The past century was aimed at finding the "best" model and making inferences from it. The goal in the 21st century is to base inference on all the models weighted by their model probabilities (model averaging). Estimates of precision can include model selection uncertainty leading to variances conditional on the model set. The 21st century will be about the quantification of information, proper measures of evidence, and multi-model inference. Nelder (1999:261) concludes, "The most important task before us in developing statistical science is to demolish the P-value culture, which has taken root to a frightening extent in many areas of both pure and applied science and technology". PMID:24804444

  5. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century : a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K.M.; Fuller, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Opening of the Oakland tidal channel and removal of 97% of the marshlands formerly surrounding the Bay have decreased tidal velocities and volumes. Marshland removal has decreased the tidal prism by about 25%. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would required measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1 ,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Comparison of 20th century and pre-industrial climate over South America in regional model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Fast, I.; Kaspar, F.

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we assess how the anthropogenically induced increase in greenhouse gas concentrations affects the climate of central and southern South America. We utilise two regional climate simulations for present day (PD) and pre-industrial (PI) times. These simulations are compared to historical reconstructions in order to investigate the driving processes responsible for climatic changes between the different periods. The regional climate model is validated against observations for both re-analysis data and GCM-driven regional simulations for the second half of the 20th century. Model biases are also taken into account for the interpretation of the model results. The added value of the regional simulation over global-scale modelling relates to a better representation of hydrological processes that are particularly evident in the proximity of the Andes Mountains. Climatic differences between the simulated PD minus PI period agree qualitatively well with proxy-based temperature reconstructions, albeit the regional model overestimates the amplitude of the temperature increase. For precipitation the most important changes between the PD and PI simulation relate to a dipole pattern along the Andes Mountains with increased precipitation over the southern parts and reduced precipitation over the central parts. Here only a few regions show robust similarity with studies based on empirical evidence. However, from a dynamical point-of-view, atmospheric circulation changes related to an increase in high-latitude zonal wind speed simulated by the regional climate model are consistent with numerical modelling studies addressing changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Our results indicate that besides the direct effect of greenhouse gas changes, large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures also exert an influence on temperature and precipitation changes in southern South America. These combined changes in turn affect the relationship between

  7. The 20th century whole-basin trophic history of an inter-drumlin lake in an agricultural catchment.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Philip; Rippey, Brian; Anderson, N John

    2002-10-01

    Eight 1-m sediment cores were extracted from across the basin of Friary Lough, a 5.4-ha eutrophic lake in a wholly grassland agricultural catchment in Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland. Sedimentary TP, diatom inferred TP, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, loss-on-ignition (LOI), dry weight and density were determined in the core profiles. Core dating and correlation gave a 210Pb, 137Cs and 241Am chronology from 1906 to 1995 and enabled a whole-basin estimate of chemical and sediment accumulation rate over the 20th Century. The major changes for all parameters occurred after c. 1946. Sediment accumulation rate was most influenced by organic matter accumulations, probably of planktonic origin, and increasing after c. 1946. Inorganic sediment accumulation rate was found to be largely unchanging through the century at 10 t km(-2) yr(-1) when expressed as catchment exports. All chemical accumulation rate changes occurred after c. 1946. Total phosphorus accumulation rate, however, was found to be the only chemical to be increasing throughout the epilimnion and hypolimnion areas of the sedimentary basin at an average of 22.5 mg m(-2) yr(-1) between 1946 and 1995. The other chemical parameters showed increasing accumulation rates after c. 1946 in the epilimnion part of the basin only. Interpreted in terms of whole-basin sedimentation and catchment export processes over time, it is suggested that diffuse TP inputs are independent of sediment inputs. This corresponds to hydrochemical models that suggest soluble P as the primary fraction that is lost from grassland catchments. The increase in sedimentary TP accumulation rate, and DI-TP concentration, are also explained with regard to current models that suggest increases in runoff P concentrations from elevated soil P concentrations. Increases in eplimnion chemical and sediment accumulation rate after c. 1946 may be due to local erosion that has limited impact on lake basin sedimentation. PMID:12389788

  8. Early 20th-century research at the interfaces of genetics, development, and evolution: reflections on progress and dead ends.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Ute

    2011-09-01

    Three early 20th-century attempts at unifying separate areas of biology, in particular development, genetics, physiology, and evolution, are compared in regard to their success and fruitfulness for further research: Jacques Loeb's reductionist project of unifying approaches by physico-chemical explanations; Richard Goldschmidt's anti-reductionist attempts to unify by integration; and Sewall Wright's combination of reductionist research and vision of hierarchical genetic systems. Loeb's program, demanding that all aspects of biology, including evolution, be studied by the methods of the experimental sciences, proved highly successful and indispensible for higher level investigations, even though evolutionary change and properties of biological systems up to now cannot be fully explained on the molecular level alone. Goldschmidt has been appraised as pioneer of physiological and developmental genetics and of a new evolutionary synthesis which transcended neo-Darwinism. However, this study concludes that his anti-reductionist attempts to integrate genetics, development and evolution have to be regarded as failures or dead ends. His grand speculations were based on the one hand on concepts and experimental systems that were too vague in order to stimulate further research, and on the other on experiments which in their core parts turned out not to be reproducible. In contrast, Sewall Wright, apart from being one of the architects of the neo-Darwinian synthesis of the 1930s, opened up new paths of testable quantitative developmental genetic investigations. He placed his research within a framework of logical reasoning, which resulted in the farsighted speculation that examinations of biological systems should be related to the regulation of hierarchical genetic subsystems, possibly providing a mechanism for development and evolution. I argue that his suggestion of basing the study of systems on clearly defined properties of the components has proved superior to

  9. Modeling Regional Climate Responses to 17th-20th Century Land Use Change over the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alder, J. R.; Hostetler, S. W.; Reker, R. R.; Loveland, T. R.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Thompson, R.; Sundquist, E. T.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Regional climate change is the combined response to global and regional radiative forcing, circulation and interactions between the atmosphere and Earth surface. A potentially key component of regional climate change derives from natural and human-caused land use and land-use change (LULC) and related atmosphere-surface feedbacks. In the first step of disentangling and quantifying the effect of LULC over the southeastern United States, we conducted a series of simulations with the RegCM4 regional climate model which includes the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) surface physics package. Land use and vegetation types determine the specified values of a number of biophysical and physical parameters in BATS such as albedo, roughness length, stomatal resistance, and rooting depth. We ran four simulations in which we specified BATS land use types derived from harmonized reconstructions for 1650, 1850, 1920 and Landsat-based observations for 1992 (Steyaert and Knox, 2008). The simulations were run over a model domain comprising a 20 km × 20 km horizontal grid and 23 atmospheric levels for the period 1990-2000. The boundary conditions for the simulations were derived from the NCAR-NCEP Reanalysis and the NOAA Optimum Interpolated Sea Surface Temperature global data sets. Depending on the time periods considered, the simulations indicate regionally coherent patterns of April-September changes in surface radiation, warming and cooling of up to 2 °C or more, substantial changes in soil moisture and atmospheric humidity associated with conversion of native vegetation to agriculture and agriculture back to forest, draining of wetlands and marshes, and urbanization. Extensive draining of wetlands in the lower Mississippi Valley during the 20th century induced a robust feedback with the atmosphere which suppressed convective summertime precipitation. Our joint analysis of LULC classes and the model simulations suggests a need to be able to disaggregate land use to a

  10. 20th century human pressures drive reductions in deepwater oxygen leading to losses of benthic methane-based food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle, Simon; Millet, Laurent; Verneaux, Valérie; Lami, Andrea; David, Etienne; Murgia, Laurie; Parent, Claire; Musazzi, Simona; Gauthier, Emilie; Bichet, Vincent; Magny, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater lakes play a key role in the global carbon cycle as sinks (organic carbon sequestration) and sources (greenhouse gas emissions). Understanding the carbon cycle response to environmental changes is becoming a crucial challenge in the context of global warming and the preponderance of human pressures. We reconstructed the long-term (1500 years) evolution of trophic functioning of the benthic food web, based on methanotrophic ancient DNA and chironomid isotope analyses). In addition, human land use is also reconstructed in three different lakes (eastern France, Jura Mountains). Our findings confirm that the benthic food web can be highly dependent on methane-derived carbon (up to 50% of the chironomid biomass) and reveal that the activation of this process can correspond to a natural functioning or be a consequence of anthropic perturbation. The studied lakes also showed a similar temporal evolution over the last century with the disappearance of the profundal aquatic insects (Chironomidae, Diptera), considered as keystone for the whole lake food web (e.g., coupling benthic-pelagic), inducing a potential collapse in the transfer of methane to top consumers. This functional state, also called the dead zone expansion, was caused by the change in human land-use occurring at the beginning of the 20th century. The strong modification of agro-pastoral practices (e.g., fertilization practices, intensive grazing, and sewage effluent) modified the influx of nutrients (by diffuse and/or point-source inputs) and induced a significant increase in the trophic status and organic matter sedimentation to reach unprecedented values. Further studies should be planned to assess dead zone expansion and, according to the regime shift theory, to provide environmental tipping points for sustainable resource management.

  11. Long-term changes in nitrate conditions over the 20th century in two Midwestern Corn Belt streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Valerie; Stets, Edward G.; Crawford, Charlie

    2015-06-01

    Long-term changes in nitrate concentration and flux between the middle of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century were estimated for the Des Moines River and the Middle Illinois River, two Midwestern Corn Belt streams, using a novel weighted regression approach that is able to detect subtle changes in solute transport behavior over time. The results show that the largest changes in flow-normalized concentration and flux occurred between 1960 and 1980 in both streams, with smaller or negligible changes between 1980 and 2004. Contrasting patterns were observed between (1) nitrate export linked to non-point sources, explicitly runoff of synthetic fertilizer or other surface sources and (2) nitrate export presumably associated with point sources such as urban wastewater or confined livestock feeding facilities, with each of these modes of transport important under different domains of streamflow. Surface runoff was estimated to be consistently most important under high-flow conditions during the spring in both rivers. Nitrate export may also have been considerable in the Des Moines River even under some conditions during the winter when flows are generally lower, suggesting the influence of point sources during this time. Similar results were shown for the Middle Illinois River, which is subject to significant influence of wastewater from the Chicago area, where elevated nitrate concentrations were associated with at the lowest flows during the winter and fall. By modeling concentration directly, this study highlights the complex relationship between concentration and streamflow that has evolved in these two basins over the last 50 years. This approach provides insights about changing conditions that only become observable when stationarity in the relationship between concentration and streamflow is not assumed.

  12. Coral-based history of lead and lead isotopes of the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Mi; Boyle, Edward A.; Suci Nurhati, Intan; Pfeiffer, Miriam; Meltzner, Aron J.; Suwargadi, Bambang

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic lead (Pb) from industrial activities has greatly altered the distribution of Pb in the present-day oceans, but no continuous temporal Pb evolution record is available for the Indian Ocean despite rapidly emerging industries around the region. Here, we present the coral-inferred annual history of Pb concentration and isotope ratios in the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century (1945-2010). We analyzed Pb in corals from the Chagos Archipelago, western Sumatra and Strait of Singapore - which represent the central Indian Ocean via nearshore sites. Overall, coral Pb/Ca increased in the mid-1970s at all the sites. However, coral Pb isotope ratios evolve distinctively at each site, suggesting Pb contamination arises from different sources in each case. The major source of Pb in the Chagos coral appears to be India's Pb emission from leaded gasoline combustion and coal burning, whereas Pb in western Sumatra seems to be largely affected by Indonesia's gasoline Pb emission with additional Pb inputs from other sources. Pb in the Strait of Singapore has complex sources and its isotopic composition does not reflect Pb from leaded gasoline combustion. Higher 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios found at this site may reflect the contribution of Pb from coals and ores from southern China, Indonesia, and Australia, and local Pb sources in the Strait of Singapore. It is also possible that the Pb isotope ratios of Singapore seawater were elevated through isotope exchange with natural fluvial particles considering its delta setting.

  13. The emergence of the "motoneuron concept": from the early 19th C to the beginning of the 20th C.

    PubMed

    Clarac, François; Barbara, Jean-Gaël

    2011-08-29

    This article addresses the emergence of the "motoneuron concept," i.e., the idea that this cell had properties of particular advantage for its control of muscle activation. The motor function of the ventral roots was established early in the 19th C and the term "motor cell," (or "motor nerve cell") was introduced shortly thereafter by Albrecht von Kölliker and some other histologists. They knew that motor cells were among the neurons with the largest soma in vertebrates and for this reason they were, and remained for many decades, the best and most studied neuronal model. The work of clinicians like Guillaume Duchenne de Boulogne and Jean-Martin Charcot on motor degenerative syndromes began before a clear description of motor cells was available, because it was initially more difficult to establish whether the deficits of paralysis and muscle weakness were due to neuronal or muscular lesions. Next, the pioneering physiologist, Charles Sherrington, who was influenced greatly by the anatomical contributions and speculations of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, used the term, "motor neuron," rather than motor cell for the neuron that he considered was functionally "the final common path" for providing command signals to the musculature. In the early 20th C he proposed that activation of a motor neuron resulted from the sum of its various excitatory and inhibitory CNS inputs. The contraction of motor neuron to "motoneuron(e)" was put into common usage by John Fulton (among possibly others) in 1926. The motoneuron concept is still evolving with new discoveries on the horizon. PMID:21723536

  14. Anthropic disturbances in the sedimentological characteristics of a Northern Patagonian lake: evidencing the impacts of the 20th century settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, A.; Muñoz, V.; Valenzuela, B.; Alvarez, D.; Torrejon, F.; Pedreros, P.; Urrutia, R.

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally Patagonia has been seen as a very pristine area, being an important reserve of wildlife and clean waters. Nonetheless it was dramatically affected by the first settlers at the beginning of the 20th century, that generated large fires for clearing the land originally covered by native forest. Those fires produced a dramatic impact left behind thousands of dead trees, increasing soil erosion, altering nutrient inputs in the aquatic ecosystems, which in turn affected the aquatic biota. However those impacts have been barely asses, then through the study of the sediment record of lake La Esponja (45°S) we want to evaluate the magnitude of the changes produced by the fires and to determine the resilience capacity of the lake. We analyzed magnetic susceptibility, organic content, charcoal, total phosphorous and a biological proxy (Chironomidae) in a sediment sequence of 60 cm long. Magnetic susceptibility shows a very variable behavior along the profile, being possible to identify a decreasing trend since the bottom, up to the most recent part of the record. An opposite behavior describes the organic content, showing a noticeable increase toward the surficial sediments. The number of charcoal particles -a direct indicator of fires occurrence, shows a peak of fires approximately at seven cm depth, diminishing toward the recent part. Total phosphorous also follow the trend recognized by charcoal, which allow inferring a probable trophic increase of the lake. This trend is partially recognized by chironomid assemblages through the increasing of some taxa typical of a higher nutrient status. Acknowledgements: Fondecyt projects 1120765 and 1120807.

  15. About Visuals: Research, Teaching and Applications. Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (20th, Blacksburg, Virginia, October 19-23, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Roberts A., Ed.; And Others

    This 535-page document includes more than 60 papers presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the Visual Literacy Association. Topics cover a wide range of visual literacy interests: computer generated graphics, message design, desktop publishing, photography, critical viewing skills, memory enhancement, and the development of visual…

  16. Nostalgic for What? The Epidemic of Images of the Mid 20th Century Classroom in American Media Culture and What it Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Stacy

    2005-01-01

    Within this paper the author examines the current nostalgia for a never-present past through critical analysis of images of the mid 20th century American classroom in media culture. The author uses theories of nostalgia and the history of the photographic image to trouble the numerous equity issues surrounding the unchallenged canonization of the…

  17. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings and Papers of the Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology (20th, Monticello, New York, March 29-31, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Patricia A., Ed.; Zaromatidis, Katherine, Ed.; Levine, Judith R., Ed.; Indenbaum, Gene, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document includes proceedings, abstracts, and papers of the 20th Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology, which was held on March 29-31, 2006 in Monticello, NY. The conference, which dealt with ideas and innovations in the teaching of psychology, was sponsored by the Psychology Department of the Farmingdale State University.…

  18. Historiography for Educational Leadership in Mathematics: Content Analysis of a 1904 K-8 Mathematics Series and the Early 20th Century Context of Its Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Math education is as important today as it was 100 years ago when the early 20th century was transforming from the old world into an era of factories, airplanes, atomic energy, and medical breakthroughs. Educational leaders of the era were wrestling with how long children should stay in school, meeting the diverse needs of an influx of immigrants,…

  19. Rural Women Workers in the 20th Century: An Annotated Bibliography. Center for Rural Manpower and Public Affairs Special Paper No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Collette; Johnson, Deborah Kohn

    This annotated bibliography is dedicated to rural women workers and their roles during the 20th century (1875-1971). It is concerned with materials which consider both the questions of rural manpower and rural womanpower. There are a variety of source materials (books, articles, research papers, etc.) and some 338 entries. Divided into six…

  20. Educating about Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography. Research in Curriculum and Instruction. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Educating About Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography, is comprised of critical essays accompanied by annotated bibliographies on a host of programs, models, strategies and concerns vis-a-vis teaching and learning about social issues facing society. The primary goal of the book is to provide undergraduate…

  1. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  2. History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilschut, Arie H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

  3. American Journalism Historians Association Annual Convention (London, Ontario, Canada, October 3-5, 1996). Part II: Selecting Papers Covering the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The 17 papers in this collection all deal with 20th-century journalism, journalists, and mass media. The papers and their authors are: "Building One's Own Gallows: The Trade Publications' Reaction to a Federal Shield Law, 1972-1974" (Karla Gower); "The Useful Ogre: Sweden's Use and Views of American Television, 1956-62" (Ulf Jonas Bjork); "Black…

  4. Wesleyan Perfectionism in Revivals of the 19th and 20th Centuries at Wheaton College and Its Impact on Institutional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Nina K.

    2009-01-01

    By the end of the 20th century, a modern-day clarion call echoed throughout the Christian collegiate community for religious institutions to divert the trend of secularization and to recover their Christian identity. This study, rather than addressing recovery, explores the distinctive, enduring elements of Wheaton College, a midwestern Christian…

  5. Papers and Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society (20th, Chicago, Illinois, October 19-21, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Edward, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The papers of this proceedings are presented in three parts. The four papers in part 1, "Issues in 20th Century American Education", discuss the women graduates of Oberlin College, 1836-1860, the Americanization of art museums, the business community's response to government's support of the labor movement, and the response of liberalism to the…

  6. "More than Measurable Human Products": Catholic Educators' Responses to the Educational Measurement Movement in the First Half of the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    During the first half of the 20th century, Catholic educators in the United States used theological arguments both to resist and embrace the progressive educational reform effort of educational measurement. The significant expansion of Catholic schooling and the increased number of students attending them, along with increased state oversight, led…

  7. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberti, Gian Luigi; Dionisi, Davide; Federico, Stefano; Congeduti, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy) during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  8. Reconciling past changes in Earth’s rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk’s enigma

    PubMed Central

    Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Hay, Carling C.; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E.; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth’s rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth’s rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth’s rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth’s rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them. PMID:26824058

  9. Socialising Nurse Probationers in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries--Relevance of Historical Reflection for Modern Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentzon, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Historical records from London hospitals in the late 19th-early 20th centuries were analyzed for their depiction of nursing trainees. Analysis reveals a strong emphasis on character traits rather than intellectual ability. In contrast, the literature of the last 3 decades shows a contemporary concern for nurses as knowledgeable doers. (Contains 31…

  10. DIVISIBILITY TESTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOLEY, JACK L.

    THIS BOOKLET, ONE OF A SERIES, HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THE PROJECT, A PROGRAM FOR MATHEMATICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED PUPILS. A PROJECT TEAM, INCLUDING INSERVICE TEACHERS, IS BEING USED TO WRITE AND DEVELOP THE MATERIALS FOR THIS PROGRAM. THE MATERIALS DEVELOPED IN THIS BOOKLET INCLUDE SUCH CONCEPTS AS (1) DIVISIBILITY TESTS, (2) CHECKING THE FUNDAMENTAL…

  11. Continuous CS Analysis of Using the SIEM to Introduction to Computer Programming Education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohi, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Konno, Noriko

    In order to improve students’ motivation, the SIEM (School of Information Environment Method) which is the education method for the introduction of the computer programming education was developed. We focus on students’ motivation, and we have measured students’ motivation as the educational effects. After the SIEM was developed in the School of Information Environment, it applied to introduction to the computer programming education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. It is effective for the improvement of students’ motivation. By adding the Customer Satisfaction Analysis to the SIEM Analysis, it was able to clarify the priority level of the SIEM assessment item. In this paper, we describe results of the Customer Satisfaction Analysis.

  12. Climate-driven hydrologic transients in lake sediment records: calibration of groundwater conditions using 20th Century drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Joseph J.; Smith, Alison J.; Panek, Valerie A.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Ito, Emi

    2002-02-01

    The effect of 20th-century drought on groundwater and lakes in a climatically sensitive area of the Northern Great Plains (Grant County, western Minnesota) was investigated by analysis of lake sediments and historical air photos, in conjunction with groundwater flow simulations. Drought caused an observed 4.0 to 5.1 m lake-head decline between 1923 and 1938; all but three either dried completely or declined to <1.7 m depth. From the deepest (Elk Lake), a 210Pb-dated sediment core was analyzed for ostracode species distribution and geochemistry of C. Rawsoni shells (δ 18O, δ 13C, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca). Mg/Ca and δ 13C increased during drought at the same time that salinity-tolerant ostracodes thrived, suggesting increasing salinity. However, δ 18O decreased during drought, anti-correlative with Mg/Ca. A numerical model for transient response of groundwater flow to drought, modeled after that of 1923-38, was constrained by drought-end recessional strand lines observed on air photos of one lake, with strand line elevations inferred from bathymetry. Simulated lake-water-level declines in the first 15 drought years were consistent with strand line elevations. The rate of decline was exponential at drought onset, slowing as water in lakes and wetlands receded to below land surface and lake evaporation declined. A near-steady state was attained between 40 and 50 simulation years after onset of drought, with the water table from 1-5 m below the level of dry lakebeds and only the two deepest lakes still holding water. They were, however, greatly constricted in area and depth. Simulated evaporation fluxes were reduced by over 50% within 15 years, despite increased ET rates, due to lake area constriction and water table declines. Both relate to land surface morphology beneath and around lakes. Model results suggest that lake-bed elevations exert control on the rate and ultimate level to which groundwater is depressed by drought. The deepest lakes in any region will tend to become

  13. Surface solar radiation and hydrological cycle in 20th century China: sensitivity studies with ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, D.; Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    The world, and China in particular, has seen a tremendous population growth and industrialization in the 20th century. These changes were accompanied, among others, by a substantial increase in aerosol emission. To learn more about associated consequences for the climate system we have carried out a comparatively large set of transient sensitivity studies with the global atmosphere only climate model ECHAM5-HAM, using aerosol emission data from NIES (National Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan) and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Hadley Center. The sensitivity studies cover the period from 1870 to 2005 and comprise ensembles of simulations (up to 13 members per ensemble), which allow to address the role of different aerosol species, greenhouse gases, and prescribed sea surface temperatures. Here we analyze these simulation data with particular focus on surface solar radiation, temperature, and the hydrological cycle in China. Physical mechanisms able to explain the results will be discussed. We generally find the strongest effects in the east of the country, where urbanization and industrialization is strongest and emissions increased most. The decrease of surface solar radiation (SSR) under clear sky conditions reaches up to around -8 W / m2 per decade from 1950 to 1990. Comparable values are found for all sky conditions. Dimming ceases in the second half of the 1990s, when we even see a renewed increase in SSR in some regions. Overall, these findings are in line with observation based estimates. Modeled surface temperatures reflect the decrease in SSR but carry also a substantial SST signature. After remaining roughly constant from 1870 to 1900, we find modeled surface temperatures to increase by about 1 degree Celsius till 1950, then decrease again by -0.2 to -1.2 degree Celsius till 1990, before a renewed increase sets in. Precipitation decreases in our model results from 1950 to 2000 by up to 10% or 150 mm per year

  14. Impacts of 20th century aerosol emissions on the South Asian monsoon in the CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Turner, A. G.; Highwood, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in Greenhouse Gas (GHG)-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthropogenic aerosol-only experiments. Comparison of these single-forcing experiments with the all-forcings historical experiment suggests aerosol emissions have dominated South Asian monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades, especially during the 1950s to 1970s. The variations in South Asian monsoon rainfall in these experiments follows approximately the time-evolution of inter-hemispheric temperature gradient over the same period, suggesting a contribution from the large-scale background state relating to the asymmetric distribution of aerosol emissions about the equator. By examining the twenty-five available all-forcings historical experiments, we show that models including aerosol indirect effects dominate the negative rainfall trend. Indeed, models including only the direct radiative effect of aerosol show an increase in monsoon rainfall, consistent with the dominance of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and planetary warming on monsoon rainfall in those models. For South Asia, reduced rainfall in the models with indirect effects is related to decreased evaporation at the land surface rather than from anomalies in horizontal moisture flux, suggesting the impact of indirect effects on local aerosol emissions. This is confirmed by examination of aerosol loading and cloud droplet number trends over the South Asia region. Thus while remote aerosols and their asymmetric distribution about the equator play a role in setting the inter-hemispheric temperature distribution on which the South Asian monsoon, as one of the global monsoons, operates, the addition of indirect aerosol effects acting on very local aerosol emissions

  15. Impacts of 20th century aerosol emissions on the South Asian monsoon in the CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Turner, A. G.; Highwood, E. J.

    2015-06-01

    Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in Greenhouse Gas (GHG)-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthropogenic aerosol-only experiments. Comparison of these single-forcing experiments with the all-forcings historical experiment suggests aerosol emissions have dominated South Asian monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades, especially during the 1950s to 1970s. The variations in South Asian monsoon rainfall in these experiments follows approximately the time evolution of inter-hemispheric temperature gradient over the same period, suggesting a contribution from the large-scale background state relating to the asymmetric distribution of aerosol emissions about the equator. By examining the 24 available all-forcings historical experiments, we show that models including aerosol indirect effects dominate the negative rainfall trend. Indeed, models including only the direct radiative effect of aerosol show an increase in monsoon rainfall, consistent with the dominance of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and planetary warming on monsoon rainfall in those models. For South Asia, reduced rainfall in the models with indirect effects is related to decreased evaporation at the land surface rather than from anomalies in horizontal moisture flux, suggesting the impact of indirect effects on local aerosol emissions. This is confirmed by examination of aerosol loading and cloud droplet number trends over the South Asia region. Thus, while remote aerosols and their asymmetric distribution about the equator play a role in setting the inter-hemispheric temperature distribution on which the South Asian monsoon, as one of the global monsoons, operates, the addition of indirect aerosol effects acting on very local aerosol emissions also

  16. Horizontal and Vertical Distributions of Metals in Soils in Southeastern PA: Impact of 20th Century Zinc Smelting Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D. L.; Peters, S. C.; Yasko, G.; Blake, J.; Smith, K.; Lofaro, J.; Burrows, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The region surrounding Palmerton, PA has been affected by airfall of metals from the NJ Zinc Co. smelter along the Lehigh River just north of the Kittatinny Ridge. The deposition of zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic, led to the destruction of a forest ecosystem in the immediate vicinity and metals contamination in the town and surrounding area. Although the smelter was closed in the 1980's, concerns linger over whether the soil still remains contaminated with elevated levels of metals. This study has been directed to determining the validity of these concerns. The present concentration and distribution of metals in the soil is the result of the initial (20th century) concentration and the processes of leaching, erosion, and biological uptake and dispersal that have proceeded since the smelter was shut down. At the site of the smelter, analyses of samples from shallow soil pits had zinc concentrations up to 25,500 mg/kg, lead concentrations to 380 mg/kg, and cadmium up to 25 mg/kg. We analyzed soil samples from 52 locations in the region. Zinc, the most obvious metal from the zinc smelter, does not exceed residential concentration standards anywhere in the surrounding "far field" region, but is a maximum in the vicinity of the smelter falling to background within 20 km. Lead follows the same decay curve with distance, but exceeds residential standards in the West Plant (the smelter) itself and the immediate surroundings. Cadmium follows the same decay curve. Concentrations decay with distance from the smelter, but are found in contrasting concentrations in the O, A and B soil horizons. The regional average metal concentrations for all metals analyzed are higher in the O and A horizons than in the underlying B horizon. Zinc is focused in the O-horizon, suggesting that plants have taken up the zinc and concentrated it in leaf litter. Lead is also focused in the O-horizon, but this is more likely due to its lack of mobility downward through the soil. Arsenic

  17. Could a 1755-like tsunami reach the French Atlantic coastline? Constraints from 20th century observations and numerical modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgeyer, S.; Daubord, C.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Schindelé, F.; Madariaga, R.

    2012-04-01

    The tsunami generated by the 1st November 1755 (Mw ~8.5) earthquake off Portugal affected mainly the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Morocco, and was observed in some places on the North Atlantic coasts, towards the West Indies, but also towards Ireland and the Great Britain, in Cornwall. However, no evidence of observation were found along French Atlantic coastline so far. In a first step, to determine whether there could be effects due to tsunamis on the French coastline, we conducted a study to search for actual tsunamis signals in all historical tide gauge stations of the French Atlantic coast available during the 20th century, specifically for the 1969 and 1975 tsunamis that were well observed in Portugal. Because many recordings are available from the French Hydrographic Service in La Rochelle (west French Atlantic coastline), we focus our study on this harbor. The analysis of these historical tide gauge data shows no evidence for tsunamis in La Rochelle, neither in 1969 or in 1975. Then, to confirm this lack of tsunami, we simulate the tsunamis from the 1969 and 1975 sources, using non linear shallow water equations and a series of imbricated bathymetric grids focusing to the French coastline, and then towards the harbor of La Rochelle: the modeling results confirm unnoticeable amplitudes. In the following step, tsunamis from three different scenarios for the 1755 earthquake have been similarly modeled to estimate the impact of such a tsunami on the French Atlantic coast, with a focus on La Rochelle harbor. The results show that, while the harbor is well protected (amplitudes computed on a synthetic tide gage in the harbor do not exceed 20 to 30 cm crest-to-trough) several areas may have undergone a more important, yet moderate impact, from 0.5 to 1 m, especially in the western part of the island of Ré and the northern coast of the island of Oléron. This may have caused possible local inundations in lowland areas, all the more since the tide

  18. Proglacial sediment supply and channel evolution of the Arveyron of the Mer de Glace since the early 20th c.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, Johan; Astrade, Laurent; Ravanel, Ludovic; Ployon, Estelle

    2015-04-01

    The Arveyron of the Mer de Glace is the emissary of the most famous and largest French glacier. The latter has dramatically shrunk since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA), such as every alpine glacier: the front has registered a retreat of 2.7 km since 1820 and a recent modelling showed a likely decrease of an extra km by 2040. The Arveyron and its surroundings are deeply impacted by the retreat. Then, dynamics of proglacial streams and of lateral moraines have been studied at different time and space scales through various methods: airborne and terrestrial Lidar DEM comparisons, mapping from orthophotos, 2D and 3D monoplotting to quantify past events from old terrestrial pictures, etc. By coupling studies on moraines and on stream morphology we wanted to better understand the influence of glacier retreat on sediment supply and transport downstream. Results show the evolution of the stream sediment sources linked to the glacier retreat. Before the middle of the 20th century, till was the main sediment source and was released by major flood events such as GLOFs. Now, geomorphic activity is especially important on the right lateral moraine into the recently deglaciated hanging valley of the Mer de Glace but also in the moraine flanks of the current glacier tongue (many landslides occurred during the Summer 2014). The recent glacier retreat has also formed sediments sinks such as two proglacial lakes which are progressively filling. These lakes work as big sediment traps until they will disappear (around 2017). Fluvial dynamics of the Arveyron depends on the connectivity with potential sediments sources. This is why we crossed upstream studies with the channel evolution on its fan. Arveyron channel has got narrower and incised for at least a century. Such evolution should mean a decreasing sediment yield, but anthropic factors play also an important role on stream morphology. The main anthorpic impact is the complex subglacial harnessing of the Mer de Glace. The

  19. Sex estimation using the femur of Austrians born in the 19th to the middle of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Kanz, Fabian; Fitzl, Christine; Vlcek, Alexander; Frommlet, Florian

    2015-01-01

    remains born in the 19(th) to the middle of the 20(th) century. PMID:25776530

  20. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Fast, I.; Kaspar, F.

    2011-09-01

    Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution). The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation. For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America. The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin. Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the north along the western slope of the Andes

  1. Adriatic and Black Sea level in the 20th century and projection to the end of the 21st century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Adriatic and Black Sea are semi-enclosed basins characterized by densely populated coasts, industrial compounds and a rich cultural and historical heritage. It appears to be crucial, for the management and the protection of their coastlines, to understand how much they will be impacted by the global sea level (SL) rise, projected by the end of this century. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows to estimate to which extent the SL of the two basins will depart from the mean global level. The future evolution of global sea level is not a meaningful indicator at this regional scale and past deviations, due to local factors of the Adriatic and Black Sea levels from the global one, have been observed. The Adriatic Sea is the basin of the Mediterranean Sea best covered by past SL observations. In fact, for the Adriatic Sea is possible to obtain, by statistical method based on PCA and Least square Method, a seamless and long time series (from 1900 to 2009) using records of 7 mareographic stations located along the Italian and Croatian coasts (from PSMSL database). Satellite data of SL are available for the whole Mediterranean from 1993 to 2012 and they show a very high correlation (rho > 0.9) with Adriatic time series based on mareographic records. The SL time series of the 20th century in the Black Sea is computed using data of 4 stations, which are available in the PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) archive, located on the north-east coast. This time series shows a lower correlation (rho about 0.5) with satellite data than in the case of Adriatic Sea. Further it shows a higher interannual variability. All the time series are considered after the subtraction of the Inverse Barometer (IB) effect. A statistical approach, based on a multivariate linear regression model, is used to investigate the link between SL anomaly, computed as the difference between the regional SL and global SL, and three large scale climate variables (sea level pressure

  2. Visible signs of illness from the 14th to the 20th century: systematic review of portraits

    PubMed Central

    Als, C; Stüssi, Y; Boschung, U; Tröhler, U; Wäber, J H

    2002-01-01

    way in which people were reproduced. People depicted are possibly not representative of the general Bernese population as they constituted a socioeconomically advantaged group. What is already know on this topicReviews of individual portraits from the past have found clinical signs of illness that have led to discussions of underlying diseasesGoitre probably affected in excess of 80% of the population of the canton of Berne up to the beginning of the 20th centuryWhat this study addsIn a large series of portraits from the Bernese region, goitre and other diseases are under-representedFindings of age dependent overweight (a survival advantage in times of potential famine) were probably more realisticLikely explanations for this include idealisation depending on sex and age, artistic skills, fashion, and sociocultural significance of illnessA decline in depicted signs of illness from the 19th century may indicate progress of preventive medicine and hygiene PMID:12493682

  3. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  4. Extension of the SIM Hydrometeorological Reanalysis Over the Entire 20th Century by Combination of Observations and Statistical Downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minvielle, M.; Céron, J.; Page, C.

    2013-12-01

    The SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) system is a combination of three different components: an atmospheric analysis system (SAFRAN) providing the atmospheric forcing for a land surface model (ISBA) that computes surface water and energy budgets and a hydrological model (MODCOU) that provides river flows and level of several aquifers. The variables generated by the SIM chain constitute the SIM reanalysis and the current version only covers the 1958-2012 period. However, long climate datasets are required for evaluation and verification of climate hindcasts/forecasts and to isolate the contribution of natural decadal variability from that of anthropogenic forcing to climate variations. The aim of this work is to extend of the fine-mesh SIM reanalysis to the entire 20th century, especially focusing on temperature and rainfall over France, but also soil wetness and river flows. This extension will first allow a detailed investigation of the influence of decadal variability on France at very fine spatial scales and will provide crucial information for climate model evaluation. Before 1958, the density of available observations from Météo-France necessary to force SAFRAN (rainfall, snow, wind, temperature, humidity, cloudiness) is much lower than today, and not sufficient to produce a correct SIM reanalysis. That's why is has been decided to use the available atmospheric observations over the past decades combined to a statistical downscaling algorithm to overcome the lack of observations. The DSCLIM software package implemented by the CERFACS and using a weather typing based statistical methodology will be used as statistical downscaling method to reconstruct the atmospheric variables necessary to force the ISBA-MODCOU hydrological component. The first stage of this work was to estimate and compare the bias and strengths of the two approaches in their ability to reconstruct the past decades. In this sense, SIM hydro-meteorological experiments were performed for some recent

  5. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  6. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutov, Valentin P.; Schechter, A. N.

    2010-07-01

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question "What is life?" is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schrödinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter.

  7. Mortality from Western cancers rose dramatically among African-Americans during the 20th century: are dietary animal products to blame?

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2001-08-01

    Statistics compiled by the National Cancer Institute indicate that, between 1935 and 1974, age-adjusted mortality from most 'Western' cancers (those of the breast, colon, prostate, pancreas, ovary, and kidney) rose dramatically in African-Americans. This phenomenon is paralleled by marked increases in the incidence of these cancers in Asia and Southern Europe during the latter 20th century, in conjunction with increased intakes of dietary animal products. A credible case can be made that diets rich in animal products work in various complementary ways to up-regulate serum levels of insulin, free IGF-I, and free sex hormones: hormones that appear to have important promotional activity for Western cancers. It seems likely that dietary animal product intake by black Americans increased substantially during the 20th century, and that this fact is primarily responsible for their concurrent marked increase in mortality from Western cancers. A whole-food vegan diet rich in fruits and vegetables, especially if coupled with regular exercise and smoking avoidance, could be expected to have a remarkably positive impact on African-American cancer risk, reversing the increases in cancer risk incurred during the 20th century. PMID:11461167

  8. Structures Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structures Division is an international leader and pioneer in developing new structural analysis, life prediction, and failure analysis related to rotating machinery and more specifically to hot section components in air-breathing aircraft engines and spacecraft propulsion systems. The research consists of both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. Studies include, but are not limited to, high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue as well as material creep. Studies of structural failure are at both the micro- and macrolevels. Nondestructive evaluation methods related to structural reliability are developed, applied, and evaluated. Materials from which structural components are made, studied, and tested are monolithics and metal-matrix, polymer-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. Aeroelastic models are developed and used to determine the cyclic loading and life of fan and turbine blades. Life models are developed and tested for bearings, seals, and other mechanical components, such as magnetic suspensions. Results of these studies are published in NASA technical papers and reference publication as well as in technical society journal articles. The results of the work of the Structures Division and the bibliography of its publications for calendar year 1995 are presented.

  9. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, A.; Freydier, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Simões, J. C.; Taupin, J.-D.; Dupré, B.; Artaxo, P.

    2003-09-01

    A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl) was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H), 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama) for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified

  10. The decline of winter monsoon velocity in the South China Sea through the 20th century: Evidence from the Sr/Ca records in corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Chen, T.; Wei, G.; Sun, W.; Sun, R.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Zartman, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    A modern massive Porites coral was collected from the Longwan Bay (19??20???N, 110??39???E) on the east coast of the Hainan Island, China. The coral was sectioned vertical to the growth axis into discs of double density-bands representing annual growth. The samples were analyzed for the Sr/Ca ratio by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The history of winter sea-surface temperature (SST) is reconstructed using the Sr/Ca ratio in winter bands of corals. The winter SST at Xisha in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) is weakly correlated with the instrument-measured winter monsoon velocity (WMV) with a correlation coefficient of 0.19. The winter SST data from corals at Longwan Bay, Hainan, in the northern SCS are moderately correlated with the WMV (r = 0.40). Interestingly we found that the difference of winter SSTs between the two sites (Xisha and Longwan Bay, Hainan) (the X-H index) is significantly negatively correlated with the WMV (r = - 0.73). This negative correlation may be related to the intrusion of the warm Kuroshio Current into the SCS through the Luzon Strait promoted by the strong northeastern monsoon winds in the winter. Using the relationship between our coralline data and observed WMV, the calculated winter monsoon velocity (WMVc) was obtained for 87??years. This data set in combination with the instrument-measured data between 1993 and 1998 generate a record of WMVc for a period of 93??years from 1906 to 1998. The WMVc in the 20th century shows significant interannual and decadal variability with a trend of persistent decline in the whole 20th century at the rate of decrease of - 0.02 (m/s)/a. The lowest wind velocity occurred during the last two decades of the 20th century. The WMVc has decreased significantly by about 30% from the early to the late of 20th century. The 20th century decline of winter monsoon velocity evidenced from the SCS coral records is consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models

  11. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  12. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

    2014-03-07

    Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

  13. High GUD Incidence in the Early 20th Century Created a Particularly Permissive Time Window for the Origin and Initial Spread of Epidemic HIV Strains

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, João Dinis; Müller, Viktor; Lemey, Philippe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2010-01-01

    The processes that permitted a few SIV strains to emerge epidemically as HIV groups remain elusive. Paradigmatic theories propose factors that may have facilitated adaptation to the human host (e.g., unsafe injections), none of which provide a coherent explanation for the timing, geographical origin, and scarcity of epidemic HIV strains. Our updated molecular clock analyses established relatively narrow time intervals (roughly 1880–1940) for major SIV transfers to humans. Factors that could favor HIV emergence in this time frame may have been genital ulcer disease (GUD), resulting in high HIV-1 transmissibility (4–43%), largely exceeding parenteral transmissibility; lack of male circumcision increasing male HIV infection risk; and gender-skewed city growth increasing sexual promiscuity. We surveyed colonial medical literature reporting incidences of GUD for the relevant regions, concentrating on cities, suffering less reporting biases than rural areas. Coinciding in time with the origin of the major HIV groups, colonial cities showed intense GUD outbreaks with incidences 1.5–2.5 orders of magnitude higher than in mid 20th century. We surveyed ethnographic literature, and concluded that male circumcision frequencies were lower in early 20th century than nowadays, with low rates correlating spatially with the emergence of HIV groups. We developed computer simulations to model the early spread of HIV-1 group M in Kinshasa before, during and after the estimated origin of the virus, using parameters derived from the colonial literature. These confirmed that the early 20th century was particularly permissive for the emergence of HIV by heterosexual transmission. The strongest potential facilitating factor was high GUD levels. Remarkably, the direct effects of city population size and circumcision frequency seemed relatively small. Our results suggest that intense GUD in promiscuous urban communities was the main factor driving HIV emergence. Low circumcision rates

  14. 20th Century Groundwater in the Northeast United States: A case study quantifying the impact of groundwater policies in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, P. S.; Arrigo, J. S.; Thomas, B.; Vogel, R. M.; Hoover, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital resource throughout the Northeast corridor and is an important water source for domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. During the 20th century, suburban groundwater withdrawals intensified with increasing population growth, the advent of rural electrification and sophisticated pumping technologies, thus, the need for effective groundwater management becomes increasingly important in the region. Data from the Unites States Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program documents this concentrated use of groundwater in suburban areas, and is particularly prominent across the majority of New Jersey. Focusing on New Jersey as an area of significant groundwater use and increasing demand, this project investigates total groundwater withdrawals in conjunction with a policy-based framework, facilitating an awareness of groundwater impacts as informed through existing policy during the 20th century. The objectives of this study are to identify the relevant federal, statewide and municipal policies that evolved in the state of New Jersey during the 20th century, and examine the groundwater withdrawal trends for the state of New Jersey between 1950 - 2005. Preliminary results revealed that increased restrictions on groundwater policy between 1982 and 1997 had an observable affect on reducing total groundwater withdrawals. Multivariate regression analyses using indicator variables, i.e. mixed effects model, will be used to explore relationships between county specific withdrawals and significant policy that may have influenced groundwater usage. It is anticipated to observe a strong correlation between groundwater withdrawals and the effectiveness of the implemented groundwater policies. Future collaborative work will further investigate the effectiveness of policy as hydrologically evidenced by alterations in baseflow contribution to streamflow, and groundwater persistence.

  15. Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the 20th century123

    PubMed Central

    Blasbalg, Tanya L; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Ramsden, Christopher E; Majchrzak, Sharon F; Rawlings, Robert R

    2011-01-01

    Background: The consumption of omega-3 (n–3) and omega-6 (n–6) essential fatty acids in Western diets is thought to have changed markedly during the 20th century. Objective: We sought to quantify changes in the apparent consumption of essential fatty acids in the United States from 1909 to 1999. Design: We calculated the estimated per capita consumption of food commodities and availability of essential fatty acids from 373 food commodities by using economic disappearance data for each year from 1909 to 1999. Nutrient compositions for 1909 were modeled by using current foods (1909-C) and foods produced by traditional early 20th century practices (1909-T). Results: The estimated per capita consumption of soybean oil increased >1000-fold from 1909 to 1999. The availability of linoleic acid (LA) increased from 2.79% to 7.21% of energy (P < 0.000001), whereas the availability of α-linolenic acid (ALA) increased from 0.39% to 0.72% of energy by using 1909-C modeling. By using 1909-T modeling, LA was 2.23% of energy, and ALA was 0.35% of energy. The ratio of LA to ALA increased from 6.4 in 1909 to 10.0 in 1999. The 1909-T but not the 1909-C data showed substantial declines in dietary availability (percentage of energy) of n−6 arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Predicted net effects of these dietary changes included declines in tissue n--3 highly unsaturated fatty acid status (36.81%, 1909-T; 31.28%, 1909-C; 22.95%, 1999) and declines in the estimated omega-3 index (8.28, 1909-T; 6.51, 1909-C; 3.84, 1999). Conclusion: The apparent increased consumption of LA, which was primarily from soybean oil, has likely decreased tissue concentrations of EPA and DHA during the 20th century. PMID:21367944

  16. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Levis, S.

    2014-03-01

    Fire is the primary form of terrestrial ecosystem disturbance on a global scale. It affects the net carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon directly and immediately into the atmosphere from biomass burning (the fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (the fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment of the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems during the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire's direct and indirect effects. This is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with the NCAR Community Land Model CLM4.5 (prescribed vegetation cover and uncoupled from the atmospheric model) as a model platform. Results show that fire decreases the net carbon gain of global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 averaged across the 20th century, as a result of the fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by the indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Post-fire regions generally experience decreased carbon gains, which is significant over tropical savannas and some North American and East Asian forests. This decrease is due to the direct effect usually exceeding the indirect effect, while they have similar spatial patterns and opposite sign. The effect of fire on the net carbon balance significantly declines until ∼1970 with a trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to an increasing indirect effect, and increases subsequently with a trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to an increasing direct effect. These results help constrain the global-scale dynamics of fire and the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  17. An evaluation of 20th century climate for the Southeastern United States as simulated by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David E. Rupp

    2016-01-01

    The 20th century climate for the Southeastern United States and surrounding areas as simulated by global climate models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) was evaluated. A suite of statistics that characterize various aspects of the regional climate was calculated from both model simulations and observation-based datasets. CMIP5 global climate models were ranked by their ability to reproduce the observed climate. Differences in the performance of the models between regions of the United States (the Southeastern and Northwestern United States) warrant a regional-scale assessment of CMIP5 models.

  18. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again. PMID:23197125

  19. Mapping the refugee’s settlements in Thessaloniki during the first thirty years of the 20th Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvaidis, P.

    2013-01-01

    During the Balkan wars and particularly after the national disaster of Asia Minor, Thessaloniki had to lodge many tenths of thousands of refugees. Then the town authorities created settlements for their hosting. These settlements were rapidly transformed to urban quarters of the town leading to an extension of the town to any direction, particularly to the NW and SE directions without any urban planning. These settlements and later on urban quarters were mapped in different Charts of the town during the 20th Century. The study of these maps is the subject of this paper.(in Greeks)

  20. Determination of droughts and high floods of the Bermejo River (Argentina) based on documentary evidence (17th to 20th century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2015-10-01

    This study reconstructs a series of droughts and high flow volumes of the Bermejo River from the 17th to 20th century based on a content analysis of historic documentary evidence, which is calibrated with instrumental climate data. The historic data series shows an increase in the frequency of extraordinarily high waters beginning in the 19th century and a significant decrease in extreme droughts beginning in 1890. The data are compared to variations in the Mendoza River for the same period, which show that there was a long-standing lack of correlation between the rivers.

  1. Abrupt and severe 20th Century changes in the fire regimes of southeastern Australia: Evidence from a 3000 year multi-proxy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Patrick; Mooney, Scott; Allen, Kathryn; Willersdorf, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Fire is the dominant natural disturbance in southeastern Australia. For millennia it has been the driving force shaping terrestrial ecosystems in the region -- simultaneously killing vegetation and initiating regeneration across whole landscapes. Fire regimes across the region are driven by several factors including climate, vegetation, and ignition sources. Humans have been a significant contributing factor to past and present fire regimes. Prior to European settlement in the late 1700s, Aboriginal Australians used frequent, low-intensity fires to manage vegetation across much of the landscape. European settlement led to the displacement of Aboriginal communities and a shift to active fire suppression and control. This changing approach to fire management is widely believed to have initiated a fundamental shift towards extreme, high-intensity fire events as fuel loads increased. In addition, during the 20th Century prolonged periods of warm, dry conditions have occurred with greater frequency and intensity. The relative importance of climate and fire management practices on contemporary fire regimes is vigorously debated in Australia and is directly relevant to land management policies and their implementation. To put the current fire regime into historical context, we used a multi-proxy approach combining palaeo-charcoal and tree-ring analyses to assess how fire regimes have changed over the last 3000 years in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia. We found almost no evidence of high-intensity fires in the 3000 years that preceded the 20th Century. However, in the mid-20th Century there is a sudden and dramatic increase in the presence of charcoal and the pulsed establishment of trees across the landscape, suggesting a recent shift from low-intensity fires with minimal charcoal signatures to moderate- to high-intensity fires with substantial charcoal inputs. Importantly, the tree-ring data demonstrate that most of these fires were not stand

  2. A Time-Series Analysis of the 20th Century Climate Simulations Produced for the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Francisco; Perron, Pierre; Gay-García, Carlos; Martínez-López, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    In this paper evidence of anthropogenic influence over the warming of the 20th century is presented and the debate regarding the time-series properties of global temperatures is addressed in depth. The 20th century global temperature simulations produced for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report and a set of the radiative forcing series used to drive them are analyzed using modern econometric techniques. Results show that both temperatures and radiative forcing series share similar time-series properties and a common nonlinear secular movement. This long-term co-movement is characterized by the existence of time-ordered breaks in the slope of their trend functions. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that while natural forcing factors may help explain the warming of the first part of the century, anthropogenic forcing has been its main driver since the 1970’s. In terms of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, significant anthropogenic interference with the climate system has already occurred and the current climate models are capable of accurately simulating the response of the climate system, even if it consists in a rapid or abrupt change, to changes in external forcing factors. This paper presents a new methodological approach for conducting time-series based attribution studies. PMID:23555866

  3. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies. PMID:25329920

  4. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, A.; Freydier, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Simões, J. C.; Taupin, J.-D.; Dupré, B.; Artaxo, P.

    2003-05-01

    A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l.) was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H), 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama) for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were

  5. Temporal change of the mode of eruptive activity and the magma plumbing system of Sakurajima Volcano since 20th century : Implications for forecast future eruptive activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, M.; Matsumoto, A.; Amma-Miyasaka, M.; Togashi, Y.; Iguchi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Sakurajima volcano is a post-caldera volcano of Aira caldera and has repeated large plinian eruptions with dormant periods in AD 1471, AD 1779 and AD 1914. After AD 1914 eruption, medium scale of lava effusion occurred in AD 1946. Since AD 1955, frequent vulcanian eruptions have repeated until now. Thus, mode of eruptive activity of the volcano has changed since 20th century. Based on temporal change of petrological features of these eruptive materials, We discuss the relationship between the mode of eruptive activity and magma system to forecast the future eruptive activity. The rocks of AD 1471 and AD 1779 eruptions are CPX-OPX dacite, in which normally and reversely zoned pyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts coexist. In addition, compositional distribution of plagioclase phenocrysts is bi-modal. These suggest that these rocks are mixing products between dacitic and andesitic magmas. This is consistent with compositional variations of whole-rock chemistry for these rocks. On the other hand, the rocks of AD 1914 and AD 1946 eruption often contain olivine phenocrysts. Plagioclase and pyroxenes phenocrysts in these rocks show similar features to those of AD 1471 and AD 1779 eruptions, suggesting that these rocks are also mixing products of two end-member magmas, dacitic and andesitic ones. However, olivine phenocrysts are much magnesian compared with pyroxenes phenocrysts, indicating that these olivine phencorysts are derived from another basaltic magma. Thus, the basaltic magma injected into the mixed magma between dacitic and andesitic ones. Mixing among three magmas has been recognized since 20th century. The rocks from frequent eruptions since AD 1955 also contain minor amount of olivine phenocrysts, suggesting the injection of basaltic magma has continued. In 1970's and AD 1987 periods, relatively larger scale of vulcanian eruptions had occurred. The rocks from these periods contain considerable amount of olivine phenocrysts, indicating mixing ratio of the

  6. Detector Powering in the 21st Century Why stay stuck with the Good old 20th Century methods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Satish; Sumner, Richard

    Future Collider Physics Detectors are envisioned with large granularity but we have a power delivery problem unless we fill a large fraction of the detector volume with copper conductors. LHC detector electronics is powered by transporting direct current over distances of 30 to 150 meters. This is how Thomas Alva Edison powered his light bulb. For example, CMS ECAL uses 50 kiloamps at 2.5 volts, supplied over a cable set with a transmission efficiency of only 30%. The transmission loss becomes waste heat in the detector that has to be removed. We have been exploring methods to transmit the DC power at higher voltage (low current), reducing to the final low voltage (high current) using DC-DC converters. These converters must operate in high magnetic fields and high radiation levels. This requires rad hard components and non-magnetic (air core) inductors.

  7. Variability on different time scales of Extra-tropical Cyclones and Windstorms in latest 20th century reanalyses ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befort, Daniel J.; Wild, Simon; Kruschke, Tim; Ulbrich, Uwe; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2016-04-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms are responsible for a large portion of damages all around the globe. Thus, knowledge about the temporal variability of these events during the past is of high socio-economic importance. In this study, the temporal variability of extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms during the past century are analysed using ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR reanalysis datasets. Cyclones are identified using six hourly mean sea level pressure fields whereas wind storms are identified based on near-surface wind speeds. Analyses focus on wintertime events over both hemispheres and also for several subregions. Long-term trends as well as higher-frequency variability are investigated. Therefore, cyclone and wind storm time series are low-pass filtered with a cut-off frequency of 1/31 years using 31 weights and the high-frequency time series are obtained by calculating the residuum of the original and low pass-filtered time series. To analyse long-term trends, a linear regression model is fitted to the original time series for three different periods: 1901-1930, 1931-1960 and 1961-1999. Results suggest substantial differences regarding long-term trends between ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR for cyclones and wind storm events, especially during the first half of the 20th century. In general, a better agreement is found for extreme cyclones compared to all cyclones. Furthermore, high-frequency variability over the Northern Hemisphere is in good agreement for cyclones and wind storms over most regions and throughout the century, with the highest correlations found at the end of the 20th century. Analyses for the Southern Hemisphere show smaller agreement between ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR for cyclone and wind storms regarding their high-frequency variability. The results of this study indicate that no reliable conclusion regarding long-term variability of cyclones and wind storms can be drawn, based on solely these two 20th century reanalysis products. However, analyses

  8. Behavior within fortuitous environments: The entwined history of Division 28 and the fields of behavioral pharmacology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral pharmacology emerged in the early to mid-20th century as an experimental and observational science, helping to consolidate an empirically based psychological science of behavior. Behavioral psychologists came to play significant roles in toxicology, neuropharmacology, and psychopharmacology. This article traces the first 3 decades of American Psychological Association Division 28. Sources include the Division 28 Oral History Project; formal interviews conducted by the author in the early 2000s with behavioral, experimental, and clinical pharmacologists; and the archived newsletters of Division 28. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454672

  9. Engineering Research Division publication report, calendar year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.K.; Livingston, P.L.; Rae, D.C.

    1980-06-01

    Each year the Engineering Research Division of the Electronics Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has issued an internal report listing all formal publications produced by the Division during the calendar year. Abstracts of 1980 reports are presented.

  10. Proceedings of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing First Flight's 20th Anniversary Celebration. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Kenneth E. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    A technical symposium, aircraft display dedication, and pilots' panel discussion were held on May 27, 1992, to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the first flights of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Supercrit- ical Wing (SCW) research aircraft. The symposium featured technical presentations by former key government and industry participants in the advocacy, design, aircraft modification, and flight research program activities. The DFBW and SCW technical contributions are cited. A dedication ceremony marked permanent display of both program aircraft. The panel discussion participants included eight of the eighteen research and test pilots who flew these experimental aircraft. Pilots' remarks include descriptions of their most memorable flight experiences The report also includes a survey of the Gulf Air War, and an after-dinner presentation by noted aerospace author and historian Dr. Richard Hallion.

  11. The 20th-Century Topographic Survey as Source Data for Long-Term Landscape Studies at Local and Regional Scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia

    2006-01-01

    Historical topographic maps are the only systematically collected data resource covering the entire nation for long-term landscape change studies over the 20th century for geographical and environmental research. The paper discusses aspects of the historical U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps that present constraints on the design of a database for such studies. Problems involved in this approach include locating the required maps, understanding land feature classification differences between topographic vs. land use/land cover maps, the approximation of error between different map editions of the same area, and the identification of true changes on the landscape between time periods. Suggested approaches to these issues are illustrated using an example of such a study by the author.

  12. The difference in the energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays at the minima of the 19th and 20th solar activity cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svirzhevskaya, A. K.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Svirzhevsky, N. S.; Charakhchyan, T. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absorption curves of the cosmic ray charged component for solar minima in 1965 and 1975 to 1977 are analyzed on the basis of daily stratospheric measurements in Murmansk, Moscow, Alma-Ata and Mirny (Antarctic). Two distinct features in the energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays are revealed during these periods. At the 20th solar activity minimum there was the additional short range component of cosmic rays. Additional fluxes in the stratosphere at high latitudes caused by this component are probably protons and He nuclei with the energy 100 to 500 MeV/n. The fluxes are estimates as Approx. 300 sq m/s/sr. At the minimum in 1975 to 1977 the proton intensity in the energy range 1 to 15 GeV is 10 to 15% lower than that in the 1965 solar activity minimum.

  13. Proceedings of the 24th Day of Scientific lectures and 20th Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.H; Carwell, H.V.

    1999-11-29

    The National Society of Black Physicists will hold its Twentieth annual meeting and its XXIIII Day of Scientific Lectures at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on March 27th - 30th, 1997. The meeting provides a major opportunity for African American physicists and students to present their current research and discuss issues germane to the constituency. It is therefore crucial to have the broadest cross-section of the membership at each meeting. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was chosen as the site of the 20th annual meeting because of its historical significance to Physics (being one of the first national laboratories in the United States) and the laboratories continuing support of the goals and objectives of the society.

  14. Proceedings of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing First Flight's 20th Anniversary Celebration. Volume 2; Bibliography Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Kenneth E. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    A technical symposium, aircraft display dedication, and pilots' panel discussion were held on May 27, 1992. to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the first flights of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Supercritical Wing (SCW) research aircraft. The symposium featured technical presentations by former key government and industry participants in the advocacy, design, aircraft modification, and flight research program activities. The DFBW and SCW technical contributions are cited. A dedication ceremony marked permanent display of both program aircraft. The panel discussion participants included eight of the eighteen research and test pilots who flew these experimental aircraft. Pilots' remarks include descriptions of their most memorable flight experiences. The report also includes a survey of the Gulf Air War, an after-dinner presentation by noted aerospace author and historian Dr. Richard Hallion.

  15. Total ozone time variations during the spring reversals in the high latitudinal stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere during the 20th and 21st solar cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidiyarova, V. G.

    1989-01-01

    The principal features of the thermodynamic regime of the stratosphere are governed by the development of the winter stratospheric low and the Aleutian and Atlantic heights. These are fed by the influx of the eddy energy transported into the stratosphere by the planetary waves. The intensity and variability of planetary waves and vortices associated with the waves determine the conditions of low-to-high latitudes ozone transport in the winter hemisphere. The ozone distributions are zonally inhomogeneous. The planetary wave dynamics are affected by solar activity variations during solar cycles. The 20th solar cycle maximum was accompanied by decreases of stratospheric planetary wave amplitudes, the 21st cycle was accompanied by increases of amplitudes.

  16. The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokka, Roy K.

    2011-06-01

    Geodetic leveling observations from Biloxi, MS, to New Orleans, LA, and water level gauge measurements in the New Orleans-Lake Pontchartrain area were analyzed to infer late 20th century vertical motions. These data were used to test the validity of previous subsidence rate measurements and the models that predict the location and causes of subsidence. Water gauges attached to bridge foundations and benchmarks affixed to deep rods that penetrate Holocene strata subsided as much as 0.8 m locally between 1955 and 1995. The observed deep-seated subsidence far exceeds model predictions and demonstrates that shallow processes such as compaction and consolidation of Holocene sediments are inadequate by themselves to explain late 20th century subsidence. Deep-seated subsidence occurring east and north of the normal faults marking the Gulf of Mexico basin margin can be explained by local groundwater withdrawal, and regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta (MRD). Sharp changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal faults. Displacements are consistent with activity and show motions consonant with fault creep. Deep subsidence of the region to the south, including New Orleans, can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and perhaps, nongroundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ˜160 to 200 m deep dominated urbanized areas and is likely responsible for helping to lower local flood protection structures and bridges by as much as ˜0.8 m.

  17. Possible role of the dimming/brightening in observed temperatures across Europe since the second half of the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Besselaar, E. J. M.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Wild, M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The surface solar radiation (SSR) is the fundamental source of energy in the climate system, and consequently the source of life on our planet, due to its central role in the surface energy balance. Therefore, a significant impact on temperatures is expected due to the widespread dimming/brightening phenomenon observed since the second half of the 20th century (Wild, 2009). Previous studies pointed out the effects of SSR trends in temperatures series over Europe (Makowski et al., 2009; Philipona et al., 2009), although the lack of long-term SSR series limits these results. This work describes an updated sunshine duration (SS) dataset compiled by the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D) project based on around 300 daily time series over Europe covering the 1961-2010 period. The relationship between the SS and temperature series is analysed based on four temperature variables: maximum (TX), minimum (TN) and mean temperature (TG), as well as the diurnal temperature range (DTR). Regional and pan-European mean series of SS and temperatures are constructed. The analyses are performed on annual and seasonal scale, and focusing on the interannual and decadal agreement between the variables. The results show strong positive correlations on interannual scales between SS and temperatures over Europe, especially for the DTR and TX during the summer period and regions in Central Europe. Interestingly, the SS and temperatures series show a tendency towards higher correlations in the smoothed series, both for different regions and temperature variables. These results confirm the relationship between temperature and SS trends over Europe since the second half of the 20th century, which has been speculated to partially decrease (increase) temperatures during the dimming (brightening) period (Makowski et al., 2009; Wild, 2009). Further research is needed to confirm this cause-effect relationship currently found only using correlation analysis.

  18. Attributing the Increase in Northern Hemisphere Hot Summers during the Last Half of the 20th Century and the Recent Climate Hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Y.; Shiogama, H.; Watanabe, M.; Kimoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Summertime anomalous high temperatures leading to enormous damages to public health and society are increasing continuously since late 20th century. However, the rise of global surface air temperature (SAT) has apparently been slowed in these 15 years. It is not clear why hot summers become more frequent despite the recent global-warming hiatus. Here we present, using ensembles of an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), that the continuous increase of hot summers over the Northern Hemisphere (NH) was largely due to direct effect of radiative forcing by the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and to natural decadal climate variability. The 10-member AGCM ensemble, when forced by 63-year histories of observed sea surface temperature (SST), aerosols, land cover and GHGs, reproduced well the increasing hot summers, but another ensemble without changes in anthropogenic forcings and ocean surface warming still showed a small increase. Decadal SST variations in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean contributed to the recent increase of hot summers over North America through atmospheric teleconnections. Analyses of the two and an additional ensembles show that local radiative heating over land due to increasing GHGs contributed by 39% to continuous increase over the mid- and high-latitude land areas. The contribution of the direct effect of anthropogenic forcing is independent of the global SST hiatus, suggesting a continuous increase in heat extremes over the land due to this effect even if the climate hiatus persist for the coming decades.ReferenceKamae, Y., H. Shiogama, M. Watanabe, and M. Kimoto (2014), Attributing the increase in Northern Hemisphere hot summers since the late 20th century. Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/2014GL061062.

  19. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  20. Potential Predictability of the Sea-Surface Temperature Forced Equatorial East Africa Short Rains Interannual Variability in the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaga, T. K.; Gizaw, G.; Kucharski, F.; Diro, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the predictability of the 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) forced East African short rains variability is analyzed using observational data and ensembles of long atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. To our knowledge, such an analysis for the whole 20th century using a series of AGCM ensemble simulations is carried out here for the first time. The physical mechanisms that govern the influence of SST on East African short rains in the model are also investigated. It is found that there is substantial skill in reproducing the East African short rains variability, given that the SSTs are known. Consistent with previous recent studies, it is found that the Indian Ocean and in particular the western pole of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) play a dominant role for the prediction skill, whereas SSTs outside the Indian Ocean play a minor role. The physical mechanism for the influence of the western Indian Ocean on East African rainfall in the model is consistent with previous findings and consists of a gill-type response to a warm (cold) anomaly that induces a westerly(easterly) low-level flow anomaly over equatorial Africa and leads to moisture flux convergence (divergence) over East Africa. On the other hand, a positive El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) anomaly leads to a spatially non-coherent reducing effect over parts of East Africa, but the relationship is not strong enough to provide any predictive skill in our model. The East African short rains prediction skill is also analyzed within a model-derived potential predictability framework and it is shown that the actual prediction skill is broadly consistent with the model potential prediction skill. Low-frequency variations of the prediction skill are mostly related to SSTs outside the Indian Ocean region and are likely due to an increased interference of ENSO with the Indian Ocean influence on East African short rains after the mid-1970s climate shift.

  1. Coastal Fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and Its Basin from the 15 to the Early 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch. PMID:24204735

  2. Changes in the relationships between climate and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growth during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.; Bottacci, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the Tuscan Apennine Alps, recent research has shown that similarity in trends of monthly climate variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall) is non-stationary amongst sites during the 20th century even between sites that differ little in elevation and at a relatively short distance from each other (D'Aprile et al., 2010; D'Aprile et al., 2011). Moreover, the level of correlation between series of monthly climate variables varies irregularly from highly positive to negative over time. We hypothesised that those changing climate conditions, even at the local level, could cause different tree-ring growth responses in silver fir amongst sites. The hypothesis was tested by dendroclimatological analysis, which was applied to study stands in silver fir forests close to the meteorological stations where climate analysis has been made. Results show that the influences of both monthly mean temperature and monthly rainfall on silver fir growth vary greatly during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps, and the ways that they change differ with month and amongst sites. Within sites, differences in the relationships between climate variables and silver fir tree-ring growth appear small in spite of different elevation of the study stands. These results contribute a changing point in forest planning and management especially in consideration of the need to adapt forest management and interventions to changing climate conditions and mitigate the impacts on silver fir forests. Moreover, they introduce climate variability as a key parameter in sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, socially responsible uses, nature conservation, and survival of the only conifer tree species typical of mountain mixed forest ecosystems in the Apennine Alps.

  3. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  4. Apollo 11: 20th anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The Apollo 11 Mission which culminated in the first manned lunar landing on July 20, 1969 is recounted. Historical footage of preparation, takeoff, stage separation, the Eagle Lunar Lander, and the moon walk accompany astronauts Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, and Neal Armstrong giving their recollections of the mission are shown.

  5. Divisibility--Another Route.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardella, Francis J.

    1984-01-01

    Given is an alternative to individual divisibility rules by generating a general process that can be applied to establish divisibility by any number. The process relies on modular arithmetic and the concept of congruence. (MNS)

  6. Variability of extreme rainfall over La Plata Basin and Amazon Basin in South America in model simulations of the 20th century and projections under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2011-12-01

    The two largest river basins in South America are Amazon Basin (AMB) in the tropical region and La Plata Basin (LPB) in subtropical and extratropical regions. Extreme droughts have occurred during this decade in Amazonia region which have affected the transportation, fishing activities with impacts in the local population, and also affecting the forest. Droughts or floods over LPB have impacts on agriculture, hydroelectricity power and social life. Therefore, monthly wet and dry extremes in these two regions have a profound effect on the economy and society. Observed rainfall over Amazon Basin (AMB) and La Plata Basin (LPB) is analyzed in monthly timescale using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), from 1979 to 1999. This period is taken to compare GPCP data with HADCM3 simulations (Hadley Centre) of the 20th century and to analyze reanalyses data which have the contribution of satellite information after 1979. HADCM3 projections using SRES A2 scenario is analyzed in two periods: 2000 to 2020 and 2079 to 2099 to study the extremes frequency in a near future and in a longer timescale. Extreme, severe and moderate cases are identified in the northern and southern sectors of LPB and in the western and eastern sectors of AMB. The main objective is to analyze changes in the frequency of cases, considering the global warming and the associated mechanisms. In the observations for the 20th century, the number of extreme rainy cases is higher than the number of dry cases in both sectors of LPB and AMB. The model simulates this variability in the two sectors of LPB and in the west sector of AMB. In the near future 2000 to 2020 the frequency of wet and dry extremes does not change much in LPB and in the western sector of AMB, but the wet cases increase in the eastern AMB. However, in the period of 2079 to 2099 the projections indicate increase of wet cases in LPB and increase of dry cases in AMB. The influence of large scale features related to Sea Surface Temperature

  7. Assessing how seasonal hydrological balance has changed during the warming 20th century in the montane forests of Southeast Asian monsoon region using a stable isotope dendroclimatology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M.; Stott, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical montane forests act as water catchment and host of biodiversity in the Southeast Asian monsoon region, and understanding how their hydrological conditions change with global warming is vitally important. Global climate model simulations project enhanced moisture cycle in the tropics, which would cause stronger summer monsoon precipitations, but on the other hand the adiabatic lapse rate would be shifted towards a moister condition (amplification of warming at high elevation), inhibiting dry season orographic lifting cloud/fog formation (lifting cloud base hypothesis), enhancing evapo-transpiration, and leading to a net moisture loss during winter dry season. In this study, we have attempted to investigate how the seasonal moisture balance in Southeast Asia has evolved in response to these influences through the 20th century using the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of subannual tree cellulose samples extracted from the annual rings of pine trees that grow in Doi Chiang Dao, a limestone mountain in northern Thailand. At this location the δ18O of cellulose exhibits distinctive annual cycles of up to 12‰, which is primarily a reflection of both the so-called ‘isotope amount effect’ that is associated with the strong monsoon precipitation during summer wet season and the moisture availability from different sources during winter dry season. We have demonstrated that tree cellulose δ18O could be used as a proxy for regional monsoon strength by showing that the annual mean cellulose δ18O correlate significantly with All India Rainfall, Webster-Yang monsoon index, as well as with both local and regional monsoon precipitation. ENSO is the dominant influence on interannual rainfall variability and this is well expressed in the interannual cellulose δ18O record. Using a 21-year moving window correlation analysis we find a weakening of ENSO influence after 1980, coinciding with the most rapid atmospheric warming. We expect to analyze older trees to

  8. [Bright disease in Turin and Italy from the middle of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Stratta, P; Bermond, F; Canavese, C; Colla, L; Burdese, M; Quaglia, M; Besso, L; Sandri, L; Dogliani, M

    2001-03-01

    For many years the term nephritis was used to indicate renal diseases (in the sense of Bright s disease) in a larger sense. This review summarizes the history of the concept of glolomerulonephritis from Egyptian Medicine up to the Post-Biopsy Era, in particularly in Turin and in Italy. This study reports an epidemiology survey of Bright s disease in Italy from 1880 up to 1960. Towards the end of the 19th century Bright s disease accounted for 26 deaths/year/105 population (in comparison with more than 200 from tubercolosis) in Italy. At the beginning of the 20th century, Bright s disease was the seventh cause of death in Italy. Moreover, in Italy autopsy studies showed a higher percentage of deaths attributed to Bright s disease (5-7%) in comparison with those obtained from vital studies. In 1960, just before the beginning of renal replacement therapy, Bright s disease accounted for 15.7 deaths/year/105 population. Probably it was difficult to recognize in the real incidence of chronic renal diseases leading to death in the 1960s, and vital studies were able to furnish only approximate estimates. However, noteworthy is the fact that these values were very close to those estimated as being the annual need for renal replacement therapy (10-20/year/105 population). PMID:11346720

  9. History of health in the Indian Ocean: care, prevention, teaching, and research from the 17(th) to the mid-20th century.

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2016-05-01

    In 1498, the Portuguese crossed the Cape of Good Hope. It was not until the period of 1633 and 1666, dates of the founding, respectively, of the Compagnie de l'Orient and the Compagnie des Indes orientales, that the way was definitively opened for trade between France and India. Because so many sailors developed scurvy after voyages that lasted 4 to 5 months, the French settled on Bourbon Island (Réunion) and Ile de France (Mauritius), to provide them with medical care. Created in 1689 by Louis XIV, the Navy Health Service was responsible for health in the colonies until it was replaced in 1890 by the Colonial Health Service. European medicine began its slow diffusion around the Indian Ocean in Pondicherry (India). The naval doctors reported their experiences in the Archives de médecine navale (1864-1889), and the colonial doctors afterwards in the Archives de médecine navale et coloniale (1890-1896). The health system in Madagascar developed strongly during 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, and the subsequent development of health care in the other Indian Ocean islands became closely linked to that of Madagascar. On Bourbon, the two navy hospitals in Saint-Paul and Saint-Denis treated only naval and military personnel. The colony had no hospital providing care for civilians and poor people until three civilian doctors opened a maison de santé (health house) in 1846. PMID:27412971

  10. Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Elena B; Rosenbauer, Robert J; Fuller, Christopher C; Jaffe, Bruce J

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminants are ubiquitous in urban aquatic ecosystems, and the ability of some microbial strains to degrade certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well established. However, detrimental effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on nondegrader microbial populations and photosynthetic organisms have not often been considered. In the current study, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers in the sediment record were used to assess historical impacts of petroleum contamination on microbial and/or algal biomass in South San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Profiles of saturated, branched, and monounsaturated fatty acids had similar concentrations and patterns downcore. Total PAHs in a sediment core were on average greater than 20× higher above ∼200 cm than below, which corresponds roughly to the year 1900. Isomer ratios were consistent with a predominant petroleum combustion source for PAHs. Several individual PAHs exceeded sediment quality screening values. Negative correlations between petroleum contaminants and microbial and algal biomarkers - along with high trans/cis ratios of unsaturated FA, and principle component analysis of the PAH and fatty acid records - suggest a negative impacts of petroleum contamination, appearing early in the 20th century, on microbial and/or algal ecology at the site. PMID:25303655

  11. The Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole) and the scientific advancement of women in the early 20th century: the example of Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962).

    PubMed

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, MA provided opportunities for women to conduct research in the late 19th and early 20th century at a time when many barriers existed to their pursuit of a scientific career. One woman who benefited from the welcoming environment at the MBL was Mary Jane Hogue. Her remarkable career as an experimental biologist spanned over 55 years. Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College. She went to Germany to obtain an advanced degree, and her research at the University of Würzburg with Theodor Boveri resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Although her research interests included experimental embryology, and the use of tissue culture to study a variety of cell types, she is considered foremost a protozoologist. Her extraordinary demonstration of chromidia (multiple fission) in the life history of a new species of Flabellula associated with diseased oyster beds is as important as it is ignored. We discuss Hogue's career path and her science to highlight the importance of an informal network of teachers, research advisors, and other women scientists at the MBL all of whom contributed to her success as a woman scientist. PMID:25103622

  12. Secular changes in the height of the inhabitants of Anatolia (Turkey) from the 10th millennium B.C. to the 20th century A.D.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Başak Koca; Sağır, Mehmet; Ozer, Ismail

    2011-03-01

    We use human-skeleton samples to estimate the height of adults living in Anatolia during the Neolithic period. We also report the results of surveys taken in the 20th century on the height of the Turkish population. Neolithic and the Chalcolithic (5000-3000 B.C.) male heights are estimated as 170.9 cm and 165.0 cm, respectively. Pronounced increases were observed for both sexes between the Chalcolithic and Iron (1000-580 B.C.) periods and sharp decreases among both males and females in the Hellenistic-Roman period (333 B.C. to 395 A.D.). Moreover, recovery to the Iron Age levels was achieved in the Anatolian Medieval period (395-1453 A.D.) for both sexes (169.4 cm for males and 158.0 cm for females). In 1884 the mean height of men was 162.2 cm and by the beginning of the 1930s it increased to 166.3 cm. In the first nationwide survey in 1937 males mean height was 165.3 cm, and females was 152.3 cm, where today current heights are 174.0 cm and 158.9 cm, respectively. PMID:21316315

  13. Modeling the impact of late 20th century stratospheric ozone changes: Sensitivity to different ozone forcing data sets and zonal asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion in the Antarctic has profoundly influenced both stratospheric and tropospheric climate, and models lacking stratospheric ozone depletion poorly reproduce past Southern Hemisphere (SH) circulation change. Several studies have shown evidence that prescribing zonal-mean ozone in models leads to underestimation of SH change, and that the zonal asymmetry in ozone depletion has a large impact on the zonal-mean climate response. In this presentation we will show simulations from the NCAR Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) forced with prescribed ozone fields to revisit the issue of whether it is possible to accurately reproduce late 20th century SH circulation change. In this presentation, we will demonstrate an enhanced SH circulation response in simulations with prescribed zonal-mean ozone from a new historical database that more accurately captures the depth of ozone depletion than databases previously used in the SPARC and CMIP5 assessments. We then compare this response from a 2D prescribed ozone field to a simulation using a prescribed 3D ozone field, and assess how well these simulations compare to observed changes seen in the Microwave Sounding Unit satellite temperature datasets and reanalysis.

  14. Temporal and spatial evolution of the solar energetic particle event on January 20th, 2005 and resulting ion pair production in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiae, D.; Herbst, K.; Heber, B.; Reitz, G.; Sihver, L.; Meier, M.; Berger, T.

    2009-04-01

    The solar energetic particle event on January 20th, 2005 was one of the largest ground level events ever observed. Neutron Monitor stations in the Antarctic recorded energetic particle increases of several thousand percent and it took more than 36 h to return to background level. Such huge increases in high energetic solar cosmic radiation on ground obviously is accompanied by considerable changes in the radiation environment at aviation altitudes. Measurements of 28 Neutron Monitor stations were used in this work to numerically approximate the primary solar proton spectra during the first 12 h of the event by minimizing the differences between measurements and the results of Monte-Carlo calculated count rate increases. The primary spectrum of solar energetic protons was approximated by a power law in rigidity and a linear angular distribution. The incoming direction of the solar energetic particles was determined and compared to the interplanetary magnetic field direction during the event. The resulting effects on the ion pair production during that time will be presented.

  15. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework. PMID:27501548

  16. Loss of Genetic Diversity among Ocelots in the United States during the 20th Century Linked to Human Induced Population Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Janecka, Jan E.; Tewes, Michael E.; Laack, Linda; Caso, Arturo; Grassman, Lon I.; Honeycutt, Rodney L.

    2014-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the United States currently exhibit low levels of genetic diversity. One hypothesis for this observation is that habitat fragmentation, resulting from human induced changes in the landscape during the 20th century, created island populations with highly reduced gene flow and increased genetic drift and inbreeding. In an effort to investigate this, we used a portion of the mitochondrial control region and 11 autosomal microsatellite loci to examine historical levels of genetic diversity and infer temporal changes in ocelot populations between 1853 and 2005. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in historical ocelot populations than in extant populations from Texas. The earliest documented loss of mitochondrial haplotype diversity occurred at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. The second extant population inhabiting private lands in Willacy County retained higher levels of genetic diversity through the 1990s, but subsequently lost diversity over the next decade. A similar pattern was observed for autosomal microsatellite loci. This supports the argument that low levels of genetic diversity in Texas are related to human induced population reductions and fragmentation, both of which threaten the remaining ocelots in the United States. At this time, the best means of mitigating the continued erosion of genetic variation are translocation of individuals either from larger populations in Mexico to Texas, or between the Texas populations. PMID:24586737

  17. Loss of genetic diversity among ocelots in the United States during the 20th century linked to human induced population reductions.

    PubMed

    Janecka, Jan E; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda; Caso, Arturo; Grassman, Lon I; Honeycutt, Rodney L

    2014-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the United States currently exhibit low levels of genetic diversity. One hypothesis for this observation is that habitat fragmentation, resulting from human induced changes in the landscape during the 20(th) century, created island populations with highly reduced gene flow and increased genetic drift and inbreeding. In an effort to investigate this, we used a portion of the mitochondrial control region and 11 autosomal microsatellite loci to examine historical levels of genetic diversity and infer temporal changes in ocelot populations between 1853 and 2005. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in historical ocelot populations than in extant populations from Texas. The earliest documented loss of mitochondrial haplotype diversity occurred at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. The second extant population inhabiting private lands in Willacy County retained higher levels of genetic diversity through the 1990s, but subsequently lost diversity over the next decade. A similar pattern was observed for autosomal microsatellite loci. This supports the argument that low levels of genetic diversity in Texas are related to human induced population reductions and fragmentation, both of which threaten the remaining ocelots in the United States. At this time, the best means of mitigating the continued erosion of genetic variation are translocation of individuals either from larger populations in Mexico to Texas, or between the Texas populations. PMID:24586737

  18. Height as an indicator of economic status in the Polish territories under Russian rule at the turn of the 19th to 20th century.

    PubMed

    Czapla, Zbigniew; Liczbińska, Grażyna

    2014-09-01

    Height is regarded as one of the indicators of environmental stress at population level, being an excellent barometer of standard of living. The aim of this study was to describe diversity in height among populations living in different regions of the Kingdom of Poland in terms of the economic factors in the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. This study examines the height of adult inhabitants from five guberniyas (provinces) of the Kingdom of Poland (Łomża, Warsaw, Radom, Kalisz and Płock) collected in the years 1897-1914 (N = 732 men, N = 569 women). Differences in average height of male and female inhabitants across the five guberniyas were examined using ANOVA and the Fisher's LSD (Least Significant Difference) test of multiple comparisons. Statistically significant differences in the height between the guberniyas were observed. Diversity in the economic development in the studied guberniyas of the Kingdom of Poland translated into differences in the height of their inhabitants. Moreover, an increase in mean height over time was noted. PMID:24041152

  19. Energy feedbacks of northern high-latitude ecosystems to the climate system due to reduced snow cover during 20th century warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    The warming associated with changes in snow cover in northern high-latitude terrestrial regions represents an important energy feedback to the climate system. Here, we simulate snow cover-climate feedbacks (i.e. changes in snow cover on atmospheric heating) across the Pan-arctic over two distinct warming periods during the 20th century, 1910-1940 and 1970-2000. We offer evidence that increases in snow cover-climate feedbacks during 1970-2000 were nearly three times larger than during 1910-1940 because the recent snow-cover change occurred in spring, when radiation load is highest, rather than in autumn. Based on linear regression analysis, we also detected a greater sensitivity of snow cover-climate feedbacks to temperature trends during the more recent time period. Pan-arctic vegetation types differed substantially in snow cover-climate feedbacks. Those with a high seasonal contrast in albedo, such as tundra, showed much larger changes in atmospheric heating than did those with a low seasonal contrast in albedo, such as forests, even if the changes in snow-cover duration were similar across the vegetation types. These changes in energy exchange warrant careful consideration in studies of climate change, particularly with respect to associated shifts in vegetation between forests, grasslands, and tundra. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Evidence for a positive ecological correlation of regional intelligence and suicide mortality in the United States during the early 20th century.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Several contemporary cross-national and intranational geographic studies have reported positive ecological (group-level) associations of intelligence and suicide mortality. These findings are consistent with facts from suicide research and with an evolutionary view of suicidal behavior. The present research extended these accounts cross-temporally. Analysis of E. L. Thorndike's state-level personal quality scores and standardized birth rates of eminent persons, taken as proxy variables for regional intelligence, along with historical state suicide rates (1913-1924 and 1928-1932) showed that intelligence and suicide mortality across the U.S.A. were already clearly positively related during the early 20th century, suggesting time stability of the effect. Within the U.S.A., the effect is possibly due to state differences in the ethnic composition, which correspond to both suicide rates and intelligence proxies. It is argued that the most parsimonious interpretation of these ecological findings remains that they indeed reflect individual-level effects, that a positive link between intelligence and suicide is entirely compatible with positive overall links between intelligence and health and longevity, and that the ultimate explanative background for the positive link between intelligence and suicide may be provided through the framework of Rushton's differential K theory. PMID:18065061

  1. The Flexner Report of 1910 and Its Impact on Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Psychiatry in North America in the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Stahnisch, Frank W.; Verhoef, Marja

    2012-01-01

    America experienced a genuinely vast development of biomedical science in the early decades of the twentieth century, which in turn impacted the community of academic psychiatry and changed the way in which clinical and basic research approaches in psychiatry were conceptualized. This development was largely based on the restructuring of research universities in both of the USA and Canada following the influential report of Johns Hopkins-trained science administrator and politician Abraham Flexner (1866–1959). Flexner's report written in commission for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in Washington, DC, also had a major influence on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in psychiatry throughout the 20th century. This paper explores the lasting impact of Flexner's research published on modern medicine and particularly on what he interpreted as the various forms of health care and psychiatric treatment that appeared to compete with the paradigm of biomedicine. We will particularly draw attention to the serious effects of the closing of so many CAM-oriented hospitals, colleges, and medical teaching programs following to the publication of the Flexner Report in 1910. PMID:23346209

  2. Global riverine N and P transport to ocean increased during the 20th century despite increased retention along the aquatic continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Mogollón, José M.; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2016-04-01

    Various human activities - including agriculture, water consumption, river damming, and aquaculture - have intensified over the last century. This has had a major impact on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in global continental waters. In this study, we use a coupled nutrient-input-hydrology-in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Our results suggest that, during this period, the global nutrient delivery to streams increased from 34 to 64 Tg N yr-1 and from 5 to 9 Tg P yr-1. Furthermore, in-stream retention and removal grew from 14 to 27 Tg N yr-1 and 3 to 5 Tg P yr-1. One of the major causes of increased retention is the growing number of reservoirs, which now account for 24 and 22 % of global N and P retention/removal in freshwater systems, respectively. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers with the consequence that river nutrient transport to the ocean increased from 19 to 37 Tg N yr-1 and from 2 to 4 Tg P yr-1. Human activities have also led to a global increase in the molar N : P ratio in freshwater bodies.

  3. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-08-06

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.

  4. Geodiversity and biodiversity interactions in the sand landscapes of the Netherlands on 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter; van den Ancker, Hanneke

    2014-05-01

    Sand landscapes occupy about half of the territory of the Netherlands. Apart from an insignificant amount of Tertiary deposits, these sands are of Pleistocene and Holocene age. They include Saalian push moraines, Weichselian cover sands and Holocene drift sands. To these geological landscapes, cultural variants should be added such as the essen, i.e. a landscape with plaggen soils, and reclaimed lands (e.g. former moors). Not included are the coastal sands, which we dealt with in an earlier EGU contribution (van den Ancker & Jungerius 2012). Nature and man created a wide variety of sceneries that inspired painters in the 19th and early 20th century (Jungerius et al. 2012). Painter communities on the sandy soils flourished in Oosterbeek/Wolfheze, Laren/Blaricum, Nijkerk, Nunspeet/Elspeet, Hattem and Heeze. Many of the landscape paintings are found in the database of Simonis en Buunk that can be freely consulted on line (http//www.simonis&buunk.com). For this presentation we selected specimens that show geodiversity-biodiversity relationships, some of which have changed since. Painters of push moraines were attracted by the rolling terrain, the dry valleys and occasionally the colourful podzol soil profiles. Popular themes in the cover sands were the undulating relief and heathlands with herds of sheep, sandy footpaths and country roads with erosion phenomena. The dynamics of erosion captivated the painters of Holocene drift sand scenery, as did the bare fields of cultivated lands. Their paintings show the rural areas that since the beginning of the 20th century lost their traditional charm in large-scale re-allotment schemes and artificial nature-building project, that changed geodiversity-biodiversity relationships. Changes in the sandy terrains that can be inferred from the paintings are on a landscape scale, the scale of the landform and vegetation type, and are illustrated by changes in colour, pattern, structure and texture. Examples are: · active drift sands

  5. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  6. Climate and polar motion during the GRACE observing period: 2002-2015: Implications for decadal scale oscillations during the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivins, Erik; Adhikari, Surendra; Larour, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The motion of the Earth's pole in space has been observed with great accuracy for the last 115 years. The angular variations of the pole position away from its mean are a well explained at annual and 434-day periods. Variations at annual periods are caused by changes in the mass and angular momentum forced by all Earth surface changes that have near seasonality. The 434-day period is explained as a resonance between the cumulative driving forces having periods near the Chandler wobble free eigenmode of the Earth and is well understood theoretically. The Earth also has a longer-term drift that is explained primarily as a response to the ice age changes in the moments of inertial of the Earth. However, there has been a long-standing search for the origins of pole variations that have a period near 10 years. Using GRACE space gravimetry we show that ice mass losses from Greenland and Antarctica, and when combined with changes in continental hydrology, explain almost all the main features of interannual time scale polar wander. The discovery has broad interdisciplinary implications, as we show that decadal scale pole variations are directly linked to global changes continental water. The energy sources for these pole position changes are, therefore, likely to be associated with decadal scale ocean and atmospheric oscillations that also drive 20th Century on-land wet-dry oscillations at decadal-scale across the globe. Variability in pole position, therefore, offers a tool for assessing past stability of our climate, and for the future, now faced with an increased intensity in the water cycle and more vulnerable to ice sheet instability.

  7. Why does FGOALS-gl reproduce a weak Medieval Warm Period but a reasonable Little Ice Age and 20th century warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun

    2013-11-01

    To understand the strengths and limitations of a low-resolution version of Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land-Sea-ice (FGOALS-gl) to simulate the climate of the last millennium, the energy balance, climate sensitivity and absorption feedback of the model are analyzed. Simulation of last-millennium climate was carried out by driving the model with natural (solar radiation and volcanic eruptions) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcing agents. The model feedback factors for (model sensitivity to) different forcings were calculated. The results show that the system feedback factor is about 2.5 (W m-2) K-1 in the pre-industrial period, while 1.9 (W m-2) K-1 in the industrial era. Thus, the model’s sensitivity to natural forcing is weak, which explains why it reproduces a weak Medieval Warm Period. The relatively reasonable simulation of the Little Ice Age is caused by both the specified radiative forcing and unforced linear cold drift. The model sensitivity in the industrial era is higher than that of the pre-industrial period. A negative net cloud radiative feedback operates during whole-millennial simulation and reduces the model’s sensitivity to specified forcing. The negative net cloud radiative forcing feedback under natural forcing in the period prior to 1850 is due to the underestimation (overestimation) of the response of cloudiness (in-cloud water path). In the industrial era, the strong tropospheric temperature response enlarges the effective radius of ice clouds and reduces the fractional ice content within cloud, resulting in a weak negative net cloud feedback in the industrial period. The water vapor feedback in the industrial era is also stronger than that in the pre-industrial period. Both are in favor of higher model sensitivity and thus a reasonable simulation of the 20th century global warming.

  8. A Tree-Ring Based Reconstruction (1725-present) of the Position of the Summer North Atlantic Jet Shows a 20th Century Northward Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouet, V.; Babst, F.

    2014-12-01

    The position and strength of the Northern Hemisphere polar jet are important modulators of mid-latitude weather extremes and the societal, ecosystem, and economic damage related to them. The position of the North Atlantic jet (NAJ) controls the location of the Atlantic storm track and anomalies in the NAJ position have been related to temperature and precipitation extremes over Europe. In summer, a southern NAJ regime can result in floods in the British Isles (BRIT) and increasing odds of heat waves in the northeastern Mediterranean (NEMED). Variability in the amplitude and speed of the Northern Hemisphere jet stream is hotly debated as a potential mechanism linking recent mid-latitude weather extremes to anthropogenic warming. However, the hypothesis of jet stream variability as a possible mechanism linking Arctic amplification to mid-latitude weather extremes is largely based on data sets with limited temporal extent that do not warrant robust results from a statistical significance perspective. Here, we combined two summer temperature-sensitive tree-ring records from BRIT and NEMED to reconstruct interannual variability in the latitudinal position of the summer NAJ back to 1725. The two well-replicated temperature proxies counter-correlate significantly over the full period and thus illustrate the temperature dipole generated by anomalous NAJ positions. Positive extremes in the NAJ reconstruction correspond to heatwaves recorded in the historical Central England temperature record and negative extremes correspond to reconstructed fire years in Greece. The reconstruction shows a northward shift in the latitudinal NAJ position since the 1930s that is most pronounced in the northern NAJ extremes, suggesting a more frequent occurrence of BRIT hot summers in the 20th century compared to previous centuries.

  9. Elemental and molecular evidence of soot- and char-derived black carbon inputs to New York City's atmosphere during the 20th century

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Louchouarn; Steven N. Chillrud; Stephane Houel; Beizhan Yan; Damon Chaky; Cornelia Rumpel; Claude Largeau; Gerard Bardoux; Dan Walsh; Richard F. Bopp

    2007-01-01

    Soot black carbon (here expressed as GBC) is present in sediments of Central Park and Prospect Park Lakes, New York City (NYC), and peaks in the middle of the 20th Century at the highest values (1-3% dry weight) ever reported in urban lakes. During that period ({approximately} 1940-1970), the GBC represents up to 28% of the total organic carbon (OC). Radionuclide-normalized whole core inventories of accumulated GBC are similar in the two lakes which are separated by {approximately} 15 km, suggesting that emissions of fine soot particles may have accumulated homogeneously over at least the urban center of NYC. The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments is decoupled from that of GBC. The highest levels of total PAHs correspond to peak coal use for space heating in NYC in the early 1900s. In contrast, GBC concentrations were highest in the mid 1900s, a period when oil combustion dominated local fossil fuel use and incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) was common practice in NYC. Decreases in GBC levels observed in more recently deposited sediments are consistent with improvements in particle emissions control systems. Non-soot BC (char) was identified by a high carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio that persisted after correction for GBC. This likely tracer of MSW incineration was estimated to contribute an additional {approximately} 35% of total organic carbon found in the sediments deposited during the peak period of combustion. The temporal trends of soot-BC observed in our lake cores do not agree with published historical reconstructions based on fuel consumption and estimated emission factors. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Over the hills and further away from coast: global geospatial patterns of human and environment over the 20th-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Salvucci, Gianluigi; Viviroli, Daniel; Ward, Philip J.; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    Proximity to the coast and elevation are important geographical considerations for human settlement. Little is known, however, about how spatial variation in these factors exactly relates to human settlements and activities, and how this has developed over time. Such knowledge is important for identifying vulnerable regions that are at risk from phenomena such as food shortages and water stress. Human activities are a key driving force in global change, and thus detailed information on population distribution is an important input to any research framework on global change. In this paper we assess the global geospatial patterns of the distribution of human population and related factors, with regard to the altitude above sea level and proximity to the coast. The investigated factors are physical conditions, urbanisation, agricultural practices, economy, and environmental stress. An important novel element in this study, is that we included the temporal evolution in various factors related to human settlements and agricultural practices over the 20th century, and used projections for some of these factors up to the year 2050. We found population pressure in the proximity of the coast to be somewhat greater than was found in other studies. Yet, the distribution of population, urbanisation and wealth are evolving to become more evenly spread across the globe than they were in the past. Therefore, the commonly believed tendency of accumulation of people and wealth along coasts is not supported by our results. At the same time, food production is becoming increasingly decoupled from the trends in population density. Croplands are spreading from highly populated coastal zones towards inland zones. Our results thus indicate that even though people and wealth continue to accumulate in proximity to the coast, population densities and economic productivity are becoming less diverse in relation to elevation and distance from the coast.

  11. Change of Spectral Analysis of Fetal Heart Rate During Clinical Hypnosis: a Prospective Randomised Trial from the 20th Week of Gestation Till Term

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, J.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; Schiermeier, S.; Hatzmann, W.; Heinrich, T. M.; Hüsken-Janßen, H.; Herrmann, E.; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the functional adaptive process of the fetal autonomic nervous system during hypnosis from the 20th week of gestation till term. Are there changes in the power spectrum analysis of fetal heart rate when the mother is having a clinical hypnosis or control period? Study Design: Fourty-nine FHR recordings were analysed. Included recordings were from singletons and abdominal fetal ECG-monitored pregnancies. All women were randomised to receive clinical hypnosis followed by a period with no intervention or vice versa. Statistical analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon signed ranks and Spearman rho correlation tests. Results: There was a significant difference found between fetal heart rate at baseline (144.3 ± 6.0) and hypnosis (142.1 ± 6.4). A difference was also detected between the standard deviation of the heart rate between baseline (6.7 ± 1.9) and hypnosis (6.8 ± 3.5). LFnu was smaller during baseline (80.2 ± 5.3) than during hypnosis (82.1 ± 5.7), whereas HFnu was significantly larger (19.8 ± 5.3 vs. 17.9 ± 5.7). There was no correlation between the gestation age and the change in LFnu, HFnu or ratio LF/HF due to the hypnosis intervention. Conclusion: The functional adaptive process of the fetal autonomic system during hypnosis is reflected by a sympathovagal shift towards increased sympathetic modulation. PMID:25284838

  12. Selected pioneering works on humus in soils and sediments during the 20th century: A retrospective look from the International Humic Substances Society view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Christian; Brossard, Michel; Chen, Yona; Landa, Edward R.; Trichet, Jean

    Organic matter in general, and humic substances (HS) in particular, are involved in many processes in soils, sediments, rocks and natural waters. These include rock weathering, plant nutrition, pH buffering, trace metal mobility and toxicity, bioavailability, degradation and transport of hydrophobic organic chemicals, formation of disinfection by-products during water treatment, heterotrophic production in blackwater ecosystems and, more generally, the global carbon cycle. Before the 1970s, natural organic matter of different ecosystem pools ( i.e., soils, sediments, and natural waters) was often studied in isolation, although many similarities exist between them. This is particularly so for HS. In this historical context, a need appeared at the international level for bringing together environmental chemists, soil scientists, hydrologists, and geologists who were interested in HS to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas, to standardize analytical procedures and agree on definitions of HS. The International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) was founded in Denver, Colorado (USA) in 1981 with several objectives among them “to bring together scientists in the coal, soil, and water sciences with interests in humic substances” (home page of the IHSS web site: http://ihss.gatech.edu/ihss2/index.html). This paper presents selected pioneering works on humus in soils and sediments during the 20th century with a special focus on the links between the studies of soil HS and the formation, during early diagenesis, of the precursors of kerogens. Temporal coverage includes key contributions preceding the founding of the IHSS, and a brief history of the organization is presented.

  13. Detecting long-term metabolic shifts using isotopomers: CO2-driven suppression of photorespiration in C3 plants over the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Betson, Tatiana R.; Nilsson, Mats B.; Marshall, John D.; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial vegetation currently absorbs approximately a third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mitigating the rise of atmospheric CO2. However, terrestrial net primary production is highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 levels and associated climatic changes. In C3 plants, which dominate terrestrial vegetation, net photosynthesis depends on the ratio between photorespiration and gross photosynthesis. This metabolic flux ratio depends strongly on CO2 levels, but changes in this ratio over the past CO2 rise have not been analyzed experimentally. Combining CO2 manipulation experiments and deuterium NMR, we first establish that the intramolecular deuterium distribution (deuterium isotopomers) of photosynthetic C3 glucose contains a signal of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio. By tracing this isotopomer signal in herbarium samples of natural C3 vascular plant species, crops, and a Sphagnum moss species, we detect a consistent reduction in the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio in response to the ∼100-ppm CO2 increase between ∼1900 and 2013. No difference was detected in the isotopomer trends between beet sugar samples covering the 20th century and CO2 manipulation experiments, suggesting that photosynthetic metabolism in sugar beet has not acclimated to increasing CO2 over >100 y. This provides observational evidence that the reduction of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio was ca. 25%. The Sphagnum results are consistent with the observed positive correlations between peat accumulation rates and photosynthetic rates over the Northern Hemisphere. Our results establish that isotopomers of plant archives contain metabolic information covering centuries. Our data provide direct quantitative information on the “CO2 fertilization” effect over decades, thus addressing a major uncertainty in Earth system models. PMID:26644588

  14. Biodemographic study of a central Apennine area (Italy) in the 19th and 20th centuries: marriage seasonality and reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Danubio, M E; Amicone, E

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates seasonality of marriages and reproductive isolation in six long-isolated communities in the central Apennines (Italy). It had two objectives: (1) the identification of an Apennine biodemographic model in comparison with mountain communities of other regions, and with non-Apennine communities in Abruzzo, and (2) to identify the possible effects of the drainage of Lake Fucino (1854-1876) on that area. Marriages in this region show two very stable seasonal patterns: one is typical of sedentary rural societies, with summer migrations and marriages preferentially celebrated in the winter, and the other has marriages that are strongly concentrated in the summer months, i.e. between 75% and 93.5% of marriages were celebrated between June and October in these communities in the 1800s. These were traditionally pastoral communities with winter transhumance of the flocks and their shepherds towards the lowlands of southern Italy. In both groups, restrictions imposed by the Catholic Church do not seem to have affected the timing of marriages. Indeed, economic factors related to work activities seem to have had more influence. Concerning reproductive isolation, the results show high rates of endogamy: between 85% and 98% in both the 19th and 20th centuries. Rates of consanguineous marriages were between 5% and 20%, and those of isonymous marriages rarely exceeded 9%. The coefficient of inbreeding a shows that there was a delayed, limited period of increased consanguinity in the few decades around the turn of the century. This is different from the national situation, and thus could be a consequence of the Lake Fucino drainage. PMID:11446403

  15. 20th Century Trends in the H2O2 Ice Core Record From West Antarctica: Contributions From Accumulation Variability and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, M. M.; Stewart, R. W.; McConnell, J. R.; Bales, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    An array of centennial-scale ice core records of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was recently developed using shallow cores drilled at 24 different locations across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). H2O2 is a major atmospheric oxidant that is closely linked to chemical feedback mechanisms controlling the composition of the atmosphere. Ice core records of H2O2 offer the potential to reconstruct past changes in the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere if the processes controlling deposition and long-term preservation are quantitatively understood. Comparison of the 1900-50 with the 1950-2000 time period shows in all cores increases of >40% in mean H2O2 during the latter half of the 20th century. Atmospheric concentration, seasonal timing and rate of snow accumulation, as well as the site temperature largely determine the amount of H2O2 preserved in an ice core. Sensitivities of the long-term H2O2 record to changes in annual accumulation and temperature quantified with a semi-empirical deposition model suggest that interannual variability in H2O2 is dominated by the accumulation signal under the current WAIS temperature regime. However, observed trends can only be explained in part by changes in accumulation rate and timing. Recent field and model experiments in West Antarctica showed a negative correlation between stratospheric ozone and summer levels of atmospheric H2O2. Using the NASA-Goddard Flight Center (GSFC) point photochemical model the magnitude of atmospheric H2O2 enhancement due to changes in surface UV radiation over the past decades was estimated and compared to the H2O2 residual not accounted for by the deposition model. We suggest that part of the observed H2O2 increase in the core record is due to the occurrence of the spring time ozone hole since the 1970s.

  16. Kharlamova, N. F. Climate Changes over the 20th and 21st Centuries in the Upper Basin of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers (Altai Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovna, K. N., II

    2015-12-01

    The Russian climate is more sensitive to global warming than the climate in many other parts of the world. According to the Second Climate Change National Assessment, since the mid-1970s, the average temperature has been rising with rate of 0.43 ° C / 10 years, which is more than two times higher than the rate of global warming. In the Altai region, the rate of temperature change is higher than the average for Russia with an annual surface air temperature increase equal to 1.8°C the 20th century. The maximum value of this increase the past 50 years (1963-2013) was found in the intermountain basins of Altai (+ 2.6°C) mainly due to the winter and spring warming with changes in the summer season being considerably smaller. This warming is accompanied with negative tendencies in annual precipitation over the entire Altai Krai. The mountain ranges of Altai are called the "water tower" of Northern Eurasia. The northward flow of numerous rivers streaming down from these ranges in the Basin of the Ob and the Irtysh Rivers is formed by melting of Altai glaciers and snowfields. Since the middle of the 19th century the largest glaciers in the Altai have retreated by 1.5-2 km and the thickness of their tails decreased by 50-70 m. The reduction of mountain glaciers poses a threat of depletion of water flow to major agricultural regions downstream affecting human activity and even the drinking water availability. Permafrost in the Altai Mountains is actively degraded (thawing), which represents a danger for infrastructure (first of all for roads and pipelines) and increases risk of catastrophic events (landslides, mudflows). Continued warming could contribute to a significant reduction of water resources, biodiversity and other negative processes in the region.The reported study was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Baseline Research (project No. 15-45-04450).

  17. Intercomparison of CMIP5 and CMIP3 simulations of the 20th century maximum and minimum temperatures over India and detection of climatic trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonali, P.; Kumar, D. Nagesh; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impact assessment has become one of the most important subjects of the research community because of the recent increase in frequency of extreme events and changes in the spatiotemporal patterns of climate. This paper analyses the ability of 46 coupled climate models from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phases 3 and 5 (CMIP5 and CMIP3). The performance of each climate model was assessed based on its skills in simulating the current seasonal cycles (monthly) of both maximum temperature and minimum temperature (Tmax, Tmin) over India. The performance measures such as coefficient of correlation (Skill_r), root mean square error (Skill_rmse), and the skill in simulating the observed probability density function (Skill_s) are mainly employed for evaluation of the simulated monthly seasonal cycle. A new metric called Skill_All which is an intersection of the above three metrics has been defined for the first time. A notable enhancement of Skill_All for CMIP5 vis-a-vis CMIP3 is observed. Further, three best CMIP5 models each for Tmax and Tmin were selected. The methodology employed in this study for model assessment is implemented for the first time for India, which establishes a robust foundation for the climate impact assessment study. The seasonal trends in Tmax and Tmin were analyzed over all the temperature homogenous regions of India for different time slots during the 20th century. Significant trends in Tmin can be seen during most of the seasons over the entire Indian region during last four decades. This establishes the signature of climate change over most parts of India.

  18. Evidence from firn air for recent decreases in non-methane hydrocarbons and a 20th century increase in nitrogen oxides in the northern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worton, David R.; Sturges, William T.; Reeves, Claire E.; Newland, Mike J.; Penkett, Stuart A.; Atlas, Elliot; Stroud, Verity; Johnson, Kristen; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Solberg, Sverre; Schwander, Jakob; Barnola, Jean-Marc

    2012-07-01

    The atmospheric evolution of eight non-methane hydrocarbons (ethane, acetylene, propane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, isopentane and benzene) and five alkyl nitrates (2-propyl, 2-butyl, 3-methyl-2-butyl and the sum of 2+3-pentyl nitrates) are reconstructed for the latter half of the 20th century based on Arctic firn air measurements. The reconstructed trends of the non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) show increasing concentrations from 1950 to a maximum in 1980 before declining towards the end of last century. These observations provide direct evidence that NMHCs in the northern hemisphere have declined substantially during the period 1980-2001. Benzene concentrations show a smaller increase between 1950 and 1980 than the other NMHCs indicating that additional sources of benzene, other than fossil fuel combustion, were likely important contributors to the benzene budget prior to and during this period. The declining benzene concentrations from 1980 to 2001 would suggest that biomass burning is unlikely to be important in the benzene budget as biomass burning emissions were reportedly increasing over the same period. Methyl and ethyl nitrate show growth patterns in the firn that suggested perturbation by in-situ production from an unidentified mechanism. However, the higher alkyl nitrates show evidence for increasing concentrations from 1950 to maxima in the mid 1990s before decreasing slightly toward the end of the last century. The differing atmospheric evolution of the alkyl nitrates relative to their parent hydrocarbons indicate an increase in their production efficiency per hydrocarbon molecule. Using a steady state analysis of hydrocarbon oxidation and alkyl nitrate production and loss we show that reactive nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations in the northern hemisphere have likely increased considerably between 1950 and 2001.

  19. Detecting long-term metabolic shifts using isotopomers: CO2-driven suppression of photorespiration in C3 plants over the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Betson, Tatiana R; Nilsson, Mats B; Marshall, John D; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-12-22

    Terrestrial vegetation currently absorbs approximately a third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mitigating the rise of atmospheric CO2. However, terrestrial net primary production is highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 levels and associated climatic changes. In C3 plants, which dominate terrestrial vegetation, net photosynthesis depends on the ratio between photorespiration and gross photosynthesis. This metabolic flux ratio depends strongly on CO2 levels, but changes in this ratio over the past CO2 rise have not been analyzed experimentally. Combining CO2 manipulation experiments and deuterium NMR, we first establish that the intramolecular deuterium distribution (deuterium isotopomers) of photosynthetic C3 glucose contains a signal of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio. By tracing this isotopomer signal in herbarium samples of natural C3 vascular plant species, crops, and a Sphagnum moss species, we detect a consistent reduction in the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio in response to the ∼100-ppm CO2 increase between ∼1900 and 2013. No difference was detected in the isotopomer trends between beet sugar samples covering the 20th century and CO2 manipulation experiments, suggesting that photosynthetic metabolism in sugar beet has not acclimated to increasing CO2 over >100 y. This provides observational evidence that the reduction of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio was ca. 25%. The Sphagnum results are consistent with the observed positive correlations between peat accumulation rates and photosynthetic rates over the Northern Hemisphere. Our results establish that isotopomers of plant archives contain metabolic information covering centuries. Our data provide direct quantitative information on the "CO2 fertilization" effect over decades, thus addressing a major uncertainty in Earth system models. PMID:26644588

  20. The Education Policy Analysis in the Last Decade of the 20th Century in a Third World Country with Reference to Tanzania (1990-2000): The Shift Away from "Education for Self-Reliance."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swai, Fulgence

    This paper relies on documentary analysis available from primary and secondary data to identify policies that were put in place to arrest the shift of the Tanzanian educational system during the last decade of the 20th century from "Education for Self Reliance" to "Education and Training Policy"; to pick one policy and develop a discussion about…

  1. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13 keynote…

  2. Surface and thickness variations of Brenva Glacier tongue (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) in the second half of the 20th century by historical maps and aerial photogrammetry comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D Agata, C.; Zanutta, A.; Muzzu Martis, D.; Mancini, F.; Smiraglia, C.

    2003-04-01

    Aim of this contribution is the evaluation of volumetric and surface variations of Brenva Glacier (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) during the second half of the 20th century, by GIS-based processing of maps and aerial photogrammetry technique. Brenva Glacier is a typical debris covered glacier, located in a valley on the S-E side of the Mont Blanc. The glacier covers a surface of 7 kmq and shows a length of 7,6 km at maximum. The glacier snout reaches 1415 m a.s.l., which is the lowest glacier terminus of the Italian Alps. To evaluate glacier variations different historical maps were used: 1) The 1959 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, by EIRA (Ente Italiano Rilievi Aerofotogrammetrici, Firenze), from terrestrial photogrammetric survey, published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 19, 1971. 2) The 1971 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, from aerial photogrammetry (Alifoto, Torino) published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 20, 1972. 3) The 1988 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1983 aerial photogrammetric survey. 4) The 1999 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1991 aerial photogrammetry survey. For the same purpose the following aereal photographs were used: 1) The 1975 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. 2) The 1991 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. Aerial imageries have been acquired over a long period from 1975 to 1991. The black and white images were scanned at suitable resolution if compared with the imagery scale and several models, representing the glacier tongue area, oriented using the inner and outer orientation parameters delivered with the images, were produced. The digital photogrammetric system, after orientation and matching, produces

  3. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  4. EDITORIAL Smart materials, multifunctional composites, and morphing structures: selected papers from the 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST 2009) Smart materials, multifunctional composites, and morphing structures: selected papers from the 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2010-12-01

    The 20th International Conference on Adaptive Structures and Technologies (ICAST) was held on 20-22 October 2009 in Hong Kong. This special section of Smart Materials and Structures is derived from the research papers presented at the conference. Of the 106 papers presented at the conference, 11 papers were reviewed and accepted for this special section, following the regular review procedures of the journal. This special section is focused on smart materials, multifunctional composites, and applications on morphing structures. Smart materials. Smart materials are the foundation of adaptive structures and intelligent systems. The development of new materials will lead to significant improvement in various applications. Three articles are focused on the fabrication of new materials and investigation of their behaviors: Barium strontium zirconate titanate ((Ba1-xSrx)(ZrxTi1-x)O3; BSZT, x = 0.25 and 0.75) ceramics with a highly crystalline structure were fabricated using the combustion technique. The microstructure of BSZT powders exhibited an almost-spherical morphology and had a porous agglomerated form. Polyaniline (PANI)/clay nanoparticles with unique core-shell structure were synthesized via Pickering emulsion polymerization. By dispersing PANI/clay nanoparticles in silicone oil, the ER fluid was made. Magnetic field effects were investigated on the deposition rate and surface morphology of chromium nitride coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering for superior hardness, excellent wear and oxidation resistance. The surface morphology of chromium nitride films was also examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Multifunctional composites. Composites are made from two or more constituent materials so they can combine the best properties of different materials. Five papers deal with fabrication, testing, and modeling of various multifunctional composites: A new active structural fiber (ASF) was fabricated by coating a single carbon fiber with a concentric

  5. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  6. Hot electron production and heating by hot electrons in fast ignitor research

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M.H.; Estabrook, K.; Hammel, B.

    1997-12-01

    In an experimental study of the physics of fast ignition the characteristics of the hot electron source at laser intensities up to 10(to the 20th power) Wcm{sup -2} and the heating produced at depth by hot electrons have been measured. Efficient generation of hot electrons but less than the anticipated heating have been observed.

  7. Impacts of land use and land cover change on water resources and water scarcity in the 20th century: a multi-model multi-forcing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Socioeconomic developments increasingly put pressure on our global fresh water resources. Over the past century, increasing extents of land were converted into (irrigated) agricultural production areas whilst dams and reservoirs were built to get grip on the timing and availability of fresh water resources. Often targeted to be of use at local, regional, or national levels, such human interventions affect, however, terrestrial water fluxes on larger scales. Although many of these interventions have been studied intensively at global and regional scales, the impact of land use and land cover change has often been omitted, and an assessment on how land conversions impact water resources availability and water scarcity conditions was not executed before, despite its importance in the development of sound integrated river basin water management plans. To address this issue, we evaluate in this contribution how land use and land cover change impact water resources and water scarcity conditions in the 20th century, using a multi-model multi-forcing framework. A novelty of this research is that the impact models applied in this study use the dynamic HYDE 3.1 - MIRCA dataset to cover the historical (1971-2010) changes in land use and land cover. Preliminary results show that more than 60% of the global population, predominantly living in downstream areas, is adversely affected by the impacts of land use and land cover change on water resources and water scarcity conditions. Whilst incoming discharge generally (in 97% of the global land area) tends to decrease due to upstream land conversions, we found at the same time increases in local runoff levels for a significant share (27%) of the global land area. Which effect eventually dominates and whether it causes water scarcity conditions is determined by the dependency of a region to water resources originating in upstream areas, and by the increasing rates with which the (locally generated) stream flow is used to fulfil (non

  8. The Visual Difficulties of Selected Artists and Limitations of Ophthalmological Care During The 19th and Early 20th Centuries (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Ravin, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Methods Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Results Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Conclusions Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist’s ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist’s ability

  9. Quantifying the Lack of Consistency between Climate Model Projections and Observations of the Evolution of the Earth's Average Surface Temperature since the Mid-20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, P. J.; Knappenberger, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent climate change literature has been dominated by studies which show that the equilibrium climate sensitivity is better constrained than the latest estimates from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA) and that the best estimate of the climate sensitivity is considerably lower than the climate model ensemble average. From the recent literature, the central estimate of the equilibrium climate sensitivity is ~2°C, while the climate model average is ~3.2°C, or an equilibrium climate sensitivity that is some 40% lower than the model average.To the extent that the recent literature produces a more accurate estimate of the equilibrium climate sensitivity than does the climate model average, it means that the projections of future climate change given by both the IPCC and NCA are, by default, some 40% too large (too rapid) and the associated (and described) impacts are gross overestimates.A quantitative test of climate model performance can be made by comparing the range of model projections against observations of the evolution of the global average surface temperature since the mid-20th century. Here, we perform such a comparison on a collection of 108 model runs comprising the ensemble used in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report and find that the observed global average temperature evolution for all trend lengths (with one exception) since 1986 is less than 97.5% of the model distribution, meaning that the observed trends are significantly different from the average trend simulated by climate models. For periods approaching 40 years in length, the observed trend lies outside of (below) the range that includes 95% of all climate model simulations.We conclude that at the global scale, this suite of climate models has failed. Treating them as mathematical hypotheses, which they are, means that it is the duty of scientists to, unfortunately, reject their predictions in lieu of those with a lower climate

  10. Tree-ring stable carbon isotope-based May-July temperature reconstruction over Nanwutai, China, for the past century and its record of 20th century warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Yanchao; Li, Qiang; Song, Huiming; Linderholm, Hans W.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wang, Ruiyuan; An, Zhisheng

    2014-06-01

    Growth anomaly of trees in some regions was detected under current episode of rapid warming. This raises a dilemma for temperature reconstructions by using tree-ring width which is believed to be the most important proxy on inter-annual temperature reconstruction during the past millenniums. Here we employed the tree-ring δ13C to reconstruct temperature variations for exploring their potential on capturing signals of rapid warming, and to test how its difference with the tree-ring width based reconstruction. In this study the mean May-July temperature (TM-J) was reconstructed over the past century by tree-ring δ13C of Chinese pine trees growing in the Nanwutai region. The explained variance of the reconstruction was 43.3% (42.1% after adjusting the degrees of freedom). Compared to a ring-width temperature reconstruction (May-July) from the same site, the tree-ring δ13C-based temperature reconstruction offered two distinct advantages: 1) it captured a wider range of temperature variability, i.e., at least May-July, even over a longer part of the year, January-September; and 2) the reconstruction preserved more low-frequency climate information than that of ring width did. The 20th century warming was well represented in the Nanwutai tree-ring δ13C temperature reconstruction, which implied that stable carbon isotope of tree rings potentially represents temperature variations during historical episodes of rapid warming. A spatial correlation analysis showed that our temperature reconstruction represented climate variations over the entire Loess Plateau in north-central China. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.1) were found between the temperature reconstruction and ENSO, as well as SSTs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The reconstruction showed the periodicities of 22.78-, 4.16-, 3.45-3.97- and 2.04-2.83-year quasi-cycles at a 95% confidence level. Our results suggested that temperature variability in the Nanwutai region may be linked to Pacific and Indian

  11. Effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated early life stage toxicity on lake trout populations in Lake Ontario during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip M; Robbins, John A; Endicott, Douglas D; Lodge, Keith B; Guiney, Patrick D; Walker, Mary K; Zabel, Erik W; Peterson, Richard E

    2003-09-01

    Lake trout embryos and sac fry are very sensitive to toxicity associated with maternal exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and structurally related chemicals that act through a common aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated mechanism of action. The loading of large amounts of these chemicals into Lake Ontario during the middle of the 20th century coincided with a population decline that culminated in extirpation of this species around 1960. Prediction of past TCDD toxicity equivalence concentrations in lake trout eggs (TEC(egg)s) relative to recent conditions required fine resolution of radionuclide-dated contaminant profiles in two sediment cores; reference core specific biota--sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for TCDD-like chemicals in lake trout eggs; adjustment of the BSAFs for the effect of temporal changes in the chemical distributions between water and sediments; and toxicity equivalence factors based on trout early life stage mortality. When compared to the dose-response relationship for overt early life stage toxicity of TCDD to lake trout, the resulting TEC(egg)s predict an extended period during which lake trout sac fry survival was negligible. By 1940, following more than a decade of population decline attributable to reduced fry stocking and loss of adult lake trout to commercial fishing, the predicted sac fry mortality due to AHR-mediated toxicity alone explains the subsequent loss of the species. Reduced fry survival, associated with lethal and sublethal adverse effects and possibly complicated by other environmental factors, occurred after 1980 and contributed to a lack of reproductive success of stocked trout despite gradually declining TEC(egg)s. Present exposures are close to the most probable no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL TECegg = 5 pg TCDD toxicity equivalence/g egg). The toxicity predictions are very consistent with the available historical data for lake trout population levels in Lake Ontario, stocking

  12. Effect of warming on larch trees in the Asian southern border of the boreal forest, Mongolia and China in the 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Caceres, Maximo Larry; Cho, Qiqin; Nobori, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Kazuo; Byambasuren, Mijidsuren; Zhang, Yandong; Sugimoto, Atsuko

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades air temperature (Ta) has been increasing steadily around the globe and it is reported that in the last 40 years Ta in Mongolia alone has increased by about 2.1 deg.C. The boreal region as a whole is expected to experience changes due to atmospheric drying, permafrost degradation, increases in the frequency of forest fires and other factors that will lead to a shift of the forest ecosystems northward. The southern border of the boreal forest distributes in northern Mongolia and northeast China, which as transition areas are more sensitive to changes. In a 500 km long south-north transect of larch forests extending in each of these two countries, larch forest sites were chosen (Larix sibirica in Mongolia and Larix gmeliini in China). Studies until now have used only tree-ring analysis to determined past and recent climate in Mongolia and China. However, isotope analysis has not been coupled with this analysis to give a wider overview of the environmental changes taking place in these regions. Therefore in this study tree core samples were collected for tree-ring and carbon isotope analysis to be coupled with available meteorological data. These data indicate that in the last four decades, the northernmost site of the selected transect has experienced the largest increase in Ta, but nevertheless the annual Ta in the southernmost site remained several degrees higher. On the other hand precipitation shows a very slight increase in the central and northernmost sites while an insignificant decrease is observed in the southernmost site. Tree-ring analysis shows that for most of the 20th century tree ring growth had lower inter-annual variability until the beginning of the 1970's but from then on the annual variability has increased. Unlike the results of the tree-ring analysis, the carbon isotope analysis revealed that until the 1970's the increases in the drying atmospheric conditions (higher temperature-no changes in rainfall) were not present but the

  13. Physiology of Penile Erection—A Brief History of the Scientific Understanding up till the Eighties of the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    erection. The concepts from animal experimentations in Europe in the 19th century significantly contributed to the current understanding of penile erection. van Driel MF. Physiology of penile erection—a brief history of the scientific understanding up till the eighties of the 20th century. Sex Med 2015;3:343–351. PMID:26797073

  14. Early intrauterine development: I. The rate of growth of Caucasian embryos and fetuses between the 6th and 20th weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Iffy, L; Jakobovits, A; Westlake, W; Wingate, M; Caterini, H; Kanofsky, P; Menduke, H

    1975-08-01

    Liberalization of abortion laws in various countries and states of Europe and America has offered an opportunity for the study of the correlations between menstrual age and the rate of bodily development of human embryos and fetuses. In several institutions where local bylaws mandated the consent of the patients requesting therapeutic abortion to pathological investigation of the products of conception, various parameters of growth were measured systematically. These included crown-rump and foot lengths and body weight. The analysis of the data indicated that in the embryosic stages of development the rate of growth is substantially slower than it had been assumed previously. In the more advanced fetal stages of development the findings supported the validity of the long-established standard of Streeter. Since the current study has been based on apparently normal gestations of healthy women, whereas earlier data had rested, to a great extent, on spontaneously aborted and extopic embryon and fetuses, it seems evident that pathological specimens are not suitable for the purpose of establishing reliable standards of normal intrauterine growth rate. The present data support the suggestion, based on various experimental and clinical observations, that pathological gestations often result from abnormal ovulations that occur at times other than the mid-cycle and that such conceptions are frequently followed by a bleeding episode that simulates menstruation. It is likely that the inclusion of a high number of such cases biased the results of earlier investigations concerning embryonic growth rate on account of the frequent incidence of erroneous menstrual histories. The material available did not permit the extension of the investigation beyond the 20th week of gestation. It appears, however, that the average growth rate in the mid-trimester may be slower than the data adopted by the American Academy of Pediatrics would indicate. The possible causes of some phenomena

  15. 20th century sediment budget trends on the Western Gulf of Lions shoreface (France): An application of an integrated method for the study of sediment coastal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunel, C.; Certain, R.; Sabatier, F.; Robin, N.; Barusseau, J. P.; Aleman, N.; Raynal, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a shoreface sediment budget established for the 20th century (1895-1984-2009) along the microtidal wave-dominated coast of the western Gulf of Lions (Languedoc-Roussillon, Mediterranean Sea, SE France). The implementation of a diachronic bathymetric approach, coupled with the definition of sand reservoirs (upper sand unit - USU) by very high-resolution seismic surveys and the results of LiDAR investigations, offers a new means of defining precisely the magnitude and change trends of the sediment budget. The aim of this study is to link the Large Scale Coastal Behaviour (LSCB) of the littoral prism (expressed in terms of shoreface sediment budget, shoreface sediment volume and spatial distribution pattern of cells) to climatic change, river sediment input to the coast, longshore sediment transport distribution, impact of hard coastal defence structures and artificial beach nourishment. The results show a significant reduction of the volume of the western Gulf of Lions littoral prism over 114 years (- 26.1 ± 4.6 × 106 m3). From 1895 to 1984, the overall budget is slightly positive, with a volume estimated at 4.1 ± 3.5 × 106 m3. For 1984-2009, however, the estimated sediment budgets clearly indicate that erosion is dominant over the last 25 years, with a volume loss of - 30.2 ± 4.2 × 106 m3. In relation to the long-term sediment budget and longshore drift pattern, the long-term trend of the USU volume distribution displays strong spatio-temporal contrasts linked to longshore sediment drift, spatial distribution of fluvial sediment inputs and hard engineering structures. Locally, the sedimentary reservoir is significantly eroded within a century (- 80% of USU), since the initial amount present was low and not sustainable. The emphasis is on the importance of considering the volume changes of available sediment reservoirs rather than their losses and gains. Erosion of the Languedoc-Roussillon shoreface is likely to continue in the future due to

  16. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  17. Logistics | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Date and TimeRegistration will begin at 8:30 am on Friday, September 20th. The meeting will begin promptly at 9:00 am.LocationNIH CampusNatcher Conference CenterBuilding 4545 Center DriveBethesda, MD |

  18. Fall Department Head Report--Reporting Booklet 2.0 to the Massachusetts Division of Occupational Education (Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1975) for Electronics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Management and Information System for Occupational Education, Winchester, MA.

    The reporting booklet is required for the Census Data System (CDS) of the Management Information System for Occupational Education (MISOE); it contains the reporting forms which collect data that describe program structure and job-entry skill outcomes expected of program completors in the individual occupational education area of electronics.…

  19. Chemical Engineering Division Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical Engineering Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer was Theodore Vermeulen of the University of California at Berkeley. Other chemical engineers who received awards or special recognition at a recent ASEE annual conference are mentioned. (BB)

  20. Bring Back Short Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Chich

    1985-01-01

    Some benefits of helping learners think in prime numbers are detailed. Reasons for the decay of this ability are described, with short division presented as one activity which should be reintroduced in schools. (MNS)

  1. Carbon cycling in extratropical terrestrial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere during the 20th century: A modeling analysis of the influences of soil thermal dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, Q.; McGuire, A.D.; Melillo, J.M.; Clein, J.S.; Dargaville, R.J.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Myneni, R.B.; Dong, J.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.; Hobbie, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that soil thermal dynamics are changing in terrestrial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere and that these dynamics have implications for the exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. To date, large-scale biogeochemical models have been slow to incorporate the effects of soil thermal dynamics on processes that affect carbon exchange with the atmosphere. In this study we incorporated a soil thermal module (STM), appropriate to both permafrost and non-permafrost soils, into a large-scale ecosystem model, version 5.0 of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). We then compared observed regional and seasonal patterns of atmospheric CO2 to simulations of carbon dynamics for terrestrial ecosystems north of 30??N between TEM 5.0 and an earlier version of TEM (version 4.2) that lacked a STM. The timing of the draw-down of atmospheric CO2 at the start of the growing season and the degree of draw-down during the growing season were substantially improved by the consideration of soil thermal dynamics. Both versions of TEM indicate that climate variability and change promoted the loss of carbon from temperate ecosystems during the first half of the 20th century, and promoted carbon storage during the second half of the century. The results of the simulations by TEM suggest that land-use change in temperate latitudes (30-60??N) plays a stronger role than climate change in driving trends for increased uptake of carbon in extratropical terrestrial ecosystems (30-90??N) during the recent decades. In the 1980s the TEM 5.0 simulation estimated that extratropical terrestrial ecosystems stored 0.55 Pg C yr-1. with 0.24 Pg C yr-1 in North America and 0.31 Pg C yr-1 in northern Eurasia. From 1990 through 1995 the model simulated that these ecosystems stored 0.90 Pg C yr-1, with 0.27 Pg C yr-1 stored in North America and 0.63 Pg C yr-1 stored in northern Eurasia. Thus, in comparison to the 1980s, simulated net carbon storage in the

  2. Temporal variability of total cloud cover at a Mediterranean megacity in the 20th century: Evidence from visual observations and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Founda, Dimitra; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Pierros, Fragiskos

    2013-04-01

    Cloud cover is one of the major factors that determine the radiation budget and the climate system of the Earth. Moreover, the response of clouds has always been an important source of uncertainty in global climate models. Visual surface observations of clouds have been conducted at the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) since the mid 19th century. The historical archive of cloud reports at NOA since 1860 has been digitized and updated, spanning now a period of one and a half century. Mean monthly values of total cloud cover were derived by averaging subdaily observations of cloud cover (3 observations/day). Changes in observational practice (e.g. from 1/10 to 1/8 units) were considered, however, subjective measures of cloud cover from trained observers introduces some kind of uncertainty in the time series. Data before 1884 were considered unreliable, so the analysis was restricted to the series from 1884 to 2012. The time series of total cloud cover at NOA is validated and correlated with historical time series of other (physically related) variables such as the total sunshine duration as well as DTR (Diurnal Temperature Range) which are independently measured. Trend analysis was performed on the mean annual and seasonal series of total cloud cover from 1884-2012. The mean annual values show a marked temporal variability with sub periods of decreasing and increasing tendencies, however, the overall linear trend is positive and statistically significant (p <0.001) amounting to +2% per decade and implying a total increase of almost 25% for the whole analysed period. These results are in agreement qualitatively with the trends reported in other studies worldwide, especially concerning the period before the mid 20th century. On a seasonal basis, spring and summer series present outstanding positive long term trends, while in winter and autumn total cloud cover reveals also positive but less pronounced long term trends Additionally, an evaluation of cloud cover and

  3. Earthflow response to Pacific Decadal Oscillation-driven climate change: 20th Century trends and predictions for the Eel River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, B. H.; Roering, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Predicting landscape response to climate change is one of the contemporary and pressing challenges in Earth surface process research. We present data from a regional study of large, slow moving earthflows in the Eel River catchment, northern California. A 230 km2 LiDAR dataset and a series of orthorectified aerial photos enables documentation of over 80 individual active earthflow features, including 12 large (>1.5 km long) failures with sufficient displacement (>40 m) to generate a time series of earthflow movement spanning 1944-2006. The displacement data, determined by systematically tracking the position of shrubs growing on earthflow surfaces, cluster into 3 distinct temporal patterns. One group exhibits peak velocities from 1944-1954 with little subsequent movement, while a second group of earthflows attain maximum velocities exceeding 4m/a in the 1960’s. The third group shows non-systematic temporal patterns of movement. Examination of northern California climate records dating from the 1920’s reveals little statistically significant change in measures such as annual rainfall. However, we do observe a significant change in the annual distribution of precipitation, river discharge, and mean annual temperature over the mid part of the 20th Century, potentially attributable to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). For example, over the period 1940-1970, the lower quartile of daily Eel River discharge (calculated every water year), is nearly double that recorded for the decades before and after. This implies stronger base flows sustained by higher groundwater levels, conditions conducive to increased earthflow activity. The earthflows within each group of similar temporal behavior share key topographic and morphologic attributes; respectively summarized as disconnection from major channels, a long, well supplied transport zone, and tight channel coupling. Strikingly, the velocity patterns of the second group of earthflows mimic the record of baseflow

  4. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  5. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    1999-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported are a synopsis of the work and accomplishments reported by the Division during the 1996 calendar year. A bibliography containing 42 citations is provided.

  6. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    2001-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included in this report are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported is a synopsis of the work and accomplishments completed by the Division during the 1997, 1998, and 1999 calendar years. A bibliography containing 93 citations is provided.

  7. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a component of tea (Camellia sinensis): a study by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Miller, J M; Shah, S

    1999-07-15

    A component of aqueous extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), known to reverse methicillin-resistance in staphylococci, causes extensive morphological changes in methicillin-resistant but not in methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Clumps of partly divided cocci, consisting of up to 14 individuals, with thickened internal but normal external cell walls were seen by electron microscopy in cultures of methicillin-resistant S. aureus grown in the presence of the active principle. The morphological changes observed were consistent with selective inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins. PMID:10427729

  8. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  10. The Problem with Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Of the "big four", division is likely to regarded by many learners as "the odd one out", "the difficult one", "the one that is complicated", or "the scary one". It seems to have been that way "for ever", in the perception of many who have trodden the learning pathways through the world of number. But, does it have to be like this? Clearly the…

  11. Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Anticrossproducts and cross divisions.

    PubMed

    de Leva, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper defines, in the context of conventional vector algebra, the concept of anticrossproduct and a family of simple operations called cross or vector divisions. It is impossible to solve for a or b the equation axb=c, where a and b are three-dimensional space vectors, and axb is their cross product. However, the problem becomes solvable if some "knowledge about the unknown" (a or b) is available, consisting of one of its components, or the angle it forms with the other operand of the cross product. Independently of the selected reference frame orientation, the known component of a may be parallel to b, or vice versa. The cross divisions provide a compact and insightful symbolic representation of a family of algorithms specifically designed to solve problems of such kind. A generalized algorithm was also defined, incorporating the rules for selecting the appropriate kind of cross division, based on the type of input data. Four examples of practical application were provided, including the computation of the point of application of a force and the angular velocity of a rigid body. The definition and geometrical interpretation of the cross divisions stemmed from the concept of anticrossproduct. The "anticrossproducts of axb" were defined as the infinitely many vectors x(i) such that x(i)xb=axb. PMID:18423647

  13. Division XII Business Meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm G.; Genova, Francoise; Anderson, Johannes; Federman, Steven R.; Gilmore, Alan C.; Nha, Il-Seong; Norris, Raymond P.; Robson, Ian E.; Stavinschi, Magda G.; Trimble, Virginia L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2010-05-01

    Brief meetings were held to confirm the elections of the incoming Division President, Francoise Genova and Vice President, Ray Norris along with the Organizing Committee which will consist of the incoming Presidents of the 7 Commissions (5,6,14,41,46,50 and 55) plus additional nominated members. The incoming Organizing Committee will thus consist of:

  14. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    CMT is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. It conducts R&D in 3 general areas: development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, materials chemistry of electrified interfaces and molecular sieves, and the theory of materials properties. It also operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at ANL and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1996 are presented.

  15. PROJECT LISTING - CLEAN PROCESSES BRANCH (SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This list of projects for the Clean Processes Branch (CPB)of NRMRL's Sustainable Technology Division covers CPB projects in the areas of metal finishing and electronics pollution prevention; green engineering for chemical synthesis; solvent and coatings alternatives; separations ...

  16. Engineering Research Division report on reports: calendar year 1979. [LLL

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.L.; Johnston, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    A bibliography of publications of members of the Engineering Research Division of the Electronics Engineering Department is presented for 1979. Abstracts for 148 publications are included, along with author and keywork indexes. (RWR)

  17. SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION - HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the Sustainable Technology Division is to advance the scientific understanding, development and application of technologies and methods for prevention, removal and control of environmental risks to human health and ecology. The Division is organized into four bra...

  18. Division X: Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ren-Dong; Taylor, Russ; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Chapman, Jessica; Dubner, Gloria; Garrett, Michael; Goss, W. Miller; Torrelles, Jose M.; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Carilli, Chris; Hills, Richard; Shastri, Prajval

    2010-05-01

    The business meeting of Division X in the IAU 2009GA took place in three sessions during the day of August 6, 2009. The meeting, being well attended, started with the approval for the meeting agenda. Then the triennium reports were made in the first session by the president of Division X, Ren-Dong Nan, and by the chairs of three working groups: “Historic Radio Astronomy WG” by Wayne Orchiston, “Astrophysically Important Lines WG” by Masatoshi Ohishi, and “Global VLBI WG” by Tasso Tzioumis (proxy chair appointed by Steven Tingay). Afterwards, a dozen reports from observatories and worldwide significant projects have been presented in the second session. Business meeting of “Interference Mitigation WG” was located in the third session.

  19. Energy Systems Divisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, John

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the JSC Energy Systems Divisions work in propulsion. Specific work in LO2/CH4 propulsion, cryogenic propulsion, low thrust propulsion for Free Flyer, robotic and Extra Vehicular Activities, and work on the Morpheus terrestrial free flyer test bed is reviewed. The back-up slides contain a chart with comparisons of LO2/LCH4 with other propellants, and reviewing the advantages especially for spacecraft propulsion.

  20. Earth Sciences Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division's research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth's crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989, a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will, in the coming years, be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.

  1. Easy come-easy go divisible cash

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Tsiounis, Y.; Frankel, Y.

    1996-10-16

    Recently, there has been an interest in making electronic cash protocols more practical for electronic commerce by developing e-cash which is divisible (e.g., a coin which can be spent incrementally but total purchases are limited to the monetary value of the coin). In Crypto`95, T. Okamoto presented the first practical divisible, untraceable, off-line e-cash scheme, which requires only O(log N) computations for each of the withdrawal, payment and deposit procedures, where N = (total coin value)/(smallest divisible unit). However, Okamoto`s set-up procedure is quite inefficient (on the order of 4,000 multi-exponentiations and depending on the size of the RSA modulus). The authors formalize the notion of range-bounded commitment, originally used in Okamoto`s account establishment protocol, and present a very efficient instantiation which allows one to construct the first truly efficient divisible e-cash system. The scheme only requires the equivalent of one (1) exponentiation for set-up, less than 2 exponentiations for withdrawal and around 20 for payment, while the size of the coin remains about 300 Bytes. Hence, the withdrawal protocol is 3 orders of magnitude faster than Okamoto`s, while the rest of the system remains equally efficient, allowing for implementation in smart-cards. Similar to Okamoto`s, the scheme is based on proofs whose cryptographic security assumptions are theoretically clarified.

  2. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  3. Division Quilts: A Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sarah S.; Lupton, Tina M.; Richardson, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    As teachers seek activities to assist students in understanding division as more than just the algorithm, they find many examples of division as fair sharing. However, teachers have few activities to engage students in a quotative (measurement) model of division. Efraim Fischbein and his colleagues (1985) defined two types of whole-number…

  4. USACE DIVISION AND DISTRICT BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USACE Division and District Boundary data contains the delination of Corps Division and District boundaries. District and Division Boundaries are based on the US political and watershed boundaries. In the mid 1990's, WES created the file by digitizing the 1984 Civil Wor...

  5. Proceedings of the 20th International Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions (IISC-20), Wirrina Cove, Australia, 16th-21st of February 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Gunther; Ridings, Christiaan; MacCallum, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    The research on inelastic ion-surface collisions has developed over the last few decades into a variety of fields and covers energy loss of particles at surfaces, charge exchange processes, electron, photon and secondary ion emission due to particle impact on surfaces, defect formation, surface modification and nanostructuring, laser induced desorption, scattering of atoms, ions, molecules and clusters, sputtering and fragmentation, cluster and ion formation in SIMS and SNMS and highly charged ion beams. The understanding of the nature of ion-surface collisions has led to the development of many surface analytical and microscopic techniques. These techniques are used for surface and structural analysis, and surface modification in a large number of laboratories all over the world. Development of a large scale technology like nuclear fusion would not exist without the fundamental understanding of ion-surface collisions. The IISC workshops bring together researchers from different fields and facilitate the discussion of fundamental research, applications, and developments of new fields. Examples of new fields developed in recent years are guiding of ions in capillaries, surface channelling, and surface diffraction. These fields have been developed and have started to find their way into tools for analysis and material modification.

  6. The Impact of New Media on 20th-Century Astronomy: From Individual Records to Catalogs, Data Centers, Information Hubs and so-called `Virtual Observatories'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    Astronomy is largely a virtual science. Most of our knowledge of the universe is derived from photons reaching us from the outer space. And because of the finite speed of light, we do not observe the objects the way they are, but the way they were when the photons we are collecting actually left them. What we have thus in our data files is nothing other than a huge and complex virtuality of prior stages, differenciated as a function of the distance in space and time of the various sources. Thus the job of astronomers is to work on that space-time mosaicked virtual universe in order to figure out what is exactly the real universe and to understand the place and rôle of man in it. As a result of the huge amount of data accumulated, but also by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have been pioneering the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This talk will offer a few comments on the impact and changing sociology of astronomy information handling over the past century, drifting from individual measurements or records to catalogs and data centers, and moving now from information hubs to those advanced digital research facilities called `virtual observatories'.

  7. Coracoacromial ligament division.

    PubMed

    Johansson, J E; Barrington, T W

    1984-01-01

    The object of this paper is to report on the findings of a retrospective study of 40 patients with 41 shoulders with persistent painful arc syndrome secondary to a chronic coracoacromial ligament inflammation who underwent simple coracoacromial ligament division at the Toronto East General and Orthopaedic Hospital between January 1973 and June 1979. Initial therapy was always nonoperative. Surgical intervention was reserved for patients who did not respond to conservative management and who had a painful arc with tenderness of the coracoacromial ligament. The aim of the coracoacromial ligament division was to relieve impingement by releasing the coracoacromial arch. Patients were carefully examined to rule out associated neck pathology, rotator cuff problems, and lesions of the acromioclavicular joint. Any patients with significantly large osteophytes under the anterior acromion were excluded. Forty patients (41 shoulders) were questioned and examined in followup. There were 29 males and 11 females. The ages ranged from 21 to 72 years (average 43.5 years). In 21 shoulders (51%), there was a history of trauma as the initiating factor. The follow-up ranged from 8 to 76 months (average 36.3 months). According to a described rating system, the results were satisfactory to excellent in 39 of 41 shoulders (95%) and unsatisfactory in two of 41 shoulders (5%). The back to work time ranged from 1 to 16 weeks (average 5.7 weeks).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6742288

  8. Modeling games from the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    A scientific framework is described in which scientists are cast as problem-solvers, and problems as solved when data are mapped to models. This endeavor is limited by finite attentional capacity which keeps depth of understanding complementary to breadth of vision; and which distinguishes the process of science from its products, scientists from scholars. All four aspects of explanation described by Aristotle trigger, function, substrate, and model are required for comprehension. Various modeling languages are described, ranging from set theory to calculus of variations, along with exemplary applications in behavior analysis. PMID:11369459

  9. Creationism in 20th-Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    1982-01-01

    As the crusade to outlaw the teaching of evolution changed to a battle for equal time for creationism, the ideological defenses of that doctrine also shifted, from biblical to scientific grounds. The development of "scientific creationism" is described, focusing on the intellectual leaders of creationism, particularly those claiming scientific…

  10. Space agency notes 20th anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frosch, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The twentieth anniversary of NASA is announced. A chronology of major milestones of the NASA program is given along with a brief outline of the programs and responsibilities of NASA Headquarters and the NASA centers and facilities. The NASA launch record is included.

  11. The 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Numerous topics related to aerospace mechanisms were discussed. Deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, hydraulic actuators, positioning mechanisms, electric motors, communication satellite instruments, redundancy, lubricants, bearings, space stations, rotating joints, and teleoperators are among the topics covered.

  12. 20th-Century Gold Rush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  13. Gonadotropin therapy: a 20th century relic.

    PubMed

    Reindollar, Richard H; Goldman, Marlene B

    2012-04-01

    Gonadotropin therapy has been a cornerstone of infertility therapy for half a century. From the very beginning, its use has been associated with a high rate of multiple births, particularly high order multiples, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Initially, success rates seemed acceptable when used for superovulation (SO)/IUI therapy. However, as data from RCTs have emerged, reported outcomes suggest that we question the use of injectible gonadotropins. This manuscript examines the studies that have challenged gonadotropin use for SO/IUI and other research that supports reduced doses of gonadotropins for IVF. We examine the challenges for its continued use for SO/IUI and for moving to lower doses worldwide for IVF. We propose a future that views gonadotropins as a relic of the twentieth century. PMID:22463775

  14. Antimatter and 20th Century Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the history of antimatter from the concept first introduced in 1898 up to the present day and is intended to complement the article "Antihydrogen on Tap" on page 229 [of this issue of "Physics Education"]. It is hoped that it will provide enough historical background material along with interesting snippets of…

  15. Activities: Understanding Division of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezuk, Nadine S.; Armstrong, Barbara E.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of five activities that introduce division of fractions through real-world situations. Discusses problems related to resurfacing a highway, painting dividing stripes on a highway, covering one area A with another area B, looking for patterns, and maximizing the result of a division problem. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  16. Lightning Talks 2015: Theoretical Division

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, Jack S.

    2015-11-25

    This document is a compilation of slides from a number of student presentations given to LANL Theoretical Division members. The subjects cover the range of activities of the Division, including plasma physics, environmental issues, materials research, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and computational methods.

  17. The Division of Family Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Julia A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the marital role division between couples, in the Philadelphia area, concentrating on the division of household tasks, child care, and paid employment. Data support a marital power model with husband's income negatively related and wife's education positively related to shared roles. Blacks are more likely to share roles. (Author)

  18. Physics Division computer facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division maintains several computer systems for data analysis, general-purpose computing, and word processing. While the VMS VAX clusters are still used, this past year saw a greater shift to the Unix Cluster with the addition of more RISC-based Unix workstations. The main Divisional VAX cluster which consists of two VAX 3300s configured as a dual-host system serves as boot nodes and disk servers to seven other satellite nodes consisting of two VAXstation 3200s, three VAXstation 3100 machines, a VAX-11/750, and a MicroVAX II. There are three 6250/1600 bpi 9-track tape drives, six 8-mm tapes and about 9.1 GB of disk storage served to the cluster by the various satellites. Also, two of the satellites (the MicroVAX and VAX-11/750) have DAPHNE front-end interfaces for data acquisition. Since the tape drives are accessible cluster-wide via a software package, they are, in addition to replay, used for tape-to-tape copies. There is however, a satellite node outfitted with two 8 mm drives available for this purpose. Although not part of the main cluster, a DEC 3000 Alpha machine obtained for data acquisition is also available for data replay. In one case, users reported a performance increase by a factor of 10 when using this machine.

  19. Time-division SQUID multiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, K. D.; Vale, L. R.; Bergren, N. E.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Nam, S. W.; Reintsema, C. D.; Rudman, D. A.; Huber, M. E.

    2002-02-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of low-temperature bolometers and microcalorimeters based on superconducting transition-edge sensors with a manageable number of readout channels. We discuss the technical tradeoffs between proposed time-division multiplexer and frequency-division multiplexer schemes and motivate our choice of time division. Our first-generation SQUID multiplexer is now in use in an astronomical instrument. We describe our second-generation SQUID multiplexer, which is based on a new architecture that significantly reduces the dissipation of power at the first stage, allowing thousands of SQUIDs to be operated at the base temperature of a cryostat. .

  20. Physics division annual report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2008-02-28

    This report highlights the activities of the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory in 2006. The Division's programs include the operation as a national user facility of ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System, research in nuclear structure and reactions, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, investigations in medium-energy nuclear physics as well as research and development in accelerator technology. The mission of nuclear physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the core of matter, the fuel of stars, and the basic constituent of life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission.

  1. Division II: Sun and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, Donald B.; Martinez Pillet, Valentin; Webb, David F.; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Klimchuk, James A.; Kosovichev, Alexander; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; von Steiger, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    This report is on activities of the Division at the General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro. Summaries of scientific activities over the past triennium have been published in Transactions A, see Melrose et al. (2008), Klimchuk et al. (2008), Martinez Pillet et al. (2008) and Bougeret et al. (2008). The business meeting of the three Commissions were incorporated into the business meeting of the Division. This report is based in part on minutes of the business meeting, provided by the Secretary of the Division, Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, and it also includes reports provided by the Presidents of the Commissions (C10, C12, C49) and of the Working Groups (WGs) in the Division.

  2. Division 1137 property control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated data processing property control system was developed by Mobile and Remote Range Division 1137. This report describes the operation of the system and examines ways of using it in operational planning and control.

  3. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1984-07-01

    E (Experimental Physics) Division carries out basic and applied research in atomic and nuclear physics, in materials science, and in other areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Some of the activities are cooperative efforts with other divisions of the Laboratory, and, in a few cases, with other laboratories. Many of the experiments are directly applicable to problems in weapons and energy, some have only potential applied uses, and others are in pure physics. This report presents abstracts of papers published by E (Experimental Physics) Division staff members between July 1983 and June 1984. In addition, it lists the members of the scientific staff of the division, including visitors and students, and some of the assignments of staff members on scientific committees. A brief summary of the budget is included.

  4. Mitochondrial division in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gandre, Shilpa; van der Bliek, Alexander M

    2007-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial division proteins has largely focused on yeast and mammalian cells. We describe methods to use Caenorhabditis elegans as an alternative model for studying mitochondrial division, taking advantage of the many wonderful resources provided by the C. elegans community. Our methods are largely based on manipulation of gene expression using classic and molecular genetic techniques combined with fluorescence microscopy. Some biochemical methods are also included. As antibodies become available, these biochemical methods are likely to become more sophisticated. PMID:18314747

  5. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1981-07-01

    This report describes some of the activities in E (Experimental Physics) Division during the past year. E-Division carries out research and development in areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Many of the activities are in pure and applied atomic and nuclear physics and in material science. In addition this report describes work on accelerators, microwaves, plasma diagnostics, determination of atmospheric oxygen and of nitrogen in tissue.

  6. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes some of the activities in E (Experimental Physics) Division during the past year. E-division carries out research and development in areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Many of the activities are in pure and applied atomic and nuclear physics and in materials science. In addition, this report describes development work on accelerators and on instrumentation for plasma diagnostics, nitrogen exchange rates in tissue, and breakdown in gases by microwave pulses.

  7. Treatment with Antibiotics that Interfere with Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis Inhibits Chloroplast Division in the Desmid Closterium

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Takechi, Katsuaki; Sato, Hiroshi; Takio, Susumu; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Charophytes is a green algal group closely related to land plants. We investigated the effects of antibiotics that interfere with peptidoglycan biosynthesis on chloroplast division in the desmid Closterium peracerosum–strigosum–littorale complex. To detect cells just after division, we used colchicine, which inhibits Closterium cell elongation after division. Although normal Closterium cells had two chloroplasts before and after cell division, cells treated with ampicillin, D-cycloserine, or fosfomycin had only one chloroplast after cell division, suggesting that the cells divided without chloroplast division. The antibiotics bacitracin and vancomycin showed no obvious effect. Electron microscopic observation showed that irregular-shaped chloroplasts existed in ampicillin-treated Closterium cells. Because antibiotic treatments resulted in the appearance of long cells with irregular chloroplasts and cell death, we counted cell types in the culture. The results suggested that cells with one chloroplast appeared first and then a huge chloroplast was generated that inhibited cell division, causing elongation followed by cell death. PMID:22815801

  8. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  9. Libraries, Archives, and Museums Helping Create Futures: Building on Culture, Knowledge, and Information through Collaboration and Resource Sharing. Selected Papers from PIALA 2010, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (20th, Weno, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, November 15-19, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 20th annual conference was held in Weno, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, November 15-19, 2010. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2010…

  10. Beyond Cookies: Understanding Various Division Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Cindy; Magruder, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Having a deeper understanding of division derived from multiple models is of great importance for teachers and students. For example, students will benefit from a greater understanding of division contexts as they study long division, fractions, and division of fractions. The purpose of this article is to build on teachers' and students'…

  11. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  12. Building an academic colorectal division.

    PubMed

    Koltun, Walter A

    2014-06-01

    Colon and rectal surgery is fully justified as a valid subspecialty within academic university health centers, but such formal recognition at the organizational level is not the norm. Creating a colon and rectal division within a greater department of surgery requires an unfailing commitment to academic concepts while promulgating the improvements that come in patient care, research, and teaching from a specialty service perspective. The creation of divisional identity then opens the door for a strategic process that will grow the division even more as well as provide benefits to the institution within which it resides. The fundamentals of core values, academic commitment, and shared success reinforced by receptive leadership are critical. Attention to culture, commitment, collaboration, control, cost, and compensation leads to a successful academic division of colon and rectal surgery. PMID:25067922

  13. Building an Academic Colorectal Division

    PubMed Central

    Koltun, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Colon and rectal surgery is fully justified as a valid subspecialty within academic university health centers, but such formal recognition at the organizational level is not the norm. Creating a colon and rectal division within a greater department of surgery requires an unfailing commitment to academic concepts while promulgating the improvements that come in patient care, research, and teaching from a specialty service perspective. The creation of divisional identity then opens the door for a strategic process that will grow the division even more as well as provide benefits to the institution within which it resides. The fundamentals of core values, academic commitment, and shared success reinforced by receptive leadership are critical. Attention to culture, commitment, collaboration, control, cost, and compensation leads to a successful academic division of colon and rectal surgery. PMID:25067922

  14. Instrumentation and Controls Division biennial progress report, September 1, 1978-September 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, G.S.

    1981-06-01

    Brief summaries of research work are presented in the following section: overview of the ORNL Instrumentation and Controls Division activities; new developments and methods; reactor instrumentation and controls; measurement and control engineering; electronic engineering; maintenance; studies; services; and development; and division achievements.

  15. 49 CFR 177.841 - Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. 177.841... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.841 Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. (See also § 177... by other appropriate method, and the marking removed. (b) (c) Division 2.3 (poisonous gas)...

  16. Nuclear Science Division 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the activities of the Nuclear Science Division for the period of January 1, 1994, to December 31, 1994. This was a time of significant accomplishment for all of the programs in the Division. Assembly of the solar neutrino detector at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is well under way. All of the components fabricated by LBL were shipped to Sudbury early in the year and our efforts are now divided between assisting the assembly of the detector and preparing software for data analysis once the detector is operational in 1996. Much of the activity at the 88-Inch Cyclotron centered on Gammasphere. The {open_quotes}early implementation{close_quotes} phase of the detector ended in September. This phase was extremely successful, involving over 60 experiments with nearly 200 users from 37 institutions worldwide. The mechanical structure was installed and the final electronic system is expected to operate in March 1995. The Division concurrently hosted a conference on physics for large {gamma}-ray detector arrays at the Clark Kerr Campus at UC Berkeley in August. This was a very successful meeting, reflecting the enthusiasm for this field worldwide. Also at the Cyclotron, the progress toward weak interaction experiments using ultra-thin sources passed a major milestone with the trapping of radioactive {sup 21}Na atoms. We are now engaged in a major upgrade of the experimental area and the outlook is very promising for these novel experiments. Another highlight of research at the Cyclotron was the confirmation of element 106. This development allowed the original LLNL/LBL discovery team to move forward with their proposal to name this element seaborgium.

  17. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  18. Environmental Transport Division: 1979 report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Schubert, J.F.; Bowman, W.W.; Adams, S.E.

    1980-03-01

    During 1979, the Environmental Transport Division (ETD) of the Savannah River Laboratory conducted atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic, and marine studies, which are described in a series of articles. Separate abstracts were prepared for each. Publications written about the 1979 research are listed at the end of the report.

  19. Synthetic Division and Matrix Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabe, Samuel; Dubeau, Franc

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic division is viewed as a change of basis for polynomials written under the Newton form. Then, the transition matrices obtained from a sequence of changes of basis are used to factorize the inverse of a bidiagonal matrix or a block bidiagonal matrix.

  20. Psychological Sciences Division: 1985 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Psychological Sciences Div.

    This booklet describes research carried out under sponsorship of the Psychological Sciences Division of the U.S. Office of Naval Research during Fiscal Year 1985. The booklet is divided into three programmatic research areas: (1) Engineering Psychology; (2) Personnel and Training; and (3) Group Psychology. Each program is described by an overview…

  1. Manpower Division Looks at CETA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The Manpower Division at the American Vocational Association (AVA) convention in Houston was concerned about youth unemployment and about the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA)--its problems and possibilities. The panel discussion reported here reveals some differing perspectives and a general consensus--that to improve their role in…

  2. 78 FR 17431 - Antitrust Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on... January 2, 2013 (78 FR 117). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...--Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on February 22, 2013,...

  3. Preschool Children's Informal Division Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins-Knabe, Belinda

    The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…

  4. 77 FR 54611 - Antitrust Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on June 30, 2000 (65 FR 40693). The last notification was filed with the... on June 8, 2012 (77 FR 34067). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division...; Tiburon Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA; Streamline Automation, LLC (dba C3 Propulsion), Huntsville,...

  5. International Division Regional Advisers' Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    An Advisers primary job is to nominate candidates for the five annual ID awards; this involves working with the five International Division award coordinators. Advisers also submit an annual report on activities in their country/ region to their Area Coordinators who, in turn, report on educational technology activities in their Areas. In the…

  6. 75 FR 70031 - Antitrust Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Open... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Open Axis... branding program based upon distinctive trademarks to create high customer awareness of, demand for,...

  7. Deviation of Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea level from the global mean during the 20th century: analysis of the main factors involved and a high-end projection to the end of 21st century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate which are the main factors determining interannual sea level variability of Baltic, Adriatic and Black seas, and to which extent the sea level of these three basins can deviate from the global mean. The three basins selected are semi-enclosed marginal seas connected with the adjacent seas by narrow straits. 13 sea level timeseries in Baltic Sea, 7 in Adriatic Sea and 5 in Black Sea provided by PSMSL, allowed us to compute a single seamless sea level timeseries representative for each basin from 1900 and for the entire 20th century, using statistical tools (PCA and Least Square method). Comparison with satellite data in the period 1993-2009, confirms that timeseries so computed are good representations of the observed sea level, with correlation values of 0.97, 0.87 and 0.72 for Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. At basin scale the sea level has been decomposed in various contributions that have been separately analyzed: local effect of pressure, steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation, boundary forcing, wind effect and river discharge. The annual cycles and their variability, show that the largest contribution is due to the wind for the Adriatic Sea and for the Baltic Sea. In these two basins the inverse Barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric factor is almost negligible. The wind seems to play a negligible role on Black Sea, where the Danube river discharge plays an important role. A linear regression model, built considering large scale sea level pressure distribution as predictor, is capable to explain a further percentage of sea level variability variability (about 20%) left after subtracting all the factors considered above. Sea level of the Baltic and Black Sea show a significant positive correlation (0.3 about) revealing the likely influence of an external common forcing. Past sea level variability shows no strong evidences of large deviation from the global mean sea level

  8. Physics division annual report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, K., ed.

    2001-10-04

    This report summarizes the research performed in 2000 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory and medium energy physics research, and accelerator research and development. As the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee and the nuclear science community create a new long range plan for the field in 2001, it is clear that the research of the Division is closely aligned with and continues to help define the national goals of our field. The NSAC 2001 Long Range Plan recommends as the highest priority for major new construction the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), a bold step forward for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The accelerator R&D in the Physics Division has made major contributions to almost all aspects of the RIA design concept and the community was convinced that this project is ready to move forward. 2000 saw the end of the first Gammasphere epoch at ATLAS, One hundred Gammasphere experiments were completed between January 1998 and March 2000, 60% of which used the Fragment Mass Analyzer to provide mass identification in the reaction. The experimental program at ATLAS then shifted to other important research avenues including proton radioactivity, mass measurements with the Canadian Penning Trap and measurements of high energy gamma-rays in nuclear reactions with the MSU/ORNL/Texas A&M BaF{sub 2} array. ATLAS provided 5460 beam-research hours for user experiments and maintained an operational reliability of 95%. Radioactive beams accounted for 7% of the beam time. ATLAS also provided a crucial test of a key RIA concept, the ability to accelerate multiple charge states in a superconducting heavy-ion linac. This new capability was immediately used to increase the performance for a scheduled experiment. The medium energy program continued to make strides in examining how the quark-gluon structure of matter

  9. Circadian clocks and cell division

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Evolution has selected a system of two intertwined cell cycles: the cell division cycle (CDC) and the daily (circadian) biological clock. The circadian clock keeps track of solar time and programs biological processes to occur at environmentally appropriate times. One of these processes is the CDC, which is often gated by the circadian clock. The intermeshing of these two cell cycles is probably responsible for the observation that disruption of the circadian system enhances susceptibility to some kinds of cancer. The core mechanism underlying the circadian clockwork has been thought to be a transcription and translation feedback loop (TTFL), but recent evidence from studies with cyanobacteria, synthetic oscillators and immortalized cell lines suggests that the core circadian pacemaking mechanism that gates cell division in mammalian cells could be a post-translational oscillator (PTO). PMID:20890114

  10. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  11. Water Resources Division training catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Foxhoven, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The National Training Center provides technical and management sessions nesessary for the conductance of the U.S. Geological Survey 's training programs. This catalog describes the facilities and staff at the Lakewood Training Center and describes Water Resources Division training courses available through the center. In addition, the catalog describes the procedures for gaining admission, formulas for calculating fees, and discussion of course evaluations. (USGS)

  12. The Arabidopsis Cell Division Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2009-01-01

    Plant cells have evolved a complex circuitry to regulate cell division. In many aspects, the plant cell cycle follows a basic strategy similar to other eukaryotes. However, several key issues are unique to plant cells. In this chapter, both the conserved and unique cellular and molecular properties of the plant cell cycle are reviewed. In addition to division of individual cells, the specific characteristic of plant organogenesis and development make that cell proliferation control is of primary importance during development. Therefore, special attention should be given to consider plant cell division control in a developmental context. Proper organogenesis depends on the formation of different cell types. In plants, many of the processes leading to cell differentiation rely on the occurrence of a different cycle, termed the endoreplication cycle, whereby cells undergo repeated full genome duplication events in the absence of mitosis and increase their ploidy. Recent findings are focusing on the relevance of changes in chromatin organization for a correct cell cycle progression and, conversely, in the relevance of a correct functioning of chromatin remodelling complexes to prevent alterations in both the cell cycle and the endocycle. PMID:22303246

  13. Expanding the Territory of Historical Reconstruction: The Study of Frequency and Severity of Hail Storms, Based on 19th and 20th-Century Records from Swiss Insurance Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauelshagen, F.

    2009-09-01

    than observations from the existing network of meteorological offices. Some researchers have even suggested that the entire period before radar observation, beginning in the 1980s, should be classified as pre-instrumental. However, it is undoubted that documents kept in the archives of insurance companies provide valuable proxy information on hail storm occurrence for, at least, the pre-1950-period (well back into the 19th century). This paper discusses key problems in dealing with these proxy data (reliability, interpretation and density of records), as well as methodologies that may lead to extend existing time series on hail storm occurrence in Switzerland. As a consequence, this paper suggests that, for some meteorological phenomena, the field of reconstruction from documentary archival sources must be extended well up into the 20th century, which cannot simply and statically be categorized as "instrumental period”.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Division's sample transaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, J.S.; Tilson, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division uses the DECsystem-10 computer for a wide range of tasks: sample management, timekeeping, quality assurance, and data calculation. This document describes the features and operating characteristics of many of the computer programs used by the Division. The descriptions are divided into chapters which cover all of the information about one aspect of the Analytical Chemistry Division's computer processing.

  15. Signaling to stomatal initiation and cell division

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jie; Zou, Junjie; Yang, Kezhen; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Stomata are two-celled valves that control epidermal pores whose opening and spacing optimizes shoot-atmosphere gas exchange. Arabidopsis stomatal formation involves at least one asymmetric division and one symmetric division. Stomatal formation and patterning are regulated by the frequency and placement of asymmetric divisions. This model system has already led to significant advances in developmental biology, such as the regulation of cell fate, division, differentiation, and patterning. Over the last 30 years, stomatal development has been found to be controlled by numerous intrinsic genetic and environmental factors. This mini review focuses on the signaling involved in stomatal initiation and in divisions in the cell lineage. PMID:25002867

  16. Signaling to stomatal initiation and cell division.

    PubMed

    Le, Jie; Zou, Junjie; Yang, Kezhen; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Stomata are two-celled valves that control epidermal pores whose opening and spacing optimizes shoot-atmosphere gas exchange. Arabidopsis stomatal formation involves at least one asymmetric division and one symmetric division. Stomatal formation and patterning are regulated by the frequency and placement of asymmetric divisions. This model system has already led to significant advances in developmental biology, such as the regulation of cell fate, division, differentiation, and patterning. Over the last 30 years, stomatal development has been found to be controlled by numerous intrinsic genetic and environmental factors. This mini review focuses on the signaling involved in stomatal initiation and in divisions in the cell lineage. PMID:25002867

  17. Emerging facets of plastid division regulation.

    PubMed

    Basak, Indranil; Møller, Simon Geir

    2013-02-01

    Plastids are complex organelles that are integrated into the plant host cell where they differentiate and divide in tune with plant differentiation and development. In line with their prokaryotic origin, plastid division involves both evolutionary conserved proteins and proteins of eukaryotic origin where the host has acquired control over the process. The plastid division apparatus is spatially separated between the stromal and the cytosolic space but where clear coordination mechanisms exist between the two machineries. Our knowledge of the plastid division process has increased dramatically during the past decade and recent findings have not only shed light on plastid division enzymology and the formation of plastid division complexes but also on the integration of the division process into a multicellular context. This review summarises our current knowledge of plastid division with an emphasis on biochemical features, the functional assembly of protein complexes and regulatory features of the overall process. PMID:22965912

  18. 1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing front (east) facade and north side, 213 Division Street is visible at left and 217 Division Street appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  19. NEN Division Funding Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, Ernst I.; Goettee, Jeffrey D.; Desimone, David J.; Lakis, Rollin E.; Miko, David K.

    2012-09-05

    The work in NEN Division revolves around proliferation detection. The sponsor funding model seems to have shifted over the last decades. For the past three lustra, sponsors are mainly interested in funding ideas and detection systems that are already at a technical readiness level 6 (TRL 6 -- one step below an industrial prototype) or higher. Once this level is reached, the sponsoring agency is willing to fund the commercialization, implementation, and training for the systems (TRL 8, 9). These sponsors are looking for a fast turnaround (1-2 years) technology development efforts to implement technology. To support the critical national and international needs for nonprolifertion solutions, we have to maintain a fluent stream of subject matter expertise from the fundamental principals of radiation detection through prototype development all the way to the implementation and training of others. NEN Division has large funding gaps in the Valley of Death region. In the current competitive climate for nuclear nonproliferation projects, it is imminent to increase our lead in this field.

  20. Stochastic models for cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stukalin, Evgeny; Sun, Sean

    2013-03-01

    The probability of cell division per unit time strongly depends of age of cells, i.e., time elapsed since their birth. The theory of cell populations in the age-time representation is systematically applied for modeling cell division for different spreads in generation times. We use stochastic simulations to address the same issue at the level of individual cells. Our approach unlike deterministic theory enables to analyze the size fluctuations of cell colonies at different growth conditions (in the absence and in the presence of cell death, for initially synchronized and asynchronous cell populations, for conditions of restricted growth). We find the simple quantitative relation between the asymptotic values of relative size fluctuations around mean values for initially synchronized cell populations under growth and the coefficients of variation of generation times. Effect of initial age distribution for asynchronous growth of cell cultures is also studied by simulations. The influence of constant cell death on fluctuations of sizes of cell populations is found to be essential even for small cell death rates, i.e., for realistic growth conditions. The stochastic model is generalized for biologically relevant case that involves both cell reproduction and cell differentiation.