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Sample records for 21rst refuelling charge

  1. Considering the dynamic refueling behavior in locating electric vehicle charging stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Sun, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) will certainly play an important role in addressing the energy and environmental challenges at current situation. However, location problem of EV charging stations was realized as one of the key issues of EVs launching strategy. While for the case of locating EV charging stations, more influence factors and constraints need to be considered since the EVs have some special attributes. The minimum requested charging time for EVs is usually more than 30minutes, therefore the possible delay time due to waiting or looking for an available station is one of the most important influence factors. In addition, the intention to purchase and use of EVs that also affects the location of EV charging stations is distributed unevenly among regions and should be considered when modelling. Unfortunately, these kinds of time-spatial constraints were always ignored in previous models. Based on the related research of refuelling behaviours and refuelling demands, this paper developed a new concept with dual objectives of minimum waiting time and maximum service accessibility for locating EV charging stations - named as Time-Spatial Location Model (TSLM). The proposed model and the traditional flow-capturing location model are applied on an example network respectively and the results are compared. Results demonstrate that time constraint has great effects on the location of EV charging stations. The proposed model has some obvious advantages and will help energy providers to make a viable plan for the network of EV charging stations.

  2. The monuments of the UNESCO List under threat in the 21rst century: the Project "MONUNESCO-PARIS" (2012-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, B.; Brimblecombe, P.; Deque, M.; Grossi, C. M.; Ionescu, A.; Lefevre, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    The banks of the River Seine in Paris are inscribed on the UNESCO List of the World Cultural Heritage since 1991 because they are studded with a succession of masterpieces such as Notre- Dame Cathedral, Sainte Chapelle, Louvre, Place de la Concorde, Tour Eiffel, and with prestigious museums: Louvre, Orsay, Quai Branly, Petit Palais…Unfortunately, these banks are crossed by the Pompidou urban motorway, an important and continuous source of atmospheric pollution. The aim of the Project is to evaluate the evolution of the weathering of limestone, glass and stained glass in the centre of Paris in the 21rst century by crossing Climate and Pollution Models with Dose-Response Functions (DRF) for limestone, glass and stained glass and with Climatology of Salt Transitions for limestone. A Lutetian limestone (« Courville Stone ») has been used for the construction and the restoration of the most important monuments (Notre-Dame, Louvre…) and haussmannian buildings in Paris. It has a fine grain, a medium porosity (19%) and contains 90% of CaO. The modern glass of windows and large contemporaneous façades has a Si-Ca-Na composition, it is chemically inert, has a low thermal inertia, a flat surface, no open porosity and no surface roughness, therefore it is very durable. The glass of stained glass windows has a Si-Ca-K composition and it is low durable. Using different climate and pollution scenarios of the 21rst century, the project will evaluate different schemes of material degradations: (i) - Recession of limestone surface; (ii) - Soiling of limestone surface; (iii) - Soiling of modern glass; (iv) - Leaching of ancient stained glass windows; (v) - Deterioration of limestone by salts. The British Hadley Models, the French Météo- France Arpège-Aladin Models and the ENSEMBLES Approach will be crossed with DRF and Climatology of Salts Transitions. An in-the-field inventory (stock at risk) of the surface occupied on the façades by each kind of material (stone

  3. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  4. Tethered orbital refueling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, Dale A.; Rudolph, L. Kevin; Kiefel, Erlinda R.; Abbott, Peter W.; Grossrode, Pat

    1986-01-01

    One of the major applications of the space station will be to act as a refueling depot for cryogenic-fueled space-based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), Earth-storable fueled orbit maneuvering vehicles, and refurbishable satellite spacecraft using hydrazine. One alternative for fuel storage at the space station is a tethered orbital refueling facility (TORF), separated from the space station by a sufficient distance to induce a gravity gradient force that settles the stored fuels. The technical feasibility was examined with the primary focus on the refueling of LO2/LH2 orbital transfer vehicles. Also examined was the tethered facility on the space station. It was compared to a zero-gravity facility. A tethered refueling facility should be considered as a viable alternative to a zero-gravity facility if the zero-gravity fluid transfer technology, such as the propellant management device and no vent fill, proves to be difficult to develop with the required performance.

  5. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Joy, R.W.

    1982-09-20

    A rapidly refuelable dual cell of an electrochemical type is described wherein a single anode cooperates with two cathodes and wherein the anode has a fixed position and the cathodes are urged toward opposite faces of the anodes at constant and uniform force. The associated cathodes are automatically retractable to permit the consumed anode remains to be removed from the housing and a new anode inserted between the two cathodes.

  6. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Meuschke, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced.

  7. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Meuschke, R.E.

    1995-05-02

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor is disclosed whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced. 2 figs.

  8. Externally refuelled optical filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheller, Maik; Mills, Matthew S.; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Cheng, Weibo; Moloney, Jerome V.; Kolesik, Miroslav; Polynkin, Pavel; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2014-04-01

    Plasma channels produced in air through femtosecond laser filamentation hold great promise for a number of applications, including remote sensing, attosecond physics and spectroscopy, channelling microwaves and lightning protection. In such settings, extended filaments are desirable, yet their longitudinal span is limited by dissipative processes. Although various techniques aiming to prolong this process have been explored, the substantial extension of optical filaments remains a challenge. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the natural range of a plasma column can be enhanced by at least an order of magnitude when the filament is prudently accompanied by an auxiliary beam. In this arrangement, the secondary low-intensity `dressing' beam propagates linearly and acts as a distributed energy reservoir, continuously refuelling the optical filament. Our approach offers an efficient and viable route towards the generation of extended light strings in air without inducing premature wave collapse or an undesirable beam break-up into multiple filaments.

  9. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly conducts a phone interview with Benjamin Reed, Deputy Program Manager of NASA’s Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office, about this week’s Robotic Refuel...

  10. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office Dan Huot interviews Jill McGuire, the Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) Project Manager at Goddard Space Flight Center, about the current RRM operation taking place outside...

  11. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Alex Janas, robotics operator from the Goddard Space Flight Center, about the Robotic Refueling Mission that has been taking place on the space stati...

  12. LNG to CNG refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    While the fleet operator is concerned about the environment, he or she is going to make the choice based primarily on economics. Which fuel provides the lowest total operating cost? The calculation of this costing must include the price-per-gallon of the fuel delivered, as well as the tangible and intangible components of fuel delivery, such as downtime for vehicles during the refueling process, idle time for drivers during refueling, emissions costings resulting from compressor oil blow-by, inclusion of non-combustible constituents in the CNG, and energy consumption during the refueling process. Also, the upfront capital requirement of similar delivery capabilities must be compared. The use of LNG as the base resource for the delivered CNG, in conjunction with the utilization of a fully temperature-compressed LNG/CNG refueling system, eliminates many of the perceived shortfalls of CNG. An LNG/CNG refueling center designed to match the capabilities of the compressor-based station will have approximately the same initial capital requirement. However, because it derives its CNG sales product from the {minus}260 F LNG base product, thus availing itself of the natural physical properties of the cryogenic product, all other economic elements of the system favor the LNG/CNG product.

  13. Method and system for vehicle refueling

    DOEpatents

    Surnilla, Gopichandra; Leone, Thomas G; Prasad, Krishnaswamy Venkatesh; Argarwal, Apoorv; Hinds, Brett Stanley

    2012-11-20

    Methods and systems are provided for facilitating refueling operations in vehicles operating with multiple fuels. A vehicle operator may be assisted in refueling the multiple fuel tanks of the vehicle by being provided one or more refueling profiles that take into account the vehicle's future trip plans, the predicted environmental conditions along a planned route, and the operator's preferences.

  14. Method and system for vehicle refueling

    DOEpatents

    Surnilla, Gopichandra; Leone, Thomas G; Prasad, Krishnaswamy Venkatesh; Agarwal, Apoorv; Hinds, Brett Stanley

    2014-06-10

    Methods and systems are provided for facilitating refueling operations in vehicles operating with multiple fuels. A vehicle operator may be assisted in refueling the multiple fuel tanks of the vehicle by being provided one or more refueling profiles that take into account the vehicle's future trip plans, the predicted environmental conditions along a planned route, and the operator's preferences.

  15. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  16. Space Station Live: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot speaks with Robert Pickle, Robotic Refueling Mission ROBO lead, about the International Space Station demonstration of the tools, technologies and techniques to...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.825 - Refueling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the requirements of this section is a violation of 40 CFR 1068.101(b). ... requirements. (a) If your locomotive operates using a volatile fuel, your refueling equipment must be designed and used to minimize the escape of fuel vapors. This means you may not use refueling equipment in...

  18. Refueling stations for natural gas vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.T.; Jasionowski, W.

    1991-01-01

    The unavailability of natural gas vehicle (NGV) refueling stations constitutes one of the major barriers to the wide spread utilization of natural gas in the transportation market. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the current technical and economic status of compressed natural gas vehicle refueling stations and to identify the components or design features that offer the greatest potential for performance improvements and/or cost reductions. Both fast-fill- and slow-fill-type refueling systems will be discussed. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. 40 CFR 92.1006 - Refueling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Refueling equipment used by a locomotive operator for locomotives fueled with a volatile fuel shall be designed in such a manner so as not to render inoperative or reduce the effectiveness of the controls...

  20. Low Gravity Issues of Deep Space Refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the technologies required to develop deep space refueling of cryogenic propellants and low cost flight experiments to develop them. Key technologies include long term storage, pressure control, mass gauging, liquid acquisition, and fluid transfer. Prior flight experiments used to mature technologies are discussed. A plan is presented to systematically study the deep space refueling problem and devise low-cost experiments to further mature technologies and prepare for full scale flight demonstrations.

  1. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (ReFUEL). ReFUEL is a world-class research and testing facility dedicated to future fuels and advanced heavy-duty vehicle research, located in Denver, Colorado.

  2. 40 CFR 92.1006 - Refueling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Refueling requirements. 92.1006 Section 92.1006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Requirements Applicable to Owners and Operators of Locomotives and...

  3. 40 CFR 92.1006 - Refueling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Refueling requirements. 92.1006 Section 92.1006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Requirements Applicable to Owners and Operators of Locomotives and...

  4. 40 CFR 92.1006 - Refueling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Refueling requirements. 92.1006 Section 92.1006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Requirements Applicable to Owners and Operators of Locomotives and...

  5. Refueling machine with relative positioning capability

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Jones, C.R.

    1998-12-15

    A refueling machine is disclosed having relative positioning capability for refueling a nuclear reactor. The refueling machine includes a pair of articulated arms mounted on a refueling bridge. Each arm supports a respective telescoping mast. Each telescoping mast is designed to flex laterally in response to application of a lateral thrust on the end of the mast. A pendant mounted on the end of the mast carries an air-actuated grapple, television cameras, ultrasonic transducers and waterjet thrusters. The ultrasonic transducers are used to detect the gross position of the grapple relative to the bail of a nuclear fuel assembly in the fuel core. The television cameras acquire an image of the bail which is compared to a pre-stored image in computer memory. The pendant can be rotated until the television image and the pre-stored image match within a predetermined tolerance. Similarly, the waterjet thrusters can be used to apply lateral thrust to the end of the flexible mast to place the grapple in a fine position relative to the bail as a function of the discrepancy between the television and pre-stored images. 11 figs.

  6. Refueling machine with relative positioning capability

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy Clifford; Jones, Cecil Roy

    1998-01-01

    A refueling machine having relative positioning capability for refueling a nuclear reactor. The refueling machine includes a pair of articulated arms mounted on a refueling bridge. Each arm supports a respective telescoping mast. Each telescoping mast is designed to flex laterally in response to application of a lateral thrust on the end of the mast. A pendant mounted on the end of the mast carries an air-actuated grapple, television cameras, ultrasonic transducers and waterjet thrusters. The ultrasonic transducers are used to detect the gross position of the grapple relative to the bail of a nuclear fuel assembly in the fuel core. The television cameras acquire an image of the bail which is compared to a pre-stored image in computer memory. The pendant can be rotated until the television image and the pre-stored image match within a predetermined tolerance. Similarly, the waterjet thrusters can be used to apply lateral thrust to the end of the flexible mast to place the grapple in a fine position relative to the bail as a function of the discrepancy between the television and pre-stored images.

  7. Semi-active magnetorheological refueling probe systems for aerial refueling events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-09-01

    This study analyzes the feasibility of applying a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) damper to a naval hose-drogue based aerial refueling system to minimize undesirable hose-drogue vibrations. The semi-active smart aerial refueling probe system consists of a probe, a coil spring, and a MR damper. The dynamics of the smart refueling probe system were derived and incorporated into an analysis of the coupled hose-drogue dynamics, so as to evaluate the load reduction of the refueling hose at the drogue position effected by the MR damper. The simulated responses of the smart refueling probe system using a MR damper were conducted at different maximum closure velocities of 1.56 and 5 ft s-1 and different tanker flight speeds of 185 and 220 knots. The simulations demonstrate that the smart refueling probe system using a MR damper enables large reductions in probe-and-drogue motions, as well as preventing the onset of large and undesirable hose-drogue motions resulting from tension loads during engagement of the probe.

  8. AHTR Refueling Systems and Process Description

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Holcomb, David Eugene; Bradley, Eric Craig; Zaharia, Nathaniel M; Cooper, Eliott J

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station-type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently undergoing development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR is approaching a preconceptual level of maturity. An initial integrated layout of its major systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and an initial, high-level sequence of operations necessary for constructing and operating the plant is nearing completion. An overview of the current status of the AHTR concept has been recently published and a report providing a more detailed overview of the AHTR structures and mechanical systems is currently in preparation. This report documents the refueling components and processes envisioned at this early development phase. The report is limited to the refueling aspects of the AHTR and does not include overall reactor or power plant design information. The report, however, does include a description of the materials envisioned for the various components and the instrumentation necessary to control the refueling process. The report begins with an overview of the refueling strategy. Next a mechanical description of the AHTR fuel assemblies and core is provided. The reactor vessel upper assemblies are then described. Following this the refueling path structures and the refueling mechanisms and components are described. The sequence of operations necessary to fuel and defuel the reactor is then discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the levels of

  9. AHTR Refueling Systems and Process Description

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, V.K.; Holcomb, D.E.; Bradley, E.C.; Zaharia, N.M.; Cooper, E.J.

    2012-07-15

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station-type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt–cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently undergoing development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR is approaching a preconceptual level of maturity. An initial integrated layout of its major systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and an initial, high-level sequence of operations necessary for constructing and operating the plant is nearing completion. An overview of the current status of the AHTR concept has been recently published [1], and a report providing a more detailed overview of the AHTR structures and mechanical systems is currently in preparation. This report documents the refueling components and processes envisioned at this early development phase. The report is limited to the refueling aspects of the AHTR and does not include overall reactor or power plant design information. The report, however, does include a description of the materials envisioned for the various components and the instrumentation necessary to control the refueling process. The report begins with an overview of the refueling strategy. Next a mechanical description of the AHTR fuel assemblies and core is provided. The reactor vessel upper assemblies are then described. Following this the refueling path structures and the refueling mechanisms and components are described. The sequence of operations necessary to fuel and defuel the reactor is then discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the

  10. Nuclear cost control focuses on refueling outages

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    Extending operating cycles and shortening refueling outages are the mainstays of utility efforts to improve the economics of nuclear generation. Here are key management approaches that have contributed to recent successes. Improving operating efficiency remains the byword of nuclear power producers, as they intensify their drive to reduce operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and survive--even thrive--in a competitive environment. Because replacement-power and other costs can incur penalties of $0.5-million or more for each that a nuclear unit is inoperative--and almost $3-million/day, for one utility--refueling outages are an obvious focal point for such efforts, By the same token, the impact on the bottom line is greater and more dramatic here than for other cost-saving activities.

  11. Refueling with In-Situ Produced Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In-situ produced propellants have been identified in many architecture studies as key to implementing feasible chemical propulsion missions to destinations beyond lunar orbit. Some of the more noteworthy ones include: launching from Mars to return to Earth (either direct from the surface, or via an orbital rendezvous); using the Earth-Moon Lagrange point as a place to refuel Mars transfer stages with Lunar surface produced propellants; and using Mars Moon Phobos as a place to produce propellants for descent and ascent stages bound for the Mars surface. However successful implementation of these strategies require an ability to successfully transfer propellants from the in-situ production equipment into the propellant tankage of the rocket stage used to move to the desired location. In many circumstances the most desirable location for this transfer to occur is in the low-gravity environment of space. In support of low earth orbit propellant depot concepts, extensive studies have been conducted on transferring propellants in-space. Most of these propellant transfer techniques will be applicable to low gravity operations in other locations. Even ground-based transfer operations on the Moon, Mars, and especially Phobos could benefit from the propellant conserving techniques used for depot refueling. This paper will review the literature of in-situ propellants and refueling to: assess the performance benefits of the use in-situ propellants for mission concepts; review the parallels with propellant depot efforts; assess the progress of the techniques required; and provide recommendations for future research.

  12. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

  13. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    DOEpatents

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  14. CONNECTING TRANSITIONS IN GALAXY PROPERTIES TO REFUELING

    SciTech Connect

    Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Weinberg-Wolf, Jennifer; Wei, Lisa H.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Pisano, D. J.; Baker, Andrew J.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Laine, Seppo; Jogee, Shardha; Lepore, Natasha; Hough, Loren E.

    2013-11-01

    We relate transitions in galaxy structure and gas content to refueling, here defined to include both the external gas accretion and the internal gas processing needed to renew reservoirs for star formation. We analyze two z = 0 data sets: a high-quality ∼200 galaxy sample (the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey, data release herein) and a volume-limited ∼3000 galaxy sample with reprocessed archival data. Both reach down to baryonic masses ∼10{sup 9} M{sub ☉} and span void-to-cluster environments. Two mass-dependent transitions are evident: (1) below the 'gas-richness threshold' scale (V ∼ 125 km s{sup –1}), gas-dominated quasi-bulgeless Sd-Im galaxies become numerically dominant; while (2) above the 'bimodality' scale (V ∼ 200 km s{sup –1}), gas-starved E/S0s become the norm. Notwithstanding these transitions, galaxy mass (or V as its proxy) is a poor predictor of gas-to-stellar mass ratio M{sub gas}/M{sub *}. Instead, M{sub gas}/M{sub *} correlates well with the ratio of a galaxy's stellar mass formed in the last Gyr to its preexisting stellar mass, such that the two ratios have numerically similar values. This striking correspondence between past-averaged star formation and current gas richness implies routine refueling of star-forming galaxies on Gyr timescales. We argue that this refueling underlies the tight M{sub gas}/M{sub *} versus color correlations often used to measure 'photometric gas fractions'. Furthermore, the threshold and bimodality scale transitions reflect mass-dependent demographic shifts between three refueling regimes—accretion-dominated, processing-dominated, and quenched. In this picture, gas-dominated dwarfs are explained not by inefficient star formation but by overwhelming gas accretion, which fuels stellar mass doubling in ∼<1 Gyr. Moreover, moderately gas-rich bulged disks such as the Milky Way are transitional, becoming abundant only in the narrow range between the threshold and bimodality scales.

  15. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  16. 40 CFR 1066.970 - Refueling test for liquid fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in § 1066.975, test vehicles for refueling emissions as described in 40 CFR 86.150-98, 86.151-98, 86.152-98, and 86.154-98. Keep records as described in 40 CFR 86.155-98. ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Refueling test for liquid fuels....

  17. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; refueling test. 86.156-98 Section 86.156-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.156-98 Calculations; refueling test. (a) The...

  18. Application of solid state lighting in aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey; Walker, Richard; Ferguson, Joseph; Kemp, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Operating at altitude and often in turbulent, low visibility conditions, in-flight refueling of aircraft is a challenging endeavor, even for seasoned aviators. The receiving aircraft must approach a large airborne tanker; take position within a "reception window" beneath and/or behind the tanker and, dependent upon the type of receiving aircraft, mate with an extended refueling boom or hose and drogue. Light is used to assist in the approach, alignment and refuel process of the aircraft. Robust solid state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an appropriate choice for use in the challenging environments that these aircraft operate within. This paper examines how LEDs are incorporated into several unique lighting applications associated with such aerial refueling operations. We will discuss the design requirements, both environmental and photometric that defined the selection of different LED packages for use in state-of-the-art airborne refueling aircraft Formation Lights, Hose Drum/Drogue Unit lights and Pilot Director Lights.

  19. Instrumentation and Control Technologies for Refueling the AHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Varma, Venugopal Koikal

    2012-01-01

    The process and mechanisms for refueling the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) are currently undergoing preconceptual design. The instrumentation and controls (I&C) required for the fuel transfer are simultaneously under design as part of this process. Overall, the AHTR's refueling system will consist of a fully automated, optically guided mechanical transfer system with operator intervention only required for exception handling. The refueling system design remains too immature to enable selection of particular instrumentation components. This paper provides an overview of the refueling process for the AHTR, the I&C requirements for the refueling, the current I&C design and technology status, and the envisioned process for developing and validating the required technology.

  20. Fault diagnosis in orbital refueling operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.

    1988-01-01

    Usually, operation manuals are provided for helping astronauts during space operations. These manuals include normal and malfunction procedures. Transferring operation manual knowledge into a computerized form is not a trivial task. This knowledge is generally written by designers or operation engineers and is often quite different from the user logic. The latter is usually a compiled version of the former. Experiments are in progress to assess the user logic. HORSES (Human - Orbital Refueling System - Expert System) is an attempt to include both of these logics in the same tool. It is designed to assist astronauts during monitoring and diagnosis tasks. Basically, HORSES includes a situation recognition level coupled to an analytical diagnoser, and a meta-level working on both of the previous levels. HORSES is a good tool for modeling task models and is also more broadly useful for knowledge design. The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  1. Mission planning optimization for multiple geosynchronous satellites refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Yan, Ye; Huang, Xu; Kong, Linjie

    2015-12-01

    The scheduling problem of multiple geosynchronous satellites refueling mission with a servicing satellite and a fuel station is studied in this paper. In the proposed mission scenario, a number of geosynchronous satellites require a specified weight of fuel to be delivered. The servicing satellite and the fuel station are initially parked in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). The capacitated servicing satellite is expected to visit and refuel these fuel-deficient GEO targets with the fuel received from the fuel station. In general, the fuel station will refuel the servicing satellite more than once. The refueling order and binary decision variable are used as design variables, whereas the total fuel consumed by orbital maneuvers is used as a design objective. A one-level optimization model and a two-level optimization model are formulated to find the optimal refueling order and decision variable. Genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to address the one-level optimization problem. For the two-level optimization problem, the up-level GA that optimizes the refueling order is combined with the low-level random search that can quickly locate the near-optimal binary decision variable. Finally, the proposed methods are applied to numerical test cases to demonstrate that they are valid for mission planning optimization for multiple GEO targets refueling.

  2. Thermal Design Considerations of the Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Teri H.; Newman, Miles

    2011-01-01

    The Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) is a flight demonstration of the tasks required to perform robotic refueling of orbiting spacecraft. RRM will be mounted to an ExPress Adapter Plate (ExPA) for launch and installed onto the International Space Station (ISS) Express Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC4). RRM operations will be conducted using the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) robotic arm on the ISS with the ORU/Tool Changeout Mechanism (OTCM) for grasping tools and completing the refueling demonstration tasks. This paper presents the thermal considerations and design of the RRM including the tools required for the tasks.

  3. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  4. March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, presented by Tara Ruttley, Associate ISS Program Scientist, during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows safety cap removal and refueling during Roboti...

  5. F/A-18 Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) Phase 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are evaluating the capability of an F/A-18A aircraft as an in-flight refueling tanker to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refuelin...

  6. March 20, 2012 Space Station Briefing: Robotic Refueling Mission (Narrated)

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation, presented by Tara Ruttley, Associate ISS Program Scientist, during the March 20, 2012 ISS Program and Science Overview Briefing, shows safety cap removal and refueling during Roboti...

  7. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  8. Vision-based sensing for autonomous in-flight refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D.; Toal, M.; Dale, J.

    2007-04-01

    A significant capability of unmanned airborne vehicles (UAV's) is that they can operate tirelessly and at maximum efficiency in comparison to their human pilot counterparts. However a major limiting factor preventing ultra-long endurance missions is that they require landing to refuel. Development effort has been directed to allow UAV's to automatically refuel in the air using current refueling systems and procedures. The 'hose & drogue' refueling system was targeted as it is considered the more difficult case. Recent flight trials resulted in the first-ever fully autonomous airborne refueling operation. Development has gone into precision GPS-based navigation sensors to maneuver the aircraft into the station-keeping position and onwards to dock with the refueling drogue. However in the terminal phases of docking, the accuracy of the GPS is operating at its performance limit and also disturbance factors on the flexible hose and basket are not predictable using an open-loop model. Hence there is significant uncertainty on the position of the refueling drogue relative to the aircraft, and is insufficient in practical operation to achieve a successful and safe docking. A solution is to augment the GPS based system with a vision-based sensor component through the terminal phase to visually acquire and track the drogue in 3D space. The higher bandwidth and resolution of camera sensors gives significantly better estimates on the state of the drogue position. Disturbances in the actual drogue position caused by subtle aircraft maneuvers and wind gusting can be visually tracked and compensated for, providing an accurate estimate. This paper discusses the issues involved in visually detecting a refueling drogue, selecting an optimum camera viewpoint, and acquiring and tracking the drogue throughout a widely varying operating range and conditions.

  9. Minimizing or eliminating refueling of nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Doncals, Richard A.; Paik, Nam-Chin; Andre, Sandra V.; Porter, Charles A.; Rathbun, Roy W.; Schwallie, Ambrose L.; Petras, Diane S.

    1989-01-01

    Demand for refueling of a liquid metal fast nuclear reactor having a life of 30 years is eliminated or reduced to intervals of at least 10 years by operating the reactor at a low linear-power density, typically 2.5 kw/ft of fuel rod, rather than 7.5 or 15 kw/ft, which is the prior art practice. So that power of the same magnitude as for prior art reactors is produced, the volume of the core is increased. In addition, the height of the core and it diameter are dimensioned so that the ratio of the height to the diameter approximates 1 to the extent practicable considering the requirement of control and that the pressure drop in the coolant shall not be excessive. The surface area of a cylinder of given volume is a minimum if the ratio of the height to the diameter is 1. By minimizing the surface area, the leakage of neutrons is reduced. By reducing the linear-power density, increasing core volume, reducing fissile enrichment and optimizing core geometry, internal-core breeding of fissionable fuel is substantially enhanced. As a result, core operational life, limited by control worth requirements and fuel burnup capability, is extended up to 30 years of continuous power operation.

  10. CLEO: a knowledge-based refueling assistant at FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Kocher, L.F.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-11-01

    A computer software system, CLEO, is used to assist in the planning and performance of the reactor refueling operations at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It is a recently developed application of artificial intelligence software with both expert systems and automated reasoning aspects. CLEO, an acronym for Cloned LEO, is a logic-based computer program written in Pascal. It imitates the processes that the refueling expert for FFTF performs in organizing the refueling of FFTF. The computer assistant seeks to organize the sequence of core component movements according to the rules and logic used by the expert. In this form, CLEO has aspects that tie it to both the expert systems and automated reasoning areas within the artificial intelligence field.

  11. Aerial Refueling Process Rescheduling Under Job Related Disruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2011-01-01

    The Aerial Refueling Scheduling Problem (ARSP) can be defined as determining the refueling completion times for each fighter aircraft (job) on the multiple tankers (machines) to minimize the total weighted tardiness. ARSP assumes that the jobs have different release times and due dates. The ARSP is dynamic environment and unexpected events may occur. In this paper, rescheduling in the aerial refueling process with a time set of jobs will be studied to deal with job related disruptions such as the arrival of new jobs, the departure of an existing job, high deviations in the release times and changes in job priorities. In order to keep the stability and to avoid excessive computation, partial schedule repair algorithm is developed and its preliminary results are presented.

  12. Autonomous Robotic Refueling System (ARRS) for rapid aircraft turnaround

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, O. R.; Jackson, E.; Rueb, K.; Thompson, B.; Powell, K.

    An autonomous robotic refuelling system is being developed to achieve rapid aircraft turnaround, notably during combat operations. The proposed system includes a gantry positioner with sufficient reach to position a robotic arm that performs the refuelling tasks; a six degree of freedom manipulator equipped with a remote center of compliance, torque sensor, and a gripper that can handle standard tools; a computer vision system to locate and guide the refuelling nozzle, inspect the nozzle, and avoid collisions; and an operator interface with video and graphics display. The control system software will include components designed for trajectory planning and generation, collision detection, sensor interfacing, sensory processing, and human interfacing. The robotic system will be designed so that upgrading to perform additional tasks will be relatively straightforward.

  13. Testing of a refuelable zinc/air bus battery

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Koopman, R.; Hargrove, D.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.

    1995-02-22

    We report tests of a refuelable zinc/air battery of modular, bipolar-cell design, intended for fleet electric busses and vans. The stack consists of twelve 250-cm{sup 2} cells built of two units: (1) a copper-clad glass-reinforced epoxy board supporting anode and cathode current collectors, and (2) polymer frame providing for air- and electrolyte distribution and zinc fuel storage. The stack was refueled in 4 min. by a hydraulic transfer of zinc particles entrained in solution flow.

  14. Nuclear fuel, refueling, fuel handling, and licensing and regulation. Volume eleven

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume eleven covers nuclear fuel (what is nuclear fuel, the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium mining, milling, and refining, uranium enrichment, nuclear fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing), refueling and fuel handling (fuel assembly identification, fuel handling equipment, the fueling and refueling process, PWR refueling, BWR refueling), and licensing and regulation requirements (development of nuclear energy, federal licensing and regulatory organization, schedule for nuclear power plants, contents of reports to the Federal regulatory agency, nuclear power plant operator qualification).

  15. Calculated Drag of an Aerial Refueling Assembly Through Airplane Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Jake; Ray, Ronald; Calianno, Carl

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews NASA Dryden's work on Aerial refueling, with specific interest in calculating the drag of the refueling system. The aerodynamic drag of an aerial refueling assembly was calculated during the Automated Aerial Refueling project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. An F/A-18A airplane was specially instrumented to obtain accurate fuel flow measurements and to determine engine thrust

  16. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evaporative/refueling family...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling family... evaporative/refueling family. Manufacturers shall use good engineering judgment to determine...

  17. Risk Analysis of On-Orbit Spacecraft Refueling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Stromgren, Chel; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    On-orbit refueling of spacecraft has been proposed as an alternative to the exclusive use of Heavy-lift Launch Vehicles to enable human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In these scenarios, beyond LEO spacecraft are launched dry (without propellant) or partially dry into orbit, using smaller or fewer element launch vehicles. Propellant is then launched into LEO on separate launch vehicles and transferred to the spacecraft. Refueling concepts are potentially attractive because they reduce the maximum individual payload that must be placed in Earth orbit. However, these types of approaches add significant complexity to mission operations and introduce more uncertainty and opportunities for failure to the mission. In order to evaluate these complex scenarios, the authors developed a Monte Carlo based discrete-event model that simulates the operational risks involved with such strategies, including launch processing delays, transportation system failures, and onorbit element lifetimes. This paper describes the methodology used to simulate the mission risks for refueling concepts, the strategies that were evaluated, and the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that scenarios that employ refueling concepts will likely have to include long launch and assembly timelines, as well as the use of spare tanker launch vehicles, in order to achieve high levels of mission success through Trans Lunar Injection.

  18. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculations; refueling test. 86.156-98 Section 86.156-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New...

  19. 40 CFR 86.152-98 - Vehicle preparation; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preparation; refueling test... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New...

  20. 40 CFR 86.154-98 - Measurement procedure; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement procedure; refueling test. 86.154-98 Section 86.154-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  1. Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration, Phase I Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibley, Ryan P.; Allen, Michael J.; Nabaa, Nassib

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration (AARD) project was completed on August 30, 2006. The goal of this 15-month effort was to develop and flight-test a system to demonstrate an autonomous refueling engagement using the Navy style hose-and-drogue air-to-air refueling method. The prime contractor for this Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored program was Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), Sparks, Nevada. The responsible flight-test organization was the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California, which also provided the F/A-18 receiver airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The B-707-300 tanker airplane (The Boeing Company) was contracted through Omega Aerial Refueling Services, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, and the optical tracking system was contracted through OCTEC Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom. Nine research flights were flown, testing the functionality and performance of the system in a stepwise manner, culminating in the plug attempts on the final flight. Relative position keeping was found to be very stable and accurate. The receiver aircraft was capable of following the tanker aircraft through turns while maintaining its relative position. During the last flight, six capture attempts were made, two of which were successful. The four misses demonstrated excellent characteristics, the receiver retreating from the drogue in a controlled, safe, and predictable manner that precluded contact between the drogue and the receiver aircraft. The position of the receiver aircraft when engaged and in position for refueling was found to be 5.5 to 8.5 ft low of the ideal position. The controller inputs to the F/A-18 were found to be extremely small

  2. Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration: Phase I Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibley, Ryan P.; Allen, Michael J.; Nabaa, Nassib

    2007-01-01

    The first phase of the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration (AARD) project was completed on August 30, 2006. The goal of this 15-month effort was to develop and flight-test a system to demonstrate an autonomous refueling engagement using the Navy style hose-and-drogue air-to-air refueling method. The prime contractor for this Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored program was Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), Sparks, Nevada. The responsible flight-test organization was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California, which also provided the F/A-18 receiver airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The B-707-300 tanker airplane (The Boeing Company) was contracted through Omega Aerial Refueling Services, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, and the optical tracking system was contracted through OCTEC Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom. Nine research flights were flown, testing the functionality and performance of the system in a stepwise manner, culminating in the plug attempts on the final flight. Relative position keeping was found to be very stable and accurate. The receiver aircraft was capable of following the tanker aircraft through turns while maintaining its relative position. During the last flight, six capture attempts were made, two of which were successful. The four misses demonstrated excellent characteristics, the receiver retreating from the drogue in a controlled, safe, and predictable manner that precluded contact between the drogue and the receiver aircraft. The position of the receiver aircraft when engaged and in position for refueling was found to be 5.5 to 8.5 ft low of the ideal position. The controller inputs to the F/A-18 were found to be extremely small.

  3. A NASA F/A-18, participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project, flies over the Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. The 300-gallon aerial refueling store seen on the belly of the aircraft carries fuel and a refueling drogue. This aircraft acts as a tanker in the study to develop an aerodynamic model for future automated aerial refueling, especially of unmanned vehicles.

  4. Core testing of zinc/air refuelable battery modules

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J. F., LLNL

    1998-08-20

    We are developing a refuelable zinc/air battery (6-cells) for evaluation under the five USABC `core` test protocols. In the first half of the two year project ($1OOK, FY1997), an advanced refuelable design was developed, fabricated and tested at power levels up to 415 W. Performance matched or exceeded that of earlier multicell systems. A computer program was developed for automated data acquisition and drive cycle simulation. Small mockup cells (80 cm 2) were constructed for rapid testing of components. In the follow-on effort (FY1998, $1OOK) we will make minor advances in system design and fabrication efficiency, and seek to improve cathode performance and life, before delivery of two final units for test at DOE laboratory.

  5. Safety implications of onboard refueling vapor recovery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-06-01

    The safety implications of requiring onboard refueling vapor recovery systems on gasoline powered passenger cars, light trucks and heavy duty vehicles are evaluated. Special attention is given to the analysis of the design considerations for a safe onboard system and other measures necessary to insure that the design considerations incorporated are capable of providing a high level of in-use fuel system integrity. Concerns over the potential safety implications of onboard systems were raised. These concerns can be grouped into 4 areas. These include requirements to pass the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration safety test, the effects of tampering and system defects, refueling operations, and in-use fuel system safety. All of these concerns are presented as well as design considerations for a safe system. In use fuel system safety is also presented as well as cost and leadtime considerations for implementing a safe system.

  6. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  7. Design of a refueling tanker delivering liquid hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lourme, Daniel; Barnier, Caroline; Faure, Sabine; Pompei, Marie-Helene; Pruniaux, Karine

    1992-01-01

    A refueling tanker that could deliver 155,000 lb of liquid hydrogen to a hypersonic tanker in 15 min was designed. A flying boom system was chosen to fit strict delivery criteria. Tank design and material specification were also addressed. To assure the flow required, it was important to cancel the pressure drop phenomenon. Geometry, aerodynamics, weight considerations, propulsion, stability, and performance for the tanker were also considered. Finally, the cost of developing three prototypes was estimated.

  8. Automated Aerial Refueling Hitches a Ride on AFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Bever, Glenn; Campos, Norma V.; Schkolnik, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of uninhabited aerial vehicles [UAVs (basically, remotely piloted or autonomous aircraft)] has spawned new developments in autonomous operation and posed new challenges. Automated aerial refueling (AAR) is a capability that will enable UAVs to travel greater distances and loiter longer over targets. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), the Naval Air Force Pacific Fleet, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, rapidly conceived and accomplished an AAR flight research project focused on collecting a unique, high-quality database on the dynamics of the hose and drogue of an aerial refueling system. This flight-derived database would be used to validate mathematical models of the dynamics in support of design and analysis of AAR systems for future UAVs. The project involved the use of two Dryden F/A-18 airplanes and an S-3 hose-drogue refueling store on loan from the Navy. In this year-long project, which was started on October 1, 2002, 583 research maneuvers were completed during 23 flights.

  9. Optimal scheduling of multispacecraft refueling based on cooperative maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Bingxiao; Zhao, Yong; Dutta, Atri; Yu, Jing; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2015-06-01

    The scheduling of multispacecraft refueling based on cooperative maneuver in a circular orbit is studied in this paper. In the proposed scheme, both of the single service vehicle (SSV) and the target satellite (TS) perform the orbital transfer to complete the rendezvous at the service places. When a TS is refueled by the SSV, it returns to its original working slot to continue its normal function. In this way, the SSV refuels the TS one by one. A MINLP model for the mission is first built, then a two-level hybrid optimization approach is proposed for determining the strategy, and the optimal solution is successfully obtained by using an algorithm which is a combination of Multi-island Genetic Algorithm and Sequential Quadratic Programming. Results show the cooperative strategy can save around 27.31% in fuel, compared with the non-cooperative strategy in which only the SSV would maneuver in the example considered. Three conclusions can be drawn based on the numerical simulations for the evenly distributed constellations. Firstly, in the cooperative strategy one of the service positions is the initial location of the SSV, other service positions are also target slots, i.e. not all targets need to maneuver, and there may be more than one TS serviced in a given service position. Secondly, the efficiency gains for the cooperative strategy are higher for larger transferred fuel mass. Thirdly, the cooperative strategy is less efficient for targets with larger spacecraft mass.

  10. Powering future vehicles with the refuelable zinc/air battery

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    A recent road test at LLNL underscored the zinc/air battery`s capacity to give electric vehicles some of the attractive features of gas-driven cars: a 400-km range between refueling, 10-minute refueling, and highway-safe acceleration. Developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the battery weights only one-sixth as much as standard lead/acid batteries and occupies one-third the space, yet costs less per mile to operate. What`s more, because the battery is easily refuelable, it promises trouble-free, nearly 24-hour-a-day operation for numerous kinds of electric vehicles, from forklifts to delivery vans and possibly, one day, personal automobiles. The test of a Santa Barbara Municipal Transit bus with a hybrid of zinc/air and lead/acid batteries capped a short development period for the zinc/air battery. The test run indicated the zinc/air battery`s potential savings in vehicle weight from 5.7 to 4.0 metric tons, in battery weight from 2.0 to 0.3 metric tons, in battery volume from 0.79 to 0.25 m{sup 3}, and in electricity cost from 5.6 cents per mile to 4.7 cents per mile. The power, however, remains the same.

  11. CLEO: A knowledge-based refueling assistant at FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Kocher, L.F.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-07-01

    CLEO is computer software system to assist in the planning and performance of the reactor refueling operations at the Fast Flux Test Facility. It is a recently developed application of artificial intelligence software with both expert systems and automated reasoning aspects. The computer system seeks to organize the sequence of core component movements according to the rules and logic used by the expert. In this form, CLEO has aspects which tie it to both the expert systems and automated reasoning areas within the artificial intelligence field.

  12. Insights from Hydrogen Refueling Station Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayyas, Ahmad

    2015-12-18

    In work for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), NREL is currently collaborating with Great Lakes Wind Network in conducting a comprehensive hydrogen refueling stations manufacturing competitiveness and supply chain analyses. In this project, CEMAC will be looking at several metrics that will facilitate understanding of the interactions between and within the HRS supply chain, such metrics include innovation potential, intellectual properties, learning curves, related industries and clustering, existing supply chains, ease of doing business, and regulations and safety. This presentation to Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition 2015 highlights initial findings from CEMAC's analysis.

  13. Cryogenic Autogenous Pressurization Testing for Robotic Refueling Mission 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Francis, J.; Mustafi, S.; Li, X.; Barfknecht, P.; DeLee, C. H.; McGuire, J.

    2015-01-01

    A wick-heater system has been selected for use to pressurize the Source Dewar of the Robotic Refueling Mission Phase 3 on-orbit cryogen transfer experiment payload for the International Space Station. Experimental results of autogenous pressurization of liquid argon and liquid nitrogen using a prototype wick-heater system are presented. The wick-heater generates gas to increase the pressure in the tank while maintaining a low bulk fluid temperature. Pressurization experiments were performed in 2013 to characterize the performance of the wick heater. This paper describes the experimental setup, pressurization results, and analytical model correlations.

  14. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  15. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration -- factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such a electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described in this report focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  16. Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief Template. Hydrogen Refueling Station.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, Angela Christine; Muna, Alice Baca; Groth, Katrina M.

    2015-08-01

    Building a hydrogen infrastructure system is critical to supporting the development of alternate- fuel vehicles. This report provides a methodology for implementing a performance-based design of an outdoor hydrogen refueling station that does not meet specific prescriptive requirements in NFPA 2, The Hydrogen Technologies Code . Performance-based designs are a code-compliant alternative to meeting prescriptive requirements. Compliance is demonstrated by comparing a prescriptive-based fueling station design with a performance-based design approach using Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) methods and hydrogen risk assessment tools. This template utilizes the Sandia-developed QRA tool, Hydrogen Risk Analysis Models (HyRAM), which combines reduced-order deterministic models that characterize hydrogen release and flame behavior with probabilistic risk models to quantify risk values. Each project is unique and this template is not intended to account for site-specific characteristics. Instead, example content and a methodology are provided for a representative hydrogen refueling site which can be built upon for new hydrogen applications.

  17. An analysis of bipropellant neutralization for spacecraft refueling operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, David

    1987-01-01

    Refueling of satellites on orbit with storable propellants will involve venting part or all of the pressurant gas from the propellant tanks. This gas will be saturated with propellant vapor, and it may also have significant amounts of entrained fine droplets of propellant. The two most commonly used bipropellants, monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), are highly reactive and toxic. Various possible ways of neutralizing the vented propellants are examined. The amount of propellant vented in a typical refueling operation is shown to be in the range of 0.2 to 5% of the tank capacity. Four potential neutralization schemes are examined: chemical decomposition, chemical reaction, condensation and adsorption. Chemical decomposition to essentially inert materials is thermodynamically feasible for both MMH and N2O4. It would be the simplest and easiest neutralization method to implement. Chemical decomposition would require more complex control. Condensation would require a refrigeration system and a very efficent phase separator. Adsorption is likely to be much heavier. A preliminary assessment of the four neutralization shemes is presented, along with suggested research and development plans.

  18. A NASA F/A-18, participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project, flies over the Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA F/A-18 flies over the Dryden Flight Research Center and Rogers Dry Lake on December 11, 2002. The aircraft is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. The 300-gallon aerial refueling store seen on the belly of the aircraft carries fuel and a refueling drogue. This aircraft acts as a tanker in the study to develop an aerodynamic model for future automated aerial refueling, especially of unmanned vehicles.

  19. Field test of the Electric Fuel{trademark} zinc-air refuelable battery system for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.R.; Koretz, B.; Harats, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The Electric Fuel Limited (EFL) zinc-air refuelable battery system will be tested over the next two years in a number of electric vehicle demonstration projects, the largest of which is an $18-million, 64-vehicle, two-year test sponsored chiefly by Deutsche Post AG (the German Post Corporation). The German field test is the largest-ever EV fleet test of a single advanced-battery technology. It also represents a marked departure from other EV test and demonstration programs, in that it is being sponsored not by government or electric utility interests, but by large fleet operators committed to shifting significant proportions of their vehicles to electric over the next 5--10 years. The Electric Fuel battery has specific energy of 200 Wh/kg, an achievement that allows electric vehicles to go as far on a charge as conventionally fueled vehicles go on a tank of gasoline. Fast, convenient refueling eliminates the need for lengthy electrical recharging, and clean, centralized zinc regeneration plants ensure the most efficient and environment-friendly use of energy resources.

  20. RESOLVE and ECO: Galaxy Refueling Transitions in Environmental Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, A. J.; Eckert, K. D.; Stark, D.; Norris, M. A.; Berlind, A. A.; the RESOLVE Team

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that galaxies undergo two key transitions in refueling. Below the threshold mass (baryonic mass Mbar 10^10 Msun or 125 km/s), gas-dominated late-type galaxies and blue, disk-building E/S0 galaxies become abundant, reflecting an increase in accretion-dominated states. Between the threshold mass and the bimodality mass (Mbar 10^10.6 Msun or 200 km/s), "normal" intermediate gas content bulged spiral galaxies like our Milky Way become most common, reflecting reduced accretion, while at higher masses quenched E/S0s start to dominate. Notwithstanding these results, the high scatter in gas and long-term star formation trends as a function of galaxy mass implies that mass is a secondary driver of refueling, motivating an inquiry into the role of environment. We present two surveys designed to meet this need: the REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey and the Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog encompassing it. Initially selected from the SDSS, both surveys offer enhanced redshift completeness and custom reprocessed NUV+ugriz+JHK photometry. RESOLVE comprises >1500 galaxies down to baryonic mass ~10^9 Msun, for which we are building a comprehensive census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass as well as star formation and environment data. The RESOLVE database includes spatially resolved optical spectroscopy from SOAR, SALT, and Gemini in both high-resolution kinematic mode and low-resolution stellar population mode, as well as deep 21cm observations from the GBT and Arecibo aimed at detecting HI down to 5%-10% of each galaxy's stellar mass. ECO has nearly ten times larger volume than RESOLVE, with matched environment and stellar mass metrics as well as shallower HI data inherited from the 21cm ALFALFA survey, but only SDSS spectroscopy. Here we use the first wave of gas, star formation, and environment data for RESOLVE and ECO to explore the halo mass dependence of refueling, finding that both gas-dominated galaxies and blue

  1. The dynamics of a space station tethered refueling facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, P.; Rudolph, L. K.; Fester, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The fluid stored in a tethered orbital refueling facility is settled at the bottom of the storage tanks by gravity-gradient forces. The fluid motions (slosh) induced by outside disturbances must be limited to ensure the tank outlet is not uncovered during a fluid transfer. The dynamics of a LO2/LH2 TORF attached to the space station have been analyzed to identify design parameters necessary to limit fluid motion. Using the worst case disturbance of a shuttle docking at the space station, the fluid motion was found to be a function of tether length and allowable facility swing angle. Acceptable fluid behavior occurs for tether lengths of at least 1000 ft. To ensure motions induced by separate disturbances do not add to unacceptable values, a slosh damping coefficient of 5 percent is recommended.

  2. Corticosterone, food intake and refueling in a long-distance migrant.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Bairlein, Franz; Stöwe, Mareike; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    Elevated baseline corticosterone levels function to mobilize energy in predictable life-history stages, such as bird migration. At the same time, baseline corticosterone has a permissive effect on the accumulation of fat stores (fueling) needed for migratory flight. Most migrants alternate flight bouts with stopovers, during which they replenish the fuel used during the preceding flight (refueling). The role of corticosterone in refueling is currently unclear. In a fasting-re-feeding experiment on northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) in autumn we found that baseline total and free corticosterone levels were negatively related with both food intake and the rate of fuel deposition after fasting. This confirms our earlier findings in wild conspecifics in spring and indicates that corticosterone does not stimulate stopover refueling. Whether the negative relationship between baseline corticosterone level and fuel deposition rate is causal is questionable, because within-individual comparison of corticosterone metabolite levels in droppings did not reveal differences between refueling and control periods. In other words, corticosterone does not appear to be down-regulated during refueling, which would be expected if it directly hampers refueling. We discuss possible correlates of corticosterone level that may explain the negative association between corticosterone and stopover refueling. Additionally, we found that fasting decreases total corticosterone level, which contrasts with previous studies. We propose that the difference is due to the other studies being conducted outside of the migration life-history stage, and provide a possible explanation for the decrease in corticosterone during fasting in migrating birds. PMID:24721337

  3. This NASA Dryden F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. F/A-18 (No

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Dryden F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. F/A-18 (No. 847) is acting as an in-flight refueling tanker in the study to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refueling system for unmanned vehicles. A 300-gallon aerodynamic pod containing air-refueling equipment is seen beneath the fuselage. The hose and refueling basket are extended during an assessment of their dynamics on the F/A-18A.

  4. Results of NASA/DARPA Automatic Probe and Drogue Refueling Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the flight test from the autonomous airborne refueling system. It includes information on the prototype system that can autonomously perform fueling, including during a turn or mild turbulence, and the autonomous rendezvous capability.

  5. Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen; Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; McQueen, S.; Brinch, J.

    2008-07-01

    DOE sponsored the Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen workshop to understand how lessons from past experiences can inform future efforts to commercialize hydrogen vehicles. This report contains the proceedings from the workshop.

  6. 40 CFR 1066.971 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning for the refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 86.153-98. ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Evaporative Emission Test Procedures Evaporative and Refueling Emission Test Procedures for Motor Vehicles § 1066.971 Vehicle and...

  7. Results of NASA/DARPA Automatic Probe and Drogue Refueling Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reports the results of the NASA/DARPA automatic probe and drogue refueling flight test. The program met several of its objectives including the design, development and successful testing of a prototype system to autonomously perform probes to drogue refueling; demonstrated acquisition and tracking capability of the video tracking system; demonstrated autonomous rendezvous capability; demonstrated ability to plug in a turn; and, demonstrated ability to plug in mild turbulence.

  8. Refueling emissions from cars in Japan: Compositions, temperature dependence and effect of vapor liquefied collection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Refueling emissions from cars available on the Japanese market, which were not equipped with specific controlling devices, were investigated. For the composition analysis, a proton transfer reaction plus switchable reagent ion mass spectrometry (PTR + SRI-MS), which is capable of real-time measurement, was used. In addition, the performance of a vapor liquefied collection system (VLCS), which is a recently developed controlling device, was evaluated and compared with an onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) system. The refueling emission factor of uncontrolled vehicles at 20 °C was 1.02 ± 0.40 g/L in the case dispensing 20 L of fuel. The results of composition analysis indicated that the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) of refueling emissions in Japan was 3.49 ± 0.83. The emissions consist of 80% alkanes and 20% alkenes, and aromatics and di-enes were negligible. C4 alkene had the highest impact on the MIR of refueling emissions. The amounts of refueling emissions were well reproduced by a function developed by MOVE2010 in the temperature range of 5-35 °C. The compositions of the refueling emissions varied in this temperature range, but the change in MIR was negligible. The trapping efficiency of VLCS was the same level as that of the ORVR (over 95%). The MIRs of refueling and evaporative emissions were strongly affected by that of the test fuel. This study and our previous study indicated that MIRbreakthrough ≈ MIRrefueling ≈ MIRfuel + 0.5 and MIRpermeation ≈ MIRfuel. The real-world estimated average MIRfuel in Japan was about 3.0.

  9. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to supplying pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supplying distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking needs to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs.

  10. A repeatedly refuelable mediated biofuel cell based on a hierarchical porous carbon electrode

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shuji; Yamanoi, Shun; Murata, Kenichi; Mita, Hiroki; Samukawa, Tsunetoshi; Nakagawa, Takaaki; Sakai, Hideki; Tokita, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel cells that generate electricity from renewable fuels, such as carbohydrates, must be reusable through repeated refuelling, should these devices be used in consumer electronics. We demonstrate the stable generation of electricity from a glucose-powered mediated biofuel cell through multiple refuelling cycles. This refuelability is achieved by immobilizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an electron-transfer mediator, and redox enzymes in high concentrations on porous carbon particles constituting an anode while maintaining their electrochemical and enzymatic activities after the immobilization. This bioanode can be refuelled continuously for more than 60 cycles at 1.5 mA cm−2 without significant potential drop. Cells assembled with these bioanodes and bilirubin-oxidase-based biocathodes can be repeatedly used to power a portable music player at 1 mW cm−3 through 10 refuelling cycles. This study suggests that the refuelability within consumer electronics should facilitate the development of long and repeated use of the mediated biofuel cells as well as of NAD-based biosensors, bioreactors, and clinical applications. PMID:24820210

  11. A repeatedly refuelable mediated biofuel cell based on a hierarchical porous carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shuji; Yamanoi, Shun; Murata, Kenichi; Mita, Hiroki; Samukawa, Tsunetoshi; Nakagawa, Takaaki; Sakai, Hideki; Tokita, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Biofuel cells that generate electricity from renewable fuels, such as carbohydrates, must be reusable through repeated refuelling, should these devices be used in consumer electronics. We demonstrate the stable generation of electricity from a glucose-powered mediated biofuel cell through multiple refuelling cycles. This refuelability is achieved by immobilizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an electron-transfer mediator, and redox enzymes in high concentrations on porous carbon particles constituting an anode while maintaining their electrochemical and enzymatic activities after the immobilization. This bioanode can be refuelled continuously for more than 60 cycles at 1.5 mA cm-2 without significant potential drop. Cells assembled with these bioanodes and bilirubin-oxidase-based biocathodes can be repeatedly used to power a portable music player at 1 mW cm-3 through 10 refuelling cycles. This study suggests that the refuelability within consumer electronics should facilitate the development of long and repeated use of the mediated biofuel cells as well as of NAD-based biosensors, bioreactors, and clinical applications.

  12. Calculated Drag of an Aerial Refueling Assembly Through Airplane Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Michael Jacob; Ray, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag of an aerial refueling assembly was calculated during the Automated Aerial Refueling project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. An F/A-18A airplane was specially instrumented to obtain accurate fuel flow measurements and to determine engine thrust. A standard Navy air refueling store with a retractable refueling hose and paradrogue was mounted to the centerline pylon of the F/A-18A airplane. As the paradrogue assembly was deployed and stowed, changes in the calculated thrust of the airplane occurred and were equated to changes in vehicle drag. These drag changes were attributable to the drag of the paradrogue assembly. The drag of the paradrogue assembly was determined to range from 200 to 450 lbf at airspeeds from 170 to 250 KIAS. Analysis of the drag data resulted in a single drag coefficient of 0.0056 for the paradrogue assembly that adequately matched the calculated drag for all flight conditions. The drag relief provided to the tanker airplane when a receiver airplane engaged the paradrogue is also documented from 35 to 270 lbf at the various flight conditions tested. The results support the development of accurate aerodynamic models to be used in refueling simulations and control laws for fully autonomous refueling.

  13. Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of the "Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology" study. This study identifies cryogenic fluid management technologies that require low-gravity flight experiments bring technology readiness levels to 5 to 6; examines many possible flight experiment options; and develops near-term low-cost flight experiment concepts to mature the core technologies. A total of 25 white papers were prepared by members of the project team in the course of this study. The full text of each white paper is included and 89 relevant references are cited. The team reviewed the white papers that provided information on new or active concepts of experiments to pursue and assessed them on the basis of technical need, cost, return on investment, and flight platform. Based on on this assessment the "Centaur Test Bed for Cryogenic Fluid Management" was rated the highest. "Computational Opportunities for Cryogenics for Cryogenic and Low-g Fluid Systems" was ranked second, based on its high scores in state of the art and return on investment, even though scores in cost and time were second to last. "Flight Development Test Objective Approach for In-space Propulsion Elements" was ranked third.

  14. Pellet refuelling of particle loss due to ELM mitigation with RMPs in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak at low collisionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valovič, M.; Lang, P. T.; Kirk, A.; Suttrop, W.; Cavedon, M.; Cseh, G.; Dunne, M.; Fischer, L. R.; Garzotti, L.; Guimarais, L.; Kocsis, G.; Mlynek, A.; Plőckl, B.; Scannell, R.; Szepesi, T.; Tardini, G.; Thornton, A.; Viezzer, E.; Wolfrum, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2016-06-01

    The complete refuelling of the plasma density loss (pump-out) caused by mitigation of edge localised modes (ELMs) is demonstrated on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The plasma is refuelled by injection of frozen deuterium pellets and ELMs are mitigated by external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In this experiment relevant dimensionless parameters, such as relative pellet size, relative RMP amplitude and pedestal collisionality are kept at the ITER like values. Refuelling of density pump out of the size of Δ n/n∼ 30% requires a factor of two increase of nominal fuelling rate. Energy confinement and pedestal temperatures are not restored to pre-RMP values by pellet refuelling.

  15. Migratory refueling affects non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity, but does not increase lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Jönsson, Johanna; Fritzsch, Anna; Wang, Hong-Lei; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    All aerobic organisms are to some degree affected by oxidative stress, which is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former. Pro-oxidants can damage DNA, proteins and lipids, and as such oxidative stress can carry considerably fitness costs. In mammals excessive calorie intake is a known cause of oxidative stress. We investigated whether in migrant birds, which typically engage in over-eating in between flights (refueling), high food intake causes oxidative stress. In an experiment we compared levels of plasmatic total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (AOX) and oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) between migrants repeatedly fasted and refed (simulating the flight-refuel cycle of wild migrants), and migrants on ad libitum food. We found that refueling increased AOX, an effect mainly attributable to an increase in uric acid level, an antioxidant that is produced during protein metabolism. Accordingly, variation in AOX was mainly explained by the refueling birds' food intake. However, food intake in migrants on ad libitum food did not explain any variation in AOX. Refueling did not affect lipid peroxidation, nor were its levels explained by food intake. We propose that over-eating migrants retain uric acid, which might be a very low cost mechanism to forego oxidative damage. PMID:26921098

  16. The NASA Dryden Flight Test Approach to an Aerial Refueling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Campos, Norma V.

    2005-01-01

    The integration of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into controlled airspace has generated a new era of autonomous technologies and challenges. Autonomous aerial refueling would enable UAVs to travel further distances and loiter for extended periods over time-critical targets. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center recently has completed a flight research project directed at developing a dynamic hose and drogue system model to support the development of an automated aerial refueling system. A systematic dynamic model of the hose and drogue system would include the effects of various influences on the system, such as flight condition, hose and drogue type, tanker type and weight, receiver type, and tanker and receiver maneuvering. Using two NASA F/A-18 aircraft and a conventional hose and drogue aerial refueling store from the Navy, NASA has obtained flight research data that document the response of the hose and drogue system to these effects. Preliminary results, salient trends, and important lessons are presented

  17. Development of a simple 5-15 litre per hour LNG refueling system

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Sarangi, S.; Hall, J.L.; Barclay, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A variable capacity, small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) refueling system has been designed, built, and tested at the Cryofuel Systems` Laboratory, University of Victoria, Canada. The system, designed to continuously liquefy between 5 and 15 litres of NG, utilizes liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) as its cold source and contains most of the components found in a typical commercial refueling system; i.e. purification system, liquefier, LNG storage, automatic control and monitoring system. This paper describes the design of the system as well as the results of a set of LNG production trials. The performance of the system exceeded expected LNG production rates, but at levels of efficiency somewhat less than predicted. Cryofuel Systems expects to use this system to implement an LNG vehicle demonstration program and to gain experience in the integration of LNG refueling systems which exploit advanced liquefaction technology such as magnetic refrigeration.

  18. The NASA Dryden AAR Project: A Flight Test Approach to an Aerial Refueling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Campos, Norma V.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into controlled airspace has generated a new era of autonomous technologies and challenges. Autonomous aerial refueling would enable UAVs to travel further distances and loiter for extended periods over time-critical targets. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center recently has completed a flight research project directed at developing a dynamic hose and drogue system model to support the development of an automated aerial refueling system. A systematic dynamic model of the hose and drogue system would include the effects of various influences on the system, such as flight condition, hose and drogue type, tanker type and weight, receiver type, and tanker and receiver maneuvering. Using two NASA F/A-18 aircraft and a conventional hose and drogue aerial refueling store from the Navy, NASA has obtained flight research data that document the response of the hose and drogue system to these effects. Preliminary results, salient trends, and important lessons are presented.

  19. Constant propellant use rendezvous scenario across a launch window for refueling missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hametz, M. E.; Whittier, R.

    1990-01-01

    Active rendezvous of an unmanned spacecraft with the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle for refueling missions is investigated. The operational constraints facing both the maneuvering spacecraft and the Shuttle during a rendezvous sequence are presented. For example, the user spacecraft must arrive in the generic Shuttle control box at a specified time after Shuttle launch. In addition, the spacecraft must be able to initiate the transfer sequence from any point in its orbit. The standard four-burn rendezvous sequence, consisting of two Hohmann transfers and an intermediate phasing orbit, is presented as a low-energy solution for rendezvous and retrieval missions. However, for refueling missions, the Shuttle must completely refuel the spacecraft and return to Earth with no excess fuel. This additional constraint is not satisfied by the standard four-burn sequence. Therefore, a variation of the four-burn rendezvous, the constant delta-V scenario, was developed to satisfy the added requirement.

  20. Nuclear Safety Risk Management in Refueling Outage of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meijing Wu; Guozhang Shen

    2006-07-01

    The NPP is used to planning maintenance, in-service inspection, surveillance test, fuel handling and design modification in the refueling outage; the operator response capability will be reduced plus some of the plant systems out of service or loss of power at this time. Based on 8 times refueling outage experiences of the Qinshan NPP, this article provide some good practice and lesson learned for the nuclear safety risk management focus at four safety function areas of Residual Heat Removal Capability, Inventory Control, Power availability and Reactivity control. (authors)

  1. [CFD numerical simulation onto the gas-liquid two-phase flow behavior during vehicle refueling process].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Jin-Hui; Zhu, Ling; Shang, Chao

    2011-12-01

    With the gradual improvement of environmental regulations, more and more attentions are attracted to the vapor emissions during the process of vehicle refueling. Research onto the vehicle refueling process by means of numerical simulation has been executed abroad since 1990s, while as it has never been involved so far domestically. Through reasonable simplification about the physical system of "Nozzle + filler pipe + gasoline storage tank + vent pipe" for vehicle refueling, and by means of volume of fluid (VOF) model for gas-liquid two-phase flow and Re-Normalization Group kappa-epsilon turbulence flow model provided in commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software Fluent, this paper determined the proper mesh discretization scheme and applied the proper boundary conditions based on the Gambit software, then established the reasonable numerical simulation model for the gas-liquid two-phase flow during the refueling process. Through discussing the influence of refueling velocity on the static pressure of vent space in gasoline tank, the back-flowing phenomenon has been revealed in this paper. It has been demonstrated that, the more the flow rate and the refueling velocity of refueling nozzle is, the higher the gross static pressure in the vent space of gasoline tank. In the meanwhile, the variation of static pressure in the vent space of gasoline tank can be categorized into three obvious stages. When the refueling flow rate becomes higher, the back-flowing phenomenon of liquid gasoline can sometimes be induced in the head section of filler pipe, thus making the gasoline nozzle pre-shut-off. Totally speaking, the theoretical work accomplished in this paper laid some solid foundation for self-researching and self-developing the technology and apparatus for the vehicle refueling and refueling emissions control domestically. PMID:22468545

  2. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) refueling during first flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A NASA SR-71 refuels with an Edwards Air Force Base KC-135 during the first flight of the NASA/Rocketdyne/ Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE). The flight took place Oct. 31 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.2 before landing at Edwards at 10:21 a.m. PST, successfully validating the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the first flight was to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71/linear aerospike experiment configuration. The engine was not fired during the flight. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It

  3. 40 CFR 86.1825-08 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... paragraph. (h) Emission component durability. . For guidance see 40 CFR 86.1845-01 (e). (i) If EPA... conducted by the manufacturer using good engineering judgement. (d) Bench aging refueling durability...) Combined whole-vehicle and bench-aging programs. Manufacturers may combine the results of whole...

  4. Sassafrass conducts an underway refueling operation with the U.S. Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sassafrass conducts an underway refueling operation with the U.S. Coast Guard patrol boat Kiska. The large fuel capacity of the 180s was sometimes used to extend the range of other U.S. Coast Guard assets - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter SASSAFRASS, Marianas Section, Victor Wharf, Agana Heights, Guam, GU

  5. 40 CFR 1066.925 - Enclosure calculations for evaporative and refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 86.143-96. Calculate emissions for refueling emissions as described in 40 CFR 86.143-96... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enclosure calculations for evaporative... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Evaporative Emission Test...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty vehicles, light-duty...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1825-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1825-01 Durability demonstration procedures for refueling emissions. This section applies to light-duty...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1821-01 - Evaporative/refueling family determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1821-01 Evaporative/refueling... light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks described in a certification application will be divided...

  15. 40 CFR 86.153-98 - Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle and canister preconditioning; refueling test. 86.153-98 Section 86.153-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and...

  16. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-08

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  17. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-01

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute, indicating a refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  18. SR-71 Mid-air Refueling with KC-135 Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's SR-71B, tail number 831, is seen here receiving air refueling from a USAF tanker during a July, 1995 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in

  19. Study on neutronic of very small Pb - Bi cooled no-onsite refueling nuclear power reactor (VSPINNOR)

    SciTech Connect

    Arianto, Fajar; Su'ud, Zaki; Zuhair

    2014-09-30

    A conceptual design study on Very Small Pb-Bi No-Onsite Refueling Cooled Nuclear Reactor (VSPINNOR) with Uranium nitride fuel using MCNPX program has been performed. In this design the reactor core is divided into three regions with different enrichment. At the center of the core is laid fuel without enrichment (internal blanket). While for the outer region using fuel enrichment variations. VSPINNOR fast reactor was operated for 10 years without refueling. Neutronic analysis shows optimized result of VSPINNOR has a core of 50 cm radius and 100 cm height with 300 MWth thermal power output at 60% fuel fraction that can be operated 18 years without refueling or fuel shuffling.

  20. A Discussion of Two Challenges of Non-cooperative Satellite Refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coll, Gregory C.; Aranyos, Thomas; Nufer, Brian M.; Kandula, Max; Tomasic, David J.

    2015-01-01

    There is interest from government and commercial aerospace communities in advancing propellant transfer technology for in-orbit refueling of satellites. This paper introduces two challenges to a Propellant Transfer System (PTS) under development for demonstration of non-cooperative satellite refueling. The PTS is being developed to transfer storable propellant (heritage hypergolic fuels and oxidizers as well as xenon) safely and reliably from one servicer satellite to a non-cooperative typical existing client satellite. NASA is in the project evaluation planning stages for conducting a first time on-orbit demonstration to an existing government asset. The system manages pressure, flow rate totalization, temperature and other parameters to control the condition of the propellant being transferred to the client. It keeps the propellant isolated while performing leak checks of itself and the client interface before transferring propellant. A major challenge is to design a safe, reliable system with some new technologies while maintaining a reasonable cost.

  1. Manned mission to Mars with periodic refueling from electrically propelled tankers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogan, Laura; Melko, Joseph; Wang, Fritz; Lourme, Daniel; Moha, Sophie Ben; Lardon, Christele; Richard, Muriel

    In a joint study by students from the Ecole Polytechnique Feminine, France, and the University of California, Los Angeles, a mission concept that had the objective of evaluating the feasibility of a non-nuclear, yet fast, manned mission to Mars was considered. Ion-engine propelled tankers are postulated that would provide mid-coarse refueling of LOX and LH2 to the manned ship. The scenario is therefore one of a 'split mission', yet with the added feature that the cargo ships include tankers for mid-course refueling. The present study is a continuation of one first conducted last year. Emphasis this year was on the design of the tanker fleet.

  2. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  3. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  4. A Discussion of Two Challenges of Non-Cooperative Satellite Refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coll, Gregory T.; Aranyos, Thomas J.; Nufer, Brian M.; Tomasic, David; Kandula, Max

    2015-01-01

    There is interest from government and commercial aerospace communities in advancing propellant transfer technology for in-orbit refueling of satellites. This paper introduces two challenges to a Propellant Transfer System (PTS) under development for demonstration of non-cooperative satellite refueling. The PTS is being developed to transfer storable propellant (heritage hypergolic fuels and oxidizers as well as xenon) safely and reliably from one servicer satellite to a non-cooperative typical existing client satellite. NASA is in the project evaluation planning stages for conducting a first time on-orbit demonstration to an existing government asset. The system manages pressure, flow rate totalization, temperature and other parameters to control the condition of the propellant being transferred to the client. It keeps the propellant isolated while performing leak checks of itself and the client interface before transferring propellant. A major challenge is to design a safe, reliable system with some new technologies while maintaining a reasonable cost.

  5. Manned mission to Mars with periodic refueling from electrically propelled tankers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogan, Laura; Melko, Joseph; Wang, Fritz; Lourme, Daniel; Moha, Sophie Ben; Lardon, Christele; Richard, Muriel

    1992-01-01

    In a joint study by students from the Ecole Polytechnique Feminine, France, and the University of California, Los Angeles, a mission concept that had the objective of evaluating the feasibility of a non-nuclear, yet fast, manned mission to Mars was considered. Ion-engine propelled tankers are postulated that would provide mid-coarse refueling of LOX and LH2 to the manned ship. The scenario is therefore one of a 'split mission', yet with the added feature that the cargo ships include tankers for mid-course refueling. The present study is a continuation of one first conducted last year. Emphasis this year was on the design of the tanker fleet.

  6. Conceptual design of a flying boom for air-to-air refueling of passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Ir. H. S.; La Rocca, ir. G., Dr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the conceptual development of a flying boom for air-to-air refuelingof passenger aircraft. This operational concept is currently evaluated within the EC project RECREATE as a possible means to achieve significant increase in overall fuel efficiency. While in military aviation aerial refueling is performed with the tankerflyingahead and above the receiver aircraft, in case of passenger aircraft, safety, cost and comfort criteria suggest to invert the set up. This unconventional configuration would require a different refueling boom, able to extend from the tanker towards the cruiser, against wind and gravity. Amultidisciplinary design optimization framework was set up to size and compare various boom design solutions free of structural divergence and sufficientlycontrollable and with minimum values of weight and drag. Oneconcept, based on an innovative kinematic mechanism, was selected for its ability to meet all design constraints, with weight and drag values comparable to conventional boom designs.

  7. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  8. Results of NASA/DARPA Automatic Probe and Drogue Refueling Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the results of the refueling flight test conducted by NASA and DARPA. In this test an F-18 jet used automatic engagement of the probe on the drogue of the F-18 to connect with the B707 Tanker aircraft. The tests demonstrated acquisition and tracking capability of the video tracking subsystem, demonstrated autonomous rendezvous capability, demonstrated the ability to plug in a turn and demonstrated the ability to plug in mild turbulence.

  9. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1998-04-01

    This report presents the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to accomplish two objectives: supply pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supply distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking energy and capacity to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs. The systems studied include a refueling station (including such components as an electrolyzer, storage, hydrogen dispensers, and compressors) plus on-site hydrogen fueled electricity generation units (e.g., fuel cells or combustion engines). The operational strategy is to use off-peak electricity in the electrolyzer to fill hydrogen storage, and to dispatch the electricity generation about one hour per day to meet the utility`s local and system peaks. The utility was assumed to be willing to pay for such service up to its avoided generation, fuel, transmission and distribution costs.

  10. Plasma lipid metabolites and refueling performance of Semi palmated Sandpipers at migratory stopovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, J.E.; Collazo, J.A.; Guglielmo, C.

    2005-01-01

    Assessing stopover habitat quality and refueling performance of individual birds is crucial to the conservation and management of migratory shorebirds. Plasma lipid metabolites indicate the trajectory of mass change in individuals and may be a more accurate measure of refueling performance at a particular site than static measures such as nutrient reserves. We measured lipid metabolites of Semipalmated Sandpipers at 4 coastal stopover sites during northward migration: Merritt Island, FL; Georgetown, SC; Pea Island, NC; and Delaware Bay, NJ. We described spatial and temporal variation in metabolic profiles among the 4 stopovers and evaluated the effects of body mass, age, and date on metabolite concentrations. Triglyceride concentration, an indicator of fat deposition, declined during the migration, whereas B-OH-Butyrate, a measure of fasting, increased. Triglyceride concentration correlated with phospholipids and inversely related to B-OH-butyrate, but was not related to body mass or age. Triglyceride levels and estimated percent fat were greater at Delaware Bay than at any stopovers to the south. Plasma metabolite profiles accurately reflected stopover refueling performance and provide an important new technique for assessing stopover habitat quality for migratory shorebirds.

  11. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  12. Pellet acceleration study with a railgun for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, J.; Kim, K.

    1984-04-01

    Design, construction, and preliminary testing of a two-stage pellet injection system capable of achieving hydrogen pellet velocities of 5--10 km/s are described. The system, which is intended for the refueling of magnetic fusion devices, combines a gas gun with a small-bore, plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun. The gas gun uses hydrogen gas as the propellant and injects a medium-velocity pellet into the railgun. Once inside the railgun, the propellant gas following the pellet is electrically broken down forming a plasma arc armature. The propulsive force of this plasma arc armature further accelerates the pellet to higher velocities.

  13. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Honig, J.

    1984-09-01

    Design, construction, testing, and performance evaluation of a small-bore plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun system are described. The railgun system, which is intended for injecting high-velocity hydrogen pellets into the magnetic fusion devices for the purpose of refueling, has two acceleration stages. One consists of a gas gun preaccelerator and the other a railgun booster accelerator. The plasma-arc armature is formed behind the pellet by electrically discharging the propellant gas following the pellet into the railgun from the gas gun.

  14. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

    1995-04-01

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  15. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Hargrove, D.; Koopman, R.; Peterman, K.

    1995-04-20

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet s home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  16. Drogue tracking using 3D flash lidar for autonomous aerial refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao-I.; Stettner, Roger

    2011-06-01

    Autonomous aerial refueling (AAR) is an important capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to increase its flying range and endurance without increasing its size. This paper presents a novel tracking method that utilizes both 2D intensity and 3D point-cloud data acquired with a 3D Flash LIDAR sensor to establish relative position and orientation between the receiver vehicle and drogue during an aerial refueling process. Unlike classic, vision-based sensors, a 3D Flash LIDAR sensor can provide 3D point-cloud data in real time without motion blur, in the day or night, and is capable of imaging through fog and clouds. The proposed method segments out the drogue through 2D analysis and estimates the center of the drogue from 3D point-cloud data for flight trajectory determination. A level-set front propagation routine is first employed to identify the target of interest and establish its silhouette information. Sufficient domain knowledge, such as the size of the drogue and the expected operable distance, is integrated into our approach to quickly eliminate unlikely target candidates. A statistical analysis along with a random sample consensus (RANSAC) is performed on the target to reduce noise and estimate the center of the drogue after all 3D points on the drogue are identified. The estimated center and drogue silhouette serve as the seed points to efficiently locate the target in the next frame.

  17. Meta-RaPS Algorithm for the Aerial Refueling Scheduling Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Arin, Arif; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2011-01-01

    The Aerial Refueling Scheduling Problem (ARSP) can be defined as determining the refueling completion times for each fighter aircraft (job) on multiple tankers (machines). ARSP assumes that jobs have different release times and due dates, The total weighted tardiness is used to evaluate schedule's quality. Therefore, ARSP can be modeled as a parallel machine scheduling with release limes and due dates to minimize the total weighted tardiness. Since ARSP is NP-hard, it will be more appropriate to develop a pproimate or heuristic algorithm to obtain solutions in reasonable computation limes. In this paper, Meta-Raps-ATC algorithm is implemented to create high quality solutions. Meta-RaPS (Meta-heuristic for Randomized Priority Search) is a recent and promising meta heuristic that is applied by introducing randomness to a construction heuristic. The Apparent Tardiness Rule (ATC), which is a good rule for scheduling problems with tardiness objective, is used to construct initial solutions which are improved by an exchanging operation. Results are presented for generated instances.

  18. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Duleep, Gopal

    2013-06-01

    Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

  19. Developing a virtual reality application for training nuclear power plant operators: setting up a database containing dose rates in the refuelling plant.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, J; Zarza, I; Burgos, M C; Felipe, A; Sánchez-Mayoral, M L

    2004-01-01

    Operators in Nuclear Power Plants can receive high doses during refuelling operations. A training programme for simulating refuelling operations will be useful in reducing the doses received by workers as well as minimising operation time. With this goal in mind, a virtual reality application is developed within the framework of the CIPRES project. The application requires doses, both instantaneous and accumulated, to be displayed at all times during operator training. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a database containing dose rates at every point in the refuelling plant. This database is based on radiological protection surveillance data measured in the plant during refuelling operations. Some interpolation routines have been used to estimate doses through the refuelling plant. Different assumptions have been adopted in order to perform the interpolation and obtain consistent data. In this paper, the procedures developed to set up the dose database for the virtual reality application are presented and analysed. PMID:15266073

  20. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene during self-service automobile refueling.

    PubMed Central

    Egeghy, P P; Tornero-Velez, R; Rappaport, S M

    2000-01-01

    Although automobile refueling represents the major source of benzene exposure among the nonsmoking public, few data are available regarding such exposures and the associated uptake of benzene. We repeatedly measured benzene exposure and uptake (via benzene in exhaled breath) among 39 self-service customers using self-administered monitoring, a technique rarely used to obtain measurements from the general public (130 sets of measurements were obtained). Benzene exposures averaged 2.9 mg/m(3) (SD = 5.8 mg/m(3); median duration = 3 min) with a range of < 0.076-36 mg/m(3), and postexposure breath levels averaged 160 microg/m(3) (SD = 260 microg/m(3)) with a range of < 3.2-1,400 microg/m(3). Log-transformed exposures and breath levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001). We used mixed-effects statistical models to gauge the relative influences of environmental and subject-specific factors on benzene exposure and breath levels and to investigate the importance of various covariates obtained by questionnaire. Model fitting yielded three significant predictors of benzene exposure, namely, fuel octane grade (p = 0.0011), duration of exposure (p = 0.0054), and season of the year (p = 0.032). Likewise, another model yielded three significant predictors of benzene concentration in breath, specifically, benzene exposure (p = 0.0001), preexposure breath concentration (p = 0.0008), and duration of exposure (p = 0.038). Variability in benzene concentrations was remarkable, with 95% of the estimated values falling within a 274-fold range, and was comprised entirely of the within-person component of variance (representing exposures of the same subject at different times of refueling). The corresponding range for benzene concentrations in breath was 41-fold and was comprised primarily of the within-person variance component (74% of the total variance). Our results indicate that environmental rather than interindividual differences are primarily responsible for

  1. The development of a UGV-mounted automated refueling system for VTOL UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Mike; Burmeister, Aaron; Nelson, Travis; Denewiler, Thomas; Mullens, Kathy

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the latest efforts to develop an Automated UAV Mission System (AUMS) for small vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In certain applications such as force protection, perimeter security, and urban surveillance a VTOL UAV can provide far greater utility than fixed-wing UAVs or ground-based sensors. The VTOL UAV can operate much closer to an object of interest and can provide a hover-and-stare capability to keep its sensors trained on an object, while the fixed wing UAV would be forced into a higher altitude loitering pattern where its sensors would be subject to intermittent blockage by obstacles and terrain. The most significant disadvantage of a VTOL UAV when compared to a fixed-wing UAV is its reduced flight endurance. AUMS addresses this disadvantage by providing forward staging, refueling, and recovery capabilities for the VTOL UAV through a host unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), which serves as a launch/recovery platform and service station. The UGV has sufficient payload capacity to carry UAV fuel for multiple launch, recovery, and refuel iterations. The UGV also provides a highly mobile means of forward deploying a small UAV into hazardous areas unsafe for personnel, such as chemically or biologically contaminated areas. Teaming small UAVs with large UGVs can decrease risk to personnel and expand mission capabilities and effectiveness. There are numerous technical challenges being addressed by these development efforts. Among the challenges is the development and integration of a precision landing system compact and light enough to allow it to be mounted on a small VTOL UAV while providing repeatable landing accuracy to safely land on the AUMS. Another challenge is the design of a UGV-transportable, expandable, self-centering landing pad that contains hardware and safety devices for automatically refueling the UAV. A third challenge is making the design flexible enough to accommodate different types of VTOL UAVs

  2. 14 CFR 121.635 - Dispatch to and from refueling or provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.635 Section 121.635 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... airports: Domestic and flag operations. No person may dispatch an airplane to or from a refueling...

  3. 14 CFR 121.635 - Dispatch to and from refueling or provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.635 Section 121.635 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... airports: Domestic and flag operations. No person may dispatch an airplane to or from a refueling...

  4. 14 CFR 121.635 - Dispatch to and from refueling or provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.635 Section 121.635 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... airports: Domestic and flag operations. No person may dispatch an airplane to or from a refueling...

  5. 14 CFR 121.635 - Dispatch to and from refueling or provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.635 Section 121.635 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... airports: Domestic and flag operations. No person may dispatch an airplane to or from a refueling...

  6. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. 14 CFR 121.635 - Dispatch to and from refueling or provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provisional airports: Domestic and flag operations. 121.635 Section 121.635 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL... airports: Domestic and flag operations. No person may dispatch an airplane to or from a refueling...

  8. 33 CFR 334.293 - Elizabeth River, Craney Island Refueling Pier Restricted Area, Portsmouth VA; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elizabeth River, Craney Island Refueling Pier Restricted Area, Portsmouth VA; naval restricted area. 334.293 Section 334.293 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS §...

  9. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edward F. Kiczek

    2007-08-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has teamed with Plug Power, Inc. of Latham, NY, and the City of Las Vegas, NV, to develop, design, procure, install and operate an on-site hydrogen generation system, an alternative vehicle refueling system, and a stationary hydrogen fuel cell power plant, located in Las Vegas. The facility will become the benchmark for validating new natural gas-based hydrogen systems, PEM fuel cell power generation systems, and numerous new technologies for the safe and reliable delivery of hydrogen as a fuel to vehicles. Most important, this facility will serve as a demonstration of hydrogen as a safe and clean energy alternative. Las Vegas provides an excellent real-world performance and durability testing environment.

  10. Modeling & analysis of criticality-induced severe accidents during refueling for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Georgevich, V.; Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Jackson, S.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for evaluating the potential and resulting consequences of a hypothetical criticality accident during refueling of the 330-MW Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor. The development of an analytical capability is described. Modeling and problem formulation were conducted using concepts of reactor neutronic theory for determining power level escalation, coupled with ORIGEN and MELCOR code simulations for radionuclide buildup and containment transport Gaussian plume transport modeling was done for determining off-site radiological consequences. Nuances associated with modeling this blast-type scenario are described. Analysis results for ANS containment response under a variety of postulated scenarios and containment failure modes are presented. It is demonstrated that individuals at the reactor site boundary will not receive doses beyond regulatory limits for any of the containment configurations studied.

  11. Rethinking cardiac metabolism: metabolic cycles to refuel and rebuild the failing heart

    PubMed Central

    Lubrano, Genna

    2014-01-01

    The heart is a self-renewing biological pump that converts chemical energy into mechanical energy. The entire process of energy conversion is subject to complex regulation at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. Within this system, energy transfer occurs with high efficiency, facilitated by a series of compound-conserved cycles. At the same time, the constituent myocardial proteins themselves are continuously made and degraded in order to adjust to changes in energy demand and changes in the extracellular environment. We recently have identified signals arising from intermediary metabolism that regulate the cycle of myocardial protein turnover. Using a new conceptual framework, we discuss the principle of metabolic cycles and their importance for refueling and for rebuilding the failing heart. PMID:25374668

  12. Airdata sensor based position estimation and fault diagnosis in aerial refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevil, Hakki Erhan

    Aerial refueling is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight. In aerial refueling operations, the receiver aircraft is exposed to nonuniform wind field induced by tanker aircraft, and this nonuniform wind field leads to differences in readings of airdata sensors placed at different locations on the receiver aircraft. There are advantages and disadvantages of this phenomenon. As an advantage, it is used as a mechanism to estimate relative position of the receiver aircraft inside the nonuniform wind field behind the tanker. Using the difference in the measurements from multiple identical sensors, a model of the nonuniform wind field that is organized as maps of the airspeed, side slip angle and angle of attack as functions of the relative position is prepared. Then, using the developed algorithms, preformed maps and instant sensor readings, the relative position receiver aircraft is determined. The disadvantage of the phenomenon is that the differences in readings of airdata sensors cause false fault detections in a redundant-sensor-based Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system developed based on the assumption of identical sensor readings from three airdata sensors. Such FDI algorithm successfully performs detection and isolation of sensor faults when the receiver aircraft flies solo or outside the wake of the tanker aircraft. However, the FDI algorithm yields false fault detection when the receiver aircraft enters the tanker's wake. This problem can be eliminated by modifying the FDI algorithm. For the robustness, the expected values of the sensor measurements are incorporated in the FDI algorithm, instead of the assumption of identical measurements from the sensors. The expected values, which depend on the position of the receiver relative to the tanker, are obtained from the maps of the nonuniform wind field as functions of the relative position. The new robust FDI detects and isolates sensor

  13. Regeneration of zinc anodes for the Electric Fuel{reg_sign} zinc-air refuelable EV battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Koretz, B.; Goldstein, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Electric Fuel Limited (EFL) refuelable zinc-air battery system is currently being tested in a number of electric vehicle demonstration projects, the largest of which is a field test of zinc-air postal vans sponsored chiefly by Deutsche Post AG (the German Post Office). The zinc-air battery is not recharged electrically, but rather is refueled through a series of mechanical and electrochemical steps that will require a special infrastructure in commercial application. As part of the German Post Office field test program, Electric Fuel designed and constructed a pilot zinc anode regeneration plant in Bremen, Germany. This plant is capable of servicing up to 100 commercial vans per week, which is adequate for the field test vehicle fleet. This paper will describe the design and operation of each of the areas and devices within the plant.

  14. Drogue detection for vision-based autonomous aerial refueling via low rank and sparse decomposition with multiple features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shibo; Cheng, Yongmei; Song, Chunhua

    2013-09-01

    The technology of vision-based probe-and-drogue autonomous aerial refueling is an amazing task in modern aviation for both manned and unmanned aircraft. A key issue is to determine the relative orientation and position of the drogue and the probe accurately for relative navigation system during the approach phase, which requires locating the drogue precisely. Drogue detection is a challenging task due to disorderly motion of drogue caused by both the tanker wake vortex and atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, the problem of drogue detection is considered as a problem of moving object detection. A drogue detection algorithm based on low rank and sparse decomposition with local multiple features is proposed. The global and local information of drogue is introduced into the detection model in a unified way. The experimental results on real autonomous aerial refueling videos show that the proposed drogue detection algorithm is effective.

  15. Refueling and density control in the ZT-40M reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G.A.; Weber, P.G.; Watt, R.G.; Munson, C.P.; Cayton, T.E.; Buechl, K.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of pellet injection and gas puff refueling have been studied in the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch. Multiple deuterium pellets (less than or equal to 6 x 10/sup 19/D atoms/pellet) with velocities ranging from 300 to 700 m/sec have been injected into plasmas with n-bar/sub e/ approx.1 to 5 X 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/, I/sub phi/ approx.100 to 250 kA, T/sub e/(0) approx.150 to 300 eV and discharge durations of less than or equal to 20 msec. Photographs and an array D/sub ..cap alpha../ detectors show substantial deflection of the pellet trajectory in both the poloidal and toroidal planes, due to asymmetric ablation of the pellet by electrons streaming along field lines. To compensate for the poloidal deflection, the injector was moved up +14 cm off-axis, allowing the pellets to curve down to the midplane. In this fashion, central peaking of the pellet density deposition profile can be obtained. Both electron and ion temperatures fall in response to the density rise, such that ..beta../sub theta/(..beta../sub theta/ identical to n-bar/sub e/(T/sub e/(0) + T/sub i/)/(B/sub theta/(a))/sup 2/) remains roughly constant. Energy confinement is momentarily degraded, and typically a decrease in F (F identical to B/sub phi/(a)/(B/sub phi/)) is seen as magnetic energy is converted to plasma energy when the pellet ablates. As a result of pellet injection at I/sub phi/ = 150 kA we observe T/sub e/(0) ..cap alpha.. n-bar/sub e//sup -.9 +- .1/, while the helicity based resistivity eta/sub k/ transiently varies as n-bar/sub e//sup .7 +- .1/. While the achievement of center-peaked density profiles is possible with pellet injection, gas puffing at rates strong enough to show a 50% increase in n-bar/sub e/ over a period of 10 msec (approx.150 torr-litres/sec) leads to hollow density profiles. The refueling requirements for parameters expected in the next generation RFPs (ZTH, RFX) can be extrapolated from these data using modified tokamak pellet ablation codes.

  16. The Refuelable Zinc-air Battery: Alternative Techniques for Zinc and Electrolyte Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J F; Krueger, R

    2006-01-19

    An investigation was conducted into alternative techniques for zinc and electrolyte regeneration and reuse in the refuelable zinc/air battery that was developed by LLNL and previously tested on a moving electric bus using cut wire. Mossy zinc was electrodeposited onto a bipolar array of inclined Ni plates with an energy consumption of 1.8 kWh/kg. Using a H{sub 2}-depolarized anode, zinc was deposited at 0.6 V (0.8 kA/m{sup 2}); the open circuit voltage was 0.45 V. Three types of fuel pellets were tested and compared with results for 0.75 mm cut wire: spheres produced in a spouted bed (UCB); coarse powder produced by gas-atomization (Noranda); and irregular pellets produced by chopping 1-mm plates of compacted zinc fines (Eagle-Picher, Inc.). All three types transported within the cell. The coarse powder fed continuously from hopper to cell, as did the compacted pellets (< 0.83 mm). Large particles (> 0.83 mm; Eagle-Picher and UCB) failed to feed from hopper into cell, being held up in the 2.5 mm wide channel connecting hopper to cell. Increasing channel width to {approx}3.5 mm should allow all three types to be used. Energy losses were determined for shorting of cells during refueling. The shorting currents between adjacent hoppers through zinc particle bridges were determined using both coarse powder and chopped compressed zinc plates. A physical model was developed allowing scaling our results for electrode polarization and bed resistance Shorting was found to consume < 0.02% of the capacity of the cell and to dissipate {approx}0.2 W/cell of heat. Corrosion rates were determined for cut wire in contact with current collector materials and battery-produced ZnO-saturated electrolyte. The rates were 1.7% of cell capacity per month at ambient temperatures; and 0.08% of capacity for 12 hours at 57 C. The total energy conversion efficiency for zinc recovery using the hydrogen was estimated at 34% (natural gas to battery terminals)--comparable to fuel cells. Producing

  17. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling: Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyekyoon

    1987-12-01

    This paper discusses the use of a railgun accelerator to inject hydrogen pellets into a magnetic fusion reactor for refueling purposes. Specific studies in this paper include: 1.5 mm-diameter two-stage fuseless plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun, construction and testing of a 3.2 mm-diameter two-stage railgun and a theoretical analysis of the behavior of a railgun plasma-arc armature inside a railgun. (LSP)

  18. An analysis of ullage heat transfer in the orbital refueling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Orbital Refueling System was an experiment flown on Shuttle Mission STS 41-G in October, 1984. Liquid hydrazine fuel was transferred back and forth from one spherical bladder tank to another using pressurized nitrogen as the driving force. Compressive heating of the ullage gas in the receiving tank could lead to a hazardous situation if any hydrazine leaked through to the ullage side of the bladder and was heated above about 175 F, where it can undergo spontaneous exothermic decomposition. Early analysis of the flight data indicated that the ullage compression process was much closer to an isothermal than an adiabatic one. In this study, a thorough review of the pertinent literature was used to make an a priori best-estimate for the ullage gas heat transfer coefficient (defining the Nusselt Number as a function of Reynolds and Rayleigh Numbers). Experimental data from the flight were analyzed in detail. It is evident that there is considerably more heat transfer than can be accounted for by conduction alone, but the observed increases do not correlate well with Reynolds Number, Rayleigh Number or vehicle acceleration. There are large gaps in the present understanding of convective heat transfer in closed containers with internal heat generation, especially in the presence of vibrations or other random disturbances. A program of experiments to fill in these gaps is suggested, covering both ground and orbital environments.

  19. Risk associated with the use of barriers in hydrogen refueling stations.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Phillips, Jesse; Houf, William G.

    2010-03-01

    Separation distances are used in hydrogen refueling stations to protect people, structures, and equipment from the consequences of accidental hydrogen releases. Specifically, hydrogen jet flames resulting from ignition of unintended releases can be extensive in length and pose significant radiation and impingement hazards. Depending on the leak diameter and source pressure, the resulting separation distances can be unacceptably large. One possible mitigation strategy to reduce exposure to hydrogen flames is to incorporate barriers around hydrogen storage, process piping, and delivery equipment. The effectiveness of barrier walls to reduce hazards at hydrogen facilities has been previously evaluated using experimental and modeling information developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The effect of barriers on the risk from different types of hazards including direct flame contact, radiation heat fluxes, and overpressures associated with delayed hydrogen ignition has subsequently been evaluated and used to identify potential reductions in separation distances in hydrogen facilities. Both the frequency and consequences used in this risk assessment and the risk results are described. The results of the barrier risk analysis can also be used to help establish risk-informed barrier design requirements for use in hydrogen codes and standards.

  20. An analysis of ullage heat transfer in the orbital refueling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, D.

    1986-07-01

    The Orbital Refueling System was an experiment flown on Shuttle Mission STS 41-G in October, 1984. Liquid hydrazine fuel was transferred back and forth from one spherical bladder tank to another using pressurized nitrogen as the driving force. Compressive heating of the ullage gas in the receiving tank could lead to a hazardous situation if any hydrazine leaked through to the ullage side of the bladder and was heated above about 175 F, where it can undergo spontaneous exothermic decomposition. Early analysis of the flight data indicated that the ullage compression process was much closer to an isothermal than an adiabatic one. In this study, a thorough review of the pertinent literature was used to make an a priori best-estimate for the ullage gas heat transfer coefficient (defining the Nusselt Number as a function of Reynolds and Rayleigh Numbers). Experimental data from the flight were analyzed in detail. It is evident that there is considerably more heat transfer than can be accounted for by conduction alone, but the observed increases do not correlate well with Reynolds Number, Rayleigh Number or vehicle acceleration. There are large gaps in the present understanding of convective heat transfer in closed containers with internal heat generation, especially in the presence of vibrations or other random disturbances. A program of experiments to fill in these gaps is suggested, covering both ground and orbital environments.

  1. Vehicular volatile organic compounds losses due to refueling and diurnal process in China: 2010-2050.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Huan; Cui, Hongyang; Man, Hanyang; Fu, Mingliang; Hao, Jiming; He, Kebin

    2015-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are crucial to control air pollution in major Chinese cities since VOCs are the dominant factor influencing ambient ozone level, and also an important precursor of secondary organic aerosols. Vehicular evaporative emissions have become a major and growing source of VOC emissions in China. This study consists of lab tests, technology evaluation, emissions modeling, policy projections and cost-benefit analysis to draw a roadmap for China for controlling vehicular evaporative emissions. The analysis suggests that evaporative VOC emissions from China's light-duty gasoline vehicles were approximately 185,000 ton in 2010 and would peak at 1,200,000 ton in 2040 without control. The current control strategy implemented in China, as shown in business as usual (BAU) scenario, will barely reduce the long-term growth in emissions. Even if Stage II gasoline station vapor control policies were extended national wide (BAU+extended Stage II), there would still be over 400,000 ton fuel loss in 2050. In contrast, the implementation of on-board refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) on new cars could reduce 97.5% of evaporative VOCs by 2050 (BAU+ORVR/BAU+delayed ORVR). According to the results, a combined Stage II and ORVR program is a comprehensive solution that provides both short-term and long-term benefits. The net cost to achieve the optimal total evaporative VOC control is approximately 62 billion CNY in 2025 and 149 billion CNY in 2050. PMID:26141881

  2. Acceleration of solid hydrogen pellet using augmented railgun for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Kim, K.; King, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    A 1.2-m long electromagnetic railgun with separate augmentation was designed, fabricated, and tested for the purpose of injecting hypervelocity hydrogen pellets into magnetic fusion devices for refueling. A compact configuration of two pairs of coaxial rails insulated by thin Kapton film was employed. Two pulse-forming networks were used to separately control the duration, amplitude, and overlap of the current pulses. Copper sulfate resistors were employed as impedance-matching resistors and bank short resistors. The magnetic field inside the gun bore was boosted by the high current on the augmentation rails, which in turn increased the J x B force without increasing the armature current, resulting in less ablation of the gun bore and pellet. Higher acceleration was achieved due to reduced inertial and viscous frag. Using a 1.2-m augmented railgun, hydrogen pellet velocities in excess of 2.5 km/s were achieved. Hydrogen pellet accelerations as high as 4.4 {times} 10{sup 6} m/s{sup 2} were achieved at a railgun current of 13.5 kA while the acceleration obtained on a conventional railgun was 2.2 {times} 10{sup 6} m/s{sup 2} at 14.1 kA. Computer simulations have been performed using the finite element code MSC/EMAS to analyze the current density, magnetic field, Lorentz force, and inductance gradient of the conventional and augmented railguns.

  3. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  4. Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  5. Electric vehicles - an alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventionally fuelled vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well. This report discusses electric powered vehicles as an alternative fuels vehicle.

  6. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  7. Automated refueling simulations of a CANDU for the exploitation of thorium fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Bradford

    CANDU nuclear reactors are in a unique circumstance where they are able to utilize and exploit a number of different fuel options to provide power as a utility. Thorium, a fertile isotope found naturally, is one option that should be explored. Thorium is more abundant than uranium, which is the typical fuel in the reactor and the availability of thorium makes nuclear energy desirable to more countries. This document contains the culmination of a project that explores, tests, and analyzes the feasibility of using thorium in a CANDU reactor. The project first develops a set of twodimensional lattice and three dimensional control rod simulations using the DRAGON Version 4 nuclear physics codes. This step is repeated for many concentrations of thorium. The data generated in these steps is then used to determine a functional enrichment of thorium. This is done via a procedural elimination and optimization of certain key parameters including but not limited to average exit burnup and reactivity evolution. For the purposes of this project, an enrichment of 1 % thorium was found viable. Full core calculations were done using the DONJON 4 code. CANFUEL, a program which simulates the refueling operations of a CANDU reactor for this fuel type was developed and ran for a simulation period of one hundred days. The program and the fuel selection met all selected requirements for the entirety of the simulation period. CANFUEL requires optimization for fuel selection before it can be used extensively. The fuel selection was further scrutinized when a reactivity insertion event was simulated. The adjuster rod 11 withdrawal from the core was analyzed and compared to classical CANDU results in order to ensure no significant deviations or unwanted evolutions were encountered. For this case, the simulation results were deemed acceptable with no significant deviations from the classical CANDU case.

  8. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  9. Building an alternative fuel refueling network: How many stations are needed and where should they be placed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Michael Anselm

    Gasoline stations are so numerous that the fear of running out of fuel is likely not a top concern among drivers. This may not be the case with the introduction of a new alternative fuel such as hydrogen or electricity. The next three chapters, originally written as peer reviewed journal papers[1,2,3], examine the characteristics of refueling in today's gasoline network and compares these characteristics to hypothetical new alternative fuel networks. Together, they suggest that alternative fuel networks with many fewer stations than exist in the gasoline network could be acceptable to future consumers. This acceptability is measured in three ways. The first chapter examines the distance from home to the nearest station and finds that if alternative fuel stations were one-third as numerous as gasoline stations, the travel time to the nearest station was virtually identical to that of gasoline stations. The results suggest that even for station networks numbering only one-twentieth the current number of outlets, the difference in travel time with respect to gasoline is relatively small. Acceptability was examined in the second chapter by analyzing the spatial refueling patterns of gasoline. This reveals that the volume of fuel sold is greater around the highways and that the route from home to the nearest highway entrance may account for a large portion of refueling. This suggests that the first alternative fuel stations could be sited along the highway near entrances and could provide acceptable access to fuel for those who use these highway entrances to access the wider region. Subsequent stations could be sited closer to the homes of customers. The third chapter estimates acceptability, measured in terms of initial vehicle purchase price, of refueling away from one's own town. A pilot survey using a map-based questionnaire was distributed to 20 respondents. Respondents chose ten stations locations to enable their most important destinations. The alternative fuel

  10. Core and Refueling Design Studies for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Ilas, Dan; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Cisneros, Anselmo T; Kelly, Ryan P; Gehin, Jess C

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central generating station type [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. This report presents the current status of ongoing design studies of the core, in-vessel structures, and refueling options for the AHTR. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity as important material, structural, neutronic, and hydraulic issues remain to be addressed. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated. An illustration of the current AHTR core, reactor vessel, and nearby structures is shown in Fig. ES1. The AHTR core design concept is based upon 252 hexagonal, plate fuel assemblies configured to form a roughly cylindrical core. The core has a fueled height of 5.5 m with 25 cm of reflector above and below the core. The fuel assembly hexagons are {approx}45 cm across the flats. Each fuel assembly contains 18 plates that are 23.9 cm wide and 2.55 cm thick. The reactor vessel has an exterior diameter of 10.48 m and a height of 17.7 m. A row of replaceable graphite reflector prismatic blocks surrounds the core radially. A more complete reactor configuration description is provided in Section 2 of this report. The AHTR core design space exploration was performed under a set of constraints. Only low enrichment (<20%) uranium fuel was considered. The coated particle fuel and matrix materials were derived from those being developed and demonstrated under the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) advanced gas reactor program. The coated particle volumetric packing fraction was restricted to at most 40%. The pressure

  11. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration--A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously. PMID:25970254

  12. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously. PMID:25970254

  13. New concept of small power reactor without on-site refueling for non-proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W., LLNL

    1998-07-13

    more pre-conceptual designs. The pre-conceptual designs will be used to confirm the adequacy of the requirements through iteration and trade studies. A down selection to a preferred and backup concept would be made following a 12-18 month design effort. The selected designs, system design specifications, and the necessary R&D programs would be developed in greater detail over the next three and one-half years. A reactor in the 50 to 150 MWe class, nominally 100 MWe, shows the best potential for meeting these challenges. The system will have unique characteristics to achieve proliferation resistance, and will maximize the reliance on passive safety features to reduce the risk of serious accidents and their consequences, simplify operations and maintenance, and reduce the need for the developing country to establish a sophisticated and expensive nuclear infrastructure. In particular, to eliminate all on- site refueling, the reactor will be equipped with a long-life core that will be returned to the supplier when spent. This process will be managed under international control to further both overall non- proliferation objectives and to reduce the infrastructure burden on the developing country. It will also reduce the anticipated burden and expense to the International Atomic Energy Agency for assuring security associated with expanded international use of nuclear energy. An integral part of the program will be the development of new approaches for implementing international safeguards applicable to the entire fuel cycle including recycling and waste disposal. The report discusses the preliminary requirements and the rationale for selecting them. It then discusses the four nuclear system technologies and how they might proceed to meet the requirements. Brief discussions are provided on the approaches to stimulating the appropriate international and industrial participation necessary to finance development of a design with improved proliferation resistance that is useful

  14. SR-71A - in Flight View from Tanker during an Airborne Refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows a USAF tanker aircraft Boom Operator's or 'Boomer's' view of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's SR-71A, tail number 844, following air refueling during a 1997 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward

  15. Simulated annealing and metaheuristic for randomized priority search algorithms for the aerial refuelling parallel machine scheduling problem with due date-to-deadline windows and release times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Sezgin; Rabadi, Ghaith

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the aerial refuelling scheduling problem (ARSP), where a set of fighter jets (jobs) with certain ready times must be refuelled from tankers (machines) by their due dates; otherwise, they reach a low fuel level (deadline) incurring a high cost. ARSP is an identical parallel machine scheduling problem with release times and due date-to-deadline windows to minimize the total weighted tardiness. A simulated annealing (SA) and metaheuristic for randomized priority search (Meta-RaPS) with the newly introduced composite dispatching rule, apparent piecewise tardiness cost with ready times (APTCR), are applied to the problem. Computational experiments compared the algorithms' solutions to optimal solutions for small problems and to each other for larger problems. To obtain optimal solutions, a mixed integer program with a piecewise weighted tardiness objective function was solved for up to 12 jobs. The results show that Meta-RaPS performs better in terms of average relative error but SA is more efficient.

  16. A flight study of the use of direct-lift-control flaps to improve station keeping during in-flight refueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneill, W. E.; Gerdes, R. M.; Innis, R. C.; Ratcliff, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of fast-acting flaps as direct-lift-control (DLC) devices on a fighter airplane, the aileron servo systems of an F-100C variable-stability airplane were modified to provide symmetrical actuation of the surfaces. Initial flight tests using DLC indicated that the task of formation flying and, hence, in-flight refueling could be eased by actuating the DLC flaps through the conventional control stick, with the degree of improvement depending on the basic stability of the receiver aircraft. Results of refueling approaches and connections with U.S. Air Force tankers indicated a moderate overall improvement in vertical station-keeping performance (approximately 19 percent) and a sizeable overall decrease in receiver airplane motions and control activity (approximately 40 percent) with DLC.

  17. Assessment of occupational exposure to BTEX compounds at a bus diesel-refueling bay: A case study in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-12-15

    Of increasing concern is pollution by volatile organic compounds, with particular reference to five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and two isomeric xylenes; BTEX). These pollutants are classified as hazardous air pollutants. Due to the potential health risks associated with these pollutants, BTEX concentrations were monitored at a bus diesel-refueling bay, in Johannesburg, South Africa, using gas chromatography, coupled with a photo-ionization detector. Results indicate that o-xylene (29-50%) and benzene (13-33%) were found to be the most abundant species of total BTEX at the site. Benzene was within South African occupational limits, but above international occupational exposure limits. On the other hand, occupational concentrations of toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes were within national and international occupational limits throughout the monitoring period, based on 8-hour workday weighted averages. Ethyl-benzene and p-xylene concentrations, during winter, correspond to activity at the site, and thus idling of buses during refueling may elevate results. Overall, occupational air quality at the refueling bay is a matter of health concern, especially with regards to benzene exposure, and future reduction strategies are crucial. Discrepancies between national and international limit values merit further investigation to determine whether South African guidelines for benzene are sufficiently precautionary. PMID:26282739

  18. Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M; Piersma, Theunis; Niles, Lawrence J; do Nascimento, Inês de Lima Serrano; Atkinson, Philip W; Clark, Nigel A; Minton, Clive D T; Peck, Mark K; Aarts, Geert

    2004-04-22

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, which undertakes marathon 30,000 km hemispheric migrations annually. In spring, migrant birds forage voraciously on horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay in the eastern USA before departing to breed in Arctic polar deserts. From 1997 to 2002 an increasing proportion of knots failed to reach threshold departure masses of 180-200 g, possibly because of later arrival in the Bay and food shortage from concurrent over-harvesting of crabs. Reduced nutrient storage, especially in late-arriving birds, possibly combined with reduced sizes of intestine and liver during refuelling, had severe fitness consequences for adult survival and recruitment of young in 2000-2002. From 1997 to 2002 known survivors in Delaware Bay were heavier at initial capture than birds never seen again, annual survival of adults decreased by 37% between May 2000 and May 2001, and the number of second-year birds in wintering flocks declined by 47%. Population size in Tierra del Fuego declined alarmingly from 51,000 to 27,000 in 2000-2002, seriously threatening the viability of this subspecies. Demographic modelling predicts imminent endangerment and an increased risk of extinction of the subspecies without urgent risk-averse management. PMID:15255108

  19. VOC emission source strengths of tankers during refuelling activities determined by spectroscopic remote sensing and inverse dispersion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus; Hoffmann, Herbert; Dormuth, Igor; Jahn, Carsten; Emeis, Stefan M.

    2002-02-01

    Tankers are a wide spread and important emission source of VOC's. Up to now emission data are available from measurements inside the storage tanks to investigate explosion protection only. Different emission reduction systems are under discussion such as vapor recovery units. The environmental impact of these alternatives shall be investigated. The VOC emissions of tankers were investigated in a river harbor. Fence-line monitoring by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) was performed to investigate different emission sources during activities of tankers in harbors. Benzene, toluene and p-xylene concentrations were measured by a mono-static DOAS using 3 retro-reflectors. The inverse method was applied on the basis of these non-intrusive measurements of effluent concentrations in the exhaust plume and meteorological measurements to determine the emission source strengths. Inversion of effluent's dispersion was performed by a Lagrangian model driven by wind fields of the Eulerian model MISKAM considering influences from buildings and the orography upon the streaming fields. The emission source strengths were determined from unloading and loading of gasoline, from ventilation of storage tanks of tankers into ambient air which is of common practice if the tankers are operated without load or if the tankers are to be refueled with a different product than before and from using the land-site gasoline vapor recovery unit in a tank farm for ventilation.

  20. Understanding electrostatic charge behaviour in aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvy, Jill A.; Hooker, Phil; Bennett, Darrell

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents work on the simulation of electrostatic charge build-up and decay in aircraft fuel systems. A model (EC-Flow) has been developed by BAE Systems under contract to Airbus, to allow the user to assess the effects of changes in design or in refuel conditions. Some of the principles behind the model are outlined. The model allows for a range of system components, including metallic and non-metallic pipes, valves, filters, junctions, bends and orifices. A purpose-built experimental rig was built at the Health and Safety Laboratory in Buxton, UK, to provide comparison data. The rig comprises a fuel delivery system, a test section where different components may be introduced into the system, and a Faraday Pail for measuring generated charge. Diagnostics include wall currents, charge densities and pressure losses. This paper shows sample results from the fitting of model predictions to measurement data and shows how analysis may be used to explain some of the observed trends.

  1. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  2. Multistep Charge Method by Charge Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segami, Go; Kusawake, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Iwasa, Minoru; Kibe, Koichi

    2008-09-01

    We studied reduction of the size and weight of the Power Control Unit (PCU). In this study, we specifically examined the weight of the Battery Charge Regulator (BCR), which accounts for half of the PCU weight for a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite. We found a multistep charge method by charge arrays and adopted a similar method for GEO satellites, thereby enabling the BCR reduction. We found the possibility of reducing the size and weight of PCU through more detailed design than that for a conventional PCU.BCRC1R1batterySAPower Control UnitBCRC1R1batterySAPower UnitHowever, this method decreases the state of charge (SOC) of the battery. Battery tests, a battery simulator test, and numerical analysis were used to evaluate the SOC decrease. We also studied effects of this method on the battery lifetime. The multistep charge method by charge arrays enabled charging to the same level of SOC as the conventional constant current/ constant voltage (CC/CV) charge method for a LEO satellite.

  3. Charge regulation circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  4. Charge exchange system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  5. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  6. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  7. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  8. Charging of interplanetary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baragiola, R. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Newcomb, John L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program is to quantify, by laboratory experiments, the charging of ices and other insulators subject to irradiation with electrons, ions and ultraviolet photons and to model special conditions based on the data. The system and conditions to be studied are those relevant for charging of dust in magnetospheric plasmas. The measurements are supplemented by computer simulations of charging or grains under a variety of conditions. Our work for this period involved experiments on water ice, improved models of charging of ice grains for Saturn's E-ring, and the construction of apparatus for electron impact studies and measurements of electron energy distributions.

  9. Nuclear Charge Radii Systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, Krassimira

    2015-09-15

    This paper is a brief overview of the existing systematics on nuclear mean square charge radii, obtained by a combined analysis of data from different types of experiment. The various techniques yielding data on nuclear charge radii are summarized. Their specific feature complexities and the accuracy and precision of the obtained information are also discussed.

  10. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  11. Charged topological entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shunji; Wen, Xueda; Hung, Ling-Yan; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-05-01

    A charged entanglement entropy is a new measure which probes quantum entanglement between different charge sectors. We study symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases in (2+1)-dimensional space-time by using this charged entanglement entropy. SPT phases are short-range entangled states without topological order and hence cannot be detected by the topological entanglement entropy. We demonstrate that the universal part of the charged entanglement entropy is nonzero for nontrivial SPT phases and therefore it is a useful measure to detect short-range entangled topological phases. We also discuss that the classification of SPT phases based on the charged topological entanglement entropy is related to that of the braiding statistics of quasiparticles.

  12. Charging black Saturn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chng, Brenda; Mann, Robert; Radu, Eugen; Stelea, Cristian

    2008-12-01

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordström solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we found contain either a conical or naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  13. Folding without charges

    PubMed Central

    Kurnik, Martin; Hedberg, Linda; Danielsson, Jens; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Surface charges of proteins have in several cases been found to function as “structural gatekeepers,” which avoid unwanted interactions by negative design, for example, in the control of protein aggregation and binding. The question is then if side-chain charges, due to their desolvation penalties, play a corresponding role in protein folding by avoiding competing, misfolded traps? To find out, we removed all 32 side-chain charges from the 101-residue protein S6 from Thermus thermophilus. The results show that the charge-depleted S6 variant not only retains its native structure and cooperative folding transition, but folds also faster than the wild-type protein. In addition, charge removal unleashes pronounced aggregation on longer timescales. S6 provides thus an example where the bias toward native contacts of a naturally evolved protein sequence is independent of charges, and point at a fundamental difference in the codes for folding and intermolecular interaction: specificity in folding is governed primarily by hydrophobic packing and hydrogen bonding, whereas solubility and binding relies critically on the interplay of side-chain charges. PMID:22454493

  14. Bound charges and currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczyński, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Bound charges and currents are among the conceptually challenging topics in advanced courses on electricity and magnetism. It may be tempting for students to believe that they are merely computational tools for calculating electric and magnetic fields in matter, particularly because they are usually introduced through abstract manipulation of integral identities, with the physical interpretation provided a posteriori. Yet these charges and currents are no less real than free charges and currents and can be measured experimentally. A simpler and more direct approach to introducing this topic, suggested by the ideas in the classic book by Purcell and emphasizing the physical origin of these phenomena, is proposed.

  15. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  16. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure, This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  17. Space charge in proton linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T. P.; Merrill, F.; Rybarcyk, L.; Ryne, R.

    1998-11-05

    Space charge effects on beam dynamics in linear accelerators are discussed. Practical linac beam dynamics calculation methods which include space charge effects are discussed. Also, the status of beam performance experiments including space charge studies are summarized.

  18. Electrically charged targets

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  19. Modeling of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of modeling of spacecraft charging are discussed: statistical models, parametric models, and physical models. Local time dependence of circuit upset for DoD and communication satellites, and electron current to a sphere with an assumed Debye potential distribution are presented. Four regions were involved in spacecraft charging: (1) undisturbed plasma, (2) plasma sheath region, (3) spacecraft surface, and (4) spacecraft equivalent circuit.

  20. Development and demonstration of techniques for reducing occupational radiation doses during refueling outages. Tasks 7A/7B. Advanced outage management and radiation exposure control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Objectives of Tasks 7A and 7B were to develop and demonstrate computer based systems to assist plant management and staff in utilizing information more effectively to reduce occupational exposures received as a result of refueling outages, and to shorten the duration of the outage. The Advanced Outage Management (AOM) Tool (Task 7A) is an automated outage planning system specifically designed to meet the needs of nuclear plant outage management. The primary objective of the AOM tool is to provide a computerized system that can manipulate the information typically associated with outage planning and scheduling to furnish reports and schedules that more accurately project the future course of the outage. The Radiation Exposure Control (REC) Tool (Task 7B) is a computerized personnel radiation exposure accounting and management system designed to enable nuclear plant management to project and monitor total personnel radiation exposure on a real-time basis. The two systems were designed to operate on the same computer system and interface through a common database that enables information sharing between plant organizations not typically interfaced. This interfacing provides outage planners with a means of incorporating occupational radiation exposure as a factor for making decisions on the course of an outage.

  1. MOSFET Electric-Charge Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Proposed modification enables metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to act as detector of static electric charges or energetic charged particles. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Stack of modified MOSFET'S constitutes detector of energetic charged particles. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.

  2. Taming Highly Charged Radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Usman; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Jang, Fuluni; Schultz, Brad; Simon, Vanessa; Delheij, Paul; Dilling, Jens; Gwinner, Gerald

    2012-10-01

    The precise and accurate mass of short-lived radioisotopes is a very important parameter in physics. Contribution to the improvement of nuclear models, metrological standard fixing and tests of the unitarity of the Caibbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are a few examples where the mass value plays a major role. TRIUMF's ion trap for atomic and nuclear physics (TITAN) is a unique facility of three online ion traps that enables the mass measurement of short-lived isotopes with high precision (˜10-8). At present TITAN's electron beam ion trap (EBIT) increases the charge state to increase the precision, but there is no facility to significantly reduce the energy spread introduced by the charge breeding process. The precision of the measured mass of radioisotopes is linearly dependent on the charge state while the energy spread of the charged radioisotopes affects the precision adversely. To boost the precision level of mass measurement at TITAN without loosing too many ions, a cooler Penning trap (CPET) is being developed. CPET is designed to use either positively (proton) or negatively (electron) charged particles to reduce the energy spread via sympathetic cooling. Off-line setup of CPET is complete. Details of the working principles and updates are presented

  3. Nanoparticle coagulation in fractionally charged and charge fluctuating dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nunomura, Shota; Kondo, Michio; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Watanabe, Yukio

    2008-08-15

    The kinetics of nanoparticle coagulation has been studied in fractionally charged and charge fluctuating dusty plasmas. The coagulation occurs when the mutual collision frequency among nanoparticles exceeds their charging and decharging/neutralization frequency. Interestingly, the coagulation is suppressed while a fraction (several percent) of nanoparticles are negatively charged in a plasma, in which stochastic charging plays an important role. A model is developed to predict a phase diagram of the coagulation and its suppression.

  4. Dispersion and space charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, Marco; Kishek, Rami A.; Reiser, Martin

    1998-11-01

    The presence of space charge affects the value of the dispersion function. On the other hand dispersion has a role in shaping the beam distribution and therefore in determining the resulting forces due to space charge. In this paper we present a framework where the interplay between space charge and dispersion for a continuous beam can be simultaneously treated. We revise the derivation of a new set of rms envelope-dispersion equations we have recently proposed in [1]. The new equations generalize the standard rms envelope equations currently used for matching to the case where bends and a longitudinal momentum spread are present. We report a comparison between the solutions of the rms envelope-dispersion equations and the results obtained using WARP, a Particle in Cell (PIC) code, in the modeling of the Maryland Electron Ring.

  5. Charged polymers in high dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantor, Yacov

    1990-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study of charged polymers with either homogeneously distributed frozen charges or with mobile charges has been performed in four and five space dimensions. The results are consistent with the renormalization-group predictions and contradict the predictions of Flory-type theory. Introduction of charge mobility does not modify the behavior of the polymers.

  6. Searches for Fractionally Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, Martin L.; Lee, Eric R.; Loomba, Dinesh; /New Mexico U.

    2012-04-12

    Since the initial measurements of the electron charge were made a century ago, experimenters have faced the persistent question of the existence of elementary particles with charges that are fractional multiples of the electron charge. In this review, we discuss the results of recent searches for these fractionally charged particles.

  7. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  8. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  9. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (CHARGE CUPS)

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.W.

    1959-04-21

    The problems of confining a charge material in a calutron and uniformly distributing heat to the charge is described. The charge is held in a cup of thermally conductive material removably disposed within the charge chamber of the ion source block. A central thermally conducting stem is incorporated within the cup for conducting heat to the central portion of the charge contained within the cup.

  10. Study of a transaugmented two-stage small circular-bore railgun for injection of hypervelocity hydrogen pellets as a fusion reactor refueling mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.W.; Anderson, M.A.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, J.; Kim, K.

    1997-01-01

    Injection of hypervelocity hydrogen pellets has become widely accepted as the most effective means of refueling magnetically confined fusion reactors. Pellet velocities on the order of 10 km/s are desired and hydrogen pellet erosion during acceleration must be minimized. It is important to maintain uniform bore surfaces during repetitive shots, implying that, if a railgun is to be used to accelerate the pellets, damage to the sidewalls and rails of the railgun due to local heating must be limited. In order to reduce the amount of power dissipated within the bore and increase the propulsive force generated by the plasma-arc armature while minimizing losses due to pellet, rail, and sidewall ablation, the authors have employed a magnetic field transaugmentation mechanism consisting of a two-turn pulsed electromagnet. The two-stage gun consists of a light-gas gun which accelerates a 4- to 5-mg pellet to a speed around 1.2 km/s and injects it into the plasma-arc armature railgun. Currently, they have achieved a final output velocity for a hydrogen pellet of 2.11 km/s with a time-averaged acceleration of 4,850 km/s{sup 2} using a 58-cm railgun pulsed with a peak rail current of 9.2 kA and 28.0 kA of transaugmentation current. This paper will present a description of the hydrogen-pellet-injector railgun system, a discussion of the data on hydrogen pellet acceleration, and projections for future systems.

  11. Charge collection spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.A.; McNulty, P.J.; Beauvais, W.J.; Roth, D.R. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1993-12-01

    Monitoring pulses measured between the power pins of a microelectronic device exposed to high LET ions yields important information on the SEU response of the circuit. Analysis is complicated for p-well CMOS devices by the possibility of competition between unctions, but the results suggest that charge collection measurements are still sufficient to determine SEU parameters accurately.

  12. Who's in Charge Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Even though most decisions are made before they reach the superintendent's desk, and even though these are times of "litigious paranoia," the superintendent is still in charge of the public schools. Some of the responsibilities of the superintendent are outlined. (MLW)

  13. Optimization of BEV Charging Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei

    This paper presents different approaches to optimize fast charging and workplace charging strategy of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers. For the fast charging analysis, a rule-based model was built to simulate BEV charging behavior. Monte Carlo analysis was performed to explore to the potential range of congestion at fast charging stations which could be more than four hours at the most crowded stations. Genetic algorithm was performed to explore the theoretical minimum waiting time at fast charging stations, and it can decrease the waiting time at the most crowded stations to be shorter than one hour. A deterministic approach was proposed as a feasible suggestion that people should consider to take fast charging when the state of charge is approaching 40 miles. This suggestion is hoped to help to minimize potential congestion at fast charging stations. For the workplace charging analysis, scenario analysis was performed to simulate temporal distribution of charging demand under different workplace charging strategies. It was found that if BEV drivers charge as much as possible and as late as possible at workplace, it could increase the utility of solar-generated electricity while relieve grid stress of extra intensive electricity demand at night caused by charging electric vehicles at home.

  14. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.; Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf), and the other at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1). Both the Sandia and Brookhaven projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults---so-called ``internal initiators.`` This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling outage conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Grand Gulf. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human effort rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Grand Gulf have been adopted here, so that the results of the study can be as comparable as possible. Both the Sandia study and this study examine only one shutdown plant operating state (POS) at Grand Gulf, namely POS 5 representing cold shutdown during a refueling outage. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POS 5. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency for earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 5 is found to be quite low in absolute terms, less than 10{sup {minus}7}/year.

  15. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  16. Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry with Almost Perfect Charge Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Keifer, David Z; Shinholt, Deven L; Jarrold, Martin F

    2015-10-20

    Charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) is a single-particle technique where the masses of individual ions are determined from simultaneous measurement of each ion's mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) and charge. CDMS has many desirable features: it has no upper mass limit, no mass discrimination, and it can analyze complex mixtures. However, the charge is measured directly, and the poor accuracy of the charge measurement has severely limited the mass resolution achievable with CDMS. Since the charge is quantized, it needs to be measured with sufficient accuracy to assign each ion to its correct charge state. This goal has now been largely achieved. By reducing the pressure to extend the trapping time and by implementing a novel analysis method that improves the signal-to-noise ratio and compensates for imperfections in the charge measurement, the uncertainty has been reduced to less than 0.20 e rmsd (root-mean-square deviation). With this unprecedented precision peaks due to different charge states are resolved in the charge spectrum. Further improvement can be achieved by quantizing the charge (rounding the measured charge to the nearest integer) and culling ions with measured charges midway between the integral values. After ions with charges more than one standard deviation from the mean are culled, the fraction of ions assigned to the wrong charge state is estimated to be 6.4 × 10(-5) (i.e., less than 1 in 15 000). Since almost all remaining ions are assigned to their correct charge state, the uncertainty in the mass is now almost entirely limited by the uncertainty in the m/z measurement. PMID:26418830

  17. Charging control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Transparent conductive thin films of indium oxide and indium-tin oxide were evaluated for their properties to control charge buildup on satellite materials. Both oxide coatings were evaluated for their uniformity, stability, reproducibility and characteristics on various substrate materials such as FEP Teflon, Kapton, and glass. The process development toward optimization and characterization of these thin semiconductor oxide coatings and the evaluation on large sizes performed for qualification for use on thermal control satellite materials is described. The materials have been characterized in multiple energy electron plasma environment and at low temperatures. All radiation measurements of the coatings under simulated substorm conditions have exhibited the characteristics of stable charge control. Measurement of surface potential during and after irradiation by electrons up to 30 KeV and ionizing gamma radiation show an effective stable grounding surface.

  18. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation. PMID:17580951

  19. General 2 charge geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Marika

    2006-03-01

    Two charge BPS horizon free supergravity geometries are important in proposals for understanding black hole microstates. In this paper we construct a new class of geometries in the NS1-P system, corresponding to solitonic strings carrying fermionic as well as bosonic condensates. Such geometries are required to account for the full microscopic entropy of the NS1-P system. We then briefly discuss the properties of the corresponding geometries in the dual D1-D5 system.

  20. Wind Power Charged Aerosol Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    This describes experimental results on a Charged Aerosol Wind/Electric Power Generator, using Induction Electric Charging with a water jet issuing under water pressure from a small diameter (25-100 ..mu..m) orifice.

  1. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  2. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  3. Geoengineering with Charged Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokturk, H.

    2011-12-01

    Water molecules in a droplet are held together by intermolecular forces generated by hydrogen bonding which has a bonding energy of only about 0.2 eV. One can create a more rugged droplet by using an ion as a condensation nucleus. In that case, water molecules are held together by the interaction between the ion and the dipole moments of the water molecules surrounding the ion, in addition to any hydrogen bonding. In this research, properties of such charged droplets were investigated using first principle quantum mechanical calculations. A molecule which exhibits positive electron affinity is a good candidate to serve as the ionic condensation nucleus, because addition of an electron to such a molecule creates an energetically more stable state than the neutral molecule. A good example is the oxygen molecule (O2) where energy of O2 negative (O2-) ion is lower than that of the neutral O2 by about 0.5 eV. Examples of other molecules which have positive electron affinity include ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur oxides (SOx, x=1-3). Atomic models used in the calculations consisted of a negative ion of one of the molecules mentioned above surrounded by water molecules. Calculations were performed using the DFT method with B3LYP hybrid functional and Pople type basis sets with polarization and diffuse functions. Energy of interaction between O2- ion and the water molecule was found to be ~0.7 eV. This energy is an order of magnitude greater than the thermal energy of even the highest temperatures encountered in the atmosphere. Once created, charged rugged droplets can survive in hot and dry climates where they can be utilized to create humidity and precipitation. The ion which serves as the nucleus of the droplet can attract not only water molecules but also other dipolar gases in the atmosphere. Such dipolar gases include industrial pollutants, for example nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or sulfur dioxide (SO2). Energy of interaction between O2- ion and pollutant

  4. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  5. Surface charging and charge decay in solid dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Neves, A.; Martins, H.J.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the investigation on surface charging and charge decay in solid dielectrics such as Teflon (P.T.F.E.), Epoxy (filled with alumina) and Polyethylene. The experiments were carried out in atmospheric air and SF{sub 6} environment. Impulse and ac voltage were used to generate charges, by partial discharges, in a point/insulation sample/plane electrode arrangement. The results showed that surface charging and charge decay are influenced by several parameters such as ambient gas, surface resistivity, voltage level and polarity and subsequent voltage application.

  6. Adsorption of highly charged Gaussian polyelectrolytes onto oppositely charged surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sandipan; Jho, Y. S.

    2016-03-01

    In many biological processes highly charged biopolymers are adsorbed onto oppositely charged surfaces of macroions and membranes. They form strongly correlated structures close to the surface which cannot be explained by the conventional Poisson-Boltzmann theory. In this work strong coupling theory is used to study the adsorption of highly charged Gaussian polyelectrolytes. Two cases of adsorptions are considered, when the Gaussian polyelectrolytes are confined (a) by one charged wall, and (b) between two charged walls. The effects of salt and the geometry of the polymers on their adsorption-depletion transitions in the strong coupling regime are discussed.

  7. Charging Users for Library Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the question of instituting direct charges for library service, using on-line bibliographic searching as an example, and contrasts this with the current indirect charging system where services are paid for by taxes. Information, as a merit good, should be supplied with or without direct charges, depending upon user status. (CWM)

  8. Space charge in proton linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Merrill, F.; Rybarcyk, L.; Ryne, R.

    1998-11-01

    Space charge effects on beam dynamics in linear accelerators are discussed. Practical linac beam dynamics calculation methods which include space charge effects are discussed. Also, the status of beam performance experiments including space charge studies are summarized. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Dynamics of Charged Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilhão, Miguel; Cardoso, Vitor; Herdeiro, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We report on numerical simulations of charged-black-hole collisions.We focus on head-on collisions of non-spinning black holes, starting from rest and with the same charge to mass ratio. The addition of charge to black holes introduces a new interesting channel of radiation and dynamics. The amount of gravitational-wave energy generated throughout the collision decreases by about three orders of magnitude as the charge-to-mass ratio is increased from 0 to 0.98. This is a consequence of the smaller accelerations present for larger values of the charge.

  10. High resolution printing of charge

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-06-16

    Provided are methods of printing a pattern of charge on a substrate surface, such as by electrohydrodynamic (e-jet) printing. The methods relate to providing a nozzle containing a printable fluid, providing a substrate having a substrate surface and generating from the nozzle an ejected printable fluid containing net charge. The ejected printable fluid containing net charge is directed to the substrate surface, wherein the net charge does not substantially degrade and the net charge retained on the substrate surface. Also provided are functional devices made by any of the disclosed methods.

  11. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  12. Charged Galileon black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  13. Electrically charged curvaton

    SciTech Connect

    D'Onofrio, Michela; Lerner, Rose N.; Rajantie, Arttu E-mail: rose.lerner@helsinki.fi

    2012-10-01

    We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation was generated through the curvaton mechanism from a scalar field with an electric charge, or precisely the Standard Model U(1) weak hypercharge. This links the dynamics of the very early universe concretely to the Standard Model of particle physics, and because the coupling strength is known, it reduces the number of free parameters in the curvaton model. The gauge coupling also introduces several new physical effects. Charge fluctuations are generated during inflation, but they are screened by electron-positron pairs therefore do not violate observational constraints. After inflation, the curvaton interacts with thermal radiation which destroys the curvaton condensate and prevents the generation of curvature perturbations, unless the inflaton dynamics satisfy strong constraints. The curvaton also experiences a period of parametric resonance with the U(1) gauge field. Using the standard perturbative approach, we find that the model can generate the observed density perturbation for Hubble rate H{sub *}∼>10{sup 8}GeV and curvaton mass m∼>10{sup −2}H{sub *}, but with a level of non-Gaussianity (f{sub NL}∼>130) that violates observational constraints. However, previous studies have shown that the parametric resonance changes the predicted perturbations significantly, and therefore fully non-linear numerical field theory simulations are required.

  14. Charge disproportionation, everywhere!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, T.; Hiraki, K.; Moroto, S.; Tajima, N.; Takano, Y.; Kubo, Y.; Satsukawa, H.; Chiba, R.; Yamamoto, H. M.; Kato, R.; Naito, T.

    2005-12-01

    Charge disproportionation (CD) recently observed in many organic conductors is reviewed. CD is closely related to the charge ordering (CO) but is observed even when no long range CO is established. In a θ -phase BEDT-TTF salt, (BEDT-TTF){2}RbZn(SCN){4}, an extremely slow dynamics of CD has been observed above T_MI. A similar phenomenon is also observed in the Cs-analog, (BEDT-TTF){2}CsZn(SCN){4}. However, a spin-singlet ground state without CD is suggested in this salt at low temperatures. It is shown that α -(BETS){2}I{3} exhibits CD at low temperatures, as in α -(BET-TTF){2}I{3}. Recently, an abnormal line broadening has been observed in 13C-NMR of (TMTSF){2}FSO{3} under pressure as well as in 77Se-NMR of λ-(BETS){2}FeCl{4} in a high field. We expect that both are very likely caused by a large CD among the organic molecular sites. The current investigation is a part of a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas of Molecular Conductors (No. 15073221) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and the “Japan-Korea Joint Research Project” from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (03-01-8) and Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (F01-2003-000-20023-0).

  15. Like Charges Attract?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tianshan; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2016-07-21

    Using multiscale first-principles calculations, we show that two interacting negatively charged B12I9(-) monoanions not only attract, in defiance of the Coulomb's law, but also the energy barrier at 400 K is small enough that these two moieties combine to form a stable B24I18(2-) moiety. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations further confirm its stability up to 1500 K. Studies of other B12X9(-) (X = Br, Cl, F, H, Au, CN) show that while all of these B24X18(2-) moieties are stable against dissociation, the energy barrier, with the exception of B24Au18(2-), is large so as to hinder their experimental observation. Our results explain the recent experimental observation of the "spontaneous" formation of B24I18(2-) in an ion trap. A simple model based upon electrostatics shows that this unusual behavior is due to competition between the attractive dipole-dipole interaction caused by the aspherical shape of the particle and the repulsive interaction between the like charges. PMID:27351125

  16. Charged pion production in $$\

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energymore » from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  17. Charged pion production in $\

    SciTech Connect

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energy from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.

  18. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  19. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  20. Ultrafast Measurement Confirms Charge Generation through Cold Charge Transfer States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Younts, Robert; Yan, Liang; Danilov, Evgeny; Ade, Harald; You, Wei; Gundogdu, Kenan

    2015-03-01

    The role of excess energy in generation and extraction of charges through charge transfer (CT) states in polymer solar cells is a subject of debate. There are reports suggesting increase of charge generation yield with excess energy based on ultrafast experiments. On the other hand time delayed collection field measurements shows that excess photon energy has no effect in photovoltaic efficiency. Here we resolved this discrepancy by studying the dynamics of CT excitons and polarons in blends of medium gap copolymers. We found that low-lying charge transfer (CT) excitons can generate charges over a long time period (nanosecond) and contribute photocurrent on the bulk heterojunction devices. By performing resonant CT excitation as well as above gap excitation transient absorption measurements we investigated that the charges are generated more efficiently through low-lying CT states in efficient devices independent of excitation energy. This work is supported by Office of Naval Research Grant N000141310526 P00002.

  1. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators as Related to Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Frederickson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and how the profile of trapped charge affects the transport and emission of charges from insulators. One must consider generation of mobile electrons and holes, their trapping, thermal de-trapping, mobility and recombination. Conductivity is more appropriately measured for spacecraft charging applications as the "decay" of charge deposited on the surface of an insulator, rather than by flow of current across two electrodes around the sample. We have found that conductivity determined from charge storage decay methods is 102 to 104 smaller than values obtained from classical ASTM and IEC methods for a variety of thin film insulating samples. For typical spacecraft charging conditions, classical conductivity predicts decay times on the order of minutes to hours (less than typical orbit periods); however, the higher charge storage conductivities predict decay times on the order of weeks to months leading to accumulation of charge with subsequent orbits. We found experimental evidence that penetration profiles of radiation and light are exceedingly important, and that internal electric fields due to charge profiles and high-field conduction by trapped electrons must be considered for space applications. We have also studied whether the decay constants depend on incident voltage and flux or on internal charge distributions and electric fields; light-activated discharge of surface charge to distinguish among differing charge trapping centers; and radiation-induced conductivity. Our

  2. Understanding the Linkage between Charging Network Coverage and Charging Opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Lin, Zhenhong; Kontou, Eleftheria; Wu, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Using GPS-based travel survey data, this paper estimates the relationship between public charging network coverage and charging opportunity, defined as the probability of being able to access public charging for a driver at one of his/her stops or at one travel day. Understanding this relationship is of important interests to the electric vehicle industry and government in determining appropriate charging infrastructure deployment level and estimating the impact of public charging on market adoption of electric vehicles. The analysis finds that drivers trip destinations concentrate on a few popular places. If top 1% of most popular places are installed with public chargers, on average, drivers will be able to access public charging at 20% of all their stops and 1/3 of their travel days; If 20% of most popular places are installed with public chargers, drivers will be able to access public charging at 89% of all their stops and 94% of their travel days. These findings are encouraging, implying charging network can be efficiently designed by concentrating at a few popular places while still providing a high level of charging opportunity.

  3. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged Ion emissionmicroscope

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-04-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed.

  4. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  5. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  6. Stable Charged Cosmic Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, H.; Quandt, M.; Graham, N.

    2011-03-11

    We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius {approx_equal}10{sup -18} m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.

  7. Stable charged cosmic strings.

    PubMed

    Weigel, H; Quandt, M; Graham, N

    2011-03-11

    We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≈10(-18)  m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored. PMID:21469786

  8. High dynamic range charge measurements

    DOEpatents

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2012-09-04

    A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

  9. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  10. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...