#### Sample records for 2134lm attention jean

1. See-Saw Jeans

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sutton, Charlotte D.

2005-01-01

This article describes the following case: Pete Wilmington, Vice President of Sales for See-Saw Jeans for Kids, has wrapped up a deal with Wal-Mart to carry See-Saw Jeans for Kids in all Wal-Mart stores on a trial basis for the next year. See-Saw Jeans for Kids is a clothing manufacturer with sales of \$41 million, but the Wal-Mart account has the…

2. Understanding of Jeans Rule

Gao, C. Y.

2002-11-01

Jeans empirical rule has always been used in planetary physics. From the static equation of atmosphere, the equation of state for ideal gases, the law of gravitation and the law of Maxwell distribution, Jeans empirical rule can be derived. Therefore, it seems that Jeans empirical rule should be called Jeans rule. It can be formulated in three forms: in terms of velocity, height, or energy. These three formulations are completely equivalent. According to concrete situation, any one of these forms can be taken freely and used as a criterion, which define whether the atmospheric composition of a given species of particles at the planet surface will exist "forever" or not. The factor in the energy formulation will be neither too large nor too small. According to statistical theory, taking the viewpoint of energy, Jeans rule can be explained more easily. The condition satisfying Jeans rule is only the necessary condition for a given species of partials to be major atmospheric composition of the planets which have dense atmosphere. Jeans rule is not only applicable for the planets and satellites in the solar system, but also suitable for the asteroids, meteoroids and outer solar system objects, such as Centaurs and Kuiper belt objects. The application scope of Jeans rule can be expressed with nomogram as well as defined by equation or by figures. Having been widely used for a long time, it still has a general practical significance in detecting age of planets in the solar system nowadays, especially for the research of outer solar system objects.

3. Sir James Jeans

Milne, E. A.

2013-09-01

Memoir by S. C. Roberts; 1. Merchant Taylor's and Cambridge; 2. Princeton, 1905-9; 3. Return to England. The Adams Prize essay, 1909-19; 4. Secretary of the Royal Society, 1919-29; 5. Popular exposition, 1929-30; 6. Later years, 1931-46; 7. Science in Jeans's boyhood; 8. The partition of energy; 9. Rotating fluid masses; 10. Star clusters; 11. The equilibrium of the stars; 12. Jeans and philosophy; Bibliography; Index.

4. Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier

Sterken, C.

2003-03-01

This paper gives a short account of some key elements in the life of Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830), specifically his relation to Napoleon Bonaparte. The mathematical approach to Fourier series and the original scepticism by French mathematicians are briefly illustrated.

5. Jean-Marie Straub.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roud, Richard

This book covers the life and aesthetic qualities of the work of the European film-maker Jean-Marie Straub (1933- ). It contains introductory chapters on the biography and artistic milieu of Straub and continues with a chapter-by-chapter critical treatment of each of his films: "Machorka-Muff"; "Not Reconciled"; "Chronicle of Anna Magdalena Bach";…

6. Venus 1882 and Jean-Charles Houzeau

Sterken, C.

2009-06-01

This paper focuses on one particular type of telescope - the heliometer - designed for solving one specific basic problem in astronomy: the scale factor of the solar system. One very special instrument of this type was the heliometer with unequal focal lengths'' designed by the Belgian astronomer Jean-Charles Houzeau for the 1882 transit of Venus. We also draw attention to the most interesting personality of Houzeau, and to his social engagement that went much beyond his work as a scientist.

7. Applicability of Jeans criterion.

1995-03-01

The applicability of the gravitational instability criterion is discussed for some typical configurations. It is shown that the small perturbation method has to be applied only locally, the reason being that the medium of a self-gravitating cloud cannot be considered as homogeneous throughout the whole space. Consequently, there is an upper limit to the geometrical size of a perturbation, defined by the typical inhomogeneity scale length L. On the other hand, according to Jeans criterion, the gravitational instability sets in for perturbations having their linear dimensions larger than some critical length LJ, the Jeans length. It is therefore of importance to estimate the value of the ratio L/LJ in order to be sure that the local analysis conclusions are meaningful.

8. Jean Comandon Neuroscientist.

PubMed

Lorusso, Lorenzo; Lefebvre, Thierry; de Pastre, Béatrice

2016-01-01

The microbiologist Jean Comandon is famous for his studies on the movement of the syphilis bacteria as differentiated in various forms by ultramicroscope. He was also a pioneer on the technical application of the microcinematography in laboratory research. His collaboration with clinicians and surgeons in the study of various pathological disorders is little known. From 1918 to the 1920s, he collaborated with such neurologists as André Thomas, Jean Athanase Sicard, and others in the study of various neurological disorders by using cinematography as a scientific tool for understanding the clinical and pathological mechanisms of diseases. These collaborations allowed him to be involved in the beginnings of the French cinematography industry, especially with Charles Pathé who established a small film studio laboratory in Vincennes where a multidisciplinary group improved the application of cinematography in clinical medical practice. PMID:26684425

9. Jean Laplanche's Masochism.

PubMed

Ray, Nicholas

2015-10-01

This essay examines the theme of masochism in the metapsychological work of French psychoanalyst Jean Laplanche. One of the most distinctive aspects of Laplanche's work as a whole is its recursiveness: it advances by repeatedly retraversing the same themes and rereading the same Freudian texts, often after intervals of years and each time from a deepened critical perspective. The approach taken in this essay is therefore diachronic. That is, rather than seeking to present a reduced summation of Laplanche's position on masochism, it tracks the recursive evolution of his thinking about masochism, from the 1960s through to the development of his celebrated "general theory of seduction." The essay locates each of Laplanche's key interventions on masochism within the broader frameworks of his theoretical enterprise, and positions masochism as a point of orientation for understanding a number of the essential claims of his metapsychology, particularly the relationships among fantasy, pain and the drives; the economic dimensions of human desire; and the intersubjective origins of psychosexuality. Finally, the essay suggests that masochism might have a particular pertinence to psychoanalytic thinking as Laplanche conceives and practices it: that is, as a pains-taking labor whose very stimulus is the "wound" of the Freudian breakthrough. PMID:26485489

10. Interview With Jean Laplanche.

PubMed

Laplanche, Jean; Danon, Gisèle; Lauru, Didier

2015-10-01

The starting point for this interview with Jean Laplanche is a question regarding the place of infantile sexuality within psychoanalysis today. Laplanche begins by underscoring the audaciousness of Freud's characterization of infantile sexuality and the significance of the expansion of the field of "the sexual" that this characterization entails. He goes on to outline his celebrated "general theory of seduction." In doing so he explains key terms associated with it, such as the "enigmatic message" and the "fundamental anthropological situation," and clarifies how the theory seeks to account for sexuality in the expanded sense. In particular, Laplanche stresses the intersubjective origins of "drive" sexuality in infancy, its chaotic evolution, its unique economic mode of functioning, and its subsequent conflict with innate "instinctual" sexual impulses that surge forth at puberty. He also positions the general theory of seduction in relation to the important advances made by attachment theory in the field of the adult-child relationship. Throughout the interview, the discussion touches on social contexts, and at points Laplanche outlines positions on topical concerns connected to education, media, and the law, and the importance of rethinking certain psychoanalytic paradigms in an age of new family structures that do not correspond to the nuclear unit. PMID:26485488

11. The applicability of Jeans rule.

Chongyi, Gao

1997-10-01

Jeans rule has a wide applicability. It is not only applicable for the planets and satellites in the solar system, but also suitable for the asteroids, meteoroids and the unusual outer solar system object 95P/Chiron. Its applicability can be expressed with a nomogram as well as defined by equations or by figures.

12. A tribute to Jean Perrin

Kubbinga, Henk

2013-09-01

Nineteenth century's physics was primarily a molecular physics in the style of Laplace. Maxwell had been guided by Laplace's breathtaking nebular hypothesis and its consequences for Saturn. Somewhat later Van der Waals drew upon his analysis of capillarity. The many textbooks of Biot perpetuated the molecularism involved in all this. Jean Perrin, then, proposed a charmingly simple proof for the well-foundedness of the molecular theory (1908).

13. Jeans instability in a quantum dusty magnetoplasma

SciTech Connect

Salimullah, M.; Jamil, M.; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.

2009-01-15

Jeans instability in a homogeneous cold quantum dusty plasma in the presence of the ambient magnetic field and the quantum effect arising through the Bohm potential has been examined using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. It is found that the Jeans instability is significantly reduced by the presence of the dust-lower-hybrid wave and the ion quantum effect. The minimum wavenumber for Jeans stability depends clearly on ion quantum effect and the dust-lower-hybrid frequency also.

14. Jeans' criterion in nonextensive statistical mechanics

Jiulin, Du

2004-04-01

The Jeans' gravitational instability in nonextensive statistical mechanics is studied and a general form of the generalized Jeans' criterion is obtained that is related to the q-function cq=∑ipiq. In this approach, the nonextensive model of classical ideal gas is applied to the Jeans' problem instead of the ordinary one in extensive statistical mechanics and the generalized critical wavelength to describe the gravitational instability is deduced. This nonextensive modification of the Jeans' criterion leads to a new critical length that depends not only on the nonextensive parameter q but also on the dimension D and the total particle numbers N of the system. When q-->1-, the Jeans' length is perfectly recovered. We also give the nonextensive parameter q a physical interpretation that q=1 represents an isothermal process of the gas, corresponding to the state of complete mixing, but 0

15. Jean Piaget: Images of a life and his factory.

PubMed

Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

2012-08-01

In this article, I use a new book about Jean Piaget to introduce a new historical method: examining "psychological factories." I also discuss some of the ways that "Great Men" are presented in the literature, as well as opportunities for new projects if one approaches the history of the discipline differently and examines the conditions that made that greatness possible. To that end, the article includes many details about Piaget that have never before been discussed in English. Attention is drawn, in particular, to Piaget's collaborators: the hundreds of workers at his factory in Geneva, many of whom were women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397918

16. Some remarks on the jeans rule

Gao, Chong-yi

From the basic laws of physics one can deduce the Jeans empirical rule, which should preferably be called the Jeans rule. Its representations in velocity, height and energy are completely equivalent and may be arbitrarily chosen. This rule is most easily interpreted in terms of energy. The Jeans rule merely provides a necessary condition for the particles to be the main atmospheric constituent of a planet or satellite with a dense atmosphere. Its range of applicability can be expressed by equations or figures, or by a nomogram. It is applicable to planets, satellites, asteroids and meteoric bodies in the solar system, as well as to some objects in the outer solar system, such as the objects in the Kuiper belt and the Centaurs. This rule still possesses a general and realistic significance even at present day.

17. Jeans stability in collisional quantum dusty magnetoplasmas

SciTech Connect

Jamil, M.; Asif, M.; Mir, Zahid; Salimullah, M.

2014-09-15

Jeans instability is examined in detail in uniform dusty magnetoplasmas taking care of collisional and non-zero finite thermal effects in addition to the quantum characteristics arising through the Bohm potential and the Fermi degenerate pressure using the quantum hydrodynamic model of plasmas. It is found that the presence of the dust-lower-hybrid wave, collisional effects of plasma species, thermal effects of electrons, and the quantum mechanical effects of electrons have significance over the Jeans instability. Here, we have pointed out a new class of dissipative instability in quantum plasma regime.

18. 77 FR 56647 - Lisa Jean Sharp: Debarment Order

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2012-09-13

... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Lisa Jean Sharp: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Lisa Jean Sharp from... base this order on a finding that Lisa Jean Sharp was convicted of a felony under Federal law...

19. Jean Piaget Archives Bibliography on Mental Retardation.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bolton, Susie; And Others

This bibliography lists all entries from the Jean Piaget Archives Catalogues dealing with mental retardation. The list, including almost 200 entries, encompasses four works by Piaget himself, one collaboration, and 189 works by other authors. Entries are arranged in order by their publication in one of the 12 catalogues of the archives, providing…

20. The Method of Jean Louis Nicolet

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gattegno, Caleb

2007-01-01

Jean Louis Nicolet is a Swiss teacher of mathematics who found his subject so fascinating that he was puzzled as to why so many pupils could not share this enjoyment in their studies. He came to a conclusion which is now supported by the results of psychological research into the learning process: he suggested that the mind does not spontaneously…

1. Jean Piaget's Debt to John Dewey

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tanner, Daniel

2016-01-01

Jean Piaget became a veritable institution unto himself in education and psychology, largely as the result of his developmental-stage theory advanced over the second quarter of the twentieth century. Not until Piaget was 73 did he make mention of John Dewey's work at Dewey's laboratory school, founded in 1894 at the University of Chicago. But here…

2. Jean Heidmann (1923-2000) and SETI

Courtin, Régis

2010-11-01

Jean Heidmann (1923-2000) began his research career as a radio-astronomer in 1959 at Paris Observatory, investigating the structure of galaxies and the distance scale in the nearby universe. In the early 1980's, his scientific interest broadened to the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and he became a strong advocate of SETI, either from the ground or from space.

3. [Jean Fernel and the humanist spirit].

PubMed

Cordier, Jean-François

2011-06-01

Jean Fernel (1497-1558) embodied the humanist spirit of the Renaissance. He studied philosophy (especially Aristotle), astrology, arithmetic, mathematics and Latin literature before devoting his life to medicine. He conducted a comprehensive synthesis of the medical system of Galen, and invented the terms "physiology" and "pathology". His taste for teaching, his extensive clinical practice, his benevolent attitude to the sick, and his consideration for individuals and for human nature all contribute to Jean Fernel's image as a humanist. He was the most famous physician of his time, although his work relying on philosophy and galenic dogmatism eventually became obsolete. Forgotten for half a millennium, this distant precursor of holistic medicine is worthy of renewed interest. PMID:22530525

4. Jeans criterion in a turbulent medium

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonazzola, S.; Falgarone, E.; Heyvaerts, J.; Perault, M.; Puget, J. L.

1986-01-01

According to the classical Jeans analysis, all the molecular clouds of mass larger than a few 100 M(solar), size larger than about 1pc and kinetic temperature Tk less than 30K are gravitationally unstable. We have shown that in clouds supported by internal supersonic motions, local gravitational instabilities may appear within molecular clouds which are globally stable. The argument is threefold: (1) when the turbulent kinetic energy is included into the internal energy term, the virial equilibrium condition shows that molecular clouds such as those observed, which are gravitationally unstable according to the Jeans criterion, are indeed globally stable if supported by a turbulent velocity field of power spectrum steeper than 3; (2) 2D compressible hydrodynamical simulations show that a supersonic turbulent velocity field generates a turbulent pressure within clouds, the gradients of which stabilize the unstable scales (i.e., the largest scales and the cloud itself) against gravitational collapse; (3) an analysis similar to the Jeans approach but including the turbulent pressure gradient term, gives basically the same results as those given in (1). Clouds of mean density lower than a critical value are found to be stable even though more massive than their Jeans mass. In clouds of mean density larger than that critical value, the gravitational instability appears only over a range of scales smaller than the cloud size, the largest scales being stable. In practice, the observed mean densities are lower than this critical value: the observation of a small number of cores and stars of a few solar masses embedded in clouds of several hundred solar masses can only be understood in terms of small scale density fluctuations of large amplitude generated by the supersonic turbulence which would occasionally overtake the limit of gravitational stability.

5. Jeans criterion in a turbulent medium

Bonazzola, S.; Falgarone, E.; Heyvaerts, J.; Perault, M.; Puget, J. L.

1986-10-01

According to the classical Jeans analysis, all the molecular clouds of mass larger than a few 100 M(solar), size larger than about 1pc and kinetic temperature Tk less than 30K are gravitationally unstable. We have shown that in clouds supported by internal supersonic motions, local gravitational instabilities may appear within molecular clouds which are globally stable. The argument is threefold: (1) when the turbulent kinetic energy is included into the internal energy term, the virial equilibrium condition shows that molecular clouds such as those observed, which are gravitationally unstable according to the Jeans criterion, are indeed globally stable if supported by a turbulent velocity field of power spectrum steeper than 3; (2) 2D compressible hydrodynamical simulations show that a supersonic turbulent velocity field generates a turbulent pressure within clouds, the gradients of which stabilize the unstable scales (i.e., the largest scales and the cloud itself) against gravitational collapse; (3) an analysis similar to the Jeans approach but including the turbulent pressure gradient term, gives basically the same results as those given in (1). Clouds of mean density lower than a critical value are found to be stable even though more massive than their Jeans mass. In clouds of mean density larger than that critical value, the gravitational instability appears only over a range of scales smaller than the cloud size, the largest scales being stable. In practice, the observed mean densities are lower than this critical value: the observation of a small number of cores and stars of a few solar masses embedded in clouds of several hundred solar masses can only be understood in terms of small scale density fluctuations of large amplitude generated by the supersonic turbulence which would occasionally overtake the limit of gravitational stability.

6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. and Jean B. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, Photographers October 1963 EXTERIOR FROM THE SOUTHEAST Gift of James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman - Stephen Higginson Jr. House, 7 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. and Jean B. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, Photographers October 1963 EXTERIOR FROM THE SOUTHWEST Gift of James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman - Stephen Higginson Jr. House, 7 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. and Jean B. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, Photographers October 1963 MID-19th-CENTURY MANTELPIECE IN EAST CHAMBER, SECOND FLOOR Gift of James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman - Stephen Higginson Jr. House, 7 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

9. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. and Jean B. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, Photographers October 1963 LATE 19th-CENTURY MANTELPIECE IN FIRST FLOOR ROOM Gift of James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman - Stephen Higginson Jr. House, 7 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

10. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. and Jean B. ...

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman, Photographers October 1963 ORIGINAL MANTELPIECE AND WINDOW SHUTTERS, FIRST FLOOR Gift of James F. and Jean B. O'Gorman - Stephen Higginson Jr. House, 7 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

11. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Unless...

12. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. 7.37 Section 7.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park. (a) Fishing. (1) Unless...

13. 'STARLESS' SUPER-JEANS CORES IN FOUR GOULD BELT CLOUDS

SciTech Connect

Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug

2010-07-20

From a survey of 729 cores based on JCMT/SCUBA data, we present an analysis of 17 candidate starless cores with masses that exceed their stable Jeans masses. We re-examine the classification of these super-Jeans cores using Spitzer maps and find that 3 are re-classified as protostellar, 11 have ambiguous emission near the core positions, and 3 appear to be genuinely starless. We suggest that the 3 starless and 11 undetermined super-Jeans cores represent excellent targets for future observational and computational study to understand the evolution of dense cores and the process of star formation.

14. [Jean Reverzy, physician and author in Lyon (1914-1959)].

PubMed

Fabre, André-Julien

2010-01-01

Jean Reverzy (1914-1959) was a general practitioner in Lyons who got a sudden literary fame with his first novel Le Passage. From 1954 to his death he published Place des angoisses (1956), Le Corridor (1958) and Le Silence de Cambridge (1960). In his books a mirror image is always given of Lyons, a city of mist and mystery, but truly memorable remains in the works of Jean Reverzy his unique and very personal experience of medicine, hospitals and patients. A collection of photographs, portraits and auto-portraits has been presented in homage to Jean Reverzy, a physician-writer. PMID:20527338

15. [Jean-Louis-Paul Denucé (1824-1889): A forgotten pioneer of plastic surgery].

PubMed

Marck, K W; Martin, D

2016-02-01

The authors propose to define as main characterization of plastic reconstructive surgery the conceptual thinking that leads to a rational choice of an operative treatment. Conceptual thinking in plastic surgery started halfway the nineteenth century with the first schematic representations of the operative procedures available at that time, in which Von Ammon and Baumgarten, Szymanowski and Denucé played a prominent role. These four authors and their works are presented with special attention for the less known of them, Jean-Paul Denucé, surgeon in Bordeaux. PMID:26612441

16. Jean-Baptiste Charcot, the French Antarctic expedition and scurvy.

PubMed

Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Germiniani, Francisco Manoel Branco; Munhoz, Renato Puppi

2014-07-01

During the second expedition to the South Pole, Commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot and some members of the crew of "Pourquoi Pas?" developed symptoms suggestive of scurvy. The clinical picture was totally reversed after dietary changes. PMID:25054991

17. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National...; and (ii) Will not be detrimental to other park wildlife or the reproductive potential of the...

18. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National...; and (ii) Will not be detrimental to other park wildlife or the reproductive potential of the...

19. 36 CFR 7.37 - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.37 Jean Lafitte National...; and (ii) Will not be detrimental to other park wildlife or the reproductive potential of the...

20. Jean Piaget et sa Recherche: Search and Research.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gray, Elspeth M.

1981-01-01

The early influences on and development of Jean Piaget's thinking from which crystallized the ideas forming the foundation of his subsequent work are discussed. The influences noted are personal, intellectual, and professional. (MSE)

1. Jeans instability criterion from the viewpoint of Kaniadakis' statistics

Abreu, Everton M. C.; Ananias Neto, Jorge; Barboza, Edesio M., Jr.; Nunes, Rafael C.

2016-06-01

In this letter we have derived the Jeans length in the context of the Kaniadakis statistics. We have compared this result with the Jeans length already obtained in the nonextensive Tsallis statistics (Jiulin D., Phys. Lett. A, 320 (2004) 347) and we discussed the main differences between these two models. We have also obtained the κ-sound velocity. Finally, we have applied the results obtained here to analyze an astrophysical system.

2. Jean-Louis Vignes: California's forgotten winemaker.

PubMed

Macconnell, Scott

2011-01-01

This article represents a first step in the process of restoring the legacy of pioneer California winemaker Jean-Louis Vignes (1780–1862). Vignes was a native of France who established and operated a commercial winery (El Aliso) in Los Angeles for 22 years (1833–1855). The article includes the first known photograph of Vignes discovered by the author. While prominent twentieth-century American wine historians have acknowledged Vignes, the author emphasizes a key distinction made by French historian Leonce Jore. Vignes left France to go to the Sandwich Islands as part of a commercial enterprise that traveled with Catholic missionaries (Picpus Fathers). Only after five years of frustration did Vignes move to Los Angeles and establish a winery. The author uses the remembrances of well-known nineteenth-century commentator William Heath Davis [Seventy-Five Years in California (San Francisco, 1929)] to give some personal insights into Vignes as a winemaker. Davis visited him at El Aliso three times as a young man and lived long enough (1909) to validate Vignes’s vision for the potential of winemaking in California. The article also includes the first known full citation for Vignes’s gravesite at Evergreen Cemetery in Los Angeles. PMID:21591314

3. Jeans type analysis of chemotactic collapse

Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Sire, Clément

2008-07-01

We perform a linear dynamical stability analysis of a general hydrodynamic model of chemotactic aggregation [P.H. Chavanis, C. Sire, Physica A 384 (2007) 199]. Specifically, we study the stability of an infinite and homogeneous distribution of cells against “chemotactic collapse”. We discuss the analogy between the chemotactic collapse of biological populations and the gravitational collapse (Jeans instability) of self-gravitating systems. Our hydrodynamic model involves a pressure force which can take into account several effects like anomalous diffusion or the fact that the organisms cannot interpenetrate. We also take into account the degradation of the chemical which leads to a shielding of the interaction like for a Yukawa potential. Finally, our hydrodynamic model involves a friction force which quantifies the importance of inertial effects. In the strong friction limit, we obtain a generalized Keller-Segel model similar to the generalized Smoluchowski-Poisson system describing self-gravitating Langevin particles. For small frictions, we obtain a hydrodynamic model of chemotaxis similar to the Euler-Poisson system describing a self-gravitating barotropic gas. We show that an infinite and homogeneous distribution of cells is unstable against chemotactic collapse when the “velocity of sound” in the medium is smaller than a critical value. We study in detail the linear development of the instability and determine the range of unstable wavelengths, the growth rate of unstable modes and the damping rate, or the pulsation frequency, of the stable modes as a function of the friction parameter and shielding length. For specific equations of state, we express the stability criterion in terms of cell density.

4. Jean-Martin Charcot and his legacy.

PubMed

Bogousslavsky, Julien

2014-01-01

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) rightly is considered the father of both modern neurology and psychiatry in France and much beyond. While he never was interested in mental disease and what was called 'alienism' at the time, his career at La Salpêtrière Hospital over 30 years was mainly marked by the development of a huge group of students which focused on the study and management of hysteria. When Charcot took office at the beginning of 1862, hysteria was a 'no-man's land', medically speaking, since neither the alienists nor the internists had much interest in this condition. At La Salpêtrière, these chronic patients were largely left to themselves before Désiré Bourneville, one of Charcot's first students, convinced his chief to care for them. Subsequently, the studies of Charcot with Paul Richer, Joseph Babinski, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Sollier, Pierre Janet, and many others allowed the condition to be addressed in detail. During his stay with Charcot in 1885-1866, Sigmund Freud, a young neuropathologist at the time, became fascinated by hysteria, an interest which probably was the main start of his interest in psychology. Charcot emphasized the concept of mental factors in hysteria, along with that of a 'dynamic' lesion, which accounted for the lack of neuropathological findings in the patients. While his ideas on hysteria and hypnotism were criticized after his death even by former pupils, such as Babinski, recent findings from functional studies using magnetic resonance imaging show how accurate and often visionary Charcot's thinking was in this field. PMID:25273488

5. Jeans instability of rotating magnetized quantum plasma: Influence of radiation

SciTech Connect

Joshi, H.; Pensia, R. K.

2015-07-31

The effect of radiative heat-loss function and rotation on the Jeans instability of quantum plasma is investigated. The basic set of equations for this problem is constructed by considering quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. Using normal mode analysis, the general dispersion relation is obtained. This dispersion relation is studied in both, longitudinal and transverse direction of propagations. In both case of longitudinal and transverse direction of propagation, the Jeans instability criterion is modified due to presence of radiative heat-loss function and quantum correction.

6. Kinetic theory of Jeans instability of a dusty plasma.

PubMed

Pandey, B P; Lakhina, G S; Krishan, V

1999-12-01

A kinetic theory of the Jeans instability of a dusty plasma has been developed in the present work. The effect of grain charge fluctuations due to the attachment of electrons and ions to the grain surface has been considered in the framework of Krook's collisional model. We demonstrate that the grain charge fluctuations alter the growth rate of the gravitational collapse of the dusty plasma. The Jeans length has been derived under limiting cases, and its dependence on the attachment frequency is shown. In the absence of gravity, we see that the damping rate of the dust acoustic mode is proportional to the electron-dust collision frequency. PMID:11970688

7. Jeans instability with exchange effects in quantum dusty magnetoplasmas

SciTech Connect

Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Rozina, Ch.; Jung, Y.-D.; Salimullah, M.

2015-08-15

Jeans instability is examined in magnetized quantum dusty plasmas using the quantum hydrodynamic model. The quantum effects are considered via exchange-correlation potential, recoil effect, and Fermi degenerate pressure, in addition to thermal effects of plasma species. It is found that the electron exchange and correlation potential have significant effects over the threshold value of wave vector and Jeans instability. The presence of electron exchange and correlation effect shortens the time of dust sound that comparatively stabilizes the self gravitational collapse. The results at quantum scale are helpful in understanding the collapse of the self-gravitating dusty plasma systems.

8. Charcot's son, commander Jean-Baptiste Charcot: from neurology to "Pourquoi Pas?".

PubMed

Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; Simões, Jefferson C

2012-04-01

Charcot name became very famous around the world, firstly because of the work of Professor Jean-Martin Charcot, the founder of Clinical Neurology, and, secondly, because of his son, Jean-Baptiste, the world famous maritime explorer. PMID:22510742

9. "Dancing Cannot Start Too Soon": Spiritual Education in the Thought of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pridmore, John

2004-01-01

Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825) adopted the pen-name "Jean Paul" in honour of Jean Jaques Rousseau. His "Levana or the doctrine of education" ("Levana oder Erziehlehre") was once a standard text and required reading in teacher education. Outside Germany the name of Jean Paul is now little known and the seminal educational text for which…

10. Wise, Holistic Thinking: An Interview with Jean Sunde Peterson

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Henshon, Suzanna E.

2012-01-01

This article presents an interview with Jean Sunde Peterson, professor and director of school-counselor preparation in the Department of Educational Studies at Purdue University. She is a licensed mental health counselor and a national certified counselor, planning to return to clinical work with gifted children and adolescents and their families…

11. Whimsical Imagery: An Interview with Jean Nunez Donegan.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gamble, Harriet

2001-01-01

Presents an interview with Jean Nunez Donegan focusing on: her career as an artist; her experiences with teaching art at the secondary and college levels; her process for creating art; and her development as an artist. Includes directions for creating a branch with leaves and bamboo using clay. (CMK)

12. Jean-martin charcot pathologist, neurologist, psychiatrist and physician.

PubMed

Pandey, Sanjay

2012-10-01

Jean-Martin Charcot is known as father of modern neurology. Before him, neurology was only limited to select disorders like chorea. His contributions were not limited to neurology only, as he was instrumental in many new developments in the field of pathology, psychiatry, and internal medicine. Even after 100 years, Charcots clinical methods remain the pillar of modern neurology. PMID:23349597

13. In Touch with Kids: A Conversation with Jean Marzollo.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spodek, Bernard; Barrera, Rosalinda B.; Harris, Violet J.

2002-01-01

Interviews Jean Marzollo about her past, present, and future work in children's literature. Notes that her body of writing (more than 100 books of prose and poetry for young readers) transcends the boundaries of genre and disciplines, and is infused with a strong emphasis on rhyme and rhythm intended to capture the ears and minds of emergent and…

14. Conceptual Development: Piaget's Legacy. Jean Piaget Symposium Series.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholnick, Ellin K., Ed.; Nelson, Katherine, Ed.; Gelman, Susan A., Ed.; Miller, Patricia H., Ed.

Based on the papers presented at the 1996 Symposium of the Jean Piaget Society and highlighting the extent to which Piaget's ideas have served to scaffold contemporary thinking about every aspect of conceptual development, this volume examines the nature of conceptual development, its foundations, and the sources of its novelties. The chapters…

15. The Genetic Psychologies of James Mark Baldwin and Jean Piaget.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cahan, Emily D.

1984-01-01

Describes the ideas proposed by James Mark Baldwin which anticipated much of Jean Piaget's work. The goals, genetic approach, and epistemological assumptions underlying Piaget's inquiry into cognitive development found explicit statement in Baldwin's work. Discusses Baldwin's current importance for psychology. (Author/CB)

16. Jean Piaget: An Introduction and Reader's Guide for Children's Librarians.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Getts, Marilyn; Giacoma, Pete

1981-01-01

Introduces children's librarians to the theories of cognitive growth in children formulated by Jean Piaget. An annotated bibliography of three primary and 16 secondary references is provided to promote insight and to reinforce commitment to children's services. Five references are listed. (RAA)

17. Karl Popper and Jean Piaget: A Rationale for Constructivism

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harlow, Steve; Cummings, Rhoda; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.

2006-01-01

The current faddish use of the term constructivism has taken on as many different definitions as the number of people attempting to define it. This essay clarifies the meaning of constructivism through an examination of Karl Popper's and Jean Piaget's theories. The authors provide a rationale for the use of Popper's paradigm of "Three Worlds" and…

18. Reflections on Piaget. Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Memorial Conference.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broughton, John M., Ed.; And Others

1981-01-01

Sessions of and presentations given at a memorial conference, held in honor of Jean Piaget, are reported. The conference was sponsored by the Developmental Psychology Program at Teachers College, Columbia University, on November 14, 1980. Sixteen scholars from the fields of psychology, philosophy, and education participated. (CJ)

19. Hannah Arendt & Jean Baudrillard: Pedagogy in the Consumer Society

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Norris, Trevor

2006-01-01

This paper considers the place of education within our "consumers' society", beginning with Hannah Arendt's account of the rise of consumerism to a position of political dominance and the resulting eclipse of public life. Connections are then made between Arendt's account of this rise and Jean Baudrillard's account of the postmodern proliferation…

20. Jean-Martin Charcot Pathologist, Neurologist, Psychiatrist and Physician

PubMed Central

Pandey, Sanjay

2012-01-01

Jean-Martin Charcot is known as father of modern neurology. Before him, neurology was only limited to select disorders like chorea. His contributions were not limited to neurology only, as he was instrumental in many new developments in the field of pathology, psychiatry, and internal medicine. Even after 100 years, Charcots clinical methods remain the pillar of modern neurology. PMID:23349597

1. THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE: TRANSITION FROM HYDRODYNAMIC TO JEANS ESCAPE

SciTech Connect

Volkov, Alexey N.; Johnson, Robert E.; Tucker, Orenthal J.; Erwin, Justin T.

2011-03-10

Thermally driven escape from planetary atmospheres changes in nature from an organized outflow (hydrodynamic escape) to escape on a molecule-by-molecule basis (Jeans escape) with increasing Jeans parameter, {lambda}, the ratio of the gravitational to thermal energy of the atmospheric molecules. This change is described here for the first time using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. When heating is predominantly below the lower boundary of the simulation region, R{sub 0}, and well below the exobase of a single-component atmosphere, the nature of the escape process changes over a surprisingly narrow range of Jeans parameters, {lambda}{sub 0}, evaluated at R{sub 0}. For an atomic gas, the transition occurs over {lambda}{sub 0} {approx} 2-3, where the lower bound, {lambda}{sub 0} {approx} 2.1, corresponds to the upper limit for isentropic, supersonic outflow. For {lambda}{sub 0} > 3 escape occurs on a molecule-by-molecule basis and we show that, contrary to earlier suggestions, for {lambda}{sub 0} > {approx}6 the escape rate does not deviate significantly from the familiar Jeans rate. In a gas composed of diatomic molecules, the transition shifts to {lambda}{sub 0} {approx} 2.4-3.6 and at {lambda}{sub 0} > {approx}4 the escape rate increases a few tens of percent over that for the monatomic gas. Scaling by the Jeans parameter and the Knudsen number, these results can be applied to thermally induced escape of the major species from solar and extrasolar planets.

2. Shifting Attention

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ingram, Jenni

2014-01-01

This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

3. Attention's Accelerator.

PubMed

Reinhart, Robert M G; McClenahan, Laura J; Woodman, Geoffrey F

2016-06-01

How do people get attention to operate at peak efficiency in high-pressure situations? We tested the hypothesis that the general mechanism that allows this is the maintenance of multiple target representations in working and long-term memory. We recorded subjects' event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing the working memory and long-term memory representations used to control attention while performing visual search. We found that subjects used both types of memories to control attention when they performed the visual search task with a large reward at stake, or when they were cued to respond as fast as possible. However, under normal circumstances, one type of target memory was sufficient for slower task performance. The use of multiple types of memory representations appears to provide converging top-down control of attention, allowing people to step on the attentional accelerator in a variety of high-pressure situations. PMID:27056975

4. Astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy chats with STS-66 crewmates

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1994-01-01

Astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy (center), STS-66 international mission specialist, chats with payload crew mates during a training session on emergency egress procedures. Wearing training versions of the launch and entry suits, the crew members are, left to right, Scott E. Parazynski, Joseph P. Tanner, Clervoy and Ellen Ochoa. Ochoa is the payload commander, Tanner and Parazynski are NASA mission specialists and Clervoy represents the European Space Agency (ESA) as a mission specialist.

5. Jean-Marie Mariotti (1955 - 28 July 1998).

Léna, P.

1998-09-01

Jean-Marie Mariotti, head of the VLTI programme at ESO since the fall of 1997, passed away at the age of 43 on July 28 in Munich, taken by a sudden and acute leukaemia. Together with his wife, Françoise, and their children, Appolline and Octave (6 and 3 years old), a brief ceremony was held on July 31 at the Ost-Friedhof in Munich, attended by his family and a number of his ESO friends and colleagues.

6. Jeans self gravitational instability of strongly coupled quantum plasma

SciTech Connect

Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.

2014-07-15

The Jeans self-gravitational instability is studied for quantum plasma composed of weakly coupled degenerate electron fluid and non-degenerate strongly coupled ion fluid. The formulation for such system is done on the basis of two fluid theory. The dynamics of weakly coupled degenerate electron fluid is governed by inertialess momentum equation. The quantum forces associated with the quantum diffraction effects and the quantum statistical effects act on the degenerate electron fluid. The strong correlation effects of ion are embedded in generalized viscoelastic momentum equation including the viscoelasticity and shear viscosities of ion fluid. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode analysis technique for the two regimes of propagation, i.e., hydrodynamic and kinetic regimes. The Jeans condition of self-gravitational instability is also obtained for both regimes, in the hydrodynamic regime it is observed to be affected by the ion plasma oscillations and quantum parameter while in the kinetic regime in addition to ion plasma oscillations and quantum parameter, it is also affected by the ion velocity which is modified by the viscosity generated compressional effects. The Jeans critical wave number and corresponding critical mass are also obtained for strongly coupled quantum plasma for both regimes.

7. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

2004-01-01

Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

8. Shared Attention.

PubMed

Shteynberg, Garriy

2015-09-01

Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

9. Modified Jeans instability in Lorentzian dusty self-gravitating plasmas with Lennard-Jones potential

SciTech Connect

Qian, Y. Z. Chen, H. Liu, S. Q.

2014-11-15

The Jeans instability in self-gravitating plasma with Kappa distributed dust grains is investigated basing on assumption that the mutual interaction among dust grains is governed by Lennard-Jones potential. It is shown that the presence of additional suprathermal particles has significant effects on the range of unstable modes and growth rate of Jeans instability. Compared with Maxwellian scenario, suprathermality stabilized the Jeans instability.

10. Attention Genes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

2007-01-01

A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

11. Physical interpretation of Jeans instability in quantum plasmas

SciTech Connect

Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

2014-08-15

In this paper, we use the quantum hydrodynamics and its hydrostatic limit to investigate the newly posed problem of Jeans instability in quantum plasmas from a different point of view in connection with the well-known Chandrasekhar mass-limit on highly collapsed degenerate stellar configurations. It is shown that the hydrodynamic stability of a spherically symmetric uniform quantum plasma with a given fixed mass is achieved by increase in its mass-density or decrease in the radius under the action of gravity. It is also remarked that for masses beyond the limiting Jeans-mass, the plasma becomes completely unstable and the gravitational collapse would proceed forever. This limiting mass is found to depend strongly on the composition of the quantum plasma and the atomic-number of the constituent ions, where it is observed that heavier elements rather destabilize the quantum plasma hydrodynamically. It is also shown that the Chandrasekhar mass-limit for white dwarf stars can be directly obtained from the hydrostatic limit of our model.

12. STS-86 Mission Specialist Jean-Loup Chretien at TCDT

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1997-01-01

STS-86 Mission Specialist Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES, participates in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at Launch Pad 39A. This will be his third spaceflight, but first on the Space Shuttle. He flew twice as a research-cosmonaut on Russian missions. STS-86 will be the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. During the docking, STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf will transfer to the orbiting Russian station and become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut C. Michael Foale, who has been on the Mir since the last docking mission, STS-84, in May. Launch of Mission STS-86 aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis is targeted for Sept. 25.

13. [Jean-Pierre Boudet, Reims pharmacist (1748-1828)].

PubMed

Demouy, Annick

2014-01-01

Jean-Pierre Boudet (1748-1828) is a too much unknown apothicary from Rheims, what is surprising considering the atypical character and the interest of his long carrier: a pharmacist and teacher in Rheims then in Paris, he became an inspector of powders and salpetre in the east of France. In 1798 he left the civil pharmacy and became a military pharmacist by embarking with Napoleon for the campaign of Egypt, which he led until its term, before pursuing his military carrier in Prussia and Austria. As a member of the Commission of Sciences and Arts and a member of the Institute of Egypt, he widely participated, but with too great a modesty, in the scientific works stemming from the campaign of Egypt which had aimed to be as military as scientific and artistic. PMID:25966539

14. Electrostatic drift modes in quantum dusty plasmas with Jeans terms

SciTech Connect

Ren Haijun; Wu Zhengwei; Cao Jintao; Chu, Paul K.

2009-10-15

Electrostatic drift waves (EDWs) are investigated in nonuniform quantum magnetized dusty plasmas by taking into account dust gravitational effects with the help of the quantum hydrodynamic model. Ions and electrons are viewed as low-temperature Fermi gases, whereas quantum effects are neglected for the dust grains. The analytical dispersion relationship of the quantum EDWs is derived. Quantum effects are shown to affect the dispersion of EDW significantly. The Jeans terms induce a driftlike instability, which does not exist with the absence of gravitational effects. The criteria and growth rate of the kind of instability are presented. Our results are relevant to dense astrophysical objects such as the interiors of astrophysical compact objects (e.g., white dwarfs and neutron stars)

15. The early evolution of Jean Piaget's clinical method.

PubMed

Mayer, Susan Jean

2005-11-01

This article analyzes the early evolution of Jean Piaget's renowned "clinical method" in order to investigate the method's strikingly original and generative character. Throughout his 1st decade in the field, Piaget frequently discussed and justified the many different approaches to data collection he used. Analysis of his methodological progression during this period reveals that Piaget's determination to access the genuine convictions of children eventually led him to combine 3 distinct traditions in which he had been trained-naturalistic observation, psychometrics, and the psychiatric clinical examination. It was in this amalgam, first evident in his 4th text, that Piaget discovered the clinical dynamic that would drive the classic experiments for which he is most well known. PMID:17152748

16. Transcultural nursing: a perspective derived from Jean-Paul Sartre.

PubMed

Rajan, M F

1995-09-01

Transcultural nursing care is a well-established theoretical framework. This theory, developed by Madeleine Leininger, can have an impact on clinical practice, academic preparation and nursing research. The heightened interest in applying transcultural care and the increased need to espouse this framework have been triggered by constant population changes. This paper defines transcultural nursing care and expands its definition further by comparing and contrasting it with Jean-Paul Sartre's existentialist perspective. The two modes of existence as defined by Sartre are closely examined. Concrete examples are offered as cultural phenomena and the components of a cultural assessment are discussed and applied. The philosophical thesis is approached from a transcultural nursing perspective and existentialism is shown to serve as a foundation for transcultural nursing. The advantages and disadvantages of transcultural nursing practice and the preparation of transcultural nurses are finally addressed. PMID:7499611

17. [Albert-Jean-Louis Brun, pharmacist of Geneva and vulcanologist].

PubMed

Chaigneau, M

1996-01-01

Albert-Jean-Louis Brun (1851-1929), was chemist of the University of Bern (Switzerland) and "licencié ès sciences" of the University of Sorbonne (France). In Paris he was a faithful follower of Charles Friedel. In Coutance (Genève), where he was working in his own chemistry, he realised all his researchs. After a trip to Stromboli in 1901, he studied the volcanic phenomena as a chemist, as a mineralogist and as a geophysicist. His researchs brought him till the mediterranean volcanos--Vesuve, Etna, Santorin--, till Java and Krakatoa, then Canarian islands, and the lava lake of Kilauea, etc. The results of his works are collected in a big book called "Recherches sur l'exhalaison volcanique": he presents a theory which was the subject of a polemic with the professor Henri Gautier of the professor Henri Gautier of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. PMID:11624861

18. [Pierre Bayen rediscovers the Essays of Jean Rey].

PubMed

Lafont, Olivier

2014-10-01

Jean Rey, a physician from The Bugue, a little town near Bergerac, published, in 1630, a book entitled "Essays" in which he explained the increase of the mass of lead, when it was strongly heated, by the fixation of a part of the air. This revolutionary publication was not received by the European scientists, because the Father Mersenne, "the secretary of learned Europe", was not able to repeat his experiments. Between 1774 and 1775, Pierre Bayen, who was a military apothecary, published his Works concerning the "precipitate per se", for us HgO, showing that when this compound was destroyed by heating, it produced a gas, and that the mass of this gas and the mass of the mercury obtained were equal to the mass of the "precipitate per se". He concluded that the phlogiston theory was contradictory with the results of the experiments. When, later on, Lavoisier published his important article on the increase of the mass of steal when it was heated in the air, he "forgot" to cite the Works of Bayen. In January 1775, Pierre Bayen published a letter in which he mentioned that he had discovered an exemplar of Jean Rey's book and explained that this physician of the 17th century had supposed the explanation that had been proved by Lavoisier. Nicolas Gobet then published a new edition of the "Essays" in 1777, but this new edition became itself quite rare. An inscription pencilled on the book kept by the British Museum pretends that all the exemplars Lavoisier could find were destroyed. It is not rigorous to conclude on a single document, especially when it is not signed, but it is sufficient to induce doubt. PMID:25671980

19. The effect of spin induced magnetization on Jeans instability of viscous and resistive quantum plasma

SciTech Connect

Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.

2014-03-15

The effect of spin induced magnetization and electrical resistivity incorporating the viscosity of the medium is examined on the Jeans instability of quantum magnetoplasma. Formulation of the system is done by using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. The analysis of the problem is carried out by normal mode analysis theory. The general dispersion relation is derived from set of perturbed equations to analyse the growth rate and condition of self-gravitational Jeans instability. To discuss the influence of resistivity, magnetization, and viscosity parameters on Jeans instability, the general dispersion relation is reduced for both transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. In the case of transverse propagation, the gravitating mode is found to be affected by the viscosity, magnetization, resistivity, and magnetic field strength whereas Jeans criterion of instability is modified by the magnetization and quantum parameter. In the longitudinal mode of propagation, the gravitating mode is found to be modified due to the viscosity and quantum correction in which the Jeans condition of instability is influenced only by quantum parameter. The other non-gravitating Alfven mode in this direction is affected by finite electrical resistivity, spin induced magnetization, and viscosity. The numerical study for the growth rate of Jeans instability is carried out for both in the transverse and longitudinal direction of propagation to the magnetic field. The effect of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability in quantum plasma is analysed.

20. Jeans instability of magnetized quantum plasma: Effect of viscosity, rotation and finite Larmor radius corrections

SciTech Connect

Jain, Shweta Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.

2015-07-31

The Jeans instability of self-gravitating quantum plasma is examined considering the effects of viscosity, finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and rotation. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the quantum magneto hydrodynamic model. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained and the numerical calculations have been performed to show the effects of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability.

1. In memory of Jean-François Stéphan

Blanchet, René

2016-01-01

This thematic issue of Comptes rendus Geoscience has been assembled to honor the memory of our late colleague and friend Jean-François Stéphan, whose remarkable scientific and community-directed activity has left a deep imprint on both the French and the International Earth Science communities. This volume brings together contributions of colleagues of Jean-François who were also close friends. Naturally, tectonics is the common theme of these contributions. Some of the papers presented here focus on tectonic questions and/or regions Jean-François worked on during his career; other papers present studies Jean-François motivated or encouraged in one way or another. Taken together, the papers of this thematic issue take the reader on a beautiful trip, from past to current tectonics.

2. Jean-Baptiste Belley-Mars: The Obscure Life, the Authentic Legacy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fikes, Robert Jr.

1982-01-01

Describes how Jean-Baptiste Belley-Mars, a former slave, influenced Haitian history through his role in arguing for the abolition of slavery in the French colonies at the 1794 Paris National Convention. (MJL)

3. [Jean-Paul Marat: physician, scientist and revolutionary].

PubMed

Cerda L, Jaime

2010-01-01

Physician, scientist and revolutionary are the biographical aspects that had better summarize the life of Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793). Due to the role that he played during the French Revolution, his work as a physician and scientist, prior to the events of l789, was forgotten. Marat made important contributions in the area of optics and electricity reflected in numerous publications, as well as translating Newton's Opticks (1787). Well known for his radical and aggressive ideas, his political vocation led him to embrace the revolutionary cause after the events of the Bastille. His figure was not indifferent to his contemporaries; although considered a hero by the poorest citizens, aristocrats and bourgeois considered him a cruel extremist. During the last years of his life, he suffered a cutaneous disease, the diagnosis of which is still a matter of controversy. Proposed diagnoses include eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, scabies and dermatitis herpetica, among others. Marat was assassinated by Charlotte Corday in 1793, becoming a martyr for some segments of the society that worshiped his memory. He was a man with a complex and curious personality whose figure and legacy are still a matter of discussion. PMID:20361162

4. 50 years of space science (Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture)

Bonnet, Roger-Maurice

2013-04-01

The launch of Sputnik-1 triggered my fascination for space at the age of 20. The past 50 years have allowed me to study the Sun with sounding rockets and satellites, revealing the complexity of our star, contributing to the understanding of its physics, and offering surprising manifestations of its behavior and of its effects on Earth. Building instruments for space astronomy, managing teams of space scientists and engineers, led me to become the science director of the European space agency between 1983 and 2001 where I formulated and managed the Horizon 2000 program, which led Europe to occupy the front row of world space science. The Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture offers me an opportunity, to describe the most spectacular achievements of this long-term plan and to outline some basic principles for reaching success, including the essential role of international cooperation with shared partnership. The Lecture also identifies key problems and controversial issues that space astronomy and exploration will face in the 21st century.

5. Jean-Martin Charcot: neurologist by avocation, nephrologist by yearning.

PubMed

Eknoyan, Garabed

2011-01-01

In an age of medical advances and specialization, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) helped found the discipline of neurology and in 1882 was appointed the first Professor of Diseases of the Nervous System in France. As an investigator with broad interests and vast knowledge, Charcot contributed to several other disciplines. An early mentor and dominant figure in Charcot's formative years was Pierre Rayer (1793-1867), famous for his seminal contributions to the study of the kidney, who gifted to Charcot his passion for clinical pathological correlations and likely a yearning for the study of kidney diseases. Famous for the clarity and incisiveness of his formal teaching presentations, Charcot lectured on the kidney at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris in 1877. Translated into English and published as a book titled Lectures on Bright's Disease, those lectures became widely accessible and quoted in the literature through the 1940s. In addition, at a time when he was already concentrating on the study of neurological disorders, Charcot maintained his life-long interest in the kidney and published original studies on the pathological changes of the kidney in gout and experimental lead poisoning, as well as supporting a study of hysterical ischuria by his students. PMID:21614774

6. Man with a Mission: Jean-Dominique Cassini

Belkora, Leila

2004-03-01

Jean-Dominique Cassini, for whom the Cassini mission to Saturn is named, is best known for his early understanding of that planet's rings. This article is an overview of his influential career in astronomy and other scientific fields.= Born in Italy in1625 and formally educated at an early age, he was a professor of astronomy at the University of Bologna, a leading center of learning in Europe of the time. He was an early observer of Jupiter, Mars, and Venus. He is best known for constructing a giant pinhole camera in a cathedral that he used with a meridian line on the floor to track the Sun's image through the year, thus providing the Catholic Church with a reliable calendar. Cassini also used the pinhole camera observations to calculate the variation in the distance between the Sun and Earth, thus lending support to the Copernican (Sun-centered) view of the solar system. Cassini moved to Paris at the request of King Louis XIV, originally to oversee the surveying needed for a new map system of France, but ultimately he took over as the director of the Paris Observatory. Cassini's descendants ran the observatory there for the following century.

7. BOOK REVIEW: Jean-Charles Houzeau et son temps

Sterken, C.; Verhas, P.

2002-12-01

This is a wonderful book. It describes the life and work of Belgian astronomer Jean-Charles Houzeau (1820-1888) and, as the last three words of the title indicate, it has a broader focus including the social, industrial and scientific context of the second part of the 19th century. This is set in a very broad international social context including social revolutions in Belgium and France, and the abolition of slavery in the United States. The biography clearly shows that this hard-working man was driven by science and justice, by individualism and generosity, by humor and sentiment. The book is divided in four parts, each part is placed in its own historical context. The first part "The apprentice, the master and his disciples" describes Houzeau's childhood and young years, his early scientific career at the Observatory in Brussels, and his relationship with Adolphe Quetelet. The evolution of this relationship is very well documented: the turbulent revolutionary Houzeau versus cool, moderated and diplomatic royalist Quetelet, the observer versus the mathematician theorist. But both were very dedicated teachers: Quetelet established public courses and after the Revolution of 1830 he contributed to the foundation of the University of Brussels; Houzeau was the peripatetic teacher wherever place he was, also after his return to Belgium. The second part is "The politician" and deals with Houzeau's political ideas and revolutionary attitudes and their consequences. His revolutionary ideas, though, were not confined to politics only: he also severely criticised the paucity of high-precision observations collected at the Royal Observatory in his days. Because he participated at revolutionary meetings, Houzeau was fired from his position at the Observatory by the Minister of Interior Affairs Charles Rogier. Thus started his peripathetic life, covering observational work in astronomy, geography, geodesy and natural sciences in many places in Belgium and abroad. The third

8. Did Jean-Martin Charcot contribute to stroke?

PubMed

Bogousslavsky, Julien; Paciaroni, Maurizio

2010-01-01

Stroke was never identified as a significant, autonomous field of activity of the emerging school of neurology at La Salpêtrière, which developed after the appointment of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) during the last days of 1861. However, stroke was already present in Charcot's first paper (1851), which dealt with a case of multiple organ cardiac embolism, including middle cerebral artery infarction, at a time when the studies of Rudolf Virchow on thromboembolism were unknown in France. A few years later, Charcot made a still up-to-date description of vascular intermittent claudication, which had only been reported in the horse. In the 1860s, Charcot and his pupils presented several major works dealing with cerebrovascular disease, including famous studies on miliary aneurysms in cerebral hemorrhage. This work was done with Charles Bouchard, at the time Charcot's 'interne', but who would become one of his 'political' opponents 2 decades later, when in 1892, as president of the 'agrégation' jury, he rejected the professorship application of 4 protégés of Charcot, including Joseph Babinski and Georges Gilles de la Tourette. Further work on cerebrovascular disease by Charcot included histological studies of brain 'softening', paraneoplastic cerebral arterial occlusion and consequences of stroke (e.g. arthropathies, vegetative changes, contractures and abnormal movements). Brain localization, one of Charcot's major neurological topics, was also largely based on stroke case studies. Charcot's work on stroke remains poorly recognized, but it demonstrates his unique skills in stimulating scientific work in younger colleagues, many of whom subsequently became major figures of neurology and psychiatry. PMID:20588046

9. Attentional spreading in object-based attention.

PubMed

Richard, Ashleigh M; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vecera, Shaun P

2008-08-01

The authors investigated 2 effects of object-based attention: the spread of attention within an attended object and the prioritization of search across possible target locations within an attended object. Participants performed a flanker task in which the location of the task-relevant target was fixed and known to participants. A spreading attention account predicts that object-based attention will arise from the spread of attention through an attended object. A prioritization account predicts that there will be a small, if any, object-based effect because the location of the target is known in advance and objects are not required to prioritize the deployment of attentional search. The results suggested that object-based attention operates via the spread of attention within an object. PMID:18665730

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shih, Shui-I

2008-01-01

An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

11. EAARL Topography - Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve 2006

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Segura, Martha; Yates, Xan

2008-01-01

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) and bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in Louisiana, acquired on September 22, 2006. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system

12. Design jeans for recycling: a supply chain case study in The Netherlands.

PubMed

van Bommel, Harrie; Goorhuis, Maarten

2014-11-01

Because the insight is raising that waste prevention needs an integral product chain approach, a product chain project was awarded with an International Solid Waste Association grant. The project decided to focus on jeans because of the large environmental impacts of cotton and the low recycling rates. The project used an open innovative approach by involving many actors from the different phases of the chain and included student and applied researchers. In a 'design jeans for recycling' students' workshop, prototypes of jeans that are easier to recycle have been developed. Integrating the new generation from different disciplines in the project proved to be very successful. The results show that an open innovation process can lead to very creative ideas and that lessons learned from this project could be used to develop new chain projects for other products. An important condition is that key actors are willing to cooperate in an open innovation approach. PMID:25245293

13. BOOK REVIEW: Jean-Charles Houzeau et son temps

Sterken, C.; Verhas, P.

2002-12-01

This is a wonderful book. It describes the life and work of Belgian astronomer Jean-Charles Houzeau (1820-1888) and, as the last three words of the title indicate, it has a broader focus including the social, industrial and scientific context of the second part of the 19th century. This is set in a very broad international social context including social revolutions in Belgium and France, and the abolition of slavery in the United States. The biography clearly shows that this hard-working man was driven by science and justice, by individualism and generosity, by humor and sentiment. The book is divided in four parts, each part is placed in its own historical context. The first part "The apprentice, the master and his disciples" describes Houzeau's childhood and young years, his early scientific career at the Observatory in Brussels, and his relationship with Adolphe Quetelet. The evolution of this relationship is very well documented: the turbulent revolutionary Houzeau versus cool, moderated and diplomatic royalist Quetelet, the observer versus the mathematician theorist. But both were very dedicated teachers: Quetelet established public courses and after the Revolution of 1830 he contributed to the foundation of the University of Brussels; Houzeau was the peripatetic teacher wherever place he was, also after his return to Belgium. The second part is "The politician" and deals with Houzeau's political ideas and revolutionary attitudes and their consequences. His revolutionary ideas, though, were not confined to politics only: he also severely criticised the paucity of high-precision observations collected at the Royal Observatory in his days. Because he participated at revolutionary meetings, Houzeau was fired from his position at the Observatory by the Minister of Interior Affairs Charles Rogier. Thus started his peripathetic life, covering observational work in astronomy, geography, geodesy and natural sciences in many places in Belgium and abroad. The third

14. Secondary instability of Jeans mode in a gravitating fluid with uniform rotation

SciTech Connect

Chakrabarti, Nikhil

2011-06-15

An axisymmetric rotating gas in a gravitational field is examined for its stability to two dimensional disturbances with first azimuthal mode. It is shown that a quasi-equilibrium is established when pressure and Coriolis force act against primary Jeans instability. A linear perturbation on this inhomogeneous equilibrium gives rise to secondary instability, which grows differently from homogeneous case. A stationary phase integral method demonstrates that the instability grows algebraically due to the free energy associated with the axisymmetric equilibrium. This secondary Jeans instability may have some bearing with the structure formations in the universe.

15. Attention and olfactory consciousness.

PubMed

Keller, Andreas

2011-01-01

Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness. PMID:22203813

16. A Response to "Boarding School in a Canadian Context," by Jean Barman.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cookson, Peter W., Jr.

1982-01-01

Raises issues concerning boarding schools in response to Jean Barman's critique of "Boarding Schools and the Moral Community." (See JC 502 949 and JC 502 950). Discusses influences on the boarding school tradition, the liberal orientation of parents of boarding school students, boarding school purposes, and the variation that exists among boarding…

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rocha, Samuel

2009-01-01

In this essay Samuel Rocha primarily addresses, and challenges, the modern conception of reason and the lowly place of intuition, feeling, and love in what has become traditional philosophy and education. Drawing upon the rich thought of William James and Jean-Luc Marion, Rocha introduces the reader to a certain harmony between their ideas, most…

18. [Mortality at the end of the sixteenth century according to the data of Jean Hudde].

PubMed

Lombardo, E

1987-01-01

The author presents survival probability and mortality information for Holland in the late sixteenth century based on life annuity data for the years 1586-1590, examined by Jean Hudde and discussed in a letter he wrote in 1671 to Christiaan Huygens. PMID:12268631

19. Can You Hear Me Now? Jean-Jacques Rousseau on Listening Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laverty, Megan J.

2011-01-01

In this essay Megan J. Laverty argues that Jean-Jacques Rousseau's conception of humane communication and his proposal for teaching it have implications for our understanding of the role of listening in education. She develops this argument through a close reading of Rousseau's most substantial work on education, "Emile: Or, On Education". Laverty…

20. Jean Vigo's "Zéro De Conduite" and the Spaces of Revolt

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vanobbergen, Bruno; Grosvenor, Ian; Simon, Frank

2014-01-01

In this article we will contribute to the contemporary theoretical debate about film by considering, from a history-of-education perspective, the film "Zéro de conduite" by Jean Vigo (1905--1934). This film is classified under the umbrella of "poetic realism": a product of "cinéma de gauche" and an avant-gardist,…

1. Astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy in white room on launch pad 39B

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1994-01-01

In the white room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-66 mission specialist Jean-Francois Clervoy is assisted with his partial pressure launch/entry suit by close-out crew members Travis Thompson and Danny Wyatt (background) before entering the Space Shuttle Atlantis for its November 3 launch.

2. The Enunciation of the Subject: Sharing Jean-Luc Nancy's Singular Plural in the Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collins, Ashok

2015-01-01

This article seeks to explore the implications of Jean-Luc Nancy's reading of the subject for educational philosophy by connecting his re-interpretation of Descartes to his later thinking on what he names the ontological singular plural. Nancy's re-imagining of the Cogito coalesces around the figure of the mouth ("la bouche") through…

3. The Role of Trustworthiness in Teaching: An Examination of "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie"

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Katz, Michael S.

2014-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role that trustworthiness plays in the ability of teachers to function as moral role models. Through exploration of Muriel Spark's novel, "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie," I explain some of the central features of trustworthiness as a moral virtue and suggest how these features are critical…

4. The Right College: As Comfortable as Your Favorite Pair of Jeans

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Martin, Elizabeth Jean

2009-01-01

There is one thing on every shopping list that any student will be sure to choose accurately: the perfect pair of jeans. Indeed, this ubiquitous wardrobe staple is an important purchase requiring a variety of considerations, many of which correspond to another even more significant decision most students will make in the coming weeks, months or…

5. Looking for Marx: A Review of "Marx and Education" by Jean Anyon

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Banfield, Grant

2011-01-01

"Marx and Education" is the second and latest volume in the new "Routledge Key Ideas in Education Series". The series is intended to offer readers concise introductions to specific sub-field developments in the field of educational scholarship. For their "Marx and Education" volume, Greg Dimitriadis and Bob Lingard invited Jean Anyon to illuminate…

6. Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

2013-01-01

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

7. An Interview with Mark Ahlness and Jean Carmody about the Earth Day Groceries Project.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strangman, Nicole

2002-01-01

Outlines an interview with Mark Ahlness, a third-grade teacher at Arbor Heights Elementary School in Seattle, Washington, and Jean Carmody, an art teacher at two elementary schools in Cranston, Rhode Island. Describes their collaborative project called the Earth Day Groceries Project. Explains that in this Internet project, students decorate…

8. Documenting Reproduction and Inequality: Revisiting Jean Anyon's "Social Class and School Knowledge"

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Luke, Allan

2010-01-01

Jean Anyon's (1981) "Social Class and School Knowledge" was a landmark work in North American educational research. It provided a richly detailed qualitative description of differential, social class-based constructions of knowledge and epistemological stance. This essay situates Anyon's work in two parallel traditions of critical educational…

9. Manufactured Memory, Altered Belief and Self Report Mirage: The Alleged False Memory of Jean Piaget Revisited.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leavitt, Frank

1999-01-01

It is argued that a Jean Piaget anecdote about an alleged memory implanted in a young child leading to both a visual and semantic memory that persists despite disconfirming evidence is entirely different than the recovered memory debate, which is about the alleged introduction of memories to grown adults. (CR)

10. Jean Piaget and Rudolf Steiner: Stages of Child Development and Implications for Pedagogy.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ginsburg, Iona H.

1982-01-01

The views of Jean Piaget and Rudolf Steiner concerning children's stages of development are compared and related to present-day instructional practices used in the Waldorf schools, which employ Steiner's ideas. Educational principles and practices used at the elementary school level are discussed. (PP)

11. A Biographic Comparison Tracing the Similarities in the Lives of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pass, Susan

This paper focuses on similarities in the lives of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky to enlighten study of their pedagogies and to provide some information for current classroom techniques. Neither man had a great deal to say about his early life, although Piaget published an autobiography. A number of primary sources were used to construct the…

12. A Biographic Comparison Tracing the Origin of Their Ideas of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pass, Susan

This paper compares the early life, background, and education of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. It makes the case that an adaptation of the curve developed by C. Quigley can be used to trace the motivations of both Piaget and Vygotsky in creating their respective theories. The analysis also reveals the adversity that each man faced. Although they…

13. Probes into the Actuality of Fantasy: Jean Epstein's "La Chute de la Maison Usher."

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harpole, Charles H.

"La Chute de la Maison Usher" is a film adaptation by Jean Epstein of two stories by Edgar Allan Poe, "The Fall of the House of Usher" and "The Oval Portrait." This film was typical of Epstein's artistic preoccupation with the ambivalence of reality as expressed in fantasy or surrealism, in qualities of movement, and in the vagaries of seeing and…

14. Resisting a Discourse of Mastery: A Conversation with Jean-Francois Lyotard.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Olson, Gary A.

1995-01-01

Presents an interview with Jean-Francois Lyotard, which provides insight into many concerns, including his views on culture, feminism, postmodernism, and writing. Explains Lyotard's belief that philosophy and inquiry ought to pursue perpetual questions as opposed to "answers" or mastery of a subject. (TB)

15. Rhetoric in Group Action: A Theory of Social Movements from Jean-Paul Sartre.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Warnick, Barbara

The implications of a social movement theory advanced by Jean-Paul Sartre in his "Critique of Dialectical Reason" is examined in this paper. The paper notes that unlike sociologists and rhetoricians who have stressed the psychology of movement adherents, the reasons for movement formation, or the movement's interaction with power agents, Sartre…

16. Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey (1766-1842): founder of military surgery and trauma care.

PubMed

Karamanou, M; Rosenberg, T; Liakakos, T; Androutsos, G

2011-01-01

Dominique-Jean Larrey was a distinguished surgeon in chief of Napoleon's army and a faithful servant of the Empire. His surgical skills and inventions, his absolute attachment and devotion to his profession, his humanitarian spirit and courage entitled him as one of history's greatest military surgeons. PMID:21520773

17. A Portrait of the Teacher as Friend and Artist: The Example of Jean-Jacques Rousseau

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McEwan, Hunter

2011-01-01

The following is a reflection on the possibility of teaching by example, and especially as the idea of teaching by example is developed in the work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. My thesis is that Rousseau created a literary version of himself in his writings as an embodiment of his philosophy, rather in the same way and with the same purpose that…

18. New employee strategies pay off. Identity crisis at Jeanes Hospital gives way to a new day.

PubMed

Botvin, Judith D

2002-01-01

A new spirit is evident at Jeanes Hospital in Philadelphia, where morale had slumped following the combination of the 128-year old Quaker-based institution with the Temple University Health System. The key is a new CEO with a passion for open communication, honest messaging and consistent follow-up. PMID:11915205

19. "He sees the development of children's concepts upon a background of sociology": Jean Piaget's honorary degree at Harvard University in 1936.

PubMed

Hsueh, Yeh

2004-02-01

In the recent memory, Jean Piaget has been known as a cognitive developmental psychologist. But in 1936 when Harvard gave him his first honorary degree, he was recognized mainly as a sociologist. Why did Harvard honor him in 1936? Who knew his work well enough to nominate him? This article will address these questions by exploring archival documents from different sources. Evidence draws our attention to a broad social and intellectual endeavor in philanthropy, other social sciences, and especially industrial research that brought Piaget across the water. This article also attempts to interpret the circumstances of the nomination process inside and outside of Harvard University by using a theory of institutional design. It suggests that embodied in Harvard's honor of Piaget in 1936 was an idealistic act in social designing for a future society. PMID:15022668

20. Fascinating Plasma Structures (Jean Dominique Cassini Medal Lecture)

Haerendel, Gerhard

2010-05-01

In this lecture I will discuss three plasma realms, which have attracted my particular attention because of their fascinating observable fine structure and the complex underlying physics. The structure is, of course, owed to the pervading magnetic field. But it is in particular the role of magnetic tensions that will be highlighted. The three plasma phenomena are: (1) cometary plasma tails, where magnetic tensions transfer momentum from the solar wind under mass loading by the comet; (2) auroral arcs, which owe their energy influx to the release of magnetic shear stresses; and (3) solar prominences, in which cool plasma embedded in the hot corona is subject to a balance of magnetic shear stresses and gravity. The last subject is a recent topic of my research and still bears many secrets. Images and movies will be supplemented by brief characterizations of the key physical processes.

1. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Villegas, Orlando; And Others

This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

2. Training Visual Attention

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mulholland, Thomas B.

1974-01-01

The effects of brain waves and alpha rhythms on attentiveness to visual stimuli are discussed, and preliminary research findings and research needs are considered in connection with measuring and training for attention. (LH)

3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

MedlinePlus

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence of 1 or more of ... of these behaviors. INATTENTIVE SYMPTOMS Doesn't pay attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork ...

4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

MedlinePlus

5. Ensaio de Pedagogia Comparada: Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) X Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) (Essay on Compared Pedagogy: Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) X Immanuel Kant (1724-1804).

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fontanella, Francisco Cock

2000-01-01

Finds that, although the thought of Jean Jacques Rousseau is frequently cited as an influence on Immanuel Kant, this has no basis regarding pedagogical influence. Compares the "Projecto" and "Emilio" of Rousseau with Kant's "Pedagogia." (BT)

Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

2014-09-01

In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

PubMed

Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

2014-09-01

In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

8. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

PubMed

Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

2016-04-01

Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

9. Two Schemes of Intellectual Development: A Comparison of Development as Defined by William Perry and Jean Piaget.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perry, Bruce; And Others

1986-01-01

A comparison of the theories of Jean Piaget and William Perry (using individual interviews with college students) shows that the two theories outline different and independent processes for assessing intellectual development. (JN)

10. Applicability problem of Jeans criterion to a stationary self-gravitating cloud

1990-08-01

The applicability of standard normal mode analysis with the resulting gravitational instability criterion is discussed for some typical configurations. It is shown that the small-perturbation method, generally used in the literature, has to be applied locally only, the reason being that the medium of a self-gravitating cloud cannot be considered homogeneous throughout the whole space. Consequently, there is an upper limit to the geometrical size of a perturbation, defined by the typical inhomogeneity scale length L. On the other hand, according to the Jeans criterion, the gravitational instability sets in for perturbations having their linear dimensions larger than some critical length, L(J), the Jeans length. It is therefore of some importance to estimate the value of the ratio L/L(J) in order to be sure that the local-analysis conclusions are meaningful.

11. Le Fevre [Le Fèvre; LeFebvre], Jean (1652-1706)

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

Born in Lisieux, France, became an associate of JEAN PICARD and PHILIPPE DE LA HIRE, became a member of the Académie des Sciences and worked on rather routine work calculating ephemeredes, and surveying. Le Fevre accused La Hire of stealing his tables after Philippe de La Hire published Tabulae Astronomicae in 1687. In 1701, resentful at not having been named official publisher of ephemerides to ...

12. The Jeans instability criterion for a compressible fluid including viscosity and heat conduction

Corona-Galindo, M. G.; Dehnen, H.

1989-03-01

For the region after the recombination era of the universe, the hydrodynamical density waves are analyzed, including shear viscosity and heat conduction for densities equal to and less than the critical density of the universe. Very near to the end of the recombination era (z = 1200), the well-known Jeans instability is found. Although the influence of the shear viscosity on the instabilities is negligible, a visible influence of the bulk viscosity is found to be present.

13. Profiles of international archives: Les archives Jean Piaget, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

PubMed

Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

2013-05-01

This research report provides a look behind closed doors at the Jean Piaget Archives in Geneva, Switzerland. It situates the potential visitor, contextualizes the Archives in its own history, and then describes what scholars can expect to find. New details about Piaget's views on Equal Rights and Equal Pay are also provided, including a look at how they affected the women who worked his factory (esp. Bärbel Inhelder). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23544355

14. Jean Piaget's experiences on the couch: some clues to a mystery.

PubMed

Schepeler, E M

1993-04-01

This paper is an attempt to reconstruct the historical, institutional, and personal circumstances leading to and surrounding Jean Piaget's psychoanalysis with Sabina Spielrein. It appears that the young Piaget's interest in psychoanalysis largely emanated from his long-standing problems with his mother. It is suggested that Piaget's lifelong tendency to intellectualise his own emotional experiences may relate to the near omission of affective factors in his psychological theories. PMID:8491531

15. Astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy in middeck during launch/entry training

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1994-01-01

Wearing a training version of a partial pressure suit, Astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy, STS-66 international mission specialist, secures himself on a collapsible seat on the middeck of a shuttle trainer during a rehearsal of procedures to be followed during launch and entry phases of the scheduled November flight of STS-66. This rehearsal, held in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures.

16. Astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy in middeck during launch/entry training

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1994-01-01

Astronaut Jean-Francois Clervoy, STS-66 international mission specialist, sits securely on a collapsible seat on the middeck of a shuttle trainer during a rehearsal of procedures to be followed during launch and entry phases of the scheduled November flight of STS-66. This rehearsal, held in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures.

17. The pursuit of being in the life and thought of Jean-Paul Sartre.

PubMed

Atwood, G E

1983-01-01

This paper has examined the relationship between the life and the thought of Jean-Paul Sartre. The central themes of Sartre's personal existence are shown to revolve around a struggle for self-definition and self-formation, rooted in the empathic failures of significant others during his formative years. It is argued that Sartre's experience of this struggle is mirrored and symbolized by the dialectic of being and nothingness which constitutes the central preoccupation of his philosophy. PMID:6415717

18. The effect of finite Larmor radius corrections on Jeans instability of quantum plasma

SciTech Connect

Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.

2013-09-15

The influence of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the Jeans instability of infinitely conducting homogeneous quantum plasma is investigated. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model is used to formulate the problem. The contribution of FLR is incorporated to the QMHD set of equations in the present analysis. The general dispersion relation is obtained analytically using the normal mode analysis technique which is modified due to the contribution of FLR corrections. From general dispersion relation, the condition of instability is obtained and it is found that Jeans condition is modified due to quantum effect. The general dispersion relation is reduced for both transverse and longitudinal mode of propagations. The condition of gravitational instability is modified due to the presence of both FLR and quantum corrections in the transverse mode of propagation. In longitudinal case, it is found to be unaffected by the FLR effects but modified due to the quantum corrections. The growth rate of Jeans instability is discussed numerically for various values of quantum and FLR corrections of the medium. It is found that the quantum parameter and FLR effects have stabilizing influence on the growth rate of instability of the system.

19. The effect of suspended particles on Jean's criterion for gravitational instability

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wollkind, David J.; Yates, Kemble R.

1990-01-01

The effect that the proper inclusion of suspended particles has on Jeans' criterion for the self-gravitational instability of an unbounded nonrotating adiabatic gas cloud is examined by formulating the appropriate model system, introducing particular physically plausible equations of state and constitutive relations, performing a linear stability analysis of a uniformly expanding exact solution to these governing equations, and exploiting the fact that there exists a natural small material parameter for this problem given by N sub 1/n sub 1, the ratio of the initial number density for the particles to that for the gas. The main result of this investigation is the derivation of an altered criterion which can substantially reduce Jeans' original critical wavelength for instability. It is then shown that the existing discrepancy between Jeans' theoretical prediction using and actual observational data relevant to the Andromeda nebula M31 can be accounted for by this new criterion of assuming suspended particles of a reasonable grain size and distribution to be present.

20. Dynamical signatures of infall around galaxy clusters: a generalized Jeans equation

Falco, Martina; Mamon, Gary A.; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Hansen, Steen H.; Gottlöber, Stefan

2013-12-01

We study the internal kinematics of galaxy clusters in the region beyond the sphere of virialization. Galaxies around a virialized cluster are infalling towards the cluster centre with a non-zero mean radial velocity. We develop a new formalism for describing the dynamical state of clusters, by generalizing the standard Jeans formalism with the inclusion of the peculiar infall motions of galaxies and the Hubble expansion as well as the contributions due to background cosmology. Using empirical fits to the radial profiles of density, mean radial velocity and velocity anisotropy of both a stacked cluster-mass halo and two isolated haloes of a cosmological dark matter only simulation, we verify that our generalized Jeans equation correctly predicts the radial velocity dispersion out to 4 virial radii. We find that the radial velocity dispersion inferred from the standard Jeans equation is accurate up to 2 virial radii, but overestimated by ≈20 per cent for the stacked halo and by ≈40 per cent for the isolated haloes, in the range ≈2-3 virial radii. Our model depends on the logarithmic growth rate of the virial radius (function of halo mass or concentration), which we estimate in seven different ways, and on the departure from self-similarity of the evolution of the peculiar velocity profile in virial units.

1. Aging, exercise, and attention.

PubMed

Hawkins, H L; Kramer, A F; Capaldi, D

1992-12-01

2. Overriding auditory attentional capture.

PubMed

Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

2007-02-01

Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when the target was not a singleton (i.e., when nontargets were made heterogeneous, or when more than one target sound was presented). These results suggest that auditory attentional capture depends on the observer's attentional set, as does visual attentional capture. The suggestion that hearing might act as an early warning system that would always be tuned to unexpected unique stimuli must therefore be modified to accommodate these strategy-dependent capture effects. PMID:17557587

3. Embodied Infant Attention

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robertson, Steven S.; Johnson, Sarah L.

2009-01-01

Does real time coupling between mental and physical activity early in development have functional significance? To address this question, we examined the habituation of visual attention and the subsequent response to change in two groups of 3-month-olds with different patterns of movement-attention coupling. In suppressors, the typical decrease in…

4. Urbanization decreases attentional engagement.

PubMed

Linnell, Karina J; Caparos, Serge; de Fockert, Jan W; Davidoff, Jules

2013-10-01

Exposure to the urban environment has been shown dramatically to increase the tendency to process contextual information. To further our understanding of this effect of urbanization, we compared performance on a local-selection task of a remote people, the Himba, living traditionally or relocated to town. We showed that (a) spatial attention was defocused in urbanized Himba but focused in traditional Himba (Experiment 1), despite urbanized Himba performing better on a working memory task (Experiment 3); (b) imposing a cognitive load made attention as defocused in traditional as in urbanized Himba (Experiment 2); and (c) using engaging stimuli/tasks made attention as focused in urbanized Himba, and British, as in traditional Himba (Experiments 4 and 5). We propose that urban environments prioritize exploration at the expense of attentional engagement and cognitive control of attentional selection. PMID:23339348

5. Contingent Attentional Capture

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

1994-01-01

Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

MedlinePlus

... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

7. Attention enhances feature integration.

PubMed

Paul, Liza; Schyns, Philippe G

2003-08-01

Perceptual processing delays between attribute dimensions (e.g. color, form and motion) [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 264 (1997) 1407] have been attributed to temporal processing asynchronies resulting from functional segregation of visual information [Science 240 (1988) 740]. In addition, several lines of evidence converge to suggest that attention plays an important role in the integration of functionally processed information. However, exactly how attention modulates the temporal integration of information remains unclear. Here, we examined how attention modulates the integration of color and form into a unitary perception. Results suggest that attending to the location of an object enhances the integration of its defining attributes by speeding up the perceptual processing of each attribute dimension. Moreover, the perceptual asynchrony between attributes remains constant across attended and unattended conditions because attention seems to offer each processing dimension an equal processing advantage. PMID:12826102

8. Attention samples stimuli rhythmically.

PubMed

Landau, Ayelet Nina; Fries, Pascal

2012-06-01

Overt exploration or sampling behaviors, such as whisking, sniffing, and saccadic eye movements, are often characterized by a rhythm. In addition, the electrophysiologically recorded theta or alpha phase predicts global detection performance. These two observations raise the intriguing possibility that covert selective attention samples from multiple stimuli rhythmically. To investigate this possibility, we measured change detection performance on two simultaneously presented stimuli, after resetting attention to one of them. After a reset flash at one stimulus location, detection performance fluctuated rhythmically. When the flash was presented in the right visual field, a 4 Hz rhythm was directly visible in the time courses of behavioral performance at both stimulus locations, and the two rhythms were in antiphase. A left visual field flash exerted only partial reset on performance and induced rhythmic fluctuation at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz). These findings show that selective attention samples multiple stimuli rhythmically, and they position spatial attention within the family of exploration behaviors. PMID:22633805

9. A tribute to Jean Lindenmann, co-discoverer of interferon (1924-2015).

PubMed

Haller, Otto

2015-11-01

In 1957, the discovery of interferon was reported by Isaacs and Lindenmann in the prestigious journal Proceedings of the Royal Society (1957) [1,2]. This discovery was definitely one of the scientific landmarks in cell biology of the past century. It was the result of an initially unplanned and amazingly creative collaboration with Alick Isaacs that lasted from July 1956 to June 1957 at Mill Hill in London. Jean Lindenmann died in Zürich on January 15, 2015, at the age of 90, after having survived Alick Isaacs (1921-1967) for almost five decades. PMID:25937629

10. [Jean-Jacques Lefrère: A miscarried ambition for blood safety in francophone Africa].

PubMed

Tayou Tagny, C; Laperche, S; Murphy, E

2016-02-01

The announcement of the death of Professor Jean-Jacques Lefrère caused considerable emotion and surprise within the francophone Africa blood transfusion research network. The group was created in 2007 in Paris. Each member that works within this group wanted to pay their last respects through dedicated publication for a brilliant researcher and writer. The tribute describes the creation of the group, its goals, its operations, its achievements and the prospects of its activities while emphasizing the essential role that Professor Lefrère played within the group. PMID:26762688

11. Seduction and the vicissitudes of translation: the work of Jean Laplanche.

PubMed

Fletcher, John

2007-10-01

This paper aims to analyze Jean Laplanche's revision of Freudian metapsychology, which emerged from a critical return to Freud's officially abandoned seduction theory of 1895-1897. Where Freud gradually replaced the model of traumatic seduction with a theory of infantile sexuality and its drives, Laplanche articulates both trauma and sexual drive in a new theory of primal seduction, the fundamental anthropological situation in which human subjectivity is formed. The author concludes by considering Laplanche's modeling of the psychoanalytic situation and his reformulation of transference in relation to mourning and sublimation within the framework of the general theory of seduction. PMID:18085011

12. Classical extended charge subjected to linear forces and Rayleigh-Jeans radiation

Blanco, R.; Pesquera, L.; Jimenez, J. L.

1986-07-01

We study a rigid classical extended charge in the nonrelativistic approximation, first subjected to a linear force, and second immersed in an electromagnetic radiation with a Rayleigh-Jeans (RJ) spectrum. A Yukawa distribution is considered for the charge, when necessary, to get explicit results. A comparison with the Abraham-Lorentz (AL) model is made. Our results show that the AL model is a good approximation for the extended charge only if the external forces do not contain high frequencies. However, if we consider RJ radiation big discrepancies appear. We also find that the linear system follows the Maxwell-Boltzmann law only for large enough values of the radius.

13. A comparison between John Dewey's theory of inquiry and Jean Piaget's genetic analysis of intelligence.

PubMed

Seltzer, E

1977-06-01

This article compares John Dewey's theory of inquiry with Jean Piaget's analysis of the mechanisms implied in the increase of knowledge. The sources for this paper are Dewey's studies on logic and the theory of inquiry and Piaget's historical-critical and psychogenetic investigations. Three major conclusions result from the comparison: first, there are significant convergences between the two theories; second, Piaget's developmental analysis makes explicit what is programmatic in Dewey's investigations; and, finally, Piaget is incorrect in characterizing Dewey's pragmatism as a method that does not meet the criteria of intelligent activity. PMID:328823

14. Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), and astronaut

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1996-01-01

STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), and astronaut Kevin R. Kregel, pilot, perform a successful Inflight Maintenance (IFM) on the Bubble Drop Particle Unit (BDPU). The IFM technique was performed initially on the ground at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by alternate payload specialist Pedro Duque of the European Space Agency (ESA), with the procedure being recorded on video and uplinked to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia to aid in the repair.

15. Dominique-Jean Larrey: the effects of therapeutic hypothermia and the first ambulance.

PubMed

Remba, Salomon Jasqui; Varon, Joseph; Rivera, Alma; Sternbach, George L

2010-03-01

The fields of emergency medicine and resuscitation are indebted to the Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey (1766-1842) for significant advances in patient care. Larrey was a great surgeon who served in the French army during Napoleon's rule. He developed one of the first ambulance services, utilized positive pressure ventilation, and introduced hypothermia as a form of therapy. He dedicated his professional life to improving the care of wounded soldiers on the battlefield. Larrey coined the term "Triage" to allocate resources to those most in need of emergent care. Today, many of his techniques still prevail in modern medicine. PMID:20036046

16. Attention Reorients Periodically.

PubMed

Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

2016-06-20

Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

17. [Schizophrenia and selective attention].

PubMed

Thomas, J; Laplante, L; Everett, J

1989-01-01

A comparative study of selective attention was made on 22 schizophrenic inpatients, 18 non schizophrenic inpatients and a control of 22 non psychiatric adults. Signs of schizophrenia were quantified through the BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) and selective attention was expressed as the capacity to resist a distracting stimulus dimension in the Stroop word-colour test. The results indicated higher distractibility in schizophrenic patients, and a positive, significative relation was found between this interference and the "activation" cluster. PMID:2566479

PubMed

Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

2016-01-01

19. Interocular conflict attracts attention.

PubMed

Paffen, Chris L E; Hessels, Roy S; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

2012-02-01

During binocular rivalry, perception alternates.between dissimilar images presented dichoptically. Since.its discovery, researchers have debated whether the phenomenon is subject to attentional control. While it is now clear that attentional control over binocular rivalry is possible, the opposite is less evident: Is interocular conflict (i.e., the situation leading to binocular rivalry) able to attract attention?In order to answer this question, we used a change blindness paradigm in which observers looked for salient changes in two alternating frames depicting natural scenes. Each frame contained two images: one for the left and one for the right eye. Changes occurring in a single image (monocular) were detected faster than those occurring in both images (binocular). In addition,monocular change detection was also faster than detection in fused versions of the changed and unchanged regions. These results show that interocular conflict is capable of attracting attention, since it guides visual attention toward salient changes that otherwise would remain unnoticed for longer. The results of a second experiment indicated that interocular conflict attracts attention during the first phase of presentation, a phase during which the stimulus is abnormally fused [added]. PMID:22167536

20. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

PubMed

Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

2014-01-01

Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

PubMed

Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

2005-04-01

2. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

2010-01-01

We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

3. Gaze Cueing of Attention

PubMed Central

Frischen, Alexandra; Bayliss, Andrew P.; Tipper, Steven P.

2007-01-01

During social interactions, people’s eyes convey a wealth of information about their direction of attention and their emotional and mental states. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of past and current research into the perception of gaze behavior and its effect on the observer. This encompasses the perception of gaze direction and its influence on perception of the other person, as well as gaze-following behavior such as joint attention, in infant, adult, and clinical populations. Particular focus is given to the gaze-cueing paradigm that has been used to investigate the mechanisms of joint attention. The contribution of this paradigm has been significant and will likely continue to advance knowledge across diverse fields within psychology and neuroscience. PMID:17592962

4. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

2011-01-01

The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

5. Attention Capture by Faces

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

2008-01-01

We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

6. Perceptual objects capture attention.

PubMed

Yeshurun, Yaffa; Kimchi, Ruth; Sha'shoua, Guy; Carmel, Tomer

2009-06-01

A recent study has demonstrated that the mere organization of some elements in the visual field into an object attracts attention automatically [Kimchi, R., Yeshurun, Y., & Cohen-Savransky, A. (2007). Automatic, stimulus-driven attentional capture by objecthood. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(1), 166-172]. We tested whether similar results will emerge when the target is not a part of the object and with simplified task demands. A matrix of 16 black L elements in various orientations preceded the presentation of a Vernier target. The target was either added to the matrix (Experiment 1), or appeared after its offset (Experiment 2). On some trials four elements formed a square-like object, and on some of these trials the target appeared in the center of the object. No featural uniqueness or abrupt onset was associated with the object and it did not predict the target location or the direction of the target's horizontal offset. Performance was better when the target appeared in the center of the object than in a different location than the object, even when the target appeared after the matrix offset. These findings support the hypothesis that a perceptual object captures attention (Kimchi et al., 2007), and demonstrate that this automatic deployment of attention to the object is robust and involves a spatial component. PMID:18299141

7. Visual attention and stability

PubMed Central

Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

2011-01-01

In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as complete as introspection would lead us to believe. We attend to only a few items at a time and stability is maintained only for those items. There appear to be two distinct mechanisms underlying visual stability. The first is a passive mechanism: the visual system assumes the world to be stable, unless there is a clear discrepancy between the pre- and post-saccadic image of the region surrounding the saccade target. This is related to the pre-saccadic shift of attention, which allows for an accurate preview of the saccade target. The second is an active mechanism: information about attended objects is remapped within retinotopic maps to compensate for eye movements. The locus of attention itself, which is also characterized by localized retinotopic activity, is remapped as well. We conclude that visual attention is crucial in our perception of a stable world. PMID:21242140

8. Expectancy, Attention, and Time.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barnes, Ralph; Jones, Mari Riess

2000-01-01

Examined the influence of contextual timing manipulations on prospective time judgments through 7 experiments involving a total of 199 college students. Discusses results in terms of various stimulus-based models of prospective time judgments, including those that appeal to attentional periodicities and entrainment. (SLD)

9. Cosmological implications of a stellar initial mass function that varies with the Jeans mass in galaxies

Narayanan, Desika; Davé, Romeel

2012-07-01

Observations of star-forming galaxies at high z have suggested discrepancies in the inferred star formation rates (SFRs) either between data and models or between complementary measures of the SFR. These putative discrepancies could all be alleviated if the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is systematically weighted towards more high-mass star formation in rapidly star-forming galaxies. Here, we explore how the IMF might vary under the central assumption that the turnover mass in the IMF, ?, scales with the Jeans mass in giant molecular clouds (GMCs), ?. We employ hydrodynamic simulations of galaxies coupled with radiative transfer models to predict how the typical GMC Jeans mass, and hence the IMF, varies with galaxy properties. We then study the impact of such an IMF on the star formation law, the SFR-M* relation, sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) and the cosmic SFR density. Our main results are: the H2 mass-weighted Jeans mass in a galaxy scales well with the SFR when the SFR is greater than a few M⊙ yr-1. Stellar population synthesis modelling shows that this results in a non-linear relation between SFR and Lbol, such that SFR ?. Using this model relation, the inferred SFR of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies decreases by a factor of ˜2, and that of high-z SMGs decreases by a factor of ˜3-5. At z˜ 2, this results in a lowered normalization of the SFR-M* relation in better agreement with models, a reduced discrepancy between the observed cosmic SFR density and stellar mass density evolution, and SMG SFRs that are easier to accommodate in current hierarchical structure formation models. It further results in a Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law with a slope of ˜1.6 when utilizing a physically motivated form for the CO-H2 conversion factor that varies with galaxy physical property. While each of the discrepancies considered here could be alleviated without appealing to a varying IMF, the modest variation implied by assuming ? is a plausible solution

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dame, Frederick William

This book explores Jean-Jacques Rousseau's educational philosophy, as expressed in his key works, and applies that philosophy to adult education and revolution. The titles and topics of the book's seven chapters are as follows: (1) "L'Invitation: Raison d'Etre" (prelude, statement, significance, the process, assumptions and limitations); (2) "Le…

11. Psychology and Schooling: The Impact of Susan Isaacs and Jean Piaget on 1960s Science Education Reform.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hall, Jody S.

2000-01-01

Focuses on the tensions between two psychological frameworks in the negotiation of teaching practices, curriculum, and ideas about what constitutes childhood: (1) the theories of Jean Piaget focused on behavior at different developmental stages; or (2) the Susan Isaacs research that took a general view of children's intellectual capabilities. (CMK)

12. Elementary Teachers' Application of Jean Piaget's Theories of Cognitive Development during Social Studies Curriculum Debates in Arizona

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hinde, Elizabeth R.; Perry, Nancy

2007-01-01

In this article we explore educators' use of Jean Piaget's theories concerning cognitive development to refute proposed social studies standards in Arizona. We describe the work of Piaget as well as the National Association for the Education of Young Children's developmentally appropriate practices as they apply to primary-grade children's…

13. Richard Avedon's "In the American West" and Jean-Paul Sartre: An Existential Approach to Art and Value.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dubiel, Richard M.

1989-01-01

Examines Richard Avedon's photographic exhibit "In the American West" both as a work of art and as an important link to contemporary philosophical thought, particularly that of Jean-Paul Sartre, through its depiction of the human condition. Notes that the exhibit used as a teaching resource engages students in questions concerning art and value.…

14. The Influence of Their Notions of Humanism on the Drama of Jean-Paul Sartre and Bertolt Brecht.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zivanovic, Judith

The distinctive philosophies of Bertolt Brecht and Jean-Paul Sartre concerning man's existence directly influence their attitudes toward character, action, and the total drama. Both playwrights reveal that drama is an inseparable and reciprocal molding of content and form. The relationship between their ideas and their expressions of them is so…

15. Pioneering Research on Accretionary Processes - Jean Francheteau's Contributions to Understanding Mid-Ocean Ridges and Seafloor Volcanic Processes

Fornari, D. J.; Ballard, R. D.

2011-12-01

Jean Francheteau's 40-year career as a marine geophysicist spanned an exceptionally broad range of research interests and influenced generations of marine scientists, providing new concepts and insights on accretionary tectonics and seafloor volcanism. Using seafloor mapping techniques that at the time (in the early 1970s) were innovative in their own right, Jean and colleagues provided some of the first detailed perspectives of mid-ocean ridge axial topography that helped solidify acceptance of volcanic accretion at the ridges and specifically the highly focused volcanism occurring within the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Building on that work, Jean collaborated with many investigators, including one of us (RDB), over several decades of exploratory work that elucidated the fine-scale volcanic and tectonic features of many segments of the global mid-ocean ridge from the Mid-Atlanic Ridge to the northern and southern East Pacific Rise. His work in marine tectonics was equally eclectic and included detailed studies of fracture zones, microplates and exposures of crustal and upper mantle rocks in Hess Deep. Jean excelled at using the latest technologies to investigate and map seafloor volcanic and hydrothermal terrains. His work helped establish routine academic use of multibeam sonar and deep submergence technologies - both towed camera and ultimately submersibles - to make in situ field observations and collect samples. In so doing, Jean and colleagues amassed a vast amount of data pertaining to submarine volcanic and hydrothermal processes and he was one of the first to help establish causal links between these processes and their distribution along and across spreading center axes separating at slow to ultra-fast rates. Jean's superb mentorship of young marine scientists, involving them in both field and laboratory studies was a hallmark of his gracious style and reflects one of the many ways in which he admirably served the international oceanographic

16. Cortical State and Attention

PubMed Central

Harris, Kenneth D.; Thiele, Alexander

2012-01-01

Preface The brain continuously adapts its processing machinery to behavioural demands. To achieve this it rapidly modulates the operating mode of cortical circuits, controlling the way information is transformed and routed. This article will focus on two experimental approaches by which the control of cortical information processing has been investigated: the study of state-dependent cortical processing in rodents, and attention in the primate visual system. Both processes involve a modulation of low-frequency activity fluctuations and spiking correlation, and are mediated by common receptor systems. We suggest that selective attention involves processes similar to state change, operating at a local columnar level to enhance the representation of otherwise nonsalient features while suppressing internally generated activity patterns. PMID:21829219

17. Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), prepares a

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1996-01-01

STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), prepares a sample for the Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF) while wearing instruments that measure upper body movement. The Torso Rotation Experiment (TRE) complements other vestibular studies that measure differences in the way human beings react physically to their surroundings in microgravity. This is a typical Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) mission scene, with several experiments being performed. Astronaut Susan J. Helms, payload commander, assists Favier in the AGHF preparations. Astronaut Richard M. Linnehan (bottom right), mission specialist, tests his muscle response with the Handgrip Dynamometer. Astronaut Thomas T. (Tom) Henricks (far background), mission commander, offers assistance.

18. Rayleigh-Jeans Condensation of Pumped Magnons in Thin-Film Ferromagnets

Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter

2015-10-01

We show that the formation of a magnon condensate in thin ferromagnetic films can be explained within the framework of a classical stochastic non-Markovian Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation where the properties of the random magnetic field and the dissipation are determined by the underlying phonon dynamics. We have numerically solved this equation for a tangentially magnetized yttrium-iron garnet film in the presence of a parallel parametric pumping field. We obtain a complete description of all stages of the nonequilibrium time evolution of the magnon gas which is in excellent agreement with experiments. Our calculation proves that the experimentally observed condensation of magnons in yttrium-iron garnet at room temperature is a purely classical phenomenon which should be called Rayleigh-Jeans rather than Bose-Einstein condensation.

19. [Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893): a physician with multiple facets].

PubMed

Lellouch, Alain

2013-12-01

This work is registered in the year (2013) commemorating the 120 years since Jean-Martin Charcot's (1825-1893) death. Presently, the event takes place during 2013, in France, in Paris, at Hôpital de la Salpêtrière where Charcot practiced as medical chief of l'Hospice de la Vieillesse-Femmes, from 1862 until he died in 1893. The aim of the research is to show, from various examples and sources (printed and handwritten: fonds d'archives Charcot de la Salpêtrière) how talented Charcot was as a clinician, pathologist and microscopist, researcher and experimenter, teacher, artist, designer, cartoonist, polyglot and traveller), how varied his medical career was and how innovative his scientific method was. All this permitted Charcot to make an impressive number of medical discoveries in various fields which are today known as geriatrics and rheumatology, internal medicine, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry and paranormal processes. PMID:26035927

20. STS-103 Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France at Pad 39B

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1999-01-01

STS-103 Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France poses for a photograph at Launch Pad 39B during a meeting of STS-103 astronauts with family and friends. Clervoy is with the European Space Agency. The lights in the background are on the Fixed Service Structure next to Space Shuttle Discovery. The STS-103 mission, to service the Hubble Space Telescope, is scheduled for launch Dec. 17 at 8:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39B. Mission objectives include replacing gyroscopes and an old computer, installing another solid state recorder, and replacing damaged insulation in the telescope. The mission is expected to last about 8 days and 21 hours. Discovery is expected to land at KSC Sunday, Dec. 26, at about 6:25 p.m. EST.

1. Nutrient status of the lowbush blueberry, Lac-Saint-Jean area, Quebec, Canada. [Vaccinium angustifolium

SciTech Connect

Bouchard, A.R.; Gagnon, M.J.

1987-01-01

The lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) is an important commercial crop of the Lac-Saint-Jean area (Quebec, Canada). The major blueberry fields are located on sandy soils relatively poor in available mineral nutrients. The nutrients originate from a thin organic layer found on the top of these sandy soils. The leaf mineral contents (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and B) were measured in five blueberry fields during 1984 and 1985. Soil pH and soil available P, K, and Mg were also assessed. The results show that the leaf mineral contents are generally adequate. However, K and Zn might be occasionally deficient when compared to the actual established standards. The available Mg in soil was significantly correlated with the leaf Mg concentration. The data also suggest that the influence of the pH following the burn pruning seems to influence the nutrition of this species.

2. Jean-Charles Houzeau and the 1882 Belgian Transit of Venus Expeditions

Sterken, Christiaan

2013-05-01

In 1871, the Belgian astronomer Jean-Charles Houzeau developed a new approach to determine the solar parallax. His "heliometer with unequal focal lengths" produces a large and a small solar image, as well as a large and a small image of Venus. Making the small solar and the large Venus image coincide yields a measure of the angular distance of the centers of both objects. Two such instruments were built for two Belgian expeditions to observe the Venus transit of December 6, 1882: one to San Antonio, Texas, and another one to Santiago de Chile. These were the first major expeditions in the history of Belgian science. This paper documents the expeditions, and clarifies the principal instrument and its present-day whereabouts.

3. Modification of the Jeans and Toomre instability criteria for astrophysical fractal objects within nonextensive statistics

Kolesnichenko, A. V.; Marov, M. Ya.

2016-07-01

Within the formalism of Tsallis nonextensive statistics designed to describe the behavior of anomalous systems, systems with a strong gravitational interaction between their individual parts and the fractal nature of phase space, we have obtained linearized equations for the oscillations of a rigidly rotating disk by taking into account dissipative effects and give a derivation of the dispersion equation in the WKB approximation. Based on the previously derived modified Navier—Stokes hydrodynamic equations (the so-called equations of q-hydrodynamics), we have analyzed the axisymmetric oscillations of an astrophysical, differentially rotating gas—dust cosmic object and obtained modified Jeans and Toomre gravitational instability criteria for disks with a fractal phase-space structure.

4. The Hawthorne experiments and the introduction of Jean Piaget in American industrial psychology, 1929-1932.

PubMed

Hsueh, Yeh

2002-05-01

The Hawthorne interview program between 1929 and 1932 was one of the most significant industrial studies in the United States. The Hawthorne researchers applied Jean Piaget's clinical method in their extensive interviews with tens of thousands of workers. Chiefly responsible for the program's methodology was Elton Mayo, an Australian who saw interviewing as a means to promote social cooperation. Previous discussions of the Hawthorne experiments have ignored the influence of Piaget in the social sciences. This article provides an account of Mayo's and the Hawthorne researchers' efforts to fuse Piaget's innovation with burgeoning American industrial psychology. The endeavor was not an isolated event but rather drew on the theories and practice of Janet-Piaget psychology, on the support of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, and on the discourse among social scientists about Piaget's work. PMID:12096759

5. Rayleigh-Jeans Condensation of Pumped Magnons in Thin-Film Ferromagnets.

PubMed

Rückriegel, Andreas; Kopietz, Peter

2015-10-01

We show that the formation of a magnon condensate in thin ferromagnetic films can be explained within the framework of a classical stochastic non-Markovian Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation where the properties of the random magnetic field and the dissipation are determined by the underlying phonon dynamics. We have numerically solved this equation for a tangentially magnetized yttrium-iron garnet film in the presence of a parallel parametric pumping field. We obtain a complete description of all stages of the nonequilibrium time evolution of the magnon gas which is in excellent agreement with experiments. Our calculation proves that the experimentally observed condensation of magnons in yttrium-iron garnet at room temperature is a purely classical phenomenon which should be called Rayleigh-Jeans rather than Bose-Einstein condensation. PMID:26550749

6. [Jean-Jacques Rosseau the vitalist. The moralization of medical hygiene between diet and ethical food].

PubMed

Menin, Marco

2012-01-01

The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose. PMID:23035396

7. A NEW METHOD TO DIRECTLY MEASURE THE JEANS SCALE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM USING CLOSE QUASAR PAIRS

SciTech Connect

Rorai, Alberto; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin

2013-10-01

Although the baryons in the intergalactic medium (IGM) trace dark matter fluctuations on megaparsec scales, on smaller scales ∼100 kpc, fluctuations are suppressed because the finite temperature gas is pressure supported against gravity, analogous to the classical Jeans argument. This Jeans filtering scale, which quantifies the small-scale structure of the IGM, has fundamental cosmological implications. First, it provides a thermal record of heat injected by ultraviolet photons during cosmic reionization events, and thus constrains the thermal and reionization history of the universe. Second, the Jeans scale determines the clumpiness of the IGM, a critical ingredient in models of cosmic reionization. Third, it sets the minimum mass scale for gravitational collapse from the IGM, and hence plays a pivotal role in galaxy formation. Unfortunately, it is extremely challenging to measure the Jeans scale via the standard technique of analyzing purely longitudinal Lyα forest spectra, because the thermal Doppler broadening of absorption lines along the line-of-sight, is highly degenerate with Jeans smoothing. In this work, we show that the Jeans filtering scale can be directly measured by characterizing the coherence of correlated Lyα forest absorption in close quasar pairs, with separations small enough ∼100 kpc to resolve it. We present a novel technique for this purpose, based on the probability density function (PDF) of phase angle differences of homologous longitudinal Fourier modes in close quasar pair spectra. A Bayesian formalism is introduced based on the phase angle PDF, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques are used to characterize the precision of a hypothetical Jeans scale measurement, and explore degeneracies with other thermal parameters governing the IGM. A semi-analytical model of the Lyα forest is used to generate a large grid (500) of thermal models from a dark matter only simulation. Our full parameter study indicates that a realistic sample of

8. Attention-Seeking Displays.

PubMed

2015-01-01

Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

9. Attention-Seeking Displays

PubMed Central

2015-01-01

Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

10. [Forgotten great men of medicine--Baron Dominique Jean Larrey (1766-1842)].

PubMed

2011-01-01

BIOGRAPHY: Baron Dominique Jean Larrev was a French army surgeon who rose to become a surgeon-in-chief of Napoleon's Grande Armée. Many advances in the field of surgery have been attributed to him: he was one of the first to amputate at the hip-joint (1812); he pioneered the use of maggots to prevent infection in wounds; he gave the first description of a trench foot, and originated the first aid to combatants by getting stretcher-bearers to take wounded men immediately from the battlefield. EDUCATION AND CAREER: Larrey studied medicine in Paris and spent a short time in the navy before resuming his studies at the Parisian College de Chirurgie. He joined the army in 1792 and spent the rest of his active life there, taking part in 60 battles and 400 other engagements, having been wounded three times. During this time, he initiated the modern method of army surgery, field hospitals and the system of army ambulance corps. After seeing the speed with which the carriages of the French flying artillery manoeuvred across the battlefields. Larrey adapted them as Flying Ambulances for rapid transport of the wounded and staffed them with trained crews of drivers, corpsmen and litter-bearers. Larrey also increased the mobility and improved the organization of field hospitals, effectively creating a forerunner of the modern MASH (Mobile Army Surgical Hospital) units. He was made a baron in 1809. He remained loyal to Napoleon even after his abdication in 1814, and followed him on his final campaign (the hundred days). At Waterloo, he was captured and sentenced to death; however, he was saved by the personal intervention of the Prussian commander Blücher. Many historians put him in the line with chemist Antoine Lavoisier and doctors Joseph Guillotin and Jean Paul Marat. PMID:21548278

11. Jeans Analysis of the Galactic Thick Disk and the Local Dark Matter Density

Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Flynn, Chris; de Diego, J. A.

2016-01-01

Dynamical estimates of the mass surface density at the solar radius can be made up to a height of 4 kpc using thick disk stars as tracers of the potential. We investigate why different Jeans estimators of the local surface density lead to puzzling and conflicting results. Using the Jeans equations, we compute the vertical (Fz) and radial (FR) components of the gravitational force, as well as Γ(z), which is defined as {{Γ }}\\equiv \\partial {V}{{c}}2/\\partial R, with {V}{{c}}2\\equiv -R{F}R. If we assume that the thick disk does not flare and that all the components of the velocity dispersion tensor of the thick disk have a uniform radial scalelength of 3.5 kpc, Γ takes implausibly large negative values when using the currently available kinematical data of the thick disk. This implies that the input parameters or the model assumptions must be revised. We have explored, using a simulated thick disk, the impact of the assumption that the scalelengths of the density and velocity dispersions do not depend on the vertical height z above the midplane. In the absence of any information about how these scale radii depend on z, we define a different strategy. By using a parameterized Galactic potential, we find that acceptable fits to Fz, FR, and Γ are obtained for a flaring thick disk and a spherical dark matter (DM) halo with a local density ≳0.0064 M⊙ pc-3. Disk-like DM distributions may be also compatible with the current data of the thick disk. A precise measurement of Γ at the midplane could be very useful for discriminating between models.

12. HUMAN RIGHTS ASSESSMENT IN PARC JEAN MARIE VINCENT, PORT-AU-PRINCE, HAITI

PubMed Central

Cullen, Kimberly A.; Ivers, Louise C.

2014-01-01

Months after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit Port-au-Prince, Haiti, over one million remain homeless and living in spontaneous internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Billions of dollars from aid organizations and government agencies have been pledged toward the relief effort, yet many basic human needs, including food, shelter, and sanitation, continue to be unmet. The Sphere Project, “Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response,” identifies the minimum standards to be attained in disaster response. From a human rights perspective and utilizing key indicators from the Sphere Project as benchmarks, this article reports on an assessment of the living conditions approximately 12 weeks after the earthquake in Parc Jean Marie Vincent, a spontaneous IDP camp in Port-au-Prince. A stratified random sample of households in the camp, proportionate to the number of families living in each sector, was selected. Interview questions were designed to serve as “key indicators” for the Sphere Project minimum standards. A total of 486 interviews were completed, representing approximately 5% of households in each of the five sectors of the camp. Our assessment identified the relative achievements and shortcomings in the provision of relief services in Parc Jean Marie Vincent. At the time of this survey, the Sphere Project minimum standards for access to health care and quantity of water per person per day were being met. Food, shelter, sanitation, and security were below minimum accepted standard and of major concern. The formal assessment reported here was completed by September 2010, and is necessarily limited to conditions in Haiti before the cholera outbreak in October. PMID:21178190

13. Birth of modern psychiatry and the death of alienism: the legacy of Jean-Martin Charcot.

PubMed

Bogousslavsky, Julien; Moulin, Thierry

2011-01-01

At the time of Jean-Martin Charcot, Paris--the main center for studies on the nervous system and its disorders--was home to critical exchanges between the developing discipline of neurology and psychiatry. Contrary to the commonly held view, and in spite of an established tradition concerning mental diseases, emerging neurology had a much stronger influence on psychiatry ('alienism') than the reverse. This was largely due to the school built up by Jean-Martin Charcot himself, which was organized around the study and management of hysteria. Although Charcot always claimed to be uninterested in mental medicine, he stimulated the development of an original scientific approach to nervous system conditions, based on Claude Bernard's method, along with structured academic teaching. Conversely, alienism paradoxically remained stuck in organicism, after Antoine Bayle's report in 1822 of 'arachnitis' as the substratum of general paresis of the insane. Contrary to alienism, the young neurological school was capable of self-criticism, and progressively highlighted mental factors in hysteria. This led to the paradox that neurologists were active in a disease with no organic cerebral lesion, while alienists were postulating brain lesions in all mental disorders. Pushed by Charcot, the academic evolution led to the launch of a faculty chair of mental and brain diseases in 1875, which was taken over for nearly half a century by his direct pupils Benjamin Ball, Alix Joffroy and Gilbert Ballet, who held the position until 1916, supporting the development of modern psychiatry in general hospitals, while alienism progressively disappeared at the turn of the century. PMID:20938143

14. [Jean-Baptiste Vincent Laborde (1830-1903), forgotten neurologist and neurophysiologist].

PubMed

Poirier, Jacques

2015-03-01

Jean-Baptiste Vincent Laborde (1830-1903), native of Buzet, in Gascony, undertook his medical studies in Paris and was nominated "externe" (1854) then "interne" (1858) of Paris hospitals. His main "patrons" were Alfred Velpeau (1795-1867), Auguste Nélaton (1807-1873), Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud (1796-1881), Pierre-Olive Rayer (1793-1867), Joseph-François Malgaigne (1806-1865), Pierre Carl Edouard Potain (1825-1901), Ernest Charles Lasègue (1816-1883) and Léon Rostan (1790-1866). In 1864 he defended his thesis on the essential paralysis of childhood. He then worked in the physiology laboratory of Professor Jules Auguste Beclard (1818-1887), and became "chef des travaux" of physiology at the Paris faculty of medicine. In 1890, he was nominated to the chair of Biological anthropology at the Paris school of anthropology. His main works focused on the rhythmic tractions of the tongue in cases of apparent death, the understanding of the etiology of brain softening he attributed to vascular occlusions by atheroma and the discovery of connections between the cranial nuclei of common (III) and external (VI) oculomotor nerves and the struggle against the use of ceruse, against tuberculosis and especially against alcoholism. In addition, he made a career in journalism: since 1874 he had been the founder, director and editor-in-chief of the weekly newspaper The Medical Tribune, whose aim was to "combine to a fair extent, science and progress with the practice of medicine." Finally, Laborde was a convinced Republican, a friend of Léon Gambetta's (1838-1882). For him, democracy was the "ideal of civilized nations" and he showed deep hatred for the "Commune of Paris". Finally, he was a determined free thinker, who ran the Society for mutual autopsy for a while and who was attached to civil funerals and cremation. PMID:25786426

15. Attentional Engagement in Infancy: The Interactive Influence of Attentional Inertia and Attentional State

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oakes, Lisa M.; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Kannass, Kathleen N.

2004-01-01

We evaluated the interactive influences of attentional state and attentional inertia on infants' level of attentional engagement. We assessed infants' distraction latencies longitudinally at 6.5 and 9 months as they explored toys, and we coded both their attentional state (focused vs. casual) and how long they had been looking at the toy at each…

16. First seismic survey of Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada): sedimentary record of the last deglaciation

Nutz, Alexis; Schuster, Mathieu; Ghienne, Jean-François; Raphaël, Certain; Nicolas, Robin; Claude, Roquin; Frédéric, Bouchette; Cousineau Pierre, A.

2015-04-01

The general post-glacial evolution of the Lake Saint-Jean region (Canada/Québec) was, until now, only known from onshore studies (outcrops and geomorphology). Because this lake corresponds to sediment depocentre since the area is ice free (latest Pleistocene and the entire Holocene), a comprehensive sedimentary archive could be expected from this area. As a consequence, the offshore archives of Lake Saint-Jean leave a basic, but crucial, question: can the transition from glacial to post-glacial periods be deciphered? The stratigraphy of the last deglacial sequence is investigated in Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada) from 300 km of echo-sounder 2D seismic profiles. The sedimentary archive of this basin is documented from the Late Pleistocene Laurentidian ice-front recession to the present-day situation. Ten seismic units have been identified that reflect spatio-temporal variations in depositional processes characterizing different periods of the Lake Saint-Jean basin evolution. During the postglacial marine flooding, a high deposition rate of mud settling, from proglacial glacimarine and then prodeltaic plumes in the Laflamme Gulf, produced an extensive, up to 50 m thick mud sheet draping the isostatically depressed marine basin floor. Subsequently, closing of the water body due to glacio-isostatic rebound that occurred at 8.5 cal. ka BP and ice-sheet retreat outside the Saint-Jean catchment at 7.5 cal. ka BP drastically modify the hydrodynamics and sedimentation. Hyperpycnal flows appeared because fresh lake water replaced dense marine water. River sediments were transferred towards the deeper part of the lake into river-related confined lobes. The water body is also marked by the onset of a wind-driven internal circulation associating wave-related hydrodynamics and bottom currents with sedimentary features including shoreface deposits, sediment drifts, a sedimentary shelf and important erosional surfaces. The Lake Saint-Jean reveals important diversity and

17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

PubMed

2015-03-01

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD. PMID:25186567

18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

PubMed Central

Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

2014-01-01

Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

PubMed

Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

2016-03-19

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

20. Gravity or turbulence? - III. Evidence of pure thermal Jeans fragmentation at ˜0.1 pc scale

Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Estalella, Robert; Fall, S. Michael; Zapata, Luis A.; Camacho, Vianey; Gómez, Laura; Naranjo-Romero, Raúl; Busquet, Gemma; Fontani, Francesco

2015-11-01

We combine previously published interferometric and single-dish data of relatively nearby massive dense cores that are actively forming stars to test whether their fragmentation level' is controlled by turbulent or thermal support. We find no clear correlation between the fragmentation level and velocity dispersion, nor between the observed number of fragments and the number of fragments expected when the gravitationally unstable mass is calculated including various prescriptions for turbulent support'. On the other hand, the best correlation is found for the case of pure thermal Jeans fragmentation, for which we infer a core formation efficiency around 13 per cent, consistent with previous works. We conclude that the dominant factor determining the fragmentation level of star-forming massive dense cores at 0.1 pc scale seems to be thermal Jeans fragmentation.

1. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

PubMed

Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

2015-01-01

Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

2. "I would eagerly leave Neuchâtel ..." A 1912 letter by Jean Piaget with an introduction and notes.

PubMed

Vidal, F

1986-01-01

A 1912 letter from fifteen-year-old Jean Piaget (1896-1980) to the director of the Museum of Natural History of Geneva illustrates Piaget's precocious integration into a community of professional naturalists, and reveals his hitherto unknown plan to study medicine. It is not certain whether he actually intended to realize that plan. An essential biographical fact, however, is that he finally left natural history by turning to philosophy rather than to medicine. PMID:11608771

3. Two schemes of intellectual development: A comparison of development as defined by william perry and jean piaget

Perry, Bruce; Donovan, Michael P.; Kelsey, Linda J.; Paterson, John; Statkiewicz, Walter; Allen, Robert D.

The theories of Jean Piaget and William Perry provide two different theories of intellectual development with several similiarities, but also with critical differences. In this study a comparison was made to determine whether the two theories describe operation of the same mental structures or two fundamentally different aspects of intellectual development. The results, based upon individual interviews of all participants, indicate that the two theories outline different and independent processes for assessing intellectual development.

4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics

MedlinePlus

5. Getting the attention you need.

PubMed

Davenport, T H; Beck, J C

2000-01-01

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nigg, Joel T.

2005-01-01

Comments on analysis of attention tasks in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) provided by Wilding (2005)points out that whereas many regulatory functions, including alertness or arousal, appear to be impaired in ADHD, demonstrating basic attention deficits in selection or orienting functions in the disorder has proven difficult. Yet…

7. Jeans instability of partially-ionized self-gravitating viscous plasma with Hall effect FLR corrections and porosity

Kaothekar, Sachin; Soni, Ghanshyam D.; Prajapati, R. P.; Chhajlani, Rajendra K.

2016-06-01

The problem of Jeans gravitational instability and radiative instability is investigated for partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations and formation of objects. A general dispersion relation has been derived with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations, using the normal mode analysis method. Effects of FLR corrections, radiative heat-loss function and collisions with neutrals on the Jeans criterion of self-gravitational instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity and FLR corrections for some special case. The stability of the system is discussed by using Routh-Hurwitz's criterion. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the dependence of the growth rate of the Jeans gravitational instability on the various physical parameters. The FLR corrections, viscosity, porosity, magnetic field, and neutral collision have stabilizing influence while finite electrical resistivity and permeability have a destabilizing influence on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. Our results are helpful for understanding the formation of dense molecular clouds.

8. Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin's 1825 treatise on the mouth and ingestion.

PubMed

Chong, Gabriel Tse Feng

2012-12-01

This article quotes and discusses Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin's musings on the mouth and ingestion as described in his book The Physiology of Taste. The book was first published in France in December 1825, and is still widely read as a key work in Gastronomy today. The mouth is intimately related to the acts of chewing, swallowing and eating and it would be interesting to report an early 19th century epicurean's views on the mouth. Passages from Brillat-Savarin's book describing the functions of the teeth and tongue and the acts of tasting, chewing, and swallowing are quoted in full. Anecdotes also include one on the horrifying punishment of having one's tongue removed and another illustrating the poor oral health found among Europeans of that era. His work offers a unique glimpse into how a 19th century gastronome viewed the oral cavity and its gastronomical functions. While some of his writings may appear archaic and antediluvian to the modern reader; others relating to, for example chewing and swallowing, are surprisingly accurate by contemporary standards. Nonetheless, the gastronomic savant seemed to know a lot right about modern stomatology! PMID:23739320

9. Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja)1 and the Belgrade School of Physiology

PubMed Central

Andjus, Pavle R.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Cvijic, Gordana

2016-01-01

Summary The founder of physiology studies in the Balkans and the pioneer of research on hypothermia, Ivan Djaja (Jean Giaja) was born 1884 in L’Havre. Giaja gained his PhD at the Sorbonne in 1909. In 1910 he established the first Chair of Physiology in the Balkans and organized the first Serbian Institute for Physiology at the School of Philosophy of the University of Belgrade. He led this Institute for more than 40 subsequent years. His most notable papers were in the field of thermoregulation and bioenergetics. Djaja became member of the Serbian and Croatian academies of science and doctor honoris causa of Sorbonne. In 1952 for the seminal work on the behaviour of deep cooled warm blooded animals he becane associate member of the National Medical Academy in Paris. In 1955 the French Academy of Sciences elected him as associate member in place of deceased Sir Alexander Fleming. Djaja died in 1957 during a congress held in his honour. He left more than 200 scientific and other papers and the golden DaVincian credo “Nulla dies sine experimento”. His legacy was continued by several generations of researchers, the most prominent among them being Stefan Gelineo, Radoslav Andjus and Vojislav Petrović. PMID:21777022

10. CLUMPY: Jeans analysis, γ-ray and ν fluxes from dark matter (sub-)structures

Bonnivard, Vincent; Hütten, Moritz; Nezri, Emmanuel; Charbonnier, Aldée; Combet, Céline; Maurin, David

2016-03-01

We present an update of the CLUMPY code for the calculation of the astrophysical J-factors (from dark matter annihilation/decay) for any Galactic or extragalactic dark matter halo including substructures: halo-to-halo concentration scatter may now be enabled, boost factors can include several levels of substructures, and triaxiality is a new option for dark matter haloes. This new version takes advantage of the cfitsio and HEALPix libraries to propose fits output maps using the HEALPix pixelisation scheme. Skymaps for γ-ray and ν signals from generic annihilation/decay spectra are now direct outputs of CLUMPY. Making use of HEALPix routines, smoothing by a user-defined instrumental Gaussian beam and computing the angular power spectrum of the maps are now possible. In addition to these improvements, the main novelty is the implementation of a Jeans analysis module, to obtain dark matter density profiles from kinematic data in relaxed spherical systems (e.g., dwarf spheroidal galaxies). The code is also interfaced with the GreAT toolkit designed for Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses, from which probability density functions and credible intervals can be obtained for velocity dispersions, dark matter profiles, and J-factors.

11. Health monitoring of the Saint-Jean bridge of Bordeaux, France using fiber Bragg grating extensometers

Magne, Sylvain; Boussoir, Jonathan; Rougeault, Stephane; Marty-Dewynter, Veronique; Ferdinand, Pierre; Bureau, Lionel

2003-07-01

Most civil engineering structures have been built in the 50's and 60's and reach similar level of degradation accelerated by loading conditions and corrosion. In Europe, National Authorities and the European Commission promote Health Monitoring concepts, instrumentation of existing structures and help in the design of new durable structures of higher performance. In this context, the CEA-List has achieved a non-exclusive industrial transfer of its Bragg grating sensing technology for civil engineering applications to Hydrolog (French SME), supported by the European Community and the french ministry of Industry. In order to check the reliability and user-friendliness of this instrumentation, eleven spectrally-multiplexed Bragg grating-based extensometers, four FBG temperature sensors and an acquisition unit have been installed into the Saint-Jean bridge in Bordeaux, France with the help of the Infrastructure Regional Direction (DRE-Aquitaine) and the Bordeaux Authority (Communaute Urbaine de Bordeaux). A standardized loading of the bridge has been performed on October 29, 1001, with the purpose of correlating its mechanical reaction to loading conditions. Moreover, the equipment has been operating for one year to take into account the winter-summer cycle.

12. Jean-Baptiste Labat and the buccaneer barbecue in seventeenth-century Martinique.

PubMed

Toczyski, Suzanne

2010-01-01

If, as the sociologist Pierre L. van den Berghe has suggested, cuisine is a significant expression of man's sociability, one might say that the seventeenth-century missionary Jean-Baptiste Labat was the single most social animal in the Caribbean islands in the 1690s. Although his primary responsibility on the island of Martinique was to serve the island's multiethnic population as a spiritual leader, le père Labat's memoirs chronicle the diverse culinary experiences of the missionary as he literally eats his way around the island, learning to prepare such delicacies as cocoa confit, roasted manatee, lizard en brochette, and parakeet en daube. Positing his unbridled interest in the culinary arts as a mark of his “obedience” to the duties assigned him as missionary, Labat's taxonomy of island delicacies and exotic tastes no doubt titillated the curiosity of his mainland readers while nevertheless grounding itself strongly in the values of order, authenticity, and industry so essential to Labat's apostolic mission. This article focuses on two “buccaneer barbecues” as examples of gastronomical experiences through which Labat was able to construct and negotiate new social, cultural, and symbolic meanings, exploring identity politics through the frame of the culinary arts in seventeenth-century Martinique. PMID:21539051

13. Jean-Charles Houzeau's Visual Magnitude Estimates from Jamaica in 1868

Sterken, Christiaan

2012-09-01

Jean-Charles Houzeau de Lehaie (1820-1888) was a Belgian astronomer who, as an observer, covered astronomy, geography, cartography, geodesy and natural sciences. He is known for designing the heliometer with unequal focal lengths" for the 1882 transit of Venus, for which he organised two expeditions: one to San Antonio (Texas), and one to Santiago (Chile). Less known, but historically important from the point of view of his consistent approach to observational science, was his Uranométrie générale", in which he systematically recorded visual magnitudes of 5719 northern and southern stars up to mag 6.4. He carried out the visual estimates from Jamaica in less than 400 nights in 1875--76. This presentation discusses the observational approach of his project, and weighs the merit of a dataset that was produced in one throw, by one single person from one single observing site of excellent atmospheric quality, without any recourse to data produced by other observers. A proving example of the virtue of Houzeau's Uranométrie is that it has been used in the construction of the charts of the first edition of Norton's Star Atlas".

14. "To afford the wounded speedy assistance": Dominique Jean Larrey and Napoleon.

PubMed

Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Lainas, Panagiotis; Zoras, Odyseas; Skandalakis, John E; Mirilas, Petros

2006-08-01

Dominique Jean Larrey (1766-1842) has been described as the father of modern military surgery and is considered even today as the model military surgeon. He developed a plan of rapid evacuation of wounded soldiers from the battlefield during combat, using flexible medical units which he named ambulances volantes ("flying ambulances"). He won the admiration of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), who was amazed by the results of Larrey's sanitary system. Larrey spent almost 18 years with Napoleon, accompanying him in 25 campaigns, 60 battles, and more than 400 engagements. Napoleon's enormous military success was due not only to his strategy and skill but also to the medical services provided by Larrey. The surgeon became a master of wound management and limb amputation. In his vivid battlefield journals, Larrey documented the course of tetanus, the pathophysiology of cold injury, the effective control of hemorrhage, the drainage of empyema and hemothorax, the aspiration of pericardial effusion or hemopericardium, and the packing of sucking chest wounds. Larrey established a categorical rule for the triage of war casualties, treating the wounded according to the observed gravity of their injuries and the urgency for medical care, regardless of their rank or nationality. PMID:16850154

15. Weighing the galactic disc using the Jeans equation: lessons from simulations

Candlish, G. N.; Smith, R.; Moni Bidin, C.; Gibson, B. K.

2016-03-01

Using three-dimensional stellar kinematic data from simulated galaxies, we examine the efficacy of a Jeans equation analysis in reconstructing the total disk surface density, including the dark matter, at the `Solar' radius. Our simulation data set includes galaxies formed in a cosmological context using state-of-the-art high-resolution cosmological zoom simulations, and other idealized models. The cosmologically formed galaxies have been demonstrated to lie on many of the observed scaling relations for late-type spirals, and thus offer an interesting surrogate for real galaxies with the obvious advantage that all the kinematical data are known perfectly. We show that the vertical velocity dispersion is typically the dominant kinematic quantity in the analysis, and that the traditional method of using only the vertical force is reasonably effective at low heights above the disk plane. At higher heights the inclusion of the radial force becomes increasingly important. We also show that the method is sensitive to uncertainties in the measured disk parameters, particularly the scalelengths of the assumed double exponential density distribution, and the scalelength of the radial velocity dispersion. In addition, we show that disk structure and low number statistics can lead to significant errors in the calculated surface densities. Finally, we examine the implications of our results for previous studies of this sort, suggesting that more accurate measurements of the scalelengths may help reconcile conflicting estimates of the local dark matter density in the literature.

16. Reflecting on the ongoing aftermath of heart transplantation: Jean-Luc Nancy's L'intrus.

PubMed

Wynn, Francine

2009-03-01

This paper explores Jean-Luc Nancy's philosophical reflection on surviving his own heart transplant. In 'The Intruder', he raises central questions concerning the relations between what he refers to as a 'proper' life, that is, a life that is thought to be one's own singular 'lived experience', and medical techniques, shaped at this particular historical juncture by cyclosporine or immuno-suppression. He describes the temporal nature of an ever-increasing sense of strangeness and fragmentation which accompanies his heart transplant. In doing so, Nancy opens up the concealed of transplantation in terms of the problematic 'gift' of a 'foreign' organ, the unremitting suffering intrusiveness of the treatment regimen, and the living of life as 'bare life'. He uncovers and exposes the relentless uncanniness that pervades the post-transplant experience, which for him is an example of our humanistic, never-ending impulse, to alter ourselves. Nevertheless, Nancy offers no answer to this dilemma, but instead calls us to think about the meaning or 'sense' of the prolonging of life and deferring of death, which currently drives our medical interventions. PMID:19228299

17. [A XVIth century journeyman apothecar in Montpellier: Jean Magnol (1562-1632)].

PubMed

Charlot, Colette

2006-11-01

J. Magnol came from Ardèche to Montpellier to learn how to be apothecary grocer. He is characteristics of the transition between the Middle-Ages statutes and Renaissance ones (1572/1598) in a city famous for its school of medicine. For thirteen (13) years he worked as a journeyman apothecary was like a drysalter grocer. But the 1572 statutes due to king Henry IV (the fourth), having force of law, changed the trade into an art, as highly regarded as the legal profession. Long before the 1777 nationwide statutes due to king Louis XIV (the fourteenth). To become a master, Magnol had to give four masterpieces, the formulas of which can be found in the new pharmacopoeia written by the medicine chancellor: "the pharmacopoea Monspeliensis" an alternative to the ancient one by Nicolas de Salerne. The pratical experiments were carried out by those famous apothecary masters who made up the 1572 statutes. Jean Magnol is Pierre Magnol's ancestor (1638-1715), the famous botanist whom Carl Linné dedicated the magnolia genus to. PMID:17526144

18. Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.

PubMed

Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

2013-05-01

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s. PMID:23576129

19. Jean-Martin Charcot's house officers at La Salpêtrière Hospital.

PubMed

Walusinski, Olivier

2011-01-01

From the time he became chef de service at La Salpêtrière Hospital in 1866 until his death in 1893, Jean-Martin Charcot oversaw 32 house officers. Some of them became famous, such as D.M. Bourneville, E. Brissaud, P. Marie and G. Gilles de la Tourette. Others are less well known. The fact remains that Charcot knew how to surround himself with fine students and leverage their talents in order to make the neurological discoveries by which he would become famous throughout the world. Here, we present the biographies of H. Soulier (1862), J. Cotard (1865), R. Lépine (1867), A. Gombault (1872), A. Pierret (1874), A. Pitres (1876), P. Oulmont (1877), G. Guinon (1885), P. Blocq(1887), E. Huet (1888), E. Parmentier (1890) and A. Souques(1893). Each of these men with their unique paths and interests helped lay the foundations for the birth of neurology at the end of the 19th century in Paris. As Emile Littré said: 'La science de la Médecine, si elle ne veut pas être rabaissée au rang de métier, doit s'occuper de son histoire et soigner les vieux monuments que les temps passés lui ont légués', which could be translated as 'to avoid being reduced to a trade, the science of medicine must attend to its history and take care of the old monuments handed down by time'. PMID:20938144

20. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

PubMed

Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

2015-04-20

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD. PMID:24787685

1. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

PubMed Central

Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

2012-01-01

In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

2. Dysfunctional attention in autistic savants.

PubMed

Casey, B J; Gordon, C T; Mannheim, G B; Rumsey, J M

1993-11-01

A dysfunctional attention hypothesis of the basis of savant skills was tested with a series of computerized tasks that assessed the ability to divide, shift, direct, and sustain attention. Ten healthy men with pervasive developmental disorders and unusual calendar-calculating skill, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were tested. There were four general findings. First, the savants and controls did not differ on a measure of visual sustained attention. Second, the savants failed to detect rare auditory targets significantly more than did the controls. Third, the savants were unable to efficiently divide their attention when required to detect both visual and auditory targets simultaneously. Finally, deficient orienting or a deficit in shifting selective attention from one stimulus location to another was evidenced in overall slower reaction times for the savants across tasks requiring shifts and redirecting of attention. This deficit was attributed to an inability to disengage attention as a result of deficient orienting and overselectivity. PMID:8120129

3. The Normalization Model of Attention

PubMed Central

Reynolds, John H.; Heeger, David J.

2009-01-01

Attention has been found to have a wide variety of effects on the responses of neurons in visual cortex. We describe a model of attention that exhibits each of these different forms of attentional modulation, depending on the stimulus conditions and the spread (or selectivity) of the attention field in the model. The model helps reconcile proposals that have been taken to represent alternative theories of attention. We argue that the variety and complexity of the results reported in the literature emerge from the variety of empirical protocols that were used, such that the results observed in any one experiment depended on the stimulus conditions and the subject’s attentional strategy, a notion that we define precisely in terms of the attention field in the model, but that has not typically been completely under experimental control. PMID:19186161

4. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

EPA Science Inventory

Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

5. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

PubMed

Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

2016-06-01

6. Rats and Humans Paying Attention

PubMed Central

Demeter, Elise; Sarter, Martin; Lustig, Cindy

2008-01-01

Substantial gains have been made on the neurobiology of attention from systems neuroscience work in animal models and human cognitive neuroscience. However, the integration of rodent-based research on the specific neurotransmitter systems that subserve attention with the results from human behavioral and neuroimaging studies has been hampered by the lack of tasks that validly assess attention in both species. To address this issue, an operant sustained attention task that has been extensively used in research on the neurobiology of attention in rats was re-designed and validated for use in humans. Although humans showed better performance overall, the two species showed similar effects of several attention-related variables, including the introduction of distractor-related challenge. This task provides a useful tool for integrative, cross-species research, and may help to determine how specific neurotransmitter systems contribute to the hemodynamic changes observed in human functional neuroimaging experiments. PMID:18999353

7. How Attention Affects Spatial Resolution

PubMed Central

Carrasco, Marisa; Barbot, Antoine

2015-01-01

We summarize and discuss a series of psychophysical studies on the effects of spatial covert attention on spatial resolution, our ability to discriminate fine patterns. Heightened resolution is beneficial in most, but not all, visual tasks. We show how endogenous attention (voluntary, goal driven) and exogenous attention (involuntary, stimulus driven) affect performance on a variety of tasks mediated by spatial resolution, such as visual search, crowding, acuity, and texture segmentation. Exogenous attention is an automatic mechanism that increases resolution regardless of whether it helps or hinders performance. In contrast, endogenous attention flexibly adjusts resolution to optimize performance according to task demands. We illustrate how psychophysical studies can reveal the underlying mechanisms of these effects and allow us to draw linking hypotheses with known neurophysiological effects of attention. PMID:25948640

8. Generalized Jeans' Escape of Pick-Up Ions in Quasi-Linear Relaxation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moore, T. E.; Khazanov, G. V.

2011-01-01

Jeans escape is a well-validated formulation of upper atmospheric escape that we have generalized to estimate plasma escape from ionospheres. It involves the computation of the parts of particle velocity space that are unbound by the gravitational potential at the exobase, followed by a calculation of the flux carried by such unbound particles as they escape from the potential well. To generalize this approach for ions, we superposed an electrostatic ambipolar potential and a centrifugal potential, for motions across and along a divergent magnetic field. We then considered how the presence of superthermal electrons, produced by precipitating auroral primary electrons, controls the ambipolar potential. We also showed that the centrifugal potential plays a small role in controlling the mass escape flux from the terrestrial ionosphere. We then applied the transverse ion velocity distribution produced when ions, picked up by supersonic (i.e., auroral) ionospheric convection, relax via quasi-linear diffusion, as estimated for cometary comas [1]. The results provide a theoretical basis for observed ion escape response to electromagnetic and kinetic energy sources. They also suggest that super-sonic but sub-Alfvenic flow, with ion pick-up, is a unique and important regime of ion-neutral coupling, in which plasma wave-particle interactions are driven by ion-neutral collisions at densities for which the collision frequency falls near or below the gyro-frequency. As another possible illustration of this process, the heliopause ribbon discovered by the IBEX mission involves interactions between the solar wind ions and the interstellar neutral gas, in a regime that may be analogous [2].

9. The significance of some observations on African ocular onchocerciasis described by Jean Hissette (1888-1965).

PubMed

Kluxen, G; Hoerauf, A

2008-01-01

One of the most significant contributions to tropical medicine and ophthalmology was made by Jean Hissette: African ocular onchocerciasis. During his extensive investigations in the Babindi country, he found numerous adults with river blindness. Their eye disease was caused by the filaria Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart. He noticed the signs of interstitial keratitis and band keratopathy, faint iritis or iridocyclitis, posterior synechiae and often a downward distortion of the pupil. He was the first to describe chorioretinal scarring of the fundus, what became known as the Hissette-Ridley fundus. People reported to him their entoptic phenomena which he unequivocally interpreted to be the images of microfilariae in the patient's own eye. During his stay in Belgium in 1932, he elucidated the pathogenesis of blindness since he was able to provide histological proof of the presence of microfilariae in various ocular tissues of an enucleated eye from a patient living near the Sankuru river. Like other serious health impairments, the severe inflammatory lesions in the eye occurred only after the microfilariae had died. Hence he realized that dying microfilariae play a key role in the mechanisms leading to blindness. Hissette's precise descriptions were the logical fruit of his outstanding observational abilities and enabled him as a man of great intuition to speculate about causal relationships. He evidently benefited from the fact that he took the native Africans seriously and asked them their opinion. In 1933, his friend and teacher Dr. De Mets in Antwerp already wrote on Hissette's discovery in the Belgian Congo: "This study is of exceptional value to specialists which is not only a tribute to its author, but to our common native country (Belgium)." PMID:18546927

10. Chapter 15: Jean-Martin Charcot and the anatomo-clinical method of neurology.

PubMed

Goetz, Christopher G

2010-01-01

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) was the premier clinical neurologist of the 19th century. Charcot's research was anchored in the anatomo-clinical method, a two-part methodology that linked clinical signs with anatomical lesions. The first step of this method involved the careful documentation of clinical signs with longitudinal observation. At the time of death, the second step involved autopsy examination of the brain and spinal cord. With combined clinical and anatomical data, Charcot was able to suggest concrete clinical-anatomical correlations. This method helped to define the tracts and nuclei responsible for normal and abnormal neurological signs and was pivotal to a new classification of neurological diseases based on anatomy. The best-developed example of this method was Charcot's work with motor system degenerative disorders, specifically amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These studies led to the international designation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as Charcot's disease. Other examples of the fruits of the anatomo-clinical method included several stroke syndromes and the linkage of specific signs to specific lesions in multiple sclerosis. The discipline fostered cortical localization theory, which moved neurologists away from the concept of the brain as a homogenous organ in preference to the concept that brain regions controlled specific motor, sensory and language functions. Charcot's attempts to apply his anatomo-clinical method to the knotty neurological diagnosis of hysteria led him to experiments and conclusions that drew criticism and even scorn from colleagues. These events tarnished Charcot's reputation at the close of his career. In the context of Charcot's extensive discoveries and lasting contributions, the anatomo-clinical method remains the anchor of modern neurological diagnosis and is Charcot's most important contribution to clinical neurology. PMID:19892118

11. [THE SCIENTIFIC LEGACY OF JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT IN POLAND (COPIES OF HIS WORKS; THEIR RECEPTION)].

PubMed

Köhler, Piotr

2015-01-01

In order to locate copies of the works of Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) located in Poland, 54 libraries were selected for inquiry, chosen on the basis of their history or of the nature or size of their collections. So far, 27 libraries have responded to the inquiry. There are works of J.E. Gilibert stored in 14 of them (Table 1). To date, 102 copies of different editions catalogued under Gilibert's name have been recorded in libraries in Poland. These books were placed in these libraries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, mainly as part of donations from private libraries. In Poland, the reception of the botanical works of J.E. Gilibert changed over time. Initially they were accepted uncritically (Stanisław Bonifacy Jundzill, Józef Jundziłł). Over time, and with the increase in floristic data subsequent to the publication of Gilibert's works, his treatises were cited less frequently. As early as the second half of the nineteenth century, Polish botanists mentioned them only occasionally. More accurate works, containing newer taxonomical considerations of species, effectively supplanted the works of Gilibert in scientific circulation. It is worth noting that for contemporary plant taxonomy, the botanical works of Gilibert are of no scientific value. Four of them (Flora lituanica inchoata, Exercitium botanicum, Caroli Linnaei botanicorum principis, Exercitia phytologica) are listed in Appendix V, 'Opera Utique Oppressa', of the 2006 Vienna Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Names appearing in these works in the rankings specified at the end of each listing (species and intraspecific taxa) are not accepted as valid. PMID:26445749

12. Attentional Capture with Rapidly Changing Attentional Control Settings

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.

2010-01-01

The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…

13. Focus of Attention in Groups: A Self-Attention Perspective.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mullen, Brian; And Others

1989-01-01

Reports on three research studies that tested the hypothesis that the focus of attention of individuals in groups varies as a function of the group composition. The populations studied were members of the Nixon White House staff, high school students, and male undergraduate students. Results supported the idea of self-focused attention as a…

14. Multicomponent attention deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

PubMed

Kiliç, Birim Günay; Sener, Sahnur; Koçkar, Aylin Ilden; Karakaş, Sirel

2007-04-01

The aim of this study was to examine the specific aspects of attention, such as selective attention, sustained attention, and short-term memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined subtype (ADHD-C). A total of 40 children with a diagnosis of ADHD from the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, aged 6-11 years old were compared with 40 controls matched for age and gender on a battery of tests. Short-term memory span and attention was measured by Visual Aural Digit Span Test-Revised. Stroop test and the Turkish version of Cancellation Test were used to assess selective and sustained attention, respectively. In order to check for factor structure in two groups on the test scores, principal component analysis was conducted for both groups separately. Relative to the comparison children, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on tests that are related to different aspects of attention. The results are consistent with the theories explaining the biological basis of ADHD by scattered attention networks in the brain, which have reciprocal dynamic interactions. Further comparative studies are needed to elucidate whether the cognitive processes that are known to be assessed by these tests are specific to ADHD. PMID:17362431

15. Provocative Mathematics Questions: Drawing Attention to a Lack of Attention

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Klymchuk, Sergiy

2015-01-01

The article investigates the role of attention in the reflective thinking of school mathematics teachers. It analyses teachers' ability to pay attention to detail and "use" their mathematical knowledge. The vast majority of teachers can be expected to have an excellent knowledge of mathematical techniques. The question examined here is…

16. Paying Attention to Attention: New Economies for Learning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

de Castell, Suzanne; Jenson, Jennifer

2004-01-01

Challenging formal education's traditional monopoly over the mass-scale acculturation of youth, the technological infrastructure of the new economy brings in its wake a new attentional economy in which any connected adult or child owns and controls a full economic share of her or his own attention. For youth who have never known the text-bound…

17. Difficulty of Discrimination Modulates Attentional Capture by Regulating Attentional Focus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sawaki, Risa; Katayama, Jun'ichi

2009-01-01

Attentional capture for distractors is enhanced by increasing the difficulty of discrimination between the standard and the target in the three-stimulus oddball paradigm. In this study, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of this modulation of attentional capture. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from participants while they…

18. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

2010-01-01

The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

19. Brain Mechanisms of Attentional Control.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wilke, Thomas

Lack of attentional control--inability to concentrate--has often made the difference between successful and unsuccessful performance on the part of athletes. Attention is controlled neurologically by a very complex interaction of a large portion of the cerebrum and is not localized to any one structure. The mechanism involves a memory retrieval…

20. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

PubMed

Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

2014-05-13

Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention. PMID:24753566

1. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

PubMed

Anderson, Brian A

2016-01-01

Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us. PMID:25941868

2. Exogenous Attention Enables Perceptual Learning

PubMed Central

Szpiro, Sarit F. A.; Carrasco, Marisa

2015-01-01

Practice can improve visual perception, and these improvements are considered to be a form of brain plasticity. Training-induced learning is time-consuming and requires hundreds of trials across multiple days. The process of learning acquisition is understudied. Can learning acquisition be potentiated by manipulating visual attentional cues? We developed a protocol in which we used task-irrelevant cues for between-groups manipulation of attention during training. We found that training with exogenous attention can enable the acquisition of learning. Remarkably, this learning was maintained even when observers were subsequently tested under neutral conditions, which indicates that a change in perception was involved. Our study is the first to isolate the effects of exogenous attention and to demonstrate its efficacy to enable learning. We propose that exogenous attention boosts perceptual learning by enhancing stimulus encoding. PMID:26502745

3. Emotional distractors can enhance attention

PubMed Central

Sussman, Tamara J.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

2015-01-01

The deleterious effects of emotional distractors on attention are well demonstrated. However, it is unclear if emotional distractors inevitably disrupt task-relevant attention. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), the present study examined the impact of valence and arousal dimensions of distracting emotional stimuli and individual differences in anxiety on task-relevant processing. Consistent with prior literature, high-arousal negative distractors were associated with poor task-relevant attention compared to positive and neutral distractors. However, low-arousal negative distractors were associated with better task-relevant performance than were positive and neutral distractors. Furthermore, these effects were accentuated by individual differences in worry. These findings challenge assumptions that distraction and worry must be minimized for augmented attentional performance. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of taking into account emotional dimensions of arousal and valence as well as individual differences in anxiety when examining attention in the presence of emotional distractors. PMID:24058065

4. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

PubMed Central

Marfil, Rebeca; Palomino, Antonio J.; Bandera, Antonio

2014-01-01

Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, artificial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. On human vision, it is also well established that these units of attention are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects). This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. While the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG), which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention) surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multi-resolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP). Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such as color and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed. PMID:25177289

5. From past to current tectonics: Thematic issue dedicated to Jean-François Stéphan (1949-2013)

Manighetti, Isabelle

2016-01-01

This thematic issue of Comptes rendus Geoscience has been assembled to honor the memory of our late colleague and friend Jean-François Stéphan. Jean-François was a great scientist, specialized in tectonics, and a great colleague who devoted his time for his community. His work and actions deeply imprinted both the French and the International Earth Science communities. This volume brings together contributions of colleagues of Jean-François, who were also close friends or colleagues who knew and deeply appreciated him. Naturally, tectonics is the common theme of these contributions. Some of the papers presented here focus on tectonic questions and/or regions Jean-François worked on during his career; other papers present studies Jean-François motivated or encouraged in one way or another; other papers are simply tectonic studies he would have liked. Taken together, the nine papers of this thematic issue take the reader on a beautiful trip, from past to current tectonics.

6. Equilibrium between radiation and matter for classical relativistic multiperiodic systems. II. Study of radiative equilibrium with Rayleigh-Jeans radiation

Blanco, R.; Pesquera, L.; Santos, E.

1984-05-01

We continue the study of the problem of equilibrium between radiation and classical relativistic systems begun previously

[Phys. Rev. D 27, 1254 (1983)]
. We consider the emission and absorption of energy by a relativistic pointlike particle immersed in a Rayleigh-Jeans radiation field. The particle is acted upon by a force which, if alone, would produce a multiply periodic motion. It is shown that radiative balance at each frequency holds. A discussion is given of the results reported in both papers.

7. Analysis of the compatibility between the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum for classical systems

Blanco, R.; Pesquera, L.

1986-01-01

We analyze in detail the validity of the compatibility between the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) distribution and the Rayleigh-Jeans (RJ) spectrum obtained in recent works by the authors for classical relativistic systems. We show that the MB distribution and the RJ spectrum are not compatible if we do not remove high enough frequencies. By analyzing the applicability of the approximation methods used in previous works to obtain the MB distribution from the RJ spectrum, we conclude that these methods are valid only if we introduce a high-frequency cutoff in the RJ spectrum. A short discussion is made on the meaning of this cutoff.

8. Terpenoids, flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives from Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans.

PubMed

Rungsimakan, Supattra; Rowan, Michael G

2014-12-01

Three diterpenoids, 1-oxomicrostegiol (1), viroxocin (2), viridoquinone (3), were isolated from the roots of Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans. Five known diterpenoids, microstegiol (4), 7α-acetoxy-14-hydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (5; 7-O-acetylhorminone tautomer), 7α,14-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (6; horminone tautomer), ferruginol and salvinolonyl 12-methyl ether (7) were also found in the roots together with 1-docosyl ferulate (8), and a mixture of 2-(4'-alkoxyphenyl) ethyl alkanoates (9). Two lupane triterpenoids, 2α-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (10), and 3β-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-2α-ol (11) were found in the aerial parts together with known compounds, lup-20(29)-ene-2α,3β-diol (12), ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside. A known phenylpropanoid, trans-verbascoside (or acteoside; 13), was the main constituent in the polar fraction of the aerial part, and it is now reported in the genus Salvia for the first time. Other polyphenolic compounds were cis-verbascoside (14), leucosceptoside A (15), martynoside (16), caffeic acid, 6-O-caffeoyl-glucose (18), rosmarinic acid, salidroside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, and apigenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside. The structures were determined by 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. Compounds 6, 10, ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 775) with MIC 50 μM, 25 μM, 50 μM, 12.5 μM, 12.5 μM respectively. Ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were also active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6571), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 2599) with MIC 12.5-50 μM. 4 was also active against S.aureus (ATCC 6571) with MIC 50 μM. These values are consistent with previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of Salvia diterpenoids. PMID:25256822

9. Motivated attention: Incentive effects on attentional modification of prepulse inhibition

PubMed Central

Ashare, Rebecca L.; Hawk, Larry W.; Mazzullo, Rebecca J.

2008-01-01

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is greater for attended compared to ignored prestimuli, and, consistent with theories of motivated attention, initial evidence suggests that this effect is greater among participants given performance-based incentives. The present study examined a within-subjects incentive manipulation. Participants (n = 41) completed two blocks of a tone discrimination task. During the incentive block, participants received trialwise feedback with small monetary incentives for task performance. Startle eyeblink EMG responses to auditory probes were assessed at 60-, 120-, and 180-ms tone-probe stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). As predicted, PPI was enhanced during attended compared to ignored prestimuli only at the 120-ms SOA in the incentive condition. There was no evidence of attentional modification in the no-incentive condition. These data suggest that attentional modification of PPI is sensitive to within-subjects manipulations of incentive, providing a useful tool for testing models of motivated attention in psychopathology and psychopharmacology. PMID:17640265

10. How can attending physicians be more attentive? On being attentive versus producing attentiveness.

PubMed

Klaver, Klaartje; Baart, Andries

2016-09-01

This article is about caregivers being attentive to patients in healthcare. From earlier work on the understanding of the other, we know that it is impossible to completely understand the experiences of others. By the sharing of subjectivity-intersubjectivity-we may try to 'grasp' the other's point of view. However, we can never assume that the same experience produces the same experience. Now, if it is principally impossible to understand the experience of one another, and if paying attention always implies an understanding of what to pay attention to, then how is it possible to be attentive to the experiences of those who are entirely at the mercy of our care? How can caregivers perceive the impossibility of understanding the experiences of patients as an appeal to be attentive to their experiences? This is discussed in this article. It departs from the authors being confronted with inexplicabilities in the empirical study of attentiveness in healthcare. It presents two examples and discusses the meaning of these emergent properties. This leads to a discussion of the existent literature on the indefiniteness and openness of attentiveness. It becomes clear why, although we can understand and predict much of it, attentiveness will always be characterized by a certain uncontrollability as well. PMID:26951520