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Sample records for 21st space wing

  1. Cold war historic properties of the 21st Space Wing Air Force Space Command

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.F.; Whorton, M.; Buechler, C.R.

    1996-03-01

    A Legacy-funded inventory and evaluation of facilities dating to the Cold War era was conducted for the USAF 21{sup ST} Space Wing (AFSPC). The mission of the Wing includes early warning of missile launches and detection and tracking of space objects. The political and military strategic context for these facilities was developed through an overview of Cold War history, subdivided into four major periods: (1) origins of the conflict, (2) confrontation and crisis, (3) sustained superpower balance based on mutual deterrence, and (4) renewed confrontation and collapse of the Soviet Union. The enormous importance of early warning systems in maintaining the balance of power between the USA and the Soviet Union is discussed in more detail as a subset of the general context of the Cold War history to provide additional background for evaluating the 21{sup ST} Space Wing systems. In addition, a history of each installation was prepared and placed in the context of the broader history of the Cold War. For instance, the effort to develop a credible nuclear threat in the early 1950s is represented by the construction of Thule AB as a forward bomber base in 1951. The growing concern with a Soviet ICBM threat in the late 1950s is reflected in the construction of BMEWS at Thule AB and Clear AS during 1958-1961. Development of an antiballistic missile (ABM) system, subsequently abandoned during the 1970s, is represented by the Safeguard System at Cavalier AS. The U.S. response to the Soviet submarine-launched missile capability during the 1970s is embodied in the deployment of phased-array radar systems to cover the ocean flanks of North America at Cape Cod AS (and later at Eldorado AS). The establishment of AFSPC at Peterson AFB in 1982 reflects the increased strategic importance of space in the later phases of the Cold War. A set of recommendations regarding NRHP eligibility and management of Cold War historic properties was developed as part of the inventory.

  2. Space freighters for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.

    1990-10-01

    The present account of the characteristics of a space freighter concept which can transport either 300 metric tons to LEO or 100 metric tons to GEO or lunar orbits gives attention to its performance requirements, operations and schedules criteria, and costs. It is established that technology is not the limiting factor for rapid development of the 'Neptune' three-stage vehicle presently discussed, which uses derivatives of the SSMEs and will be of 6000-metric-ton takeoff mass. The Neptune space freighter could become available in the first decade of the 21st century, when it would be complemented by a second-generation Space Shuttle for passenger transport to LEO.

  3. Space Biology in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  4. Space Optics for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Technological advances over the last decade in metrology, fabrication techniques and materials have made a significant impact on spacebased astronomy and together with advances in adaptive optics offer the opportunity for even more radical changes in the future. The Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror is 2.4 meters in diameter and weighs on the order of 150 kilograms per square meter. The technology demonstration mirrors developed for the James Webb Telescope had an order of magnitude less in area density and developments in membrane optics offer the opportunity to achieve another order of magnitude decrease. Similar advances in mirrors for x-ray astronomy means that across the spectrum future space based telescopes will have greater and greater collecting areas with ever increasing resolution.

  5. Large space observatories of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nein, M.; Howell, J.; Morgan, S.; de Sanctis, C.; Koch, D.

    1987-01-01

    Early in the 21st century, advanced space telescopes will be readied to continue the astronomical observations of the Great Observatories currently under development. This paper describes representative concepts from the very large UV/optical and gamma-ray telescopes under study by NASA, the scientific community, and industry. These studies demonstrate that historical approaches to improving the resolution and sensitivity of space telescopes have reached technology barriers which can only be overcome by innovative solutions to the telescope design. Some of the key technology issues which are guiding the approaches for advanced space telescopes are discussed, and arguments are presented that enabling technology development for these future systems must commence now.

  6. Space power technology into the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, K. A.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The space power systems of the early 21st century are discussed. The capabilities which are anticipated to evolve from today's state of the art and the technology development programs presently in place or planned for the remainder of the century are emphasized. The power system technologies considered include: solar thermal, nuclear, radioisotope, photovoltaic, thermionic, thermoelectric, and dynamic conversion systems such as the Brayton and Stirling cycles. Energy storage technologies considered include: nickel hydrogen biopolar batteries, advanced high energy rechargeable batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and advanced primary batteries. The present state of the art of these space power and energy technologies is discussed along with their projections, trends and goals. A speculative future mission model is postulated which includes manned orbiting space stations, manned lunar bases, unmanned Earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft, manned interplanetary missions, military applications, and Earth to space and space to space transportation systems. The various space power/energy system technologies which are anticipated to be operational by the early 21st century are matched to these missions.

  7. Space power technology into the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Faymon, K.A.; Fordyce, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the space power systems of the early 21st century. The focus is on those capabilities which are anticipated to evolve from today's state-of-the-art and the technology development programs presently in place or planned for the remainder of the century. The power system technologies considered include solar thermal, nuclear, radioisotope, photovoltaic, thermionic, thermoelectric, and dynamic conversion systems such as the Brayton and Stirling cycles. Energy storage technologies considered include nickel hydrogen biopolar batteries, advanced high energy rechargeable batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and advanced primary batteries. The present state-of-the-art of these space power and energy technologies is discussed along with their projections, trends and goals. A speculative future mission model is postulated which includes manned orbiting space stations, manned lunar bases, unmanned earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft, manned interplanetary missions, military applications, and earth to space and space to space transportation systems. The various space power/energy system technologies anticipated to be operational by the early 21st century are matched to these missions.

  8. Space Transportation Options for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Schmidt, George R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Martin, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced space transportation options may eventually enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Advanced propulsion systems with energy densities several orders of magnitude greater than state-of-the art systems may be available in the 21 st century. These propulsion systems include systems based on fission, fusion, antimatter annihilation and other advanced processes. Other transportation options propose using in-situ resources to enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system using more conventional propulsion technologies. This presentation will summarize select space transportation options of current interest to NASA MSFC's Space Propulsion Branch, present progress being made towards developing each of the options, and discuss obstacles that must be overcome before any of the options can be implemented.

  9. Space Transportation Options for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced space transportation options may eventually enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Advanced propulsion systems with energy densities several orders of magnitude greater than state-of-the art systems may be available in the 21 st century. These propulsion systems include systems based on fission, fusion, antimatter annihilation, and other advanced processes. Other transportation options propose using in-situ resources to enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system using more conventional propulsion technologies. This presentation will. summarize select space transportation options of current interest to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center, present progress being made towards developing each of the options, and discuss obstacles that must be overcome before any of the options can be implemented.

  10. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  11. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  12. Space Station in the 21st century - A social perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    A human factors and sociological consideration of Space Station crew facilities and interactions is presented which attempts to place the experiences of astronaut communities in the larger context of late 20th century industrial, economic, and cultural trends. Attention is given to the relationship of Space Station communities to 'Information Society' - related historical developments.

  13. Space Infrared Astronomy in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Fisher, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New technology and design approaches have enabled revolutionary improvements in astronomical observations from space. Worldwide plans and dreams include orders of magnitude growth in sensitivity and resolution for all wavelength ranges, and would give the ability to learn our history, from the Big Bang to the conditions for life on Earth. The Next Generation Space Telescope, for example, will be able to see the most distant galaxies as they were being assembled from tiny fragments. It will be 1/4 as massive as the Hubble, with a mirror 3 times as large, cooled to about 30 Kelvin to image infrared radiation. I will discuss plans for NGST and hopes for future large space telescopes, ranging from the Space UV Optical (SUVO) telescope to the Filled Aperture Infrared (FAIR) Telescope, the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT), and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS).

  14. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  15. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1991-08-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  16. Robots in space into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Weisbin, C R; Lavery, D; Rodriguez, G

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technological developments which are establishing the foundation for an exciting era of in situ exploration missions to planets, comets and asteroids with advanced robotic systems. Also outlines important concurrent terrestrial applications and spinoffs of the space robotics technology. These include high-precision robotic manipulators for microsurgical operations and dexterous arm control systems. PMID:11540587

  17. Robots in space into the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Lavery, D.; Rodriguez, G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the technological developments which are establishing the foundation for an exciting era of in situ exploration missions to planets, comets and asteroids with advanced robotic systems. Also outlines important concurrent terrestrial applications and spinoffs of the space robotics technology. These include high-precision robotic manipulators for microsurgical operations and dexterous arm control systems.

  18. Earth science space missions in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grofic, B.

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) published “ Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, 2007” , commonly known as the “ Decadal Survey” . This report called for a balanced set of Earth Science Missions across the Earth Science research spectrum. In response, in February 2008, NASA's Earth Science Division reorganized into two program offices: The Earth Systematic Missions Program Office (ESM PO) at Goddard Space Flight Center which includes satellites making continuous measurements of the Earth's climate, and the Earth System Science Pathfinder Program Office (ESSP PO) at Langley Research Center which develops pathfinder missions through Announcements of Opportunity. In June 2010 NASA published its plan to achieve the goals of the Decadal Survey, “ Responding to the Challenge of Climate and Environmental Change: NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space.” This plan includes support for the Decadal Survey missions as well as a set of “ climate continuity missions” to address the scientific need for data continuity of key climate observations. In 2011 the NRC revisited the Decadal Survey report and published “ Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey” . This report notes that progress on the Decadal Survey plan has been slower than planned due to budget shortfalls and launch vehicle failures, and stresses that the goals of the Decadal Survey are as important as ever and must still yield a scientifically-balanced program. This paper will discuss the current status of the mission/mission study portfolios of the ESMP Program and the Earth Venture solicitations of the ESSP Program and how the Programs support the goals established and reiterated by the NRC, and will discuss the risks and challenges faced by t- e Programs as together they strive to meet these goals.

  19. Deep Space Network Revitalization: Operations for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, Joseph I.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) supports unmanned space missions through a Deep Space Network (DSN) that is developed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and its subcontractors. The DSN capabilities have been incrementally upgraded since its establishment in the late '50s and are delivered from three Deep Space Communications Complexes (DSCC's) near Goldstone, California, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia. At present each DSCC includes large antennas with diameters from 11 meters to 70 meters, that operate largely in S-band and X-band frequencies. In addition each DSCC includes all the associated electronics to receive and process the low-level telemetry signals, and radiate the necessary command with high-power transmitters. To accommodate support of the rapidly increasing number of missions by NASA and other space agencies, and to facilitate maintaining and increasing the level of service in a shrinking budget environment, JPL has initiated a bold road map with three key components: 1. A Network Simplification Project (NSP) to upgrade aging electronics, replacing them with modem commercially based components. NSP and related replacement tasks are projected to reduce the cost of operating the DSN by 50% relative to the 1997 levels. 2. Upgrade of all 34-m and 70-m antennas to provision of Ka-Band telemetry downlink capability, complemented by an existing X-band uplink capability. This will increase the effective telemetry downlink capacity by a factor of 4, without building any new antennas. 3. Establishment of an optical communications network to support for high data rate unmanned missions that cannot be accommodated with radiofrequency (RF) communications, as well as establish a path toward support of manned missions at Mars. In this paper we present the mission loading projected for 1998-2008 and the elements of the JPL road map that will enable supporting it with a reduced budget. Particular emphasis will be on

  20. Space Station Freedom - Technology R&D and test facility for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Development of the SSF is considered in terms of a primary stimulus for technology research and development activities in the early 21st century. The utilization and operations management organization, the ground facilities, and the associated international agreements will form the basis for all future major space projects, including lunar and Mars missions and outposts. Problems discussed include SSF technology R&D accommodations, Pacific Basin cooperative R&D opportunities, Pacific Basin cooperative R&D candidates, and space infrastructure cooperative projects.

  1. EVA Roadmap: New Space Suit for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yowell, Robert

    1998-01-01

    New spacesuit design considerations for the extra vehicular activity (EVA) of a manned Martian exploration mission are discussed. Considerations of the design includes:(1) regenerable CO2 removal, (2) a portable life support system (PLSS) which would include cryogenic oxygen produced from in-situ manufacture, (3) a power supply for the EVA, (4) the thermal control systems, (5) systems engineering, (5) space suit systems (materials, and mobility), (6) human considerations, such as improved biomedical sensors and astronaut comfort, (7) displays and controls, and robotic interfaces, such as rovers, and telerobotic commands.

  2. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

  3. Workshop Proceedings: Sensor Systems for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Barbara A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the Astrophysics Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications initiated the planning of a technology development program, Astrotech 21, to develop the technological base for the Astrophysics missions developed in the period 1995 to 2015. The Sensor Systems for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century Workshop was one of three Integrated Technology Planning workshops. Its objectives were to develop an understanding of the future comprehensive development program to achieve the required capabilities. Program plans and recommendations were prepared in four areas: x ray and gamma ray sensors, ultraviolet and visible sensors, direct infrared sensors, and heterodyne submillimeter wave sensors.

  4. Nineteenth Space Simulation Conference Cost Effective Testing for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, Joseph L., III (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The Nineteenth Space Simulation Conference was hosted by the Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES) and was supported by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). These proceedings attest to the scope of the conference; papers were presented on topics as diverse as shuttle payload contamination effects, simulating Martian environment for testing, to state-of-the-art 6-axis hydraulic shaker testing system. A good cross section of the international aerospace community took advantage of the opportunity to get together, to share their experiences, and to participate in the technical sessions. The two invited keynote speakers were Lieutenant General Malcolm O'Neill (USA, Ret.), past Director of BMDO, and Mr. Thomas Coughlin, Space Programs Manager at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Their most informative and thought provoking talks were on cost effective testing approaches in Defense Department programs for the 21st Century and what part testing plays in the faster, better, cheaper approach for the NEAR and APL programs, respectively. The preceding tutorial and the tour of the Garber Facility of the Air and Space Museum rounded out a comprehensive conference contributing to the knowledge base vital to cost effective testing for successful missions into the 21st Century.

  5. Space Science for the 21st Century: The Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Throughout its history, the U.S. Space Science technologies program has been enormously productive. Its accomplishments have rewritten the textbooks. But now, the economic environment has changed dramatically. The Nation's scientific and technological goals are being reexamined and redefined.And the social contract between the scientific community and the Federal Government is being rewritten. There is an expectation that the American public should receive more direct benefits from its investment in science and technology. This Strategic Plan reflects this new paradigm. It presents a carefully selected set of new scientific initiatives that build on past accomplishments to continue NASA's excellence in Space Science. At the same time, it responds to fiscal constraints by defining a new approach to planning, developing, and operating Space Science missions. In particular, investments in new technologies will permit major scientific advances to be made with smaller, more focused, and less costly missions. With the introduction of advanced technologies, smaller does not have to mean less capable. The focus on new technologies also provides and opportunity for the Space Science program to enhance its direct contribution to the country's economic base. At the same time, the program can build on public interest to strengthen its contributions to education and scientific literacy. With this plan we are taking the first steps toward shaping the Space Science program of the 21st century. In doing so, we face major challenges. It will be a very different program than might have been envisioned even a few years ago. But it will be a program that remains at the forefront of science, technology, and education. We intend to continue rewriting the textbooks.

  6. Using Virtual Simulations in the Design of 21st Century Space Science Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Sonya L.; Alves, Jeffery R.

    1996-01-01

    Space Technology has been rapidly increasing in the past decade. This can be attributed to the future construction of the International Space Station (ISS). New innovations must constantly be engineered to make ISS the safest, quality, research facility in space. Since space science must often be gathered by crew members, more attention must be geared to the human's safety and comfort. Virtual simulations are now being used to design environments that crew members can live in for long periods of time without harmful effects to their bodies. This paper gives a few examples of the ergonomic design problems that arise on manned space flights, and design solutions that follow NASA's strategic commitment to customer satisfaction. The conclusions show that virtual simulations are a great asset to 21st century design.

  7. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.

    2015-01-01

    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  8. The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W. (Editor); Alred, John W. (Editor); Bell, Larry S. (Editor); Cintala, Mark J. (Editor); Crabb, Thomas M. (Editor); Durrett, Robert H. (Editor); Finney, Ben R. (Editor); Franklin, H. Andrew (Editor); French, James R. (Editor); Greenberg, Joel S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    These 92 papers comprise a peer-reviewed selection of presentations by authors from NASA, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), industry, and academia at the Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics included the following: (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon; (2) lunar base site selection; (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats; (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology; (5) recovery and use of lunar resources; (6) environmental and human factors of and life support technology for human presence on the Moon; and (7) program management of human exploration of the Moon and space.

  9. Advanced Exploration Technologies: Micro and Nano Technologies Enabling Space Missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Some of the many new and advanced exploration technologies which will enable space missions in the 21st century and specifically the Manned Mars Mission are explored in this presentation. Some of these are the system on a chip, the Computed-Tomography imaging Spectrometer, the digital camera on a chip, and other Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology for space. Some of these MEMS are the silicon micromachined microgyroscope, a subliming solid micro-thruster, a micro-ion thruster, a silicon seismometer, a dewpoint microhygrometer, a micro laser doppler anemometer, and tunable diode laser (TDL) sensors. The advanced technology insertion is critical for NASA to decrease mass, volume, power and mission costs, and increase functionality, science potential and robustness.

  10. The second conference on lunar bases and space activities of the 21st Century, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, W.W.; Alred, J.W.; Bell, L.S.; Cintala, M.J.; Crabb, T.M.; Durrett, R.H.; Finney, B.R.; Franklin, H.A.; French, J.R.; Greenberg, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    These 92 papers comprise a peer-reviewed selection of presentations by authors from NASA, the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), industry, and academia at the Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics included the following: (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon; (2) lunar base site selection; (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats; (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology; (5) recovery and use of lunar resources; (6) environmental and human factors of and life support technology for human presence on the Moon; and (7) program management of human exploration of the Moon and space. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles in this report.

  11. The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W. (Editor); Alred, John W. (Editor); Bell, Larry S. (Editor); Cintala, Mark J. (Editor); Crabb, Thomas M. (Editor); Durrett, Robert H. (Editor); Finney, Ben R. (Editor); Franklin, H. Andrew (Editor); French, James R. (Editor); Greenberg, Joel S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    These papers comprise a peer-review selection of presentations by authors from NASA, LPI industry, and academia at the Second Conference (April 1988) on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, sponsored by the NASA Office of Exploration and the Lunar Planetary Institute. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics covered by this volume include (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon, (2) lunar base site selection, (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats, and (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology.

  12. The Second Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, W.W.; Alred, J.W.; Bell, L.S.; Cintala, M.J.; Crabb, T.M.; Durrett, R.H.; Finney, B.R.; Franklin, H.A.; French, J.R.; Greenberg, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    These papers comprise a peer-review selection of presentations by authors from NASA, LPI industry, and academia at the Second Conference (April 1988) on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, sponsored by the NASA Office of Exploration and the Lunar Planetary Institute. These papers go into more technical depth than did those published from the first NASA-sponsored symposium on the topic, held in 1984. Session topics covered by this volume include (1) design and operation of transportation systems to, in orbit around, and on the Moon, (2) lunar base site selection, (3) design, architecture, construction, and operation of lunar bases and human habitats, and (4) lunar-based scientific research and experimentation in astronomy, exobiology, and lunar geology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  13. Library Spaces for 21st-Century Learners: A Planning Guide for Creating New School Library Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    "Library Spaces for 21st-Century Learners: A Planning Guide for Creating New School Library Concepts" focuses on planning contemporary school library spaces with user-based design strategies. The book walks school librarians and administrators through the process of gathering information from students and other stakeholders involved in…

  14. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective manner. The program began on June 1, 1980 with funding to support several Research Associates each year. 113 awards, plus 1 from an independently supported minority component were made for the Research Associates program. The program was changed from a one year award with a possibility for renewal to a two year award. In 1999, the decision was made by NASA to discontinue the program due to development of new priorities for funding. This grant was discontinued because of the move of the Program Director to a new institution; a new grant was provided to that new institution to allow completion of the training of the remaining 2 research associates in 1999. After 1999, the program will be discontinued.

  15. Narragansett Bay From Space: A Perspective for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.; Swanson, Craig; Deacutis, Chris

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and Rhode Island Congressman Patrick Kennedy challenged researchers in the Department of Geological Sciences at Brown University to developed a series of projects to apply remotely sensed data to problems of immediate concern to the State of Rhode Island. The result of that challenge was the project Narragansett Bay from Space: A Perspective for the 21st Century. The goals of the effort were to a) identify problems in coordination with state and local agencies, b) apply NASA technology to the problems and c) to involve small business that would benefit from incorporating remotely sensed data into their business operations. The overall effort was to serve two functions: help provide high quality science results based on remotely sensed data and increase the capacity of environmental managers and companies to use remotely sensed data. The effort has succeeded on both these fronts by providing new, quantitative information on the extent of environmental problems and developing a greater awareness and acceptance of remotely sensed data as a tool for monitoring and research.

  16. Space Science for the 21st Century. Strategic Plan for 1995-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication is one of three volumes in 'Space Science for the 21st Century', the Office of Space Science Strategic plan for 1995-2000. The other two volumes are the recently released Integrated Technology Strategy and the Education Plan, which is in preparation at this publication date. The Science Plan was developed by the Office of Space Science (OSS) in partnership with the Space Science Advisory Committee. The mission of the OSS is to seek answers to fundamental questions about: the galaxy and the universe; the connection between the Sun, Earth, and Heliosphere; the origin and evolution of planetary systems; and the origin and distribution of life in the universe. The strategy to answer these questions includes completing the means to survey the universe across the entire electromagnetic spectrum; completing the survey of cosmic rays through their highest energies, and of interstellar gas; carrying out a basic new test of the Theory of General Relativity; completing development of the means to understand the mechanisms of solar variability and its effects on Earth; completing the first exploration of the inner and outer frontiers of the heliosphere; determining the plasma environments of the solar system planets and how those environments are affected by solar activity; completing development of the means to finish the reconnaissance of the entire solar system from the Sun to Pluto; beginning the comprehensive search for other planets around other stars; resuming surface exploration of solar system bodies to understand the origin and evolution of the Sun's planetary system; continuing the study of biogenic compounds and their evolution in the universe; and searching for indicators of past and present conditions conducive to life.

  17. Interoperability Trends in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Space Operations for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Gerald E.

    1999-01-01

    No other space operations in the 21 st century more comprehensively embody the challenges and dependencies of interoperability than EVA. This discipline is already functioning at an W1paralleled level of interagency, inter-organizational and international cooperation. This trend will only increase as space programs endeavor to expand in the face of shrinking budgets. Among the topics examined in this paper are hardware-oriented issues. Differences in design standards among various space participants dictate differences in the EVA tools that must be manufactured, flown and maintained on-orbit. Presently only two types of functional space suits exist in the world. However, three versions of functional airlocks are in operation. Of the three airlocks, only the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock can accommodate both types of suits. Due to functional differences in the suits, completely different operating protocols are required for each. Should additional space suit or airlock designs become available, the complexity will increase. The lessons learned as a result of designing and operating within such a system are explored. This paper also examines the non-hardware challenges presented by interoperability for a discipline that is as uniquely dependent upon the individual as EVA. Operation of space suits (essentially single-person spacecrafts) by persons whose native language is not that of the suits' designers is explored. The intricacies of shared mission planning, shared control and shared execution of joint EVA's are explained. For example, once ISS is fully functional, the potential exists for two crewmembers of different nationality to be wearing suits manufactured and controlled by a third nation, while operating within an airlock manufactured and controlled by a fourth nation, in an effort to perform tasks upon hardware belonging to a fifth nation. Everything from training issues, to procedures development and writing, to real-time operations is

  18. "Holding Environments": Creating Spaces to Support Children's Environmental Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Karen

    2004-01-01

    For many children across the globe, whether in low or high income nations, growing up in the 21st century will mean living in overcrowded, unsafe and polluted environments which provide limited opportunity for natural play and environmental learning. Yet Agenda 21, the Habitat Agenda and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child…

  19. A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graboyes, Alanna S.

    2012-01-01

    The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, needed an update to better meet the needs of 21st century students. A major renovation was in the works, but head librarian Graboyes wanted to do something to make the library useful and appealing for current students. With careful budgeting and donations of time and money,…

  20. A perspective on space exploration technology catalysis: A rationale for initiating 21st Century expansion of human civilization into outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsham, Gary A. P.

    1988-01-01

    The rationale for human exploration of space is examined. Observations of the technocatalytic potential are presented. Transferability to the terrestrial environment of 21st Century Earth is discussed. The many threats to future survival of this planet's sensitive ecosystem are also discussed in relation to the technoecological harmony that might be achievable due to the extreme demands that are naturally imposed on the development of (civilian/human) space technology. The human attempt to inhabit the inner solar system (the Moon, Mars, etc.) is proposed as the ultimate and most appropriate technology driver for the myriad of socioeconomic, ecological, and technological needs that will accompany 21st Century Earth societies.

  1. The New Millennium Program: Positioning NASA for ambitious space and earth science missions for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Casani, E.K.; Wilson, B.; Ridenoure, R.

    1996-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established the New Millennium Program (NMP) to enable space and Earth science missions to be carried out far more cost-effectively in the 21st century than they are today. NMP will develop and flight validate the revolutionary technologies that will be needed to carry out NASA{close_quote}s 21st-century missions, and will also demonstrate methods to drastically reduce mission costs. Advances in technology will enable the reduction of spacecraft and instrument size, an increase in autonomy and reduction of operations costs, and innovation in measurement techniques and mission architectures: all needed for the high-return missions of the future. Because the design space of the technology-validation flights exceeds the available money and scheduling resources, the approach will be to first exhaustively explore mission design space, and then evaluate missions for such factors as technological value, scientific capability, cost, and level of public interest. The oversubscribed mission set can then be reduced to a maximum-value set for implementation. Anticipated societal benefits from NMP include stimulated development of advanced technologies and creation of new U.S. industry to meet the demand for capable microspacecraft. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Space astronomy for the mid-21st century: Robotically maintained space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The historical development of ground based astronomical telescopes leads us to expect that space-based astronomical telescopes will need to be operational for many decades. The exchange of scientific instruments in space will be a prerequisite for the long lasting scientific success of such missions. Operationally, the possibility to repair or replace key spacecraft components in space will be mandatory. We argue that these requirements can be fulfilled with robotic missions and see the development of the required engineering as the main challenge. Ground based operations, scientifically and technically, will require a low operational budget of the running costs. These can be achieved through enhanced autonomy of the spacecraft and mission independent concepts for the support of the software. This concept can be applied to areas where the mirror capabilities do not constrain the lifetime of the mission. Online material is available at the CDS via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/AN/333/209

  3. Deep Space One: Preparing for Space Exploration in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    This October, NASA will take a revolutionary step with the launch of the New Millennium program's Deep Space One (DS1) mission. DS1 will fly by asteroid 1992KD in July of 1999 and will then be on a trajectory toward comet 19P/Borrelly.

  4. Industrializing the near-earth asteroids: Speculations on human activities in space in the latter half of the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, Joel C.

    1990-01-01

    The use of solar system resources for human industry can be viewed as a natural extension of the continual growth of our species' habitat. Motivations for human activities in space can be discussed in terms of five distinct areas: (1) information processing and collection; (2) materials processing; (3) energy production to meet terrestrial power needs; (4) the use of extraterrestrial materials; and (5) disaster avoidance. When considering 21st-Century activities in space, each of these basic motivations must be treated in light of issues likely to be relevant to the 21st-Century earth. Many of the problems facing 21st-Century earth may stem from the need to maintain the world population of 8 to 10 billion people as is projected from expected growth rates. These problems are likely to include managing the impact of industrial processes on the terrestrial biosphere while providing adequate energy production and material goods for the growing population. The most important human activities in space in the latter half of the 21st Century may be associated with harnessing the resources of the near-earth asteroids for industrial processes. These above topics are discussed with an emphasis on space industrialization.

  5. NASA Hypersonic X-Plane Flight Development of Technologies and Capabilities for the 21st Century Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Trippensee, Gary

    1997-01-01

    A new family of NASA experimental aircraft (X-planes) is being developed to uniquely, yet synergistically tackle a wide class of technologies to advance low-cost, efficient access to space for a range of payload classes. This family includes two non-air-breathing rocket-powered concepts, the X-33 and the X-34 aircraft, and two air-breathing vehicle concepts, the scramjet-powered Hyper-X and the rocket-based combined cycle flight vehicle. This report describes the NASA vision for reliable, reusable, fly-to-orbit spacecraft in relation to the current space shuttle capability. These hypersonic X-plane programs, their objectives, and their status are discussed. The respective technology sets and flight program approaches are compared and contrasted. Additionally, the synergy between these programs to advance the entire technology front in a uniform way is discussed. NASA's view of the value of in-flight hypersonic experimentation and technology development to act as the ultimate crucible for proving and accelerating technology readiness is provided. Finally, an opinion on end technology products and space access capabilities for the 21st century is offered.

  6. An integrated in-space construction facility for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Dorsey, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of studies being conducted by NASA on the construction of very large spacecraft. The various approaches are discussed for constructing spacecraft and their relative merits. It is observed that the Space Station Freedom has all of the basic design characteristics to permit its growth into an in-space construction facility for very large spacecraft. Also it is noted that if disturbances from construction operations are intolerable to other Space Station experiments, a co-orbiting construction facility could be built using previously developed Space Station truss hardware and systems. A discussion is also presented of a new PATHFINDER research initiative on on-orbit construction. This research effort is aimed at developing construction methods for very large spacecraft and includes the development of a 100 meter long space crane.

  7. A new cooperative strategy for space in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delpech, J. F.; Logsdon, J. M.; Meslin, B.

    1993-01-01

    The context within which the major government space programs of the world are planned and obtain political approval has changed dramatically with the end of the Cold War. International economic competition has become a central issue in international affairs. Economic and political constraints require that space agencies adapt the ambitious plans they put forward in the 1980s to the realities of this decade and beyond. This paper argues that in this changed context, enhanced international space cooperation can make important contributions to advancing the core interests of nations and firms, and that in some situations, increased and more intimate cooperation may be the only way to achieve ambitious space goals. The paper contains a series of policy-oriented findings and recommendations that together comprise a 'new cooperative strategy' for space.

  8. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st century: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1991-08-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed, and the energy source of their accomplishment investigated. The missions included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous missions with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing missions where delta v requirements range from 90 km/sec to 30,000 km/sec (High Energy Space Mission) were investigated. The need to develop a power space of this magnitude is a key issue to address if the U.S. civil space program is to continue to advance as mandated by the National Space Policy. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electrical power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Additionally, fusion energy can offer significant safety, environmental, economic, and operational advantages. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified. A strategy that will produce fusion powered vehicles as part of the space transportation infrastructure was developed. Space program resources must be directed toward this issue as a matter of the top policy priority.

  9. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st century: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed, and the energy source of their accomplishment investigated. The missions included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous missions with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing missions where delta v requirements range from 90 km/sec to 30,000 km/sec (High Energy Space Mission) were investigated. The need to develop a power space of this magnitude is a key issue to address if the U.S. civil space program is to continue to advance as mandated by the National Space Policy. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electrical power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Additionally, fusion energy can offer significant safety, environmental, economic, and operational advantages. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified. A strategy that will produce fusion powered vehicles as part of the space transportation infrastructure was developed. Space program resources must be directed toward this issue as a matter of the top policy priority.

  10. Workshop Proceedings: Optical Systems Technology for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayon, Juan A. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A technology development program, Astrotech 21, is being proposed by NASA to enable the launching of the next generation of space astrophysical observatories during the years 1995-2015. Astrotech 21 is being planned and will ultimately be implemented jointly by the Astrophysics Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications and the Space Directorate of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. A summary of the Astrotech 21 Optical Systems Technology Workshop is presented. The goal of the workshop was to identify areas of development within advanced optical systems that require technology advances in order to meet the science goals of the Astrotech 21 mission set, and to recommend a coherent development program to achieve the required capabilities.

  11. Preliminary survey of 21st century civil mission applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankins, John C.; Olivieri, J.; Hepenstal, A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose was to collect and categorize a forecast of civilian space missions and their power requirements, and to assess the suitability of an SP-100 class space reactor power system to those missions. A wide variety of missions were selected for examination. The applicability of an SP-100 type of nuclear power system was assessed for each of the selected missions; a strawman nuclear power system configuration was drawn up for each mission. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Space nuclear power in the 50 kW sub e plus range can enhance or enable a wide variety of ambitious civil space mission; (2) Safety issues require additional analyses for some applications; (3) Safe space nuclear reactor disposal is an issue for some applications; (4) The current baseline SP-100 conical radiator configuration is not applicable in all cases; (5) Several applications will require shielding greater than that provided by the baseline shadow-shield; and (6) Long duration, continuous operation, high reliability missions may exceed the currently designed SP-100 lifetime capabilities.

  12. Preliminary survey of 21st century civil mission applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.; Olivieri, J.; Hepenstal, A.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose was to collect and categorize a forecast of civilian space missions and their power requirements, and to assess the suitability of an SP-100 class space reactor power system to those missions. A wide variety of missions were selected for examination. The applicability of an SP-100 type of nuclear power system was assessed for each of the selected missions; a strawman nuclear power system configuration was drawn up for each mission. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Space nuclear power in the 50 kW sub e plus range can enhance or enable a wide variety of ambitious civil space mission; (2) Safety issues require additional analyses for some applications; (3) Safe space nuclear reactor disposal is an issue for some applications; (4) The current baseline SP-100 conical radiator configuration is not applicable in all cases; (5) Several applications will require shielding greater than that provided by the baseline shadow-shield; and (6) Long duration, continuous operation, high reliability missions may exceed the currently designed SP-100 lifetime capabilities.

  13. Workshop proceedings: Information Systems for Space Astrophysics in the 21st Century, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James (Editor); Ng, Edward (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The Astrophysical Information Systems Workshop was one of the three Integrated Technology Planning workshops. Its objectives were to develop an understanding of future mission requirements for information systems, the potential role of technology in meeting these requirements, and the areas in which NASA investment might have the greatest impact. Workshop participants were briefed on the astrophysical mission set with an emphasis on those missions that drive information systems technology, the existing NASA space-science operations infrastructure, and the ongoing and planned NASA information systems technology programs. Program plans and recommendations were prepared in five technical areas: Mission Planning and Operations; Space-Borne Data Processing; Space-to-Earth Communications; Science Data Systems; and Data Analysis, Integration, and Visualization.

  14. 21st century space transportation system design approach - HL-20 personnel launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Howard W.; Piland, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to and overview of the research that was conducted on the HL-20 lifting body. The concept has been defined as an option for a personnel launch system (PLS) that is intended to carry six to eight Space Station Freedom crew persons. In this role the HL-20 will complement the Space Shuttle operation and ensure the ability to transport people to and from Earth orbit after the year 2000. The research covers a broad range of disciplines, including aerodynamics, aerodynamic heating and thermal protection systems, structural design, subsystem definition, trajectory and guidance system development for entry and abort, production and operations, and human factors. This article also presents the lifting-body heritage, design features of the concept, and HL-20/PLS mission requirements.

  15. Air Force space power and thermal management technology - Requirements for the early 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ernest D.; Kuck, Inara

    Typical projections for military space power and thermal management technologies have posited requirements for high powered and highly survivable systems. Recent changes in defense needs, however, will require spacecraft that are smaller, lower powered, less survivable, and highly proliferated. Technologies will be developed to provide low cost, ultra-light, high power density, 'smart' conventional power systems. Compact nuclear power systems will also be developed to meet higher power needs.

  16. Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion: Materials Challenges for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The current focus of NASA s space fission effort is Fission Surface Power (FSP). FSP systems could be used to provide power anytime, anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars. FSP systems could be used at locations away from the lunar poles or in permanently shaded regions, with no performance penalty. A potential reference 40 kWe option has been devised that is cost-competitive with alternatives while providing more power for less mass. The potential reference system is readily extensible for use on Mars. At Mars the system could be capable of operating through global dust storms and providing year-round power at any Martian latitude. To ensure affordability, the potential near-term, 40 kWe reference concept is designed to use only well established materials and fuels. However, if various materials challenges could be overcome, extremely high performance fission systems could be devised. These include high power, low mass fission surface power systems; in-space systems with high specific power; and high performance nuclear thermal propulsion systems. This tutorial will provide a brief overview of space fission systems and will focus on materials challenges that, if overcome, could help enable advanced exploration and utilization of the solar system.

  17. Improving Scientific Capabilities in Space in the 21st Century: The NASA New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, Carol A.; Crisp, David

    1999-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) has been chartered to identify and validate in space emerging, revolutionary technologies that will enable less costly, more capable future science missions. The program utilizes a unique blend of science guidance and industry partnering to ferret out technology solutions to enable science capabilities in space which are presently technically infeasible, or unaffordable. Those technologies which present an unacceptably high risk to future science missions (whether small PI-led or operational) are bundled into technology validation missions. These missions seek to validate the technologies in a manner consistent with their future uses, thus reducing the associated risk to the first user, and obtaining meaningful science data as well. The Space Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) was approved as the second NMP Earth Observing mission (EO2) in October 1997, and assigned to Marshall Space Flight Center for implementation. Leading up to mission confirmation, NMP sponsored a community workshop in March 1996 to draft Level-1 requirements for a doppler wind lidar mission, as well as other space-based lidar missions (such as DIAL). Subsequently, a study group was formed and met twice to make recommendations on how to perform a comparison of coherent and direct detection wind lidars in space. These recommendations have guided the science validation plan for the SPARCLE mission, and will ensure that future users will be able to confidently assess the risk profile of future doppler wind missions utilizing EO2 technologies. The primary risks to be retired are: (1) Maintenance of optical alignments through launch and operations on orbit, and (2) Successful velocity estimation compensation for the Doppler shift due to the platform motion, and due to the earth's rotation. This includes the need to account for all sources of error associated with pointing control and knowledge. The validation objectives are: (1) Demonstrate measurement

  18. A New Frontier Beckons: Space Exploration in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.; Gruener, John

    1999-01-01

    Throughout recorded history, small groups of explorers have Pushed back the edge of the frontier and opened up new territories for others to follow. As the 20th Century closes, history will record that in the 1960's humankind opened the vast frontier beyond Earth's atmosphere. Although the Apollo program blazed a trail of exploration to the Moon, the development of space has only reached into low Earth orbit. The Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, and the communication and scientific satellite networks established in orbit around the Earth, are all stepping stones that will enable explorers to venture once again beyond our home planet. Exploration is difficult. It is difficult for the people and machines that travel in extreme environments and endure harsh conditions, and it is difficult for the national leaders who must champion and fund the programs that lead to discovery and reward. Christopher Columbus spent many years meeting with the Kings of Portugal, England, and France only to see his dream of sailing west into the vast Atlantic with ships and crew. discredited. Queen Isabella of Spain was willing to look beyond the many problems plaguing her own shores and see the potential reward for her investment in the future. The voyages of Columbus set the stage for more Spanish explorers, who turned Spain into a great world power. The Apollo program and the unpiloted Lunar Orbiter, Surveyor, Mariner and Viking spacecraft that NASA launched in the 1966's &1970's were our country's first investment, in the exploration of the solar system. These human and robotic missions rewarded us with the first close views of the lunar and martian surfaces, and laid before our eyes territories as vast as all the continents of Earth combined. The Lunar Prospector, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, and Mars Pathfinder and Global Surveyor missions are continuing our scientific conquest of the inner solar system, leading the way for humans to follow.

  19. Water and waste water reclamation in a 21st century space colony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jebens, H. J.; Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on closed-life support systems initiated during a system design study on space colonization and concentrates on the water and waste water components. Metabolic requirements for the 10,000 inhabitants were supplied by an assumed earth-like diet from an intensive agriculture system. Condensed atmospheric moisture provided a source of potable water and a portion of the irrigation water. Waste water was reclaimed by wet oxidation. The dual-water supply required the condensation of 175 kg/person-day of atmospheric water and the processing of 250 kg/person-day of waste water.

  20. Ares V: Enabling Unprecedented Payloads for Space in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous technical and programmatic studies since the U.S. space program began in the 1960s has emphasized the need for a heavy lift capability for exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The Saturn V once embodied that capability until it was retired. Now the Ares V cargo launch vehicle (CaLV) promises to restore and improve on that capability, providing unprecedented opportunities for human and robotic exploration, science, national security and commercial uses. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities of Ares V, both as an opportunity for payloads of increased mass and/or volume, and as a means of reducing risk in the payload design process. The Ares V is part of NASA s Constellation Program, which also includes the Ares I crew launch vehicle (CLV), Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV), and Altair lunar lander. This architecture is designed to carry out the national space policy goals of completing the International Space Station (ISS), retiring the Space Shuttle fleet, and expanding human exploration beyond LEO. The Ares V is designed to loft upper stages and/or cargo, such as the Altair lander, into LEO. The Ares I is designed to put Orion into LEO with a crew of up to four for rendezvous with the ISS or with the Ares V Earth departure stage for journeys to the Moon. While retaining the goals of heritage hardware and commonality, the Ares V configuration continues to be refined through a series of internal trades. The current reference configuration was recommended by the Ares Projects and approved by the Constellation Program during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) June 2008. The reference configuration defines the Ares V as 381 feet (116m) tall with a gross lift-off mass (GLOM) of 8.1 million pounds (3,704.5 mT). Its first stage will generate 11 million pounds of sea-level liftoff thrust. It will be capable of launching 413,800 pounds (187.7 mT) to LEO, 138,500 pounds (63 mT) direct to the Moon or 156,700 pounds (71.1 mT) in its dual

  1. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  2. Till the Ductile Anchor Hold: Towards Space Settlements in the 21st Century.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dator, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Humans are restless explorers. For 99% of humanity s time on Earth, we have been nomadic wanderers, not farmers, warriors, factory workers, developers, or NASA employees. Only recently--for only a few thousand years--have most humans been tied to the land as many are now. But as more and more of us live in information societies and some indeed in dream societies where our identity derives from the knowledge we share and the image we project, and not from the property we own or the manual work we do, the time may be coming when we should break free from the land, and roam once again. But beware: the reality of Man and Woman the Explorer has a very dark side as well. Many people where I live view the recent experience of Man on the Move as a history of theft, murder, racism, exploitation, and genocide. So we need to be very careful if we say that space exploration is only natural for humans, since the experience has not been very uplifting and noble for most recipients of the exploring of others. But such warnings are not new. Humans have been alerting each other to the dangers of change and novelty from the very beginning: Who and what is this?

  3. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute's education and public outreach program: Working toward a global 21st century space exploration society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.; Moreno, Nancy P.

    2011-05-01

    Space Exploration educators worldwide are confronting challenges and embracing opportunities to prepare students for the global 21st century workforce. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a NASA competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) is advancing the Institute's mission by responding to global educational challenges through activities that: provide teacher professional development; develop curricula that teach students to communicate with their peers across the globe; provide women and minority US populations with greater access to, and awareness of science careers; and promote international science education partnerships. A recent National Research Council (NRC) Space Studies Board Report, America's Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Program with National Needs, acknowledges that "a capable workforce for the 21st century is a key strategic objective for the US space program… (and that) US problems requiring best efforts to understand and resolve…are global in nature and must be addressed through mutual worldwide action". [1] This sentiment has gained new momentum through a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) report, which recommends that the life of the International Space Station be extended beyond the planned 2016 termination. [2] The two principles of globalization and ISS utility have elevated NSBRI EPOP efforts to design and disseminate science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) educational materials that prepare students for full participation in a globalized, high technology society; promote and provide teacher professional development; create research opportunities for women and underserved populations; and build international educational partnerships. This paper describes select EPOP projects and makes the case for using innovative, emerging information

  4. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  5. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  6. Fueling the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Sheindlin, A.E. ); Zaleski, P. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses fueling of the 21st century. Topics include: Basic World Energy Problems at the Turn of the 21st Century, Natural Gas at the Present Stage of Development of Power Engineering, and Biomass-Powered Ice- Making Machine.

  7. The Promise and the Challenge of Space Solar Power in the 21st Century: Picking up the Gauntlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2002-01-01

    The history of human civilization is a history of great infrastructure. Chief among these developments have been advances in power, transport, and communications. Without dramatic and steady advances in these critical systems during the past two hundred years-- especially in the available sources of power--the world would be a drastically poorer and harsher home for humanity. At the same time, through the global use of existing energy technologies humanity is rapidly consuming irreplaceable fossil resources as well as changing the environment and the climate for the world itself. Both must raise concerns about the long-term sustainability of the infrastructures that have enabled our world. The importance of abundant and affordable energy in space exploration and development is equally clear. Current missions of exploration and scientific discovery are narrowly constrained by a lack of energy. Future, even more ambitious missions will never be realized without new, reliable and less expensive sources of energy. Even more, the potential emergence of new space industries such as space tourism, manufacturing in space, solar power satellites (SPS) and others, will depend on advances in space power systems just as much as they will on progress in space transportation. Recent studies and technological advances suggest that large-scale space solar power (SSP) systems may enable progress in both arenas during the next several decades. Of course, there are tremendous engineering and technological barriers that must be surmounted to someday make large SSP systems possible. Diverse areas of technology must be advanced. Some of these include space transportation, solar power generation, wireless power transmission, robotics, structural concepts and materials, and others. Nevertheless, there are potential benefits in the offing that seem to many to make challenging even these daunting technical barriers worthwhile--and perhaps essential. Unfortunately, the political and

  8. Space Educational Opportunities and Outreach Activities at the Dawn of the 21st Century. A European Students Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, S.; Robinson, D.; Manfletti, C.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Bedogna, P.; Corradi, P.; Marcuccio, M.

    2002-01-01

    Taking part in space activities and participating in the development and growth of space project has now become an undeniable reality. Thanks to academic institutions and outreach activities space enthusiasts can engage in numerous and diverse yet unique opportunities. The ESA Outreach Office sees students of every background taking part in its activities. This unique mixture of students of diverse nationalities enthusiastically co-operating ensures the program's interdisciplinarity. The added value of such an environment to the programs is significant and must not be forgotten. The friendship that blossom, and lose with which cultural and language barriers are overcome during the time spent working on the projects offered to university student and young professionals are invaluable. The purpose of this abstract is to give our perspective to the space community and to the general public on the importance of developing a space culture. The academic value of the space research projects mainly in which the authors have participated, the importance of such projects for the future of European relations and personal and social development through experience of international teams are topics that will be addressed. The activities discussed are : Attending sessions of congresses around the world, making contacts of major companies and players in the space sector, dealing of topics such as space engineering, policy and law, life sciences, business and finance, satellite applications, the exhilaration of floating in zero-g, the interdisciplinary, international and intercultural approach, the chance of quickly learning about many new concepts are just some of the marvellous experiences and opportunities that these programs offer. Reaching out to the general public is the second purpose of these unique activities.Images, photos and reports can seep into every house thanks to the great instrument that is the media, thus informing almost everyone about the activities and

  9. Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 21st, Colorado Springs, CO, July 23-25, 1984, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winokur, P. S. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Radiation effects on electronic systems and devices (particularly spacecraft systems) are examined with attention given to such topics as radiation transport, energy deposition, and charge collection; single-event phenomena; basic mechanisms of radiation effects in structures and materials; and EMP phenomena. Also considered are radiation effects in integrated circuits, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, hardness assurance for devices and systems, and SGEMP/IEMP phenomena.

  10. Human Exploration using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO): A space exploration strategy for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, George R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration strategy for human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the Moon that combines the best features of human and robotic spaceflight. This "Human Exploration using Real-time Robotic Operations" (HERRO) strategy refrains from placing humans on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars in the near-term. Rather, it focuses on sending piloted spacecraft and crews into orbit around Mars and other exploration targets of interest, and conducting astronaut exploration of the surfaces using telerobots and remotely-controlled systems. By eliminating the significant communications delay or "latency" with Earth due to the speed of light limit, teleoperation provides scientists real-time control of rovers and other sophisticated instruments. This in effect gives them a "virtual presence" on planetary surfaces, and thus expands the scientific return at these destinations. HERRO mitigates several of the major issues that have hindered the progress of human spaceflight beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by: (1) broadening the range of destinations for near-term human missions; (2) reducing cost and risk through less complexity and fewer man-rated elements; (3) offering benefits of human-equivalent in-situ cognition, decision-making and field-work on planetary bodies; (4) providing a simpler approach to returning samples from Mars and planetary surfaces; and (5) facilitating opportunities for international collaboration through contribution of diverse robotic systems. HERRO provides a firm justification for human spaceflight—one that expands the near-term capabilities of scientific exploration while providing the space transportation infrastructure needed for eventual human landings in the future.

  11. Thermal Stresses In Space-Shuttle Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.

    1989-01-01

    Combined thermal deformations of wing-skin panel and TPS would not tear SIP layer. Report presents analysis of thermal stresses induced in skin panel, thermal-protection system (TPS), and strain-isolation pad (SIP) of Space Shuttle orbiter. Purpose of analysis to determine whether any part of above mentioned structures overstressed and overdeformed under reentry heating, assuming one TPS tile lost at end of reentry heating.

  12. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  13. Engineering in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  14. Propulsion and power for 21st century aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Whitlow, Woodrow

    2004-05-01

    Air transportation in the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meet public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st century aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, highly efficient, virtually inaudible (outside airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO 2 and NO x). This vision includes intelligent engines capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish missions with either minimal or no human intervention. Distributed vectored propulsion will replace current two to four wing mounted and fuselage mounted engine configurations with a large number of small, mini, or micro engines. Other innovative concepts, such as the pulse detonation engine (PDE), which potentially can replace conventional gas turbine engines, also are reviewed. It is envisioned that a hydrogen economy will drive the propulsion system revolution towards the ultimate goal of silent aircrafts with zero harmful emissions. Finally, it is envisioned that electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  15. Teaching health in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Lee-Ann

    2015-01-01

    School nurses have a broad scope of practice, including direct clinical care, as well as teaching health lessons. Students in the 21st century require educators who understand the current global needs of these learners. Effective health teaching meets these 21st-century needs. This article presents a background of 21st-century learning, with specific recommendations for teaching this generation of students. PMID:25626242

  16. Teachers for the 21st Century: Redefining Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockett, Hugh T.

    1996-01-01

    In the 21st century, the redefinition of teacher professionalism will include three primary features: recognizing oneself as a learner; using that learning-centered spirit to transform schools into learning organizations; and reasserting one's own moral autonomy to provide space and time for serious, reflective thought and study. This redefinition…

  17. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  18. Navigating Massively Multiplayer Online Games: Evaluating 21st Century Skills for Learning within Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreery, Michael P.; Schrader, P. G.; Krach, S. Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    There is a substantial and growing interest in immersive virtual spaces as contexts for 21st century skills like problem solving, communication, and collaboration. However, little consideration has been given to the ways in which users become proficient in these environments or what types of target behaviors are associated with 21st century…

  19. Dynamic characteristics of a space-station solar wing array

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, J.T.; Bush, H.G.

    1984-06-01

    Describes a solar-wing-array concept which meets space-station requirements for minimum fundamental frequency, component modularity, and growth potential. The basic wing-array design parameters are varied, and the resulting effects on the array vibration frequencies and mode shapes are assessed. The transient response of a free-free space station (incorporating a solar-wing-array point design) to a load applied at the space-station center is studied. The use of the transient response studies in identifying critically loaded structural members is briefly discussed.

  20. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  1. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey…

  2. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  3. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  4. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  5. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  6. 21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

  7. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  8. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  9. Interior view of space in north wing, showing main entry; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of space in north wing, showing main entry; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north from the south end. The doorway at far right connects with the dining area. - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  11. Urbanization in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Altarejos, R G

    1990-01-01

    Due to a combination of rapid population growth and high levels of rural-urban migration, overcrowding will be common in many cities around the world in the 21st century. Currently at 5.3 billion, the global population is expected to increase to 6 billion by the year 2000, and to 9 billion by 2025. Experts predict that urban centers will bear the brunt of the population growth. Rural areas have seen declines in the standard of living, partly due to natural disasters, civil war, and economic policies favoring urban centers. In search of jobs, better access to education, and health services, rural populations will flock to cities. But the rapid growth of cities will inevitably lead to the creation of slums, which will hamper urban development. Urban demographers predict that by the end of the century, 1/2 of the world's population will be urban, and 1/5 of these people will be concentrated in "mega cities," populations of 4 million or more. International migration will play a significant role, as people cross borders in search of opportunity. But contrary to the traditional model of urban growth, much of it will take place in developing countries. According to a 1985 study, developed nations had an urbanization level of 71%, compared to 31% in developing countries. However, experts calculate that by 2025, these levels will practically even out, with an urbanization level of 74% for developing countries and 77% for developed countries. By 2025, 25 cities will have populations of over 9 million, including Mexico City (25.8), Sao Paulo (24.0), Tokyo (20.2), Calcutta (16.5), Greater Bombay (16.0), and New York (15.8). PMID:12343167

  12. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  13. Atomic and molecular data for space astronomy - Needs, analysis, and availability; 21st IAU General Assembly, Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 23-Aug. 1, 1991, Selected Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter L. (Editor); Wiese, Wolfgang L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on atomic and molecular spectroscopic data for space astrophysics discusses scientific problems and laboratory data needs associated with the Hubble Space Telescope, atomic data needed for far ultraviolet astronomy with HUT and FUSE and for analysis of EUV and X-ray spectra, and data for observations of interstellar medium with the Hubble Space Telescope. Attention is also given to atomic and molecular data for analysis of IR spectra from ISO and SIRTF, atomic data from the opacity project, sources of atomic spectroscopic data for astrophysics, and summary of current molecular data bases.

  14. Space-time computational analysis of MAV flapping-wing aerodynamics with wing clapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Buscher, Austin

    2015-06-01

    Computational analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics with wing clapping was one of the classes of computations targeted in introducing the space-time (ST) interface-tracking method with topology change (ST-TC). The ST-TC method is a new version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized ST (DSD/SST) method, enhanced with a master-slave system that maintains the connectivity of the "parent" fluid mechanics mesh when there is contact between the moving interfaces. With that enhancement and because of its ST nature, the ST-TC method can deal with an actual contact between solid surfaces in flow problems with moving interfaces. It accomplishes that while still possessing the desirable features of interface-tracking (moving-mesh) methods, such as better resolution of the boundary layers. Earlier versions of the DSD/SST method, with effective mesh update, were already able to handle moving-interface problems when the solid surfaces are in near contact or create near TC. Flapping-wing aerodynamics of an actual locust, with the forewings and hindwings crossing each other very close and creating near TC, is an example of successfully computed problems. Flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV) with the wings of an actual locust is another example. Here we show how the ST-TC method enables 3D computational analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics of an MAV with wing clapping. In the analysis, the wings are brought into an actual contact when they clap. We present results for a model dragonfly MAV.

  15. Science for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  16. The effect of phase angle and wing spacing on tandem flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broering, Timothy M.; Lian, Yong-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    In a tandem wing configuration, the hindwing often operates in the wake of the forewing and, hence, its performance is affected by the vortices shed by the forewing. Changes in the phase angle between the flapping motions of the fore and the hind wings, as well as the spacing between them, can affect the resulting vortex/wing and vortex/vortex interactions. This study uses 2D numerical simulations to investigate how these changes affect the leading dege vortexes (LEV) generated by the hindwing and the resulting effect on the lift and thrust coefficients as well as the efficiencies. The tandem wing configuration was simulated using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver at a chord-based Reynolds number of 5 000. A harmonic single frequency sinusoidal oscillation consisting of a combined pitch and plunge motion was used for the flapping wing kinematics at a Strouhal number of 0.3. Four different spacings ranging from 0.1 chords to 1 chord were tested at three different phase angles, 0°, 90° and 180°. It was found that changes in the spacing and phase angle affected the timing of the interaction between the vortex shed from the forewing and the hindwing. Such an interaction affects the LEV formation on the hindwing and results in changes in aerodynamic force production and efficiencies of the hindwing. It is also observed that changing the phase angle has a similar effect as changing the spacing. The results further show that at different spacings the peak force generation occurs at different phase angles, as do the peak efficiencies.

  17. Learning for the 21st Century: A Report and MILE Guide for 21st Century Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills is a public-private organization of leaders and educators in business and education that works to close the gap between the knowledge and skills most students learn in school and the knowledge and skills they need in a typical 21st century community and workplace. The Partnership's work includes:…

  18. Thermal response of Space Shuttle wing during reentry heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, L.; Ko, W. L.; Quinn, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite element thermal analysis computer program was used in the heat transfer analysis of the space shuttle orbiter that was subjected to reentry aerodynamic heatings. One wing segment of the right wing (WS 240) and the whole left wing were selected for the thermal analysis. Results showed that the predicted thermal protection system (TPS) temperatures were in good agreement with the space transportation system, trajectory 5 (STS-5) flight-measured temperatures. In addition, calculated aluminum structural temperatures were in fairly good agreement with the flight data up to the point of touchdown. Results also showed that the internal free convection had a considerable effect on the change of structural temperatures after touchdown.

  19. Thermal response of Space Shuttle wing during reentry heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, L.; Ko, W. L.; Quinn, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite element thermal analysis computer program was used in the heat transfer analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter that was subjected to reentry aerodynamic heatings. One wing segment of the right wing (WS 240) and the whole left wing were selected for the thermal analysis. Results showed that the predicted thermal protection system (TPS) temperatures were in good agreement with the space transportation system, trajectory 5 (STS-5) flight-measured temperatures. In addition, calculated aluminum structural temperatures were in fairly good agreement with flight data up to the point of touchdown. Results also showed that the internal free convection has a considerable effect on the change of structural temperatures after touchdown.

  20. Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the

  1. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  2. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  3. Faculty Development for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Veronica; Garrett, P. B.; Kinley, Edward R.; Moore, John F.; Schwartz, Celeste M.; Kohrman, Pat

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, colleges and universities need to consider faculty development programs in the same way that they view academic programs for their Net Gen and Millennial students. In other words, successful faculty development programs should include mentoring, delivery in a variety of on-campus and off-campus formats (face-to-face, blended,…

  4. A Vision of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

  5. American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    This book examines American education at the turn of the new millennium. It reviews its history and suggests, in broad terms, where it may be headed in the 21st century. Topics considered include a brief survey of the education "scene" today, the notion of a global village and ramifications for a global curriculum, technology related to globalism,…

  6. Transcendent Schools for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monberg, Greg; Kacan, George; Bannourah, Riyad

    2011-01-01

    Amidst the debate over funding cuts, an increased focus on teacher effectiveness, and the move toward e-learning, many question the importance of quality educational facilities. But an examination of developmental and psychological theory suggests that exceptional schools have an exciting and crucial role to play in 21st century education. So,…

  7. Developing Leaders for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

  8. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  9. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  10. The 21st-Century Urban Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Like schools in the early twentieth century, urban schools in the early 21st century pose challenges to educators at all levels. Large and growing numbers of students whose first language is not English, students with special needs, students of color and students from low-income homes demand new approaches for which many educators might not have…

  11. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  12. Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, James M.

    Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

  13. The 21st-Century Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education…

  14. Reality Therapy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbolding, Robert E.

    This book serves as a comprehensive and practical guide to reality therapy, and extends its principles and practices beyond the initial descriptions. A central theme of this edition is that reality therapy is a method inherently designed for the exigencies of the 21st century. It contains 22 types of self-evaluations counselors can use to shorten…

  15. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  16. Transportation fuels for the 21st century

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

  17. Creativity in 21st-Century Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Lynn D.; Newton, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    The 2006 UNESCO conference "Building Creative Competencies for the 21st Century" had international participants and a global reach. The Director-General's proclamation that "Creativity is our hope" captured the essence of the proceedings and participants saw the focus on creativity as offering solutions to global problems.…

  18. Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a project that underscores the critical role of this nation's museums and libraries in helping citizens build such 21st century skills as information, communications and technology literacy, critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, civic literacy, and global awareness. Recognizing that every individual requires these…

  19. Psychological Science in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacioppo, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Science is constantly changing. If one hopes to keep pace with advances in science, one cannot simply repeat what one has done in the past, whether deciding how to invest limited research funds, searching to replace a retiring colleague, or teaching introductory psychology. Psychological science in the 21st century is more central and integrated…

  20. Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A proposal called, 'Scientific Literacy for the 21st Century (SL-21)', has been introduced, suggesting ways in which NASA may work to increase scientific literacy in the U.S. The future need for an adequate supply of scientists and engineers for the space program is discussed. The principles of the SL-21 proposal are outlined. The program would emphasize education in the fields of space technologies and earth and planetary sciences. The educational elements of the proposal for teachers, students, universities, and the general adult population are described.

  1. Novel Propulsion and Power Concepts for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA s vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and NO(x)). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines. And the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions.

  2. Revolutionary Propulsion Systems for 21st Century Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehra, Arun K.; Shin, Jaiwon

    2003-01-01

    The air transportation for the new millennium will require revolutionary solutions to meeting public demand for improving safety, reliability, environmental compatibility, and affordability. NASA's vision for 21st Century Aircraft is to develop propulsion systems that are intelligent, virtually inaudible (outside the airport boundaries), and have near zero harmful emissions (CO2 and Knox). This vision includes intelligent engines that will be capable of adapting to changing internal and external conditions to optimally accomplish the mission with minimal human intervention. The distributed vectored propulsion will replace two to four wing mounted or fuselage mounted engines by a large number of small, mini, or micro engines, and the electric drive propulsion based on fuel cell power will generate electric power, which in turn will drive propulsors to produce the desired thrust. Such a system will completely eliminate the harmful emissions. This paper reviews future propulsion and power concepts that are currently under development at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  3. Computer-aided space shuttle orbiter wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Decker, J. P.; Rau, T. R.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been made to provide a space shuttle orbiter wing design that met the guideline requirements of landing performance, stability, and hypersonic trim for a specified center-of-gravity envelope. The analytical study was facilitated by the use of the Optimal Design Integration system (ODIN) and the experimental part of the investigation was conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel and the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel.

  4. Oceanography for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    2005-12-01

    Textbooks and most oceanography courses are organized around the 19th century concepts of biological, chemical, geological, and physical oceanography. This approach fails to involve students in the interesting problems of the 21st century: the role of the ocean in climate and weather, fisheries, and coastal problems, all of which involve a complex interplay of chemical, biological, and physical systems plus policy issues. To make my oceanography and environmental geosciences courses more relevant, I organize them around case studies such as coastal pollution or climate change. After using this approach for two years, I find students are much more interested in the ocean, and they understand the relevance of the ocean to their daily lives. Because no textbook is very useful for teaching these case studies, I have begun to write a new open-source book: Oceanography for the 21st Century: An Ocean Planet.

  5. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  6. Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol

    2009-01-01

    In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

  7. NASA's Vision for 21st Century Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents NASA's Vision for the 21st Century Aircraft. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision; 2) NASA Installations; 3) Research and Technology Products; 4) Future Plans; 5) Revolutionary Vehicles; 6) Aeropropulsion-NASA's Future Direction; 7) Gas Turbine Revolution; 8) Variable Capability, Ultra High Bypass Ratio Intelligent Engines: Fundamental Technologies; 9) Distributed Vectored Propulsion; and 10) Alternative Energy Propulsion. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  8. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burke, Thomas A.; Jones, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the “Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments” workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered. PMID:27035154

  9. Atmospheric reentry flight test of winged space vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatani, Yoshifumi; Akiba, Ryojiro; Hinada, Motoki; Nagatomo, Makoto

    A summary of the atmospheric reentry flight experiment of winged space vehicle is presented. The test was conducted and carried out by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Feb. 1992 in Kagoshima Space Center. It is the first Japanese atmospheric reentry flight of the controlled lifting vehicle. A prime objective of the flight is to demonstrate a high speed atmospheric entry flight capability and high-angle-of-attack flight capability in terms of aerodynamics, flight dynamics and flight control of these kind of vehicles. The launch of the winged vehicle was made by balloon and solid propellant rocket booster which was also the first trial in Japan. The vehicle accomplishes the lfight from space-equivalent condition to the atmospheric flight condition where reaction control system (RCS) attitude stabilization and aerodynamic control was used, respectively. In the flight, the vehicle's attitude was measured by both an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and an air data sensor (ADS) which were employed into an auto-pilot flight control loop. After completion of the entry transient flight, the vehicle experienced unexpected instability during the atmospheric decelerating flight; however, it recovered the attitude orientation and completed the transonic flight after that. The latest analysis shows that it is due to the ADS measurement error and the flight control gain scheduling; what happened was all understood. Some details of the test and the brief summary of the current status of the post flight analysis are presented.

  10. Managing Reliability in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.

    1998-11-23

    The rapid pace of change at Ike end of the 20th Century should continue unabated well into the 21st Century. The driver will be the marketplace imperative of "faster, better, cheaper." This imperative has already stimulated a revolution-in-engineering in design and manufacturing. In contrast, to date, reliability engineering has not undergone a similar level of change. It is critical that we implement a corresponding revolution-in-reliability-engineering as we enter the new millennium. If we are still using 20th Century reliability approaches in the 21st Century, then reliability issues will be the limiting factor in faster, better, and cheaper. At the heart of this reliability revolution will be a science-based approach to reliability engineering. Science-based reliability will enable building-in reliability, application-specific products, virtual qualification, and predictive maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate a dialogue on the future of reliability engineering. We will try to gaze into the crystal ball and predict some key issues that will drive reliability programs in the new millennium. In the 21st Century, we will demand more of our reliability programs. We will need the ability to make accurate reliability predictions that will enable optimizing cost, performance and time-to-market to meet the needs of every market segment. We will require that all of these new capabilities be in place prior to the stint of a product development cycle. The management of reliability programs will be driven by quantifiable metrics of value added to the organization business objectives.

  11. The Death of Rocket Science in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Webb, Darryl W.

    As we enter the 21st century, the lack of a space propulsion science discipline - involving the development of new emerging physical theories and models - within the bounds of Rocket Science forbids any rapid development of ideas and concepts toward new frontiers in spaceflight and implies a stagnate death in the advancement of Rocket Science as a whole. Specifically, the conventional disciplines in Rocket Science lacks foresight into the physics of acceleration to include the nature of gravity and inertia, which is foremost needed for the progression of spaceflight. In this paper is discussed various topics toward the understanding that space propulsion science is not a major player in Rocket Science, but must become so, if Rocket Science is to evolve the necessary new frontiers needed for future space exploration.

  12. Maglev: Transportation for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, G.M.; Gillies, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    The noise, gaseous and particulate pollution inherent in 19th and 20th century transportation must be eliminated from the city of the 21st century. If cities are to achieve their full potential as economic and cultural centers they must possess superior transportation systems. Ultra-silent, energy stingy, non-polluting maglevs can furnish the passenger and freight transportation system that the coming millennium will demand. Maglev floats railroad-like cars on a magnetic field a few inches above an elevated guideway. The cars can move at any convenient speed up to 300 mph. Yet, maglev produces less noise than a well muffled automobile, no vibration and no pollution.

  13. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  14. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  15. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

  16. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio and number of control surfaces. A doublet lattice approach is taken to compute generalized forces. A rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. Although, all parameters can be easily modified if desired.The focus of this paper is on tool presentation, verification and validation. This process is carried out in stages throughout the paper. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool. Therefore the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using V-g and V-f analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind tunnel results for the same structure. Finally a case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to V-g and V-f analysis. This also includes the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  17. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this paper is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the paper. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  18. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  19. The planetary exploration program - A preview of plans for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosendhal, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Interplanetary missions which may be pursued in the late 20th and early 21st centuries are discussed, with emphasis on possible roles for the Space Station in the IOC and in growth configurations. The Station could serve as an assembly, fueling and tracking base for interplanetary missions, first unmanned and then manned.

  20. 21st International Congress on Anticancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Magné, Nicolas; Pacaut, Cécile; Chargari, Cyrus

    2010-05-01

    The 21st International Congress on Anticancer Treatment, endorsed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, was held in Paris (France) 1-5 February 2010. It was led and jointly sponsored by Gabriel Hortobagyi and David Khayat and by the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (TX, USA) and the Hôpital de la Pitié Salpêtrière (Paris, France), respectively. The meeting provided complete updates and innovations in the management of various cancers and supportive care. This well-recognized annual international educational and scientific conference brought together the leading scientists from across the world to share their skills and expertise by participating in this high-quality meeting. This congress provides an exceptional opportunity to meet with fellow professionals and discuss new educational case studies. In the present article, we have highlighted particularly pertinent sessions concerning hot topics for the new areas of cancer. PMID:20469995

  1. 21st century advanced hydropower turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Brookshier, P.A.; Flynn, J.V.; Loose, R.R.

    1995-11-01

    While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven`t changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, since little was known about environmental effects of hydropower at the time. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the hydropower industry recognize that hydropower plants have an effect on the environment and there is a great need to bring turbine designs into the 21st century. DOE has issued a request for proposals (RFP) that requested proposers to discard conventional thinking, search out innovative solutions, and to visualize innovative turbines designed from a new perspective. This perspective would look at the {open_quotes}turbine system{close_quotes} (intake to tailrace) which will balance environmental, technical, and economic considerations. This paper describes the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program.

  2. Snake oil for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Bigby, M

    1998-12-01

    Dermatology has been associated with quackery for at least a century. The dictionary defines a quack as "a pretender to medical knowledge or skill; ignorantly or falsely pretending to cure." The term quack is derived from quacksalver, or one who quacks like a duck in promoting his salves. Quacksalvers hacked many potions, including snake oil, with claims that it cured everything from dermatitis to rheumatism. With the current promulgation of skin "products" and their promotion and even sale by dermatologists, and the use of treatments of no proven efficacy, this association between dermatology and quackery is set to continue well into the 21st century. The list of offending treatments includes silicone gel sheets and onion extract cream (Mederma) for keloids, alpha-hydroxy acid creams and peels, topical ascorbic acid and phytonadione, "laser resurfacing," and cimetidine for warts, to name only a few. PMID:9875187

  3. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  4. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  5. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  6. Fostering Higher Order Critical Thinking in 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Mary Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teachers working with increasingly diverse student populations are expected, for the first time in American history, to bring all students to high levels of proficiency. American graduates must compete with graduates from other nations, given the realities of the 21st century global economy. American teachers must possess 21st century skills in…

  7. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    How are AASL's (American Association of School Librarians) new learning standards, the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," incorporated into the school library media program? This publication from AASL takes an in-depth look at the strands of the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and the indicators within those strands. It also…

  8. Motives of 21st-Century-Skills Group Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Depending on whom one asks, "21st-century skills" can mean different things: technology literacy, the ability to analyze and apply knowledge, a knack for working effectively with colleagues in teams. In what is probably its most visible form for educators, though, the term refers to the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the Tucson,…

  9. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  10. A Hierarchy of 21st Birthday Drinking Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21st birthday drinking. In recent years, 21st birthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…

  11. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  12. Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills. The Classroom Strategies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating. Teachers and administrators must lead the cultural shift required to ensure their students can survive and thrive in the changing world. In Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills the authors present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of…

  13. Assessing Transition Skills in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Dawn A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Hirano, Kara; Alverson, Charlotte Y.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the demanding 21st-century workforce, local education agencies are beginning to refocus and retool to ensure students with disabilities have the knowledge and skills to be productive adults and attain positive postschool outcomes. The skills 21st-century transition assessments address are relevant to teachers and students given the…

  14. Investigating Projective Identity Trajectories for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the importance of studying identity in the context of 21st century learning. Identity is an evolving trajectory that is always in-flux or changing. In a fast changing 21st century, educators are recognizing the significance of identity work, in particular projective identity, as individuals participate in…

  15. Vaccines for the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  16. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  17. Colistin in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Colistin is a 50 year-old antibiotic that is being used increasingly as a ‘last-line’ therapy to treat infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria, when essentially no other options are available. Despite its age, or because of its age, there has been a dearth of knowledge on its pharmacological and microbiological properties. This review focuses on recent studies aimed at optimizing the clinical use of this old antibiotic. Recent findings A number of factors, including the diversity in the pharmaceutical products available, have hindered the optimal use of colistin. Recent advances in understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of colistin, and the emerging knowledge on the relationship between the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, providing a solid base for optimization of dosage regimens. The potential for nephrotoxicity has been a lingering concern, but recent studies provide useful new information on the incidence, severity and reversibility of this adverse effect. Recent approaches to the use of other antibiotics in combination with colistin hold promise for increased antibacterial efficacy with less potential for emergence of resistance. Summary Because few, if any, new antibiotics with activity against MDR Gram-negative bacteria will be available within the next several years, it is essential that colistin is used in ways that maximize its antibacterial efficacy and minimize toxicity and development of resistance. Recent developments have improved use of colistin in the 21st century. PMID:19797945

  18. Space Ops 2002: Bringing Space Operations into the 21st Century. Track 3: Operations, Mission Planning and Control. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle-Concepts for Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    With the successful implementation of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enters a new era of opportunity for scientific research. The ISS provides a working laboratory in space, with tremendous capabilities for scientific research. Utilization of these capabilities requires a launch system capable of routinely transporting crew and logistics to/from the ISS, as well as supporting ISS assembly and maintenance tasks. The Space Shuttle serves as NASA's launch system for performing these functions. The Space Shuttle also serves as NASA's launch system for supporting other science and servicing missions that require a human presence in space. The Space Shuttle provides proof that reusable launch vehicles are technically and physically implementable. However, a couple of problems faced by NASA are the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining the Space Shuttle and its relative inability to support high launch rates. The 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV) is NASA's solution to this problem. The 2nd Gen RLV will provide a robust launch system with increased safety, improved reliability and performance, and less cost. The improved performance and reduced costs of the 2nd Gen RLV will free up resources currently spent on launch services. These resource savings can then be applied to scientific research, which in turn can be supported by the higher launch rate capability of the 2nd Gen RLV. The result is a win - win situation for science and NASA. While meeting NASA's needs, the 2nd Gen RLV also provides the United States aerospace industry with a commercially viable launch capability. One of the keys to achieving the goals of the 2nd Gen RLV is to develop and implement new technologies and processes in the area of flight operations. NASA's experience in operating the Space Shuttle and the ISS has brought to light several areas where automation can be used to augment or eliminate functions

  19. Technology and the 21st Century government organization

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Bronzini, M.S.; Goeltz, R.T.; Hilliard, M.; Irby, M.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents a conceptual design for the 21st Century government organization. This design is applicable to the future US Postal Service and generalizable to other large government agencies. The design is based on conjectures in three areas: capabilities of information technology in the early 21st Century; motivations, needs, strengths, and weaknesses of members of the 21st Century workforce; and needs of large public organizations. The design addresses topics such as coordination, career tracks, communications, and the seamless integration of information resources.

  20. Technology and the 21st Century government organization

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Bronzini, M.S.; Goeltz, R.T.; Hilliard, M.; Irby, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design for the 21st Century government organization. This design is applicable to the future US Postal Service and generalizable to other large government agencies. The design is based on conjectures in three areas: capabilities of information technology in the early 21st Century; motivations, needs, strengths, and weaknesses of members of the 21st Century workforce; and needs of large public organizations. The design addresses topics such as coordination, career tracks, communications, and the seamless integration of information resources.

  1. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  2. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  3. EDITORIAL: The 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    This Topical Issue contains works presented at the 21st Nordic Semiconductor Meeting (21NSM) held at Sundvolden, Norway, 18-19 August 2005. The institutions supporting 21NSM were: University of Oslo, SINTEF, the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment and Vestfold University College. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting has become an international forum that has been held every other year in a relay fashion in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of the meeting has been on original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems. Reports on industrial activity have usually been featured at the meetings. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. For the last five meetings the proceedings have been printed in a dedicated volume of Physica Scripta in the Topical Issue series. The papers in this Topical Issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the expected high standards of the series. The range of topics covered by this volume is broad, reflecting the call for papers; most of the papers have an element of materials science and the largest portion of these deal with other semiconductor materials other than silicon. The 21NSM was supported by the following sponsors: Renewable Energy Corporation (REC), EMF III-V Innovations (EMF), and the Nordic Research Board (NordForsk). Terje G Finstad Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway Andrej Y Kuznetsov and Bengt G Svensson Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, Norway

  4. Interview: 21st century battlefield pain management.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Colonel Chester 'trip'

    2013-07-01

    Colonel Chester 'Trip' Buckenmaier 3rd, MD, speaks to Dominic Chamberlain, Assistant Commissioning Editor: Colonel Buckenmaier is the current Director of the Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management (MD, USA) and Fellowship Director of the Acute Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Washington DC (USA). He is an Associate Professor in Anesthesiology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda (MD, USA), and a Diplomat with the American Board of Anesthesiology. He attended Catawba College (NC, USA), on a Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) scholarship, graduating with a degree in Biology and Chemistry in 1986. He then attended East Carolina University in Greenville (NC, USA), receiving a Master in Science in Biology in 1988. In 1992, he graduated from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, completing his Anesthesia Residency at Walter Reed. In addition, he completed a 1-year Fellowship in Regional Anesthesia at Duke University (NC, USA) in 2002, resulting in the creation of the only Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship in the US military at Walter Reed (Washington, DC, USA). In September 2003, he deployed with the 21st Combat Support Hospital to Balad (Iraq), and demonstrated that the use of advanced regional anesthesia can be accomplished in a forward deployed environment. He performed the first successful continuous peripheral nerve block for pain management in a combat support hospital. In April 2009, he deployed to Camp Bastion (Afghanistan) with the British military and ran the first acute pain service in a theater of war. The Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Medicine (DVCIPM) is dedicated to improving pain management throughout the continuum of care for service personnel and their families. PMID:24654812

  5. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  6. Engineering in the 21st century. [aerospace technology prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the nature of the aerospace technology system that might be expected by the 21st century from a reasonable evolution of the current resources and capabilities. An aerospace employment outlook is provided. The years 1977 and 1978 seem to be marking the beginning of a period of stability and moderate growth in the aerospace industry. Aerospace research and development employment increased to 70,000 in 1977 and is now occupying a near-constant 18% share of the total research and development work force. The changing job environment is considered along with the future of aerospace education. It is found that one trend is toward a more interdisciplinary education. Most trend setters in engineering education recognize that the really challenging engineering problems invariably require the judicious exercise of several disciplines for their solution. Some future trends in aerospace technology are discussed. By the year 2000 space technology will have achieved major advances in four areas, including management of information, transportation, space structures, and energy.

  7. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  8. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  9. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  10. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document summarizes the principal findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the first year of the 21st Century Jobs Initiative. Launched by leaders of the the 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley,{close_quotes} the Jobs Initiative is an action-oriented strategic plan that responds to the region`s most pressing economic challenges. Department of Energy funds have supported the initiative and Tennessee`s Resource Valley, the region`s premier marketing and promotion organization, has spearheaded the project. Consulting assistance has been provided by a team lead by DRI/McGraw-Hill`s Economic Competitiveness Group and IC{sup 2}, Dr. George Kozmetsky`s organization affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin. The consultants have developed several reports and other materials that may be of interest to the reader.

  11. Girltalk: Energy, Climate and Water in the 21ST Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, H. C.; Osborne, V.; Bush, R.; Bauer, S.; Bourgeois, E.; Brownlee, D.; Clark, C.; Ellins, K. K.; Hempel-Medina, D.; Hernandez, A.; Hovorka, S. D.; Olson, J. E.; Romanak, K.; Smyth, R. C.; Tinker, S.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Williams, I. P.

    2011-12-01

    In preparation for Earth Science Week, The University of Texas at Austin, Striker Communications and Ursuline Academy of Dallas partnered on a GirlTalk event ("Energy, Climate and Water in the 21st Century") to create a two-day (Fri-Sat), community science symposium and open house on critical issues surrounding energy, water and climate. On Friday, over 800 high school girls and 100 teachers from Ursuline participated in hands-on activities (led by faculty, researchers and graduate students from UT Austin and professionals from the surrounding Dallas community), films and discussions, plenary sessions and an expert panel discussion. An opening talk by Dr. Hilary Olson on "Energy, Water and Climate in the 21st Century: Critical Issues for the Global Community" began the day. A series of hands-on activities, and science and technology films with discussion followed. Each girl had an individualized, modular schedule for the day, completing four of the over twenty modules offered. During lunch, Dr. Scott Tinker, Director of the Bureau of Economic Geology, presented a compelling talk on "Time, Technology and Transition", and afterwards girls attended another round of hands-on activities in the afternoon. The day ended with a panel discussion where girls could submit questions to the various participants from the day's activities. The exciting experience of a full day of GirlTalk led many high school girls to volunteer for the middle school event on the following morning (Sat.), when 150 middle school girls and their mentors (parents, teachers) attended a community-wide public event to learn about the energy, water and climate nexus. "Breakfast with a Pro" was hosted by the various professionals. Girls and their mentors enjoyed breakfast and discussion about topics and careers in the earth sciences and engineering with presenters, followed by an informal discussion with a panel of professionals. Next, girls and their mentors were each given a pre-assigned individual

  12. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents. PMID:26201169

  13. Langley Ground Facilities and Testing in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Kilgore, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A strategic approach for retaining and more efficiently operating the essential Langley Ground Testing Facilities in the 21st Century is presented. This effort takes advantage of the previously completed and ongoing studies at the Agency and National levels. This integrated approach takes into consideration the overall decline in test business base within the nation and reduced utilization in each of the Langley facilities with capabilities to test in the subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regimes. The strategy accounts for capability needs to meet the Agency programmatic requirements and strategic goals and to execute test activities in the most efficient and flexible facility operating structure. The structure currently being implemented at Langley offers agility to right-size our capability and capacity from a national perspective, to accommodate the dynamic nature of the testing needs, and will address the influence of existing and emerging analytical tools for design. The paradigm for testing in the retained facilities is to efficiently and reliably provide more accurate and high-quality test results at an affordable cost to support design information needs for flight regimes where the computational capability is not adequate and to verify and validate the existing and emerging computational tools. Each of the above goals are planned to be achieved, keeping in mind the increasing small industry customer base engaged in developing unpiloted aerial vehicles and commercial space transportation systems.

  14. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  15. Streamlined payload processing in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Craig; Meade, Phillip

    2001-02-01

    Launching payloads into space continues to be a weekly occurrence around the world. Although it is becoming commonplace, it has not become a low-cost or low-risk, quick and simple process. Out of these conditions, concepts have been developed and efforts are underway to create a generic set of processes and tools that will advance payload processing into the 21st Century by making it more efficient and less complicated. These new approaches are developing more cost effective, shorter cycle time processes, and require fewer resources than in the past. The KSC Center of Excellence for Payload Processing, built on the last 40 years of experience in processing all types of payloads (Shuttle, Expendable, Space Station, etc.), has been addressing these areas. Development is complete and operations are underway on the high fidelity checkout system used to perform final verification of flight interfaces between the International Space Station (ISS) and its science experiments. This system is typical of what has been used in the past for verifying interfaces which include: high, medium, and low rate data communications; video, command and data handling; power; and fluids/gases. The system also contains an ISS Program equivalent ground station, which will receive and process payload telemetry and distribute that telemetry to the appropriate customers. The recently developed concepts and projects underway address the lifecycle of payload processing, integrating agency and customer needs and requirements, and support geographically distributed processing. These concepts have driven out areas of synergy and leverage which enable large improvements to be proposed for payloads headed for Space Station or flying on Shuttle. .

  16. Wind-tunnel roll-damping measurements of a winged space shuttle configuration in launch attitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. W.; Davenport, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Ground-wind load studies were conducted on three model configurations to assess the importance of aeroelastic instabilities of erected space shuttle vehicles. Roll damping was measured on a fuselage-alone model, which had a D cross section, and a fuselage and tail surfaces in combination with either a clipped-delta wing or a low-sweep tapered wing as the primary lifting surface. The largest negative roll-damping coefficients were measured with the fuselage-alone configuration and were a function of wind azimuth. At the wind azimuths at which the wing-fuselage configuration was unstable, the negative roll-damping coefficients were a function of reduced frequency.

  17. [NASA] in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the NASA programs in support of Aeronautical and Space research. This research involves imagining the future of air travel. There are three major Aeronautics technology programs: (1) Fundamental Aeronautics, (2) Aviation Safety and (3) Airspace Systems. The aim of exploring the depths of the universe through earth based and space based assets. Other Space programs include the plans for exploration of the moon and Mars.

  18. The 21st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    During the symposium technical topics addressed included deployable structures, electromagnetic devices, tribology, actuators, latching devices, positioning mechanisms, robotic manipulators, and automated mechanisms synthesis. A summary of the 20th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium panel discussions is included as an appendix. However, panel discussions on robotics for space and large space structures which were held are not presented herein.

  19. Classrooms for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owu, Michael

    1992-01-01

    A seven-step strategy for improvement of college classroom spaces is outlined, and specific suggestions are made for designing efficient and effective spaces, including considerations for size, arrangement, seating, lighting, writing surfaces, and audiovisual and other classroom teaching equipment. (MSE)

  20. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity." PMID:8291948

  1. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  2. Transforming Postsecondary Education for the 21st Century. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    These briefing papers focus on key roles and issues postsecondary education will face in the 21st century. Together they are intended to stimulate debate and discussion and to encourage alternative perspectives and thoughtful actions. This collection is meant to be the opening of a necessary public conversation. The papers are: (1) "Help Wanted:…

  3. Basic Selection Tools: 21st-Century Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jody K.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting materials for school libraries has always been a challenging task, but it has become much more complicated in the 21st Century. A school librarian at a junior high in the late 1990s could allot a certain portion of her budget for reference books, the general circulating collection, a few audiovisual materials, and newspapers and…

  4. Higher Education Staff Development: Directions for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jennifer; And Others

    This collection of 13 papers offers an international perspective on future directions of staff development at colleges and universities, focusing on academic staff development, higher education teaching networks, and managerial and human resource development. Papers are: (1) "Higher Education Staff Development for the 21st Century: Directions for…

  5. Building Guided Inquiry Teams for 21st-Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Maniotes, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    How can students learn to think for themselves, make good decisions, develop expertise, and become lifelong learners in a rapidly changing information environment? How can students learn, create, and find meaning from multiple sources of information? These are fundamental questions facing educators in designing schools for 21st-century learners.…

  6. Martian weather and climate in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The historical interest in the weather and climate of Mars and current understanding of aspects of the present climate are addressed. Scientific research into the weather and climate of Mars in the next century is examined. The impact of the Martian weather of the 21st century on humans that may then be inhabiting the planet is considered.

  7. Developing Classroom Web Sites for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingen, Jennifer; Philbeck, Lauren; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom Web sites have the potential to support and enhance student learning by targeting 21st century skills, such as collaboration among teachers, students, parents, and other teachers, media literacy, and interpersonal and self-directional skills, as well as thinking and problem-solving skills. Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, vokis, and podcasts…

  8. Reading into the Future: Competence for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    In this theoretical contribution, our purpose is to examine the nature of reading competence as it unfolds at the present and to project that nature into the future. More specifically, we ask what it will mean to be a competent reader for the 21st century and what combination of knowledge, beliefs, abilities, and processes that competence will…

  9. Toward the 21st Century in Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C., Ed.

    In an effort to prepare students for the 21st century, this book provides ideas and suggestions for educators on critical areas in mathematics education. A series of articles is presented on content changes, instructional strategies, and the role of computers. These articles include: (1) "Status of Computers" (John Ellsworth); (2) "New Topics for…

  10. E-Classroom of the 21st Century: Information Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatumbi, Oso Senny

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of technology into the classroom has revolutionized teaching and learning process. The 21st century learning environment creates exciting learning for students to collaborate and learn at their own pace making them active participants in learning process. The teacher is no-longer a dictator, pouring knowledge into passive learners…

  11. Considerations for 21st-Century Disciplinary Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englehart, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    While the conceiving of 21st-century schools has rightly included much discussion on curriculum and instruction, changing demands and conditions also present necessary changes in the way that student behavior is managed. A review of the literature on student discipline over the past decade reveals three particular issues that warrant attention in…

  12. Building the New Workplace for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looking Ahead, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This serial issue, which is devoted to the challenges that recent changes in the U.S. workplace pose for society and labor-management relations, contains nine papers focusing on the following aspects of building a new workplace for the 21st century: historical and current perspectives; workforce and workplace changes; education and training of the…

  13. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  14. Losing America's Memory: Historical Illiteracy in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Anne D.; Martin, Jerry L.; Moses, Mashad

    The importance of a shared memory appears to have lost its foothold in higher education. As the nation moves forward into the 21st century, future leaders are graduating with an alarming ignorance of their heritage--a kind of collective amnesia--and a profound historical illiteracy that bodes ill for the future of the republic. The American…

  15. Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woocher, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A century ago a group of educators led an effort to transform American Jewish education to enable it to operate successfully in the 20th century. Today, with American Jews living under very different conditions, a similar effort is needed to reinvent Jewish education for the 21st century. Changes and new initiatives already taking place on the…

  16. Model Eliciting Activities: Fostering 21st Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah

    2013-01-01

    Real world mathematical modeling activities can develop needed and valuable 21st century skills. The knowledge and skills to become adept at mathematical modeling need to develop over time and students in the elementary grades should have experiences with mathematical modeling. For this to occur elementary teachers need to have positive…

  17. Connecting the Digital Dots: Literacy of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Kavalier, Barbara R.; Flannigan, Suzanne L.

    2006-01-01

    Prior to the 21st century, "literate" defined a person's ability to read and write, separating the educated from the uneducated. With the advent of a new millennium and the rapidity with which technology has changed society, the concept of literacy has assumed new meanings. Experts in the field suggest that the current generation of…

  18. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  19. Grandma Moses in the 21st Century. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the life and career of Grandma Moses who was born as Anna Mary Robertson and painted in the style of folk or naive art. Addresses the art exhibition entitled "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century" that explores the recurring themes in her artwork. (CMK)

  20. Global Trends in Language Learning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Today's language classroom is vastly different from that of the mid- to late 20th century. The study is a meta-analysis of recent research which provided the means to identify current and emerging trends in the field. Informed by this research, some identified trends that are shaping the 21st century language classroom are outdated practices such…

  1. Educator or Bully? Managing the 21st Century Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliaro, Marie

    2011-01-01

    "Educator or Bully?" offers a comprehensive approach to classroom management for both novice and veteran teachers who are interested in examining their current classroom management performance, especially with respect to how it reflects the characteristics of the 21st century classroom. Practices presented are based on sound educational theory.…

  2. Backers of "21st-Century Skills" Take Flak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The phrase "21st-century skills" is everywhere in education policy discussions these days, from faculty lounges to the highest echelons of the U.S. education system. Broadly speaking, it refers to a push for schools to teach critical-thinking, analytical, and technology skills, in addition to the "soft skills" of creativity, collaboration, and…

  3. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  4. Universal Education: A Goal for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, W. Douglas

    The most important worldwide goal of the 21st century should be universal education; that is, by the year 2099, every child, no matter where, should have access to free, state-sponsored education for 12 years. In committing themselves to the 100-year goal, each nation should keep in mind these 5 important facts: (1) within a nation with sufficient…

  5. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  6. Facility Planning for 21st Century. Technology, Industry, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Franklin

    When the Orange County School Board (Orlando, Florida) decided to build a new high school, they recognized Central Florida's high technology emphasis as a special challenge. The new facility needed to meet present instructional demands while being flexible enough to incorporate 21st century technologies. The final result is a new $30 million high…

  7. Attention, and Other 21st-Century Social Media Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheingold, Howard

    2010-01-01

    If educators want to discover how they can engage students as well as themselves in the 21st century, they must move beyond skills and technologies. They must explore the interconnected social media literacies of (1) attention; (2) participation; (3) cooperation; (4) network awareness; and (5) critical consumption. In this article, the author…

  8. Celebration Intoxication: An Evaluation of 21St Birthday Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neighbors, Clayton; Spieker, Casey J.; Oster-Aaland, Laura; Lewis, Melissa A.; Bergstrom, Rochelle L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors designed this study to evaluate the prevalence and magnitude of heavy drinking among college students in celebrating their 21st birthdays and the impact of a birthday card suggesting moderation. The authors randomly assigned subjects to receive or not receive the card approximately 1 week prior to their birthday. Approximately 1 week…

  9. Energy: a historical perspective and 21st century forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Salvador, Amos

    2005-07-01

    Contents are: Preface; Chapter 1: introduction, brief history, and chosen approach; Chapter 2: human population and energy consumption: the future; Chapter 4: sources of energy (including a section on coal); Chapter 5: electricity: generation and consumption; and Chapter 6: energy consumption and probable energy sources during the 21st century.

  10. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  11. Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Judith Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by technology and/or shipped off-shore. In their place, job categories that require knowledge management, abstract reasoning, and personal services seem to be growing. The modern workplace requires workers to have broad cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as "21st century…

  12. Reading Multimodal Texts in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2012-01-01

    As the world told becomes the world shown, the texts of the 21st century will require teachers to adopt new skills, strategies, and pedagogical frameworks to support students' transactions with multimodal texts. This shift from a focus on monomodal, print-based texts to a focus on the skills necessary for producing and consuming multimodal texts…

  13. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  14. Economies of eLearning in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasraie, Noah; Kasraie, Esrafill

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and advancements in the field of information technology have opened up unprecedented opportunities for every citizen to succeed in the 21st Century. Higher education has been utilizing the new technology by offering web-based education. Many universities today offer online classes and even online degrees using eLearning. But how can…

  15. Career Development: Preparing for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Robert, Ed.; And Others

    The articles in this monograph deal with various aspects of career development and the difficulties youth will have in making decisions that will propel them into the 21st century. Included are an introduction by Garry Walz, a foreword by Robert Hanson, and these articles: (1) "The Changing Face of the Workplace: 1986-2000" (Kenneth B. Hoyt); (2)…

  16. 21st Century Standards and Curriculum: Current Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alismail, Halah Ahmed; McGuire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The integration of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and 21st century skills in the curriculum is not only beneficial to students and teachers, but also necessary to prepare our youth for their future careers. In an age of education where standardized tests determine the success of our schools, it is important to allow students the creativity and…

  17. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  18. Preparing School Personnel for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces this theme issue on teacher education and professional development of school personnel in the 21st century. Illustrates how power struggles and other obstacles within the education system can sabotage efforts to provide professional development opportunities. Asserts that the complexities of teacher education will increase in the 21st…

  19. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  20. Higher Education in International Perspective - Toward the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G.

    This book presents a collection of essays dealing with key issues and trends facing the future of higher education on the international level as the world moves into the 21st century. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Idea of the University: Changing Roles, Current Crisis and Future Challenges" (Torsten Husen); "Patterns in Higher…

  1. Overcoming Challenges: Superintendent's 21st Annual Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Superintendent's 21st Annual Report, a comprehensive overview of Hawaii's public schools for school year 2009-10. This report contains essential progress indicators and measures, as well as highlights and comparisons of core educational data presented in a concise and user-friendly format. Appended are: (1) Glossary; (2)…

  2. 21st Century Skills and the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigeman, Sally; Bruecken, Peter

    2009-11-01

    What content knowledge and skills will today's physics students need to acquire to be successful employees in the 21st century? How can today's physics classrooms prepare students for collaboration in a global work environment? What kind of instruction can engage physics students in learning that supports these demands? Attend this session to find out what motivates today's Net Generation.

  3. A Parent's Guide to 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Lucas Educational Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Step-by-step, schools from the elementary through high school levels are making the transition to 21st-century learning. Some have crossed the threshold almost entirely. In today's progressive classrooms, yesterday's rows of quiet listeners have given way to small groups of active learners, thoroughly engaged in discussions and explorations. And…

  4. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  5. Rediscovering Substance of Soul in 21st Century Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Middle schools take on a higher purpose by making every effort to empower all of their students to attain their highest potential. This article rediscovers the "substance of soul" in the 21st century middle schools. The author stresses that returning to one's substance of soul goes beyond merely revisiting what educators truly value and then…

  6. Preparing for the 21st Century: The EFG Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    An EFG school seeks to prepare students for the 21st century by assuming that education is a pathway to be climbed and that curriculum must be connected to the real world. It develops competencies in three domains: (1) ecological, the relationship between humans and the planet; (2) futures, humans' relationship with time; and (3) global,…

  7. Five Ideas for 21st Century Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the 21st Century Skills Movement and the successful teaching practices of Asian schools in order to provide five suggestions that secondary math teachers can incorporate into their classrooms in order to promote the skill set necessary for an ever-changing global economy. Problem-based instruction, student-led solutions, risk…

  8. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  9. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  10. Engineering Education for Leadership in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirasinghe, Chan

    The engineering profession and, consequently, the education process for engineers must respond to several new realities in order to be successful in the 21st century. Some aspects of the new reality that are relevant to engineering education are as follows: the globalization of commerce; the information revolution; innovations in technology; the…

  11. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  12. Vision for a 21st Century Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    In order to ensure that the United States maintains an advanced information infrastructure, the Council on Competitiveness has started a project on the 21st century infrastructure. Participating in this project are the many different parties who are providing and using the infrastructure, including cable companies, regional Bell companies, long…

  13. 21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Shutthanandan, V.; Wang, Yongqiang; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Rout, Bibhudutta

    2014-08-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA – 2013). This conference was held in Marriott Waterfront in Seattle, Washington, USA during June 23–28, 2013.

  14. 21st Century Readiness Skills for Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Tyrone L.

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century has embraced the technological age by storm and has approached us quicker than most have expected, leaving many still stuck in the 20th century. Technical careers require very skilled workers and their education has sprung as a strong vehicle all over the country but still most of our employed citizens, especially the youth, have…

  15. A Guide for 21st Century School Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Education Service District, Eugene, OR. Oregon Professional Development Center.

    This guidebook was designed to help educational practitioners and community members in Oregon understand the issues regarding school-council formation and development. In 1991 the Oregon State Legislature passed the Oregon Educational Act for the 21st Century, mandating a fundamental change in public education. The Act assigns school councils the…

  16. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  17. Evidence-Based Strategies for Leading 21st Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    How can a school best use technology for teaching and learning? This inspiring book profiles eight visionary schools that are achievers in how they approach technology. In this companion to "Leading 21st Century Schools," Lynne Schrum and Barbara Levin offer insights direct from principals, teachers, superintendents, and others involved in…

  18. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  19. Economic and Financial Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark; Lopus, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills places an important emphasis on fundamental social science subjects including history, geography, government and civics, and economics as well as a stress on other important subjects such as English, foreign languages, arts, and science in the school curriculum. It has also identified what it calls 21st…

  20. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  1. Defining Postsecondary Degrees in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Kenneth I.; Guffey, James; Oliverio, Ponzio

    2016-01-01

    The competition for jobs in the 21st century is increasingly being driven by defining postsecondary learning in light of new and complex environments. To succeed, students must be prepared with knowledge to compete in these environments. Historically, higher education has defined these requirements in their own terms, often through learning…

  2. Changing Chemical Education for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, George E.

    2005-01-01

    A change of science program to help graduate as well as undergraduate students to choose multidisciplinary careers in 21st century is discussed. This would help serve better not only to students but the entire profession of chemical science as well as the scientific proficiency of the entire country.

  3. A "Liberating" Education for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    This speech discusses the development of a true undergraduate liberal education for the 21st century that is also global in scope. It argues that liberal education is failing in its goal to truly educate students. The mission of every college or university should be to advance students' knowledge, skills, abilities, and values for an international…

  4. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  5. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  6. Technology Integration for the "New" 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Nancye

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic shift is sweeping through the schools. Third graders texting on their cell phones. Kindergarteners who can navigate an iPod Touch better than educators can. Middle schoolers who already have an Internet following on their blog or YouTube channel. These are not the same 21st century learners people came to know over the first decade of…

  7. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

  8. On the wings of a dream: The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Described are the organization and some of the interests and missions of NASA, the Space Transportation System, the Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise, astronaut training and clothing, being launched into space, living and working in weightlessness, extravehicular activity, and the return from space to Earth. The various aspects of living in space are treated in considerable detail. This includes how the astronauts prepare food, how they eat and drink, how they sleep, exercise, change clothes and handle personal hygiene when in space.

  9. On the Wings of a Dream: The Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This booklet describes the development, training, and flight of the space shuttle. Topics are: (1) "National Aeronautics and Space Administration"; (2) "The Space Transportation System"; (3) "The 'Enterprise'"; (4) "The Shuttle Orbiter"; (5) "Solid Rocket Boosters"; (6) "The External Tank"; (7) "Astronaut Training"; (8) "Getting to Space"; (8)…

  10. Analytic State Space Model for an Unsteady Finite-Span Wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izraelevitz, Jacob; Zhu, Qiang; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Real-time control of unsteady flows, such as force control in flapping wings, requires simple wake models that easily translate into robust control designs. We analytically derive a state-space model for the unsteady trailing vortex system behind a finite aspect-ratio flapping wing. Contrary to prior models, the downwash and lift distributions over the span can be arbitrary, including tip effects. The wake vorticity is assumed to be a fully unsteady distribution, with the exception of quasi-steady (no rollup) geometry. Each discretization along the span has one to four states to represent the local unsteady wake-induced downwash, lift, and circulation. The model supports independently time-varying velocity, heave, and twist along the span. We validate this state-space model through comparison with existing analytic solutions for elliptic wings and an unsteady inviscid panel method.

  11. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  12. Celestial Navigation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, George H.

    2014-05-01

    Despite the ubiquity of GPS receivers in modern life for both timekeeping and geolocation, other forms of navigation remain important because of the weakness of the GPS signals (and those from similar sat-nav systems) and the ease with which they can be jammed. GPS jammers are available for sale on the Internet. The defense and civil aviation communities are particularly concerned about “GPS denial”, whether intentional or accidental, during critical operations.Automated star trackers for navigation have been available since the 1950s. Modern compact observing systems, operating in the far-red and near-IR bands, can detect useful numbers of stars even in the daytime at sea level. A capability to measure the directions of stars relative to some local set of coordinate axes is advantageous for many types of vehicles, whether on the ground, at sea, in the air, or in space, because it provides a direct connection to the inertial reference system represented by current star catalogs. Such a capability can yield precise absolute orientation information not available in any other way. Automated celestial observing systems can be effectively coupled to inertial navigation systems (INS), providing “truth” data for constraining the drift in the INS navigation solution, even if stellar observations are not continuously available due to weather. However, obtaining precise latitude and longitude from stellar observations alone, on a moving platform, remains a challenge, because it requires a determination of the direction to the center of the Earth, i.e., the gravity vertical. General relativity tells us that on-board (“lab”) measurements cannot separate the acceleration of gravity from the acceleration of the platform. Various schemes for overcoming this fundamental problem have been used in the past, at low accuracy, and better ones have been proposed for modern applications. This paper will review some recent developments in this rapidly advancing field.

  13. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Maoist insurgency. (5) Glacier lakes are in many cases very fragile and their natural dams routinely rupture, causing devastating floods. A rising regional terrorist threat in several countries could target these dams and precipitate calamitous and terrifying results. (6) Over the next century, retreating glaciers may open new corridors for trade and human migration across the Himalaya and pave the way for possible new economic, military and political alliances in the region. (7) Glacier retreat might open new sanctuaries for terrorists and open new corridors for possible ground-based military offensive action across the HKH ranges. The documentation of glacier characteristics that may influence their trafficability, and projections of future glacier extent and behavior are relevant to wide ranging concerns of the region's inhabitants. Satellite remote sensing and mapping of glaciers is one approach to defining and monitoring the problems and opportunities presented by HKH glaciers. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is a joint USGS/NASA Pathfinder project that has formed a global consortium of glaciologists in several regional centers that are mapping and monitoring the HKH glaciers using repeat-pass ASTER and Landsat ETM+ data. We are currently building a comprehensive satellite multispectral image and GIS database that is providing detailed information on the state and rates of change of each glacier in the HKH region and other areas of the world. Merging these results with DEMs allows a predictive capability that could be useful in policy development and security planning.

  14. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  15. Formative Report on the District of Columbia 21st Century Community Learning Center Summer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Jacqueline; Chaplin, Duncan

    This report describes the implementation of the DC 21st Century Learning Centers (DC 21st CCLC) Summer 2000 program, which enrolled about 1,000 children attending 9 middle and junior high schools. The report is designed to provide feedback to managers of the DC 21st CCLC program and to inform Children and Youth Investment Partnership, of which DC…

  16. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  17. The Role of the School District toward Preparing Students for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar-Torres, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reflects the outcomes of a small school district that is successfully incorporating 21st century skills with the demands set forth by our current educational policy, No Child Left Behind. Considerations regarding globalization, future work force and work skills, definition of 21st century skills, supporting 21st century skills in…

  18. 78 FR 4860 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps...

  19. 77 FR 22798 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES.... App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold...

  20. 77 FR 47432 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, we announce that the 21st Century Conservation...

  1. 77 FR 14561 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold a meeting. Background Chartered...

  2. 78 FR 33436 - Notice of 2013 Meeting Schedule for Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of 2013 Meeting Schedule for Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee... Park Service, Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee will meet on June 28, 2013, at Sandy Hook... April 15, 2013, Federal Register. DATES: The Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee will meet...

  3. Examining the 21st Century Classroom: Developing an Innovation Configuration Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.; Mason, Candice

    2014-01-01

    Despite it being the second decade of the 21st century, there still exists a range of definitions of what a 21st century learning environment is. This can be troublesome for teacher educators as we strive to prepare teachers for environments we can't clearly describe. In order to describe a 21st century learning environment, we developed an IC Map…

  4. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills in High Achieving Elementary Schools in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egnor, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if practices that advocate for 21st century skills are in conflict with the mandates of NCLB. Interviews with influential school leaders of high achieving elementary schools focused on collecting data about 21st century skills. This study was designed to (a) Determine if 21st century skills are addressed in high achieving…

  5. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  6. Wings In Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, N. Wayne (Editor); Lulla, Kamlesh (Editor); Lane, Helen W. (Editor); Chapline, Gail (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This Space Shuttle book project reviews Wings In Orbit-scientific and engineering legacies of the Space Shuttle. The contents include: 1) Magnificent Flying Machine-A Cathedral to Technology; 2) The Historical Legacy; 3) The Shuttle and its Operations; 4) Engineering Innovations; 5) Major Scientific Discoveries; 6) Social, Cultural, and Educational Legacies; 7) Commercial Aerospace Industries and Spin-offs; and 8) The Shuttle continuum, Role of Human Spaceflight.

  7. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  8. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-12-31

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions.

  9. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  10. Geriatric Dentistry in the 21st Century: Environment and Opportunity.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Paul

    2015-07-01

    The aging of the baby boomers in the 21st century is creating unprecedented numbers of vulnerable older adults. The increase in people keeping their teeth and their increasingly complex conditions all point to more people with more complex needs. Although these demographic shifts are providing unparalleled challenges for our health care system, they also bring new opportunities to develop and implement innovative systems for reaching and maintaining the oral health of older Americans. PMID:26819998

  11. The 21st International Workshop on Vertex Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 21st International Workshop on Vertex Detectors was held in Jeju, Korea from Sept. 16 to Sept. 21, 2012. The progress on silicon based vertexing and tracking detectors and related technologies is reviewed in this conference. The conference covers performance results and operational issues of LHC silicon detectors, radiation hard technologies, electronics, new silicon detector developments, device and detector simulation and upgrades of present detectors.

  12. Lunar bases and space activities of the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The present conference gives attention to such major aspects of lunar colonization as lunar base concepts, lunar transportation, lunar science research activities, moon-based astronomical researches, lunar architectural construction, lunar materials and processes, lunar oxygen production, life support and health maintenance in lunar bases, societal aspects of lunar colonization, and the prospects for Mars colonization. Specific discussions are presented concerning the role of nuclear energy in lunar development, achromatic trajectories and the industrial scale transport of lunar resources, advanced geologic exploration from a lunar base, geophysical investigations of the moon, moon-based astronomical interferometry, the irradiation of the moon by particles, cement-based composites for lunar base construction, electrostatic concentration of lunar soil minerals, microwave processing of lunar materials, a parametric analysis of lunar oxygen production, hydrogen from lunar regolith fines, metabolic support for a lunar base, past and future Soviet lunar exploration, and the use of the moons of Mars as sources of water for lunar bases.

  13. Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.

    1987-01-01

    Preflight thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and the thermal protection system (TPS) was performed. The heated skin panel analyzed was rectangular in shape and contained a small square cool region at its center. The wing skin immediately outside the cool region was found to be close to the state of elastic instability in the chordwise direction based on the conservative temperature distribution. The wing skin was found to be quite stable in the spanwise direction. The potential wing skin thermal instability was not severe enough to tear apart the strain isolation pad (SIP) layer. Also, the preflight thermal stress analysis was performed on the TPS tile under the most severe temperature gradient during the simulated reentry heating. The tensile thermal stress induced in the TPS tile was found to be much lower than the tensile strength of the TPS material. The thermal bending of the TPS tile was not severe enough to cause tearing of the SIP layer.

  14. Avian Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  15. Conference Report: 21st Power and Energy Society Annual Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goda, Tadahiro; Iba, Kenji

    The 21st Power and Energy Society Annual Conference was held on September 1-3, 2010 at Kyushu University. The total number of technical papers was 376, and technical sessions were 53 (52 oral sessions and 1 poster session). An invited lecture, a panel discussion, technical exhibitions and two technical tours were organized. All events were very well attended and the final enrollment attained to 969 registrations. The conference was successfully closed by the great contribution of all participants. The outline of the conference is reported in this article.

  16. Buildings for the 21st Century, Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-04-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The spring issue contains information on a series of high-performance building brochures, the State Energy Program, a new modular and manufactured home, a new buildings database, solid-state ceramic lighting, weatherization, simplified Web site addresses, a Colorado home builder, and upcoming events and meetings.

  17. Buildings for the 21st Century, Fall 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-10-01

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The fall issue includes information on weatherization, Boise's geothermal heating system, the BTS Core Databook, the Solar Decathlon, a Rebuild America partnership, the BigHorn Home Improvement Center, AIA's Top Ten Buildings, a sub-CFL procurement program, the U.S. investment in energy efficient research, new efficiency standards, PNNL's building software, and a calendar of meetings and conferences.

  18. Nursing and the 21st century: what's happened to leadership?

    PubMed

    Borbasi, Sally; Gaston, Carol

    2002-01-01

    This paper has stemmed from several conversations between the authors over recent times about the current state of leadership in nursing. The authors believe a lack of effective leadership has much to do with the times in which we live. As a result, this paper explores leadership against a backdrop of social and political change and seeks to revise the concept in light of 21st century developments. The demise of leadership is discussed and ideas about the emergence of new leadership brought to light. Finally the need for nurses and nursing to shake off the depressive effects of economic rationalism, join forces and unite for a cause is recommended. PMID:11893115

  19. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  20. Standoff jamming in the 21st century - The EC multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Lance; Black, Al

    1987-02-01

    Consideration is given to a jamming aircraft screening friendly aircraft in the presence of threat radars such as missile-associated radars and radars employed in guiding interceptor aircraft. In these ranks are early warning (EW), acquisition, target tracking, and ground and air controlled intercept radars. A 21st century standoff jamming (SOJ) system block diagram is given. Transmitters, electronic support measures, and EW command and control are discussed as well as reliability, maintainability, and cost. It is concluded that several megawatts of EW ERP (effective radiated power) will be required to enable each SOJ platform to effectively counter multiple radars from the protection afforded by long standoff range.

  1. Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence on a broad range of time scales, from Proterozoic to the most recent periods, shows that the Earth's climate responds sensitively to global forcings. In the past few decades the Earth's surface has warmed rapidly, apparently in response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The conventional view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate in the 21st century. I will describe an alternate scenario that would slow the rate of global warming and reduce the danger of dramatic climate change. But reliable prediction of future climate change requires improved knowledge of the carbon cycle and global observations that allow interpretation of ongoing climate change.

  2. Space Based Ornithology: On the Wings of Migration and Biophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of bird migration on a global scale is one of the compelling and challenging problems of modern biology with major implications for human health and conservation biology. Migration and conservation efforts cross national boundaries and are subject to numerous international agreements and treaties. Space based technology offers new opportunities to shed understanding on the distribution and migration of organisms on the planet and their sensitivity to human disturbances and environmental changes. Migration is an incredibly diverse and complex behavior. A broad outline of space based research must address three fundamental questions: (1) where could birds be, i.e. what is their fundamental niche constrained by their biophysical limits? (2) where do we actually find birds, i.e. what is their realizable niche as modified by local or regional abiotic and biotic factors, and (3) how do they get there (and how do we know?), that is what are their migration patterns and associated mechanisms? Our working hypothesis is that individual organism biophysical models of energy and water balance, driven by satellite measurements of spatio-temporal gradients in climate and habitat, will help us to explain the variability in avian species richness and distribution. Dynamic state variable modeling provides one tool for studying bird migration across multiple scales and can be linked to mechanistic models describing the time and energy budget states of migrating birds. Such models yield an understanding of how a migratory flyway and its component habitats function as a whole and link stop-over ecology with biological conservation and management. Further these models provide an ecological forecasting tool for science and application users to address what are the possible consequences of loss of wetlands, flooding, drought or other natural disasters such as hurricanes on avian biodiversity and bird migration.

  3. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  4. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  5. Mobile DNA and evolution in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Scientific history has had a profound effect on the theories of evolution. At the beginning of the 21st century, molecular cell biology has revealed a dense structure of information-processing networks that use the genome as an interactive read-write (RW) memory system rather than an organism blueprint. Genome sequencing has documented the importance of mobile DNA activities and major genome restructuring events at key junctures in evolution: exon shuffling, changes in cis-regulatory sites, horizontal transfer, cell fusions and whole genome doublings (WGDs). The natural genetic engineering functions that mediate genome restructuring are activated by multiple stimuli, in particular by events similar to those found in the DNA record: microbial infection and interspecific hybridization leading to the formation of allotetraploids. These molecular genetic discoveries, plus a consideration of how mobile DNA rearrangements increase the efficiency of generating functional genomic novelties, make it possible to formulate a 21st century view of interactive evolutionary processes. This view integrates contemporary knowledge of the molecular basis of genetic change, major genome events in evolution, and stimuli that activate DNA restructuring with classical cytogenetic understanding about the role of hybridization in species diversification. PMID:20226073

  6. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Meinshausen, Malte; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Joos, Fortunat; Strassmann, Kuno M.; Smith, Steven J.; Wigley, T. M.; Raper, S.; Riahi, Keywan; De La Chesnaye, Francisco; Den Elzen, Michel; Fujino, Junicho; Kejun, Jiang; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Paltsev, S.; Reilly, J. M.

    2008-10-06

    Estimates on 21st century global mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multi-gas mitigation scenarios now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. By combing emission pathway results from multiple energy-economic models, we show that these mitigation scenarios result in a range of 21st century temperature increase of 0.5 to 4.2°C over 1990 levels as compared to 1.3-7.3 °C for the no-policy cases. About half the range is due to differences in the assumed stringency of the global climate policy and half is due to uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system, specifically, the carbon cycle and climate sensitivity. A minimum warming of about 0.5-2.7°C (avg. 1.3oC) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here - highlighting the need for both emission mitigation and adaptation policies.

  7. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Croyle, Robert T.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Kramer, Barnet S.; Lauer, Michael S.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M.; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving towards more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits. PMID:23462917

  8. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  9. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  10. Managing data for the international, multicentre INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    PubMed

    Ohuma, E O; Hoch, L; Cosgrove, C; Knight, H E; Cheikh Ismail, L; Juodvirsiene, L; Papageorghiou, A T; Al-Jabri, H; Domingues, M; Gilli, P; Kunnawar, N; Musee, N; Roseman, F; Carter, A; Wu, M; Altman, D G

    2013-09-01

    The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project data management was structured incorporating both a centralised and decentralised system for the eight study centres, which all used the same database and standardised data collection instruments, manuals and processes. Each centre was responsible for the entry and validation of their country-specific data, which were entered onto a centralised system maintained by the Data Coordinating Unit in Oxford. A comprehensive data management system was designed to handle the very large volumes of data. It contained internal validations to prevent incorrect and inconsistent values being captured, and allowed online data entry by local Data Management Units, as well as real-time management of recruitment and data collection by the Data Coordinating Unit in Oxford. To maintain data integrity, only the Data Coordinating Unit in Oxford had access to all the eight centres' data, which were continually monitored. All queries identified were raised with the relevant local data manager for verification and correction, if necessary. The system automatically logged an audit trail of all updates to the database with the date and name of the person who made the changes. These rigorous processes ensured that the data collected in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project were of exceptionally high quality. PMID:23679040

  11. Knowledge Discovery in Multidisciplinary Design Space for Regional-Jet Wings Using Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Kazuhisa; Jeong, Shinkyu; Obayashi, Shigeru

    Data mining is an important facet of solving multi-objective optimization problems. In the present study, two data mining techniques were applied to a large-scale, real-world multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) problem to provide knowledge regarding the design space. The use of MDO in the aerodynamics, structure, and aeroelasticity of a regional-jet wing was carried out using high-fidelity evaluation models with an adaptive range multi-objective genetic algorithm. As a result, nine non-dominated solutions were generated and used for tradeoff analysis of three objectives. All solutions evaluated during the evolution were analyzed for the influence of design variables using a self-organizing map (SOM) and a functional analysis of variance (ANOVA) to extract key features of the design space. As SOM and ANOVA compensate for respective disadvantages, the design knowledge could be obtained more clearly by combinating them. Although the MDO results showed inverted gull-wings as non-dominated solutions, one of the key features found by data mining was a non-gull wing geometry. When this knowledge was applied to one optimum solution, the resulting design was found to have better performance compared with the original geometry designed in the conventional manner.

  12. Test and Analysis Correlation of Form Impact onto Space Shuttle Wing Leading Edge RCC Panel 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Gabrys, Jonathan; Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Soon after the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) began their study of the space shuttle Columbia accident, "physics-based" analyses using LS-DYNA were applied to characterize the expected damage to the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) leading edge from high-speed foam impacts. Forensic evidence quickly led CAIB investigators to concentrate on the left wing leading edge RCC panels. This paper will concentrate on the test of the left-wing RCC panel 8 conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and the correlation with an LS-DYNA analysis. The successful correlation of the LS-DYNA model has resulted in the use of LS-DYNA as a predictive tool for characterizing the threshold of damage for impacts of various debris such as foam, ice, and ablators onto the RCC leading edge for shuttle return-to-flight.

  13. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At a special presentation in the IMAX 2 Theater in the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, the Hammer Award is presented to Kennedy Space Center and the 45th Space Wing. Among the attendees in the audience are (center) Center Director Roy D. Bridges Jr., flanked by (at left) Commander of the 45th Space Wing Brig. Gen. F. Randall Starbuck and (at right) Commander of the Air Force Space Command General Richard B. Myers. Standing second from right is NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin. At the far right is Morley Winograd, director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government, who presented the award. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J- BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB). Ed Gormel and Chris Fairey, co-chairs of the SEB, accepted the awards for the SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  14. Evaluation Results of a 21st Birthday Card Program Targeting High-Risk Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembroff, Larry; Atkin, Charles; Martell, Dennis; McCue, Cindy; Greenamyer, Jasmine T.

    2007-01-01

    The B.R.A.D. Birthday Card initiative was started on the campus of Michigan State University (MSU) in April 1999. MSU administrators send the safe-drinking 21st birthday card (B.R.A.D.) and laminated wallet card to students shortly before their 21st birthday. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the 21st birthday card, MSU and B.R.A.D.,…

  15. High manoeuvring costs force narrow-winged molossid bats to forage in open space.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Holderied, Marc W

    2012-04-01

    Molossid bats are specialised aerial-hawkers that, like their diurnal ecological counterparts, swallows and swifts, hunt for insects in open spaces. The long and narrow wings of molossids are considered energetically adapted to fast flight between resource patches, but less suited for manoeuvring in more confined spaces, such as between tree-tops or in forest gaps. To understand whether a potential increase in metabolic costs of manoeuvring excludes molossids from foraging in more confined spaces, we measured energy costs and speed of manoeuvring flight in two tropical molossids, 18 g Molossus currentium and 23 g Molossus sinaloae, when flying in a ~500 m(3) hexagonal enclosure (~120 m(2) area), which is of similar dimensions as typical forest gaps. Flight metabolism averaged 10.21 ± 3.00 and 11.32 ± 3.54 ml CO(2) min(-1), and flight speeds 5.65 ± 0.47 and 6.27 ± 0.68 m s(-1) for M. currentium and M. sinaloae respectively. Metabolic rate during flight was higher for the M. currentium than for the similar-sized, but broader-winged frugivore Carollia sowelli, corroborating that broad-winged bats are better adapted to flying in confined spaces. These higher metabolic costs of manoeuvring flight may be caused by having to fly slower than the optimal foraging speed, and by the additional metabolic costs for centripetal acceleration in curves. This may preclude molossids from foraging efficiently between canopy trees or in forest gaps. The surprisingly brief burst of foraging activity at dusk of many molossids might be related to the cooling of the air column after sunset, which drives airborne insects to lower strata. Accordingly, foraging activity of molossids may quickly turn unprofitable when the abundance of insects decreases above the canopy. PMID:22048527

  16. Energy Technologies for the Markets of the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R

    2001-10-01

    Energy is the fuel of economic development. Yet, this is lost on the over 2 billion people in the world without access to commercial energy, most in rural areas. Meeting their needs, along with the growing needs of the population already with access, provides very large markets for energy and energy services. Studies have repeatedly shown that technology is the single most important historical driver for productivity growth. Technology is also at the heart of the goals spelled out in the World Energy Council's Statement 2000 [l]: accessibility of reliable and affordable modern energy services for all the world's inhabitants; availability of high-quality reliable delivered energy; and acceptability of energy resources produced and used in harmony with the local, regional, and global environment. With this in mind, the World Energy Council (WEC) at the time of the 17th Congress in Houston decided to identify and examine some of the energy technologies that might sustain the world in the 21st century. This effort would examine steps that might be taken to ensure that these new technologies are available to the marketplace, and what role governments and industry might play to ensure this availability. The WEC launched a major study in 1999, Energy Technologies for the 21st Century, conducted by a study group composed of international energy experts [2]. The first part of the study examined trends in public and private research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) spending over the past 15 years to determine what has been happening with the resource base for future development. Improvements in energy technologies are attained through active RD&D performed now, in advance of their implementation. Energy RD&D also provides insurance against potential impacts such as climate change, oil price shocks, and disruptions in the energy distribution system [3]. This part of the study sought to answer the questions: What is the current situation with respect to energy RD&D and

  17. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  18. The prospect of laser fusion in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    2002-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has developed remarkably in the last 30 years. In the 21st century, we can expect fusion energy for civilian use. After the cold war era, the value of ICF has shifted from defense demands to peaceful applications. The megajoule laser systems are under construction expecting the development of spark ignition. However there are many problems to solve in science and technology. One alternative way is to use a petawatt short-pulse laser aiming for fast ignition. On the way to the final goal, we would like to contribute for various applications of high power lasers such as laboratory astrophysics, X-ray lasers, laser-induced lightning as well as laser processing.

  19. Quo vadimus? The 21st Century and multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Allan D.

    1991-01-01

    The concept is related of computer driven multimedia to the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program (STIP). Multimedia is defined here as computer integration and output of text, animation, audio, video, and graphics. Multimedia is the stage of computer based information that allows access to experience. The concepts are also drawn in of hypermedia, intermedia, interactive multimedia, hypertext, imaging, cyberspace, and virtual reality. Examples of these technology developments are given for NASA, private industry, and academia. Examples of concurrent technology developments and implementations are given to show how these technologies, along with multimedia, have put us at the threshold of the 21st century. The STI Program sees multimedia as an opportunity for revolutionizing the way STI is managed.

  20. [Environmental primary care for the 21st century].

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    Primary environmental care combines the original strategy proclaimed at Alma-Ata as primary health care and the conception of integral rural development that emerged from the agrarian policies of Third World countries during the seventies. Within the renewed goal of health for all in the 21st century, the primary environmental care strategy may be considered as all those actions necessary to improve and protect the local surroundings through foresight and prevention of possible problems, with tasks institutionalized at the local level. Analysis and practice of this strategy are based on a model focused on the promotion of human beings, the environment, and social development. Furthermore, it is founded on critical theory and has a holistic perspective. This operational frame encourages participation and action, thus endowing individuals, communities, and societies with the power to make decisions. In this way, leadership is created for the sustainable development of nations. PMID:9924511

  1. Adapting human lifestyles for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Howard, G S

    2000-05-01

    A number of ecological problems (e.g., global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, acid rain) have been identified, which threaten to reduce the quality of human life in the 21st century. These problems are human produced, resulting primarily from over-population and over-consumption. Alterations in people's awareness, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors may stimulate changes in their political and economic systems, which in turn might foster the kind of lifestyle changes that could mitigate these ecological problems. Psychologists can play a role in helping individuals and systems advance toward the goal of becoming a sustainable society: one that satisfies its current needs without jeopardizing the prospects of future generations. PMID:10842431

  2. Environmental crises of the 21st century: Response and responsibility

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, E.L. )

    1994-08-01

    This editorial examines the environmental awareness of society today of problems such as ozone depletion, global climate change, oil spills, acid rain, etc.. First Schrader discusses the three major components of environmental problems: physical, biological or chemical manifestation of a crisis; who, what caused it; and what is the response to it. Responsibility and response are discussed in greater detail. The author concludes that it will be incumbent on those living in the 21st century to react to their environmental inheritance, and there must be a committment to the purpose that the ethical and quantitative wisdom necessary to meet these chanlenges are a basic component of undergraduate curriculum in all colleges and universities.

  3. Heat stress and societal impacts in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat is the number-one weather related killer in the US and around the world. As a result of rising temperatures and steady or slightly rising levels of specific humidity, heat stress is projected to become increasingly severe. Here we show that heat stress as measured by two common indices -- the heat index and the wet-bulb temperature -- is projected to rapidly and dramatically increase, and that by mid-century crippling summertime conditions are possible across some of the most densely populated regions of the planet. Many of these regions are places where cooling infrastructure is scarce, adaptive capacity is low, and populations are rapidly rising. We find that by the end of the 21st century, the habitability of some regions of the planet may be questionable due to heat stress alone, and in many other regions severe impacts to human health, infrastructure, agriculture, and economic performance will create significant societal stress and necessitate rapid adaptation.

  4. The 21st century cures act: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sarpatwari, A; Kesselheim, A S

    2015-12-01

    On July 10, 2015, the U.S. House of Representatives overwhelmingly voted (344-77) to approve the 21st Century Cures Act, setting the stage for the Senate to consider its own version of the bill this fall. Such strong bipartisan support, rare in an age of congressional gridlock, might logically be interpreted as a sign of the Act's promise to foster innovative drug and device development. However, careful inspection reveals that while the Act contains some positive features, it represents a poor deal for Americans on balance that could result in the entry of more dangerous and ineffective drugs and devices onto the market and erode trust in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). PMID:26264909

  5. Surgical appreciation of Robert Boyle in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D L

    2000-12-01

    Robert Boyle was known as the Father of Chemistry. He lived at a time when science and religion were closely linked. It was a pious and puritanical time, but also a time of great enlightenment. His original and paramount thesis, that air has weight, has given us Boyle's gas law. Another of his writings in the Cowlishaw Collection is on religion. It is stated that, at one stage, he was deliberating whether to be a scientist or a priest. Surgical appreciation of Boyle's law has poignant application in scientific methods and research in the 21st century. The development of advanced laparoscopic surgery represents a challenging new era in surgery that was not envisaged by our surgical predecessors. Basic surgical research into the effects of gas pressure on renal function and bowel response will be presented. PMID:11167577

  6. The Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsouleas, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st century identified by the NAE re-frame the engineering profession in human facing terms rather than in terms of disciplines or devices. Nevertheless, plasmas will play a major role in solving many of these challenges. The challenges involve making the world more sustainable, more healthful, more secure and more joyful. From the challenge of Provide Clean Water (to nearly a billion people who lack regular access to it), to Provide Energy from Fusion and Engineer the Tools of Scientific Discovery, plasmas will play an essential role. This talk highlights progress on the NAE Grand Challenges and the role that plasmas are playing in addressing them. Particular attention will be given to plasma-based particle accelerators and the question of whether they really offer a path to smaller, cheaper accelerators that could impact human health through cancer therapies or enable new discoveries at the high energy frontier.

  7. 21st-century evolution of Greenland outlet glacier velocities.

    PubMed

    Moon, T; Joughin, I; Smith, B; Howat, I

    2012-05-01

    Earlier observations on several of Greenland's outlet glaciers, starting near the turn of the 21st century, indicated rapid (annual-scale) and large (>100%) increases in glacier velocity. Combining data from several satellites, we produce a decade-long (2000 to 2010) record documenting the ongoing velocity evolution of nearly all (200+) of Greenland's major outlet glaciers, revealing complex spatial and temporal patterns. Changes on fast-flow marine-terminating glaciers contrast with steady velocities on ice-shelf-terminating glaciers and slow speeds on land-terminating glaciers. Regionally, glaciers in the northwest accelerated steadily, with more variability in the southeast and relatively steady flow elsewhere. Intraregional variability shows a complex response to regional and local forcing. Observed acceleration indicates that sea level rise from Greenland may fall well below proposed upper bounds. PMID:22556249

  8. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation. PMID:27481371

  9. Initial rotation-loading and low speed flutter test results for a straight wing version of the space shuttle vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. W.; Wilcox, P. R.; Gambucci, B. J.

    1972-01-01

    For three straight semispan model space shuttle wings, the maximum total load during rapid rotation from 66 deg to 0 deg angle of attack, at Mach numbers from 0.28 to 0.60, was essentially no higher than that measured for buffet. During slow rotation over the same angle range, there was no visible flutter. For one of the wings, however, unstable aerodynamic damping was established at two fixed angles of attack.

  10. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  11. 21st Century Skills Development: Learning in Digital Communities--Technology and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of student performance in the 21 st century skills of Information and Communication (ICT) Literacy and collaboration. In this project, extant data from the Assessment and Teaching for 21st Century Skills project (ATC21S) will be examined. ATC21S is a collaborative effort among educational agencies in six countries,…

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: PARADIGMS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, Nashville, TN.. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL. Pp. p. 180.

    Bioavailability and rates...

  13. Theme: Is Teacher Education in Agriculture Needed in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Susan S., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Includes "Educating Leaders" (Townsend); "To Be or Not to Be" (Peasley); "That Was Then, This Is Now" (Knight); "Is Teacher Education in Agriculture Needed in the 21st Century?" (Hotaling); "Do We Need Teacher Education in the 21st Century?" (Conroy); "Who Is Going to Do What?" (Neason, Kotrlik); "Is There a Place for Teacher Education in the 21st…

  14. "21st-Century" Skills: Not New, but a Worthy Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of business leaders, politicians, and educators are united around the idea that students need "21st-century skills" to be successful today. It's exciting to believe that one lives in times that are so revolutionary that they demand new and different abilities. But in fact, the skills students need in the 21st century are not new.…

  15. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Afterschool and Summer Learning Support to Communities Nationwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative is the only federal funding source dedicated exclusively to before-school, afterschool, and summer learning programs. Each state education agency receives funds based on its share of Title I funding for low-income students at high-poverty, low performing schools. Funds are also…

  16. 78 FR 39251 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Partnership Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...The 21st Century Conservation Service Corps (21CSC) National Council is requesting letters of interest from all conservation and youth corps programs that would like to be identified as a 21CSC member organization. We are initiating this outreach in order to catalyze the establishment of a 21st Century Conservation Service Corps (21CSC) to engage young Americans and returning veterans in......

  17. Technology Education for the 21st Century: A Collection of Essays. 49th Yearbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. Eugene, Ed.

    These 38 essays in 4 units are directed toward the future of technology education. Unit I: Evolving into the 21st Century has one essay, entitled "The Past Defines the Paths to be Taken" (Jerry Streichler). Essays 2-18, in Unit II: Exemplary Practices for the 21st Century, are "Developing a Curriculum Process" (Bryan Albrecht); "Design Problem…

  18. 21st Century Learning: Law-Related Education in South Tucson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golston, Syd

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This Arizona high school magnet law program offers the ideal 21st century education--one that teaches skills through core subjects and interdisciplinary themes, uses innovative learning methods, and emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Students agree that the program has helped…

  19. Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abby; Valle, Katherine; Engle, Jennifer; Cooper, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This report, "Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students," examines the challenges facing 21st century students and presents strategies for addressing these challenges through policy-and practice-based solutions at the institutional, state and national levels. Recommendations include implementing a…

  20. Higher Education Administration and Globalization in the 21st Century in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbarifar, Taghi

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the changing scenario and management responsibilities of higher education in the 21st century in India. Of course, for those looking for challenges of management in higher education as a field, the future is not going to be a disappointment. Maybe by the end of the first decade of the 21st century management of higher…

  1. Middle Schools Preparing Young People for 21st Century Life and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ken

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how middle schools can prepare young people for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Integrating 21st century skills deliberately and systematically into middle school education will empower educators to accomplish many of the elusive goals they have tried to reach for years. Twenty-first…

  2. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  3. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  4. Worldwide Perspectives on the Educated Teen for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mednick, Fred

    This study examined abilities and conditions necessary to educate teens for the 21st century, surveying teachers worldwide on: characteristics necessary to meet 21st century challenges; opportunities and challenges to realizing those characteristics; beliefs about teaching practice and curriculum design; visions of an educated teen; and beliefs…

  5. Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the development of teacher identity in the 21st century. The simple way to describe this discussion of identity is that it is complex. In an attempt to unpack this complexity, this article begins with a discussion of definitions of teacher identity; then links that discussion to the literature on how 21st-century web 2.0…

  6. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to...

  7. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6,...

  8. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry, food...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The...

  9. California Community Colleges Family and Consumer Sciences: A Plan for the 21st Century Update, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    This update of the 1998 Plan for the 21st Century was designed to augment the California Community College Family and Consumer Sciences in the 21st Century packet, produced in 1996. It summarizes a variety of activities, products and events that have taken place over the past two years, and suggests resources and contacts for learning more about…

  10. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  11. Kinesiology Faculty for the 21st Century: Steping into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Kinesiology faculty for the 21st century was one of the featured strands of the 2014 NAKHE Collaborative Congress: "STEPS into the future: Exploring opportunities and facing the challenges for the 21st century." Following a brief introduction delegates were assigned to discussion groups with conversations focused around six…

  12. Rethinking Management Education for the 21st Century. Research in Management Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankel, Charles, Ed.; DeFillippi, Robert, Ed.

    This book series focuses on trends in theory and practice likely to influence 21st century management education. This first volume examines a series of innovative and distinctive approaches to rethinking management education for the 21st century. Part 1 of the collection, "Rethinking What We Teach," contains: (1) "Development of Political Skill"…

  13. Inquiring into Professional Development in a Newly Designed 21st Century School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkenhauer, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Prevalent new paradigms are emphasizing the need for more powerful learning opportunities that meet the needs of 21st century learners. One way to change education to better meet the needs of the 21st century is to reimagine school architecture. The purpose of this research was to study the ways practitioner inquiry can serve as a mechanism for…

  14. 77 FR 33479 - 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Office of the Secretary 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... public meeting of the 21st Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES... Century Conservation Service Corps Advisory Committee will hold a meeting. Background Chartered...

  15. When 21st-Century Schooling Just Isn't Good Enough: A Modest Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    2009-01-01

    Quite a few school district administrators, and even more people who are not educators but are kind enough to offer their advice about how the field can be improved, have emphasized the need for "21st-century schools" that teach "21st-century skills." However, this is not enough, particularly now that some adversaries (in other words, people who…

  16. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  17. Teaching 21st Century Competencies: Lessons from Crescent Girls' School in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…

  18. High School Principals' Rating of Success in Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Sonn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate how Rhode Island high school principals rate success in implementing 21st century skills in their schools. Secondly, this study investigated how high school principals rate the influence of implementing of 21st century skills in curriculum and instruction in their schools. The high…

  19. Vulnerability of carbon storage in North American boreal forests to wildfires during the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, Anthony David; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The boreal forest contains large reserves of carbon. Across this region, wildfires influence the temporal and spatial dynamics of carbon storage. In this study, we estimate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage for boreal North America over the 21st century. We use a gridded data set developed with a multivariate adaptive regression spline approach to determine how area burned varies each year with changing climatic and fuel moisture conditions. We apply the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to evaluate the role of future fire on the carbon dynamics of boreal North America in the context of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and climate in the A2 and B2 emissions scenarios of the CGCM2 global climate model. Relative to the last decade of the 20th century, decadal total carbon emissions from fire increase by 2.5–4.4 times by 2091–2100, depending on the climate scenario and assumptions about CO2fertilization. Larger fire emissions occur with warmer climates or if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur. Despite the increases in fire emissions, our simulations indicate that boreal North America will be a carbon sink over the 21st century if CO2 fertilization is assumed to occur in the future. In contrast, simulations excluding CO2 fertilization over the same period indicate that the region will change to a carbon source to the atmosphere, with the source being 2.1 times greater under the warmer A2 scenario than the B2 scenario. To improve estimates of wildfire on terrestrial carbon dynamics in boreal North America, future studies should incorporate the role of dynamic vegetation to represent more accurately post-fire successional processes, incorporate fire severity parameters that change in time and space, account for human influences through increased fire suppression, and integrate the role of other disturbances and their interactions with future fire regime.

  20. Wings in Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle, 1971-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Wayne (Editor); Lane, Helen (Editor); Chapline, Gail (Editor); Lulla, Kamlesh (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is an engineering marvel perhaps only exceeded by the station itself. The shuttle was based on the technology of the 1960s and early 1970s. It had to overcome significant challenges to make it reusable. Perhaps the greatest challenges were the main engines and the Thermal Protection System. The program has seen terrible tragedy in its 3 decades of operation, yet it has also seen marvelous success. One of the most notable successes is the Hubble Space Telescope, a program that would have been a failure without the shuttle's capability to rendezvous, capture, repair, as well as upgrade. Now Hubble is a shining example of success admired by people around the world. As the program comes to a close, it is important to capture the legacy of the shuttle for future generations. That is what "Wings In Orbit" does for space fans, students, engineers, and scientists. This book, written by the men and women who made the program possible, will serve as an excellent reference for building future space vehicles. We are proud to have played a small part in making it happen. Our journey to document the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this magnificent winged vehicle began with an audacious proposal: to capture the passion of those who devoted their energies to its success while answering the question "What are the most significant accomplishments?" of the longestoperating human spaceflight program in our nation s history. This is intended to be an honest, accurate, and easily understandable account of the research and innovation accomplished during the era.

  1. Space shuttle: Static stability and control investigation of NR/GD delta wing booster (B-20) and delta wing orbiter (134-D), volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, E. C., Jr.; Eder, F. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations have been made on a .0035 scale model North American Rockwell/General Dynamics version of the space shuttle in the NASA/MSFC 14 x 14 Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel. Static stability and control data were obtained on the delta wing booster alone (B-20) and with the delta wing orbiter (134D) mounted in various positions on the booster. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded over an angle of attack range from -10 to 24 deg at 0 and 6 deg sideslip angles and from -10 to +10 deg sideslip at 0 deg angle of attack. Mach number ranged from 0.6 to 4.96.

  2. Science and Technology in Global 21st Century Societies

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, George H.

    2008-10-08

    Many of the most significant geopolitical policy and security issues facing both developed and developing nations in the increasingly global societies of the 21st century are directly connected with the remarkably rapid and profound scientific achievements of our time. The urgency of addressing immediate needs must be balanced with the patience to accurately identify and incorporate those emerging and 'at-the-horizon' S and T advances into longer-term governmental planning, not only in the formulation of policy, but as critically, in its implementation. The fostering of safe, secure, and prosperous 'knowledge-based societies' is increasingly related directly to the success a government has in meeting these responsibilities. By launching the new Institute on Science for Global Policy (ISGP) at the University of California, an effort is underway to significantly expand opportunities that foster continuous dialogue, critical debates and even constructive disagreement (without attribution) concerning S and T-related policy decisions between international government officials and distinguished members of the global S and T community. Governmental, civil society, and selected private sector organizations worldwide are participating and supporting the ISGP programs.

  3. Stratospheric ozone in the 21st Century: The chlorofluorocarbon problem

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, F.S. )

    1991-04-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) exists in a dynamic equilibrium in the stratosphere, balanced between formation by solar ultraviolet photolysis ({lambda} < 242 nm) of molecular O{sub 2} (O + O{sub 2} {yields} O{sub 3}) and destruction by various chemical processes including several chain reaction sequences triggered by HO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and ClO{sub x} radicals. The ozone dissipates over Antarctica by November through northward mixing, only to begin reappearing in late August of the following year. Substantial ozone losses have also appeared, although not as spectacularly as over Antarctica, in the Northern Hemisphere's temperate and polar regions. The primary cause for the Antarctic ozone loss, and the probable cause for the northern losses, is the increasing concentration in the stratosphere of anthropogenic chlorine, especially chlorine released by solar UV photolysis from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds such as CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} (CFC-12), CCl{sub 3}F (CFC-11) and CCl{sub 2}FCClF{sub 2} (CFC-113). Because these molecules have average atmospheric lifetimes of many decades, excess anthropogenic chlorine will persist in the stratosphere for comparable time periods, and the Antarctic ozone hole will be an important atmospheric phenomenon throughout the 21st century.

  4. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios.

    PubMed

    Van Vuuren, D P; Meinshausen, M; Plattner, G-K; Joos, F; Strassmann, K M; Smith, S J; Wigley, T M L; Raper, S C B; Riahi, K; de la Chesnaye, F; den Elzen, M G J; Fujino, J; Jiang, K; Nakicenovic, N; Paltsev, S; Reilly, J M

    2008-10-01

    Estimates of 21st Century global-mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multigas mitigation scenarios, based on a wide range of modeling approaches and socioeconomic assumptions, now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. This article assesses the atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, radiative forcing, and temperature increase for these new scenarios using two reduced-complexity climate models. These scenarios result in temperature increase of 0.5-4.4 degrees C over 1990 levels or 0.3-3.4 degrees C less than the no-policy cases. The range results from differences in the assumed stringency of climate policy and uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system. Notably, an average minimum warming of approximately 1.4 degrees C (with a full range of 0.5-2.8 degrees C) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here. This value is substantially above previously estimated committed warming based on climate system inertia alone. The results show that, although ambitious mitigation efforts can significantly reduce global warming, adaptation measures will be needed in addition to mitigation to reduce the impact of the residual warming. PMID:18838680

  5. AIDS into the 21st century: some critical considerations.

    PubMed

    Pisani, E

    2000-05-01

    The story of AIDS in the 21st century is likely to be dominated by heterosexuals in Africa and injecting drug users around the world. HIV infection has persisted and grown because people do not like to recognise, much less talk about, the behaviours that spread the virus. Drug injection remains the leading cause of HIV infection in in the countries of the former Soviet Union, the northeastern states of India, the USA, Western Europe, China and parts of the Middle East. In Africa, where the overwhelming majority of infections occur during unprotected sex, a high proportion of girls are infected with HIV during their teens and before marriage. Industrialised countries responded with massive prevention campaigns, open discussion of the potential dangers of unprotected sex, and aggressive condom promotion. In the few developing countries that have taken similar action to contain the epidemic--Thailand, Uganda and Senegal--the initial leadership came from senior politicians. As HIV prevalence rises in a population, the chance of someone encountering an infected partner close to the beginning of their sexual life also rises. It is therefore crucial to reach people with appropriate preventative interventions before they first have sex. However, it is not realistic to expect political commitment to as sensitive a problem as AIDS from any government that has less than a wholehearted commitment to the basic health and welfare of its people. The first challenge in the fight against AIDS, as in the fight for development in general, is to support good government. PMID:11424269

  6. 21st Century innovators. Interview by Joe Flower.

    PubMed

    Newbold, P; Linton, P

    1992-01-01

    Last spring, The Healthcare Forum and 3M together announced the 21st Century Innovator Awards. They hoped to spotlight examples of the most forward-thinking organizations in American healthcare--organizations that could demonstrate readiness for the next century through the process of rebuilding their systems and structures. THF and 3M were looking for models for success with: (1) an organizational vision for the future, (2) an integrated planning process which reflected that vision, and (3) a measurable future benefit to the communities they served. The call elicited responses from more than 40 organizations across the country. THF and 3M were overwhelmed by both their range and quality. Choosing was difficult. But last September two winners were unveiled at the THF-3M Visionary Leadership conference in Hilton Head, South Carolina. Memorial Hospital and Health System of South Bend, Indiana, took the large, urban, regional, and national award for its progress in the long, tough process of revisioning itself according to a strategic concept CEO Phil Newbold calls "Quality Through People." The small, rural, and suburban prize went to Yavapai Regional Medical Center in Prescott, Arizona, where CEO Pat Linton is attempting to shape a "Total Healing Environment." We asked Joe Flower to visit both sites and send back an eyewitness report on what makes these two progressive organizations models for healthcare in the '90s and beyond. PMID:10117133

  7. Tracking South Asian Monsoon in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, D.; Mei, R.; Hodges, K. I.; Ashfaq, M.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we analyze the simulations of the Global Climate Models that are part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over the South Asian summer monsoon region for the historic (1960-2005) and the 21st century projection (2006-2100) periods. We apply two evaluation matrices namely precipitation recycling ratio analysis and monsoon depressions tracking algorithm to investigate the accuracy of the simulated processes in the GCMs that control the observed spatial and temporal distribution of South Asian summer monsoon rainfall. We sub-select the GCMs for the future period evaluations based on their ability in the simulation of different moisture sources and the accuracy of the low pressure systems tracks that transport moisture over the South Asian land during summer monsoon season in the baseline period. Further, we use selected GCMs to understand the effect of increase in greenhouse forcing on the frequency and tracks of the low-pressure systems during summer monsoon season, and on the moisture sources. These analyses will improve our understanding of the ability of CMIP5 GCMs in the simulation of South Asian summer monsoon dynamics and provide important implications for the reliability of future climate projections over this region.

  8. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  9. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Erika; Korom, Irma; Raskó, Zoltán; Kis, Erika; Varga, János; Oláh, Judit; Kemény, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect. PMID:21151693

  10. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources. PMID:25070413

  11. Manganism in the 21st century: the Hanninen lecture.

    PubMed

    Racette, Brad A

    2014-12-01

    Since the original description of the health effects of inhaled occupational manganese (Mn) by Couper in 1837, an extensive literature details the clinical syndrome and pathophysiology of what was thought to be a rare condition. In the last decade, conventional wisdom regarding the clinicopathological effects of Mn has been challenged. Past exposures to Mn were an order of magnitude higher than modern exposures in developed countries; therefore, the clinical syndrome seen in the time of Couper is no longer typical of modern Mn exposed workers. Parkinsonism (rigidity, bradykinesia, rest tremor, and postural instability) is present in 15% of Mn-exposed workers in welding industries, and these parkinsonian signs are associated with reduced health status and quality of life. These parkinsonian signs also overlap considerably with the clinical findings seen in early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD); although, molecular imaging suggests that Mn-exposed workers have dopaminergic dysfunction in a pattern unique from PD. Furthermore, geographic information system studies demonstrate that regions of the US with high industrial Mn emissions have an increased incidence of PD and increased PD associated mortality. This review will contrast historical, descriptive human studies in Mn-exposed subjects with more recent data and will suggest a research agenda for the 21st century. PMID:24148923

  12. Manganism in the 21st Century: The Hanninen Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Brad A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the original description of the health effects of inhaled occupational manganese (Mn) by Couper in 1837, an extensive literature details the clinical syndrome and pathophysiology of what was thought to be a rare condition. In the last decade, conventional wisdom regarding the clinicopathological effects of Mn has been challenged. Past exposures to Mn were an order of magnitude higher than modern exposures in developed countries; therefore, the clinical syndrome seen in the time of Couper is no longer typical of modern Mn exposed workers. Parkinsonism (rigidity, bradykinesia, rest tremor, and postural instability) is present in 15% of Mn-exposed workers in welding industries, and these parkinsonian signs are associated with reduced health status and quality of life. These parkinsonian signs also overlap considerably with the clinical findings seen in early stages of Parkinson disease (PD); although, molecular imaging suggests that Mn-exposed workers have dopaminergic dysfunction in a pattern unique from PD. Furthermore, geographic information system studies demonstrate that regions of the US with high industrial Mn emissions have an increased incidence of PD and increased PD associated mortality. This review will contrast historical, descriptive human studies in Mn-exposed subjects with more recent data and will suggest a research agenda for the 21st century. PMID:24148923

  13. A physician workforce for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A

    1995-11-01

    Medicine is entering an unprecedented era of provider abundance, including both physician and nonphysician providers. Over the next several decades, the projected number of primary care physicians will be more than adequate to meet national needs, although there is no assurance that any number of physicians will create an equitable distribution. At the same time, a growing surplus of specialists is projected. A balanced abundance in both primary care and specialty medicine will continue if approximately 33% of first-year residents ultimately practice primary care and 67% become specialists. In contrast, a shift to 50:50, as has been proposed by the Committee on Graduate Medical Education and others, will lead to a superabundance in primary care and a potential deficiency in specialty medicine later in the 21st century. Under either scenario, maintaining balance will be aided by those physicians with sufficient generalist skills to enable them to practice at the interface of primary care and specialty medicine, the domain of "middle care." The nation will be well served by educational policy that imparts such generalist expertise to medical students and that creates a workforce of highly skilled physicians capable of caring for patients in the technologically advanced clinical environment of the future. PMID:8526684

  14. Clinical informatics: a workforce priority for 21st century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan E; Drake, Lesley E; Harris, Julie-Gai B; Watson, Kay; Pohlner, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    This paper identifies the contribution of health and clinical informatics in the support of healthcare in the 21st century. Although little is known about the health and clinical informatics workforce, there is widespread recognition that the health informatics workforce will require significant expansion to support national eHealth work agendas. Workforce issues including discipline definition and self-identification, formal professionalisation, weaknesses in training and education, multidisciplinarity and interprofessional tensions, career structure, managerial support, and financial allocation play a critical role in facilitating or hindering the development of a workforce that is capable of realising the benefits to be gained from eHealth in general and clinical informatics in particular. As well as the national coordination of higher level policies, local support of training and allocation of sufficient position hours in appropriately defined roles by executive and clinical managers is essential to develop the health and clinical informatics workforce and achieve the anticipated results from evolving eHealth initiatives. PMID:21612722

  15. Toxicity testing in the 21st century beyond environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Costanza; Asakura, Shoji; Daneshian, Mardas; Hofman-Huether, Hana; Leist, Marcel; Meunier, Leo; Reif, David; Rossi, Anna; Schmutz, Markus; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the report titled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century - A Vision and a Strategy, many initiatives started to foster a major paradigm shift for toxicity testing - from apical endpoints in animal-based tests to mechanistic endpoints through delineation of pathways of toxicity (PoT) in human cell based systems. The US EPA has funded an important project to develop new high throughput technologies based on human cell based in vitro technologies. These methods are currently being incorporated into the chemical risk assessment process. In the pharmaceutical industry, the efficacy and toxicity of new drugs are evaluated during preclinical investigations that include drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety toxicology studies. The results of these studies are analyzed and extrapolated to predict efficacy and potential adverse effects in humans. However, due to the high failure rate of drugs during the clinical phases, a new approach for a more predictive assessment of drugs both in terms of efficacy and adverse effects is getting urgent. The food industry faces the challenge of assessing novel foods and food ingredients for the general population, while using animal safety testing for extrapolation purposes is often of limited relevance. The question is whether the latest paradigm shift proposed by the Tox21c report for chemicals may provide a useful tool to improve the risk assessment approach also for drugs and food ingredients. PMID:26168280

  16. Food and agriculture in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Hodges, H.F.; McKinion, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Agriculturalists in the 21st century will be farming crops in different climates than today. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} will likely exceed 700 {micro}l l{sup {minus}1} by the latter half of the next century, and the mean global temperature has been predicted to be 1.5 to 5.9 C higher than today. Further, the incidence of extreme weather events within a growing season has been predicated to increase. Extreme-weather events often limit crop yields even in today`s environment; e.g., a late spring may severely limit a citrus or winter wheat crop. Agricultural productivity is extremely sensitive to changes projected in the environment, particularly where crops are produced in marginal areas. The authors conducted several studies in which plants were grown in controlled environments with natural radiation levels. Carbon dioxide, water, temperature, and nutrients were each varied independently while the other factors were maintained at nearly optimum conditions. Photosynthesis, transpiration, growth and rate of development were measured. At nearly optimum temperature (26 to 28 C), doubling today`s atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration results in about 50% increase in biomass production with only trivial changes in the ratio of vegetative to fruit or grain production. However, fruit or grain production is drastically reduced at above-optimum temperatures. The authors examined long-term climatology data from four areas in the US Cotton Belt and a maritime climate, Maros, Indonesia.

  17. [Cardiovascular diseases, medical apocalypse of the 21st century?].

    PubMed

    Mielnik, Małgorzata; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to bring forward and realise the size of cardiovascular diseases and the burden of its numbers that concern practising doctors in Lower Silesia, in Poland, Europe and the world. Every fourth patient knocking at the GP's door comes with a problem with the circulatory system. These diseases are the reason for every second in hospitalization or referral to a specialist. The most common diagnosis is not the common cold but arterial hypertension. Three of the most common diseases in patients over 65 years old are: hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and atherosclerosis of the brain arteries. Poland belongs to the group of developed countries with an emerging economy, where degenerative diseases dominate, and cardiovascular diseases account for the biggest problems within the Health System. Nearly half of male deaths (46%) and over half of female deaths (56%) are the consequence of cardiovascular diseases. 80% of people around the world live in developing economies, where cardiovascular diseases cause 23% of all deaths. Every fifth person lives in a developed country and has a 50% chance of dying because of cardiovascular diseases. Will these diseases become "the number one killer" of the 21st century? 27% lost healthy life years are due to arterial hypertension, ischeamic heart disease, and congestive heart failure so their epidemiology is being regarded in this article. PMID:15518325

  18. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kodra, Evan A; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  19. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  20. Risk assessment in the 21st century: roadmap and matrix.

    PubMed

    Embry, Michelle R; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Boobis, Alan R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doerrer, Nancy G; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Doe, John E

    2014-08-01

    Abstract The RISK21 integrated evaluation strategy is a problem formulation-based exposure-driven risk assessment roadmap that takes advantage of existing information to graphically represent the intersection of exposure and toxicity data on a highly visual matrix. This paper describes in detail the process for using the roadmap and matrix. The purpose of this methodology is to optimize the use of prior information and testing resources (animals, time, facilities, and personnel) to efficiently and transparently reach a risk and/or safety determination. Based on the particular problem, exposure and toxicity data should have sufficient precision to make such a decision. Estimates of exposure and toxicity, bounded by variability and/or uncertainty, are plotted on the X- and Y-axes of the RISK21 matrix, respectively. The resulting intersection is a highly visual representation of estimated risk. Decisions can then be made to increase precision in the exposure or toxicity estimates or declare that the available information is sufficient. RISK21 represents a step forward in the goal to introduce new methodologies into 21st century risk assessment. Indeed, because of its transparent and visual process, RISK21 has the potential to widen the scope of risk communication beyond those with technical expertise. PMID:25070414

  1. Fluid mechanics films in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, Gary; Tremblay, Gabrielle; Cimbala, John; Dodson, Lori; Miller, J. D.

    2006-11-01

    The 1960's-era National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films produced 39 famous 16mm films - dated but still in use - with 3 million dollars of NSF funding. Here we examine the nature of new fluid mechanics films, goals, media changes, and practicality. Examples are given of new narrated videos produced to illustrate chapters of a basic fluids text and provide a ``glimpse through the laboratory window.'' Both experiments and CFD are featured, though the facilities needed for the former are declining. The fundamentally-visual nature of the topic is emphasized with no repetition of text or equations. We believe this visual nature of fluid mechanics is the key to its role in renewed efforts to bolster US science education. This is one - not the only - paradigm for new fluid mechanics films. While inflation makes such film production perhaps 6 times more expensive than in the 1960's, there are offsetting economies based on consumer video technology and digital desktop production. Nonetheless, funding new educational fluid mechanics videos in the 21st century remains a daunting prospect.

  2. Space Shuttle Orbiter Wing-Leading-Edge Panel Thermo-Mechanical Analysis for Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2010-01-01

    Linear elastic, thermo-mechanical stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels is presented for entry heating conditions. The wing-leading-edge panels are made from reinforced carbon-carbon and serve as a part of the overall thermal protection system. Three-dimensional finite element models are described for three configurations: integrated configuration, an independent single-panel configuration, and a local lower-apex joggle segment. Entry temperature conditions are imposed and the through-the-thickness response is examined. From the integrated model, it was concluded that individual panels can be analyzed independently since minimal interaction between adjacent components occurred. From the independent single-panel model, it was concluded that increased through-the-thickness stress levels developed all along the chord of a panel s slip-side joggle region, and hence isolated local joggle sections will exhibit the same trend. From the local joggle models, it was concluded that two-dimensional plane-strain models can be used to study the influence of subsurface defects along the slip-side joggle region of these panels.

  3. Atomic Oxygen Exposure of Polyimide Foam for International Space Station Solar Array Wing Blanket Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Albyn, K. C.; Watts, E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Onorbit photos of the International Space Station (ISS) solar array blanket box foam pad assembly indicate degradation of the Kapton film covering the foam, leading to atomic oxygen (AO) exposure of the foam. The purpose of this test was to determine the magnitude of particulate generation caused by low-Earth orbital environment exposure of the foam and also by compression of the foam during solar array wing retraction. The polyimide foam used in the ISS solar array wing blanket box assembly is susceptible to significant AO erosion. The foam sample in this test lost one-third of its mass after exposure to the equivalent of 22 mo onorbit. Some particulate was generated by exposure to simulated orbital conditions and the simulated solar array retraction (compression test). However, onorbit, these particles would also be eroded by AO. The captured particles were generally <1 mm, and the particles shaken free of the sample had a maximum size of 4 mm. The foam sample maintained integrity after a compression load of 2.5 psi.

  4. A case study: Transforming a vaudeville theatre into a 21st century multi-purpose hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaske, Richard H.; Hoffman, Ian B.; Laney, Jonathan P.

    2002-05-01

    Originally constructed in 1927 as an atmospheric, vaudeville theatre, the Coronado enjoyed 50 years as host to a true variety of events. In the 1970s, functional and space limitations became a catalyst for touring events to avoid the Coronado, and the theatre fell into disrepair. In the mid-1990s, a renovation was planned (completed January 2001) to restore the glory of the original theatre and upgrade it to be a viable multi-purpose hall for the 21st century. By annexing two neighboring buildings, many of the space limitations could be overcome in both the front- and back-of-house. The scope included a significantly enlarged stage and stagehouse, performer support spaces, expanded lobby spaces, quiet ventilation systems, and a new music rehearsal room. Acoustically, a primary goal was to upgrade the hall for both reinforced music/theatre performances and unreinforced, orchestral performances. However, historical regulations prevented modification to the room shape and configuration. In order to make the room suitable for unreinforced music, two primary acoustic features were instituted-a semi-custom concert enclosure for the stage and an acoustic enhancement system for the audience chamber. For theatrical and popular music events, a new performance audio system was designed and integrated into the hall.

  5. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.540 Section 334.540... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  6. 78 FR 114 - Notice of January 23 and 24, 2013 Meeting for Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... National Park Service Notice of January 23 and 24, 2013 Meeting for Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory... the date of the first meeting of the Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee. DATES: The public meeting of the Fort Hancock 21st Century Advisory Committee will be held on January 23 and 24, 2013, at...

  7. An Analysis of Directors' Views on Educational Technology Professional Development in 21st Century Community Learning Center Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, L. Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine directors' views on the current state and needs of 2009-2010 North Carolina 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) afterschool educational technology professional development (ETPD). The population for this study involved the 2009-2010 North Carolina 21st CCLC directors. In a mixed methods study…

  8. Space Shuttle flutter as affected by wing-body aerodynamic interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.; Shyprykevich, P.; Hess, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    In the NASA Langley Research Center 26-inch transonic blowdown wind-tunnel, flutter speeds were measured on 1/80-th scale semispan models of the orbiter wing, the complete Space Shuttle, and intermediate component combinations. Using the doublet lattice method combined with slender body theory to calculate unsteady aerodynamic forces, subsonic flutter speeds were computed for comparison. Aerodynamic interaction was found by test and analysis to raise the flutter speed in some configurations while lowering it in others. Although at Mach number less than 0.7, predicted speeds correlated to within 6% of those measured, rapid deterioration of the agreement occurred at higher subsonic Mach numbers, especially on the more complicated configurations. Additional analysis showed that aerodynamic forces arising from body flexibility potentially can have a large effect on flutter speed, but that the current shuttle design is not so affected.

  9. Flutter of Winged Reentry Space Vehicles Affected by an Elastic Attachment in Launching Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Atsushi; Ueda, Tetsuhiko

    This paper reports the flutter investigation of a winged reentry space vehicle having rotational modes in dynamic deflection due to an elastic attachment between a vehicle and a booster rocket. The elastic rotational mode is taken into consideration as an elastic rolling mode or an elastic yawing mode. Flutter experiments have been conducted in a transonic wind tunnel. The doublet-point method (DPM) is used to calculate flutter boundaries for this model. It is shown that an elastic rolling mode may lower the critical speed of anti-symmetric mode flutter because its existence alters the natural vibration mode of anti-symmetric bending which causes flutter. On the other hand, a coupling between an elastic yawing mode and an anti-symmetric bending one becomes critical in the different model.

  10. Health sector reforms for 21(st) century healthcare.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  11. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  12. Preparing for the 21st century: introducing a service approach.

    PubMed

    He, S

    1995-08-01

    While China's strong population policy remains unchanged, the State Family Planning (FP) Commission is experimenting with innovations designed to improve service delivery and promote gender equity. China entered demographic transition with a large population base which obviated the luxury of achieving the transition gradually over time. Because mortality rates have dropped dramatically and there is a large cohort of people of reproductive age, China adds 14-15 million people to its population each year. Were it not for the FP program, China's current population of 1.2 billion would be about 300 million higher. Economic reform has meant that most Chinese people have their basic needs met and can strive to improve the quality of their lives. These same reforms have weakened the collective systems of financing reproductive health systems, however, and new systems of local support must be found. China's Agenda 21, which sets goals for the 21st century, cites the education of girls and women as a key step to achieving a sustainable population size. In addition to an emphasis on reproductive health, China is initiating programs in adolescent health, sex education, and AIDS prevention. China's National FP Program for 1995-2000 emphasizes these changes and identifies a strong information, education, and communication component as a priority. Innovations, such as a participatory approach to training grassroots workers in interpersonal skills and counseling, are being field tested as a preliminary step toward full implementation. Training workshops are also being held to prepare FP leaders to uphold FP laws and protest the rights of the public. PMID:12290269

  13. [Prospect of chemotherapy in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Omura, S

    2000-10-01

    "Golden Era in Chemotherapy" has begun with the discovery of penicillin in the early 1940's and lasted for two decades during which many antibiotics were discovered. However, the once-believed bright prospect that every infectious disease could be eliminated on the earth by the discovery of antibiotics had to be canceled owing to the emerging of drug-resistant microbes. It was indeed a rat race. We are now at the point when we have to seek another way to combat infectious diseases: One possible way might be not to eradicate the microbes but to coexist with them so long as they do no harm to the human hosts. The first step of infection with pathogens to the host is the adherence of the microbes to the surface of host cells. Therefore, the method how to inhibit this adhesion of microbes to the host cells may provide a new tool to prevent the development of infectious diseases without elimination of microbes from the host. This is just an example of strategy by which humans and pathogens coexist at peace and should be taken into consideration for the development of new-type antibiotics or "anti-infective drugs" in the 21st century. The analysis of genome sequences has been accelerated recently for various pathogenic bacteria one by one. New targets in the pathogenic microbes for the development of new antibiotics can, therefore, be determined from the genetic point of view. The discovery of antibiotics has indeed been the history of collection of innumerable species and/or strains of bacteria from the soils to search for the biologically active anti-pathogenic agents. The current progress in the technology of molecular genetics, however, will certainly make it possible to search for active molecules by DNA technology; bacterial DNA but not whole microorganisms from the soil is to be transformed into the conventional bacteria and searched for active molecules with combat against pathogens. PMID:11109775

  14. Elevation Gradients of 21st Century European Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarski, S.; Lüthi, D.; Pall, P.; Schär, C.

    2010-09-01

    Given the importance of mountain regions for large-scale water supply and a high vulnerability of alpine ecosystems, elevation gradients of future climate change and possible modifications of large-scale climate change signals in mountain regions are of high interest for climate impact assessment. In this study, a transient climate scenario of the CLM regional climate model is evaluated with respect to the elevation dependency of surface climate change (near-surface air temperature, precipitation, snow cover) in Europe. The RCM experiment was carried out for the period 1950-2099 at a spatial resolution of 25 km and using a HadCM3 simulation as lateral driving data. For near-surface air temperature, the analysis reveals that in many regions climate change signals are subject to an elevation dependency. High altitudes typically experience a stronger warming which can in many cases be related to a decrease in snow cover and a corresponding decrease of surface albedo. Often, differences in the warming signal become more pronounced towards the end of the 21st century. Despite larger warming rates at high altitudes, we cannot identify a clear potential of high-altitude warming as an early detection tool for larger-scale warming. Also precipitation changes vary with altitude, especially during the summer season. Over most parts of Europe the relative change in summer precipitation is larger at low elevations. The reasons for the simulated elevation gradients of surface climate change are manifold and vary from region to region, in particular for precipitation. Our analysis will put a special focus on the Alps, where elevation gradients are most pronounced and where high altitudes cover a considerable fraction of the total surface area.

  15. Global perspective on energy. [Projecting into 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.D.

    1980-04-11

    The technological world of today finds us with a population of over 4 billion with a doubling time of 30 to 40 years. Even with the rapid introduction of effective fertility control, the momentum of population - a phenomenon caused by a population age structure biased toward the young - will carry us to a population of 12 to 16 billion in the 21st century. With fixed land resources, the energy inputs to support the increased population will be several tims the present world energy consumption. How does this conclusion square with the notion that we are running out of energy. Are the billions of new people doomed to malnutrition and disease because we cannot provide the energy needed to support them. Answering in the negative, the author says: (1) proved reserves of conventional energy resources are substantial and the prospects of adding to these reserves are good; (2) unconventional resources of oil, gas, and uranium are many times larger than our present conventional reserves; and (3) nuclear fisson energy alone could support the world for several centuries. Even though the general energy picture is bright, the outlook for the less developed countries is not, he feels. To exploit the energy sources of the future requires large capital investments - something that only the developed countries can manage. One of the major contributions the developed countries can make to those that are less fortunate is to take the pressure off oil so as to stabilize the price and supply situation. In this regard, the US is in an excellent position to take the lead.

  16. Health sector reforms for 21st century healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40–70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of “integrative healthcare” because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  17. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  18. Military medical modeling and simulation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Moses, G; Magee, J H; Bauer, J J; Leitch, R

    2001-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, military medicine struggles with critical issues. One of the most important issues is how to train medical personnel in peace for the realities of war. In April, 1998, The General Accounting Office (GAO) reported, "Military medical personnel have almost no chance during peacetime to practice battlefield trauma care skills. As a result, physicians both within and outside the Department of Defense (DOD) believe that military medical personnel are not prepared to provide trauma care to the severely injured soldiers in wartime. With some of today's training methods disappearing, the challenge of providing both initial; and sustainment training for almost 100,000 military medical personnel is becoming insurmountable. The "training gap" is huge and impediments to training are mounting. For example, restrictions on animal use are increasing and the cost of conducting live mass casualty exercises is prohibitive. Many medical simulation visionaries believe that four categories of medical simulation are emerging to address these challenges. These categories include PC-based multimedia, digital mannequins, virtual workbenches, and total immersion virtual reality (TIVR). The use of simulation training can provide a risk = free realistic learning environment for the spectrum of medical skills training, from buddy-aid to trauma surgery procedures. This will, in turn, enhance limited hands on training opportunities and revolutionize the way we train in peace to deliver medicine in war. High-fidelity modeling will permit manufacturers to prototype new devices before manufacture. Also, engineers will be able to test a device for themselves in a variety of simulated anatomical representations, permitting them to "practice medicine". PMID:11317763

  19. Human Hookworm Infection in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Bethony, Jeffrey; Hotez, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The scientific study of human hookworm infection began at the dawn of the twentieth century. In recent years, there have been dramatic improvements in our understanding of many aspects of this globally widespread parasite. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding in the biology, immunology, epidemiology, public health significance and control of hookworm, and to look forward to the study of this important parasite in the 21st century. Advances in molecular biology has lead to the identification of a variety of new molecules from hookworms, which have importance either in the molecular pathogenesis of hookworm infection or in the host-parasite relationship; some are also promising vaccine targets. At present, relatively little is known about the immune responses to hookworm infection, although it has recently been speculated that hookworm and other helminths may modulate specific immune responses to other pathogens and vaccines. Our epidemiological understanding of hookworm has improved through the development of mathematical models of transmission dynamics, which coupled with decades of field research across mutliple epidemiological settings, have shown that certain population characteristics can now be recognised as common to the epidemiology, population biology and control of hookworm and other helminth species. Recent recognition of the subtle, but significant, impact of hookworm on health and education, together with the simplicity, safety, low cost, and efficacy of chemotherapy has spurred international efforts to control the morbidity due to infection. Large-scale treatment programmes are currently underway, supported by health education and integrated with the provision of improved water and sanitation. There are also efforts underway to develop novel anthelmintic drugs and anti-hookworm vaccines. PMID:15603764

  20. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, contiguous to the area offshore of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  1. 33 CFR 334.595 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, contiguous to the area offshore of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...

  2. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics, Agricultural Research..., the seed industry, food manufacturers, state government, consumer and community development groups,...

  3. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  4. The Keepers of the Key: Development Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crease, Skid

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of development education in the 21st century. Awareness of the global interconnectedness of issues of water, food, health, education, and wealth is broadening the scope of development education to include a closer look at home. (CCM)

  5. 36. LOOKING NORTH ON SOUTH C ST. FROM 21ST. LINDSTROMBERG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. LOOKING NORTH ON SOUTH C ST. FROM 21ST. LINDSTROM-BERG CABINET WORKS IN FOREGROUND. F.S. HARMON MATTRESS FACTORY (SEE HABS WA-165A) IN BACKGROUND. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  6. Formation of Leading-Edge Pinholes in the Space Shuttle Wings Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2000-01-01

    The space shuttle wing leading edge and nose cap are composed of a carbon/carbon composite that is protected by silicon carbide. The coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch leads to cracks in the silicon carbide. The outer coating of the silicon carbide is a sodium-silicate-based glass that becomes fluid at the shuttles high reentry temperatures and fills these cracks. Small pinholes roughly 0.1 mm in diameter have been observed on these materials after 12 or more flights. These pinholes have been investigated by researchers at the NASA Johnson Space Center, Rockwell International, the Boeing Company, Lockheed Martin Corporation, and the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to determine the possible sources and the extent of damage. A typical pinhole is illustrated in the photomicrographs. These pinholes are found primarily on the wing leading edges and not on the nose cap, which is covered when the orbiter is on the launch pad. The pinholes are generally associated with a bead of zincrich glass. Examination of the orbiter and launch structure indicates that weathering paint on the launch structure leads to deposits of zinc-containing paint flakes on the wing leading edge. These may become embedded in the crevices of the wing leading edge and form the observed zinc-rich glass. Laboratory experiments indicate that zinc oxide reacts vigorously with the glass coating on the silicon carbide. Thus, it is likely that this is the reaction that leads to pinhole formation (Christensen, S.V.: Reinforced Carbon/Carbon Pin Hole Formation Through Zinc Oxide Attack. Rockwell International Internal Letter, RDW 96 057, May 1996). Cross-sectional examination of pinholes suggests that they are enlarged thermal expansion mismatch cracks. This is illustrated in the photomicrographs. A careful microstructural analysis indicates that the pinhole walls consist of layers of zinc-containing glass. Thus, pinholes are likely formed by zinc oxide particles lodging in crevices and

  7. Analytical and experimental study of the effects of wing-body aerodynamic interaction on space shuttle subsonic flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, R. R.; Rauch, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effects on flutter of the aerodynamic interaction between the space shuttle bodies and wing, 1/80th-scale semispan models of the orbiter wing, the complete shuttle and intermediate component combinations were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 26-inch Transonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel. Using the double lattice method combined with slender body theory to calculate unsteady aerodynamic forces, subsonic flutter speeds were computed for comparison. Using calculated complete vehicle modes, flutter speed trends were computed for the full scale vehicle at an altitude of 15,200 meters and a Mach number of 0.6. Consistent with findings of the model studies, analysis shows the shuttle to have the same flutter speed as an isolated cantilevered wing.

  8. Using Technology in Helping Students Achieve 21st Century Skills: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Small, Dorothy; Walker, Leanne; Wilson, Richard L.; Wintle, Sarah E.

    2008-01-01

    As everyone enters the 21st Century there is a great deal of discussion in business and education circles alike about the type of skills the youth will need to survive and thrive in this century. At the same time, there is little known today about the level of 21st Century skills students currently have. In part this is because, as a nation,…

  9. Promoting 21st Century Skills in the Classroom through the Use of Authentic Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, S. L.; Swann, J. L.; Manfredi, L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Preparing students for the workforce starts well before they start college. The Mars Student Imaging Project has incorporated 21st Century Skills into their project to help the students practice and sharpen these skills. Professional development for the educational facilitators helps the teachers become familiar with these skills. By augmenting the authentic research project with these 21st Century Skills, the students are able to achieve a higher level experience that mirrors the real-world workforce.

  10. 21st Birthday Drinking and Associated Physical Consequences and Behavioral Risks

    PubMed Central

    Brister, Heather A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-first birthday celebrations often involve dangerously high levels of alcohol consumption, yet little is known about risk factors for excessive drinking on this occasion. Participants (N = 150) from a larger prospective study who consumed at least one drink during their celebration completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews about their 21st birthday within four days after the event. Assessments were designed to characterize 21st birthday alcohol use, adjusted for alcohol content, as well as situational/contextual factors (e.g., celebration location, peer influence) that contribute to event-level drinking. Participants reported an average of 10.85 drinks (9.76 adjusted drinks), with experienced drinkers consuming significantly more than relatively naïve drinkers who had no previous binge or drunken episodes. Men consumed more drinks, whereas age of first drunken episode and heavier drinking during the 3-months preceding the 21st birthday predicted higher estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs) on the 21st birthday. Celebrating in bars and engaging in birthday-specific drinking traditions (free drinks at bars) explained additional variance in 21st birthday eBACs. Both physical consequences (e.g., blacking out or having a hangover) and behavioral risks (e.g., sexually provocative behaviors) were prevalent and were predicted by higher eBACs. Together these findings indicate that 21st birthday celebrations are associated with heavy drinking and a variety of physical consequences and behavioral risks. PMID:21895347

  11. Predicting the Arctic Ocean Environment in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Popova, Ekaterina; Yool, Andrew; Nurser, George

    2015-04-01

    Recent environmental changes in the Arctic have clearly demonstrated that climate change is faster and more vigorously in the Polar Regions than anywhere else. Significantly, change in the Arctic Ocean (AO) environment presents a variety of impacts, from ecological to social-economic and political. Mitigation of this change and adaptation to it requires detailed and robust environmental predictions. Here we present a detailed projection of ocean circulation and sea ice from the present until 2099, based on an eddy-permitting high-resolution global simulation of the NEMO ¼ degree ocean model. The model is forced at the surface with HadGEM2-ES atmosphere model output from the UK Met. Office IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. The HadGEM2-ES simulations span 1860-2099 and are one of an ensemble of runs performed for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) and IPCC AR5. Between 2000-2009 and 2090-2099 the AO experiences a significant warming, with sea surface temperature increasing on average by about 4° C, particularly in the Barents and Kara Seas, and in the Greenland Sea and Hudson Bay. By the end of the simulation, Arctic sea ice has an average annual thickness of less than 10 cm in the central AO, and less than 0.5 m in the East-Siberian Sea and Canadian Archipelago, and disappears entirely during the Arctic summer. In summer, opening of large areas of the Arctic Ocean to the wind and surface waves leads to the Arctic pack ice cover evolving into the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). In winter, sea ice persists until the 2030s; then it sharply declines and disappears from the Central Arctic Ocean by the end of the 21st century, with MIZ provinces remaining in winter along the Siberian, Alaskan coasts and in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Analysis of the AO circulation reveals evidence of (i) the reversal of the Arctic boundary currents in the Canadian Basin, from a weak cyclonic current in 2040-2049 to

  12. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  13. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  14. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy - ICOLS 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, Dmitry; Häffner, Hartmut; Müller, Holger

    2013-12-01

    The 21st International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (ICOLS) took place at Berkeley, California on 9-14 June 2013. Following the tradition of previous meetings in this series, the conference featured about thirty invited talks broadly covering this burgeoning field of science that refuses to show any sign of saturation after more than half a century of continuous boom. In addition to the invited talks, there were two informative poster sessions, where the more than 300 ICOLS participants had an opportunity to exchange the latest scientific news and ideas while enjoying the gorgeous view of the San Francisco Bay from the vista of the Claremont Hotel, the meeting's venue. The heights of the cultural program of the meeting were excursions to several of the Bay Area gems (including the Lick observatory), as well as the conference banquet where the participants were treated to addresses by an inventor of the laser Professor Charles H Townes, a nonlinear optics pioneer Professor Erwin L Hahn, and one of the previous ICOLS chairs Professor Y R Shen. While the field of Laser Spectroscopy and the series of the bi-annual ICOLS meetings are as 'healthy' as one could imagine, the same cannot be said about the concept of published conference proceedings. With new ways to publish scientific articles and preprints, submitting papers to conference proceedings seems to be rapidly losing popularity. For this meeting, the great interest in attendance and opportunities to present is sharply contrasted with a somewhat sluggish response to the call for submission of the proceedings papers. The present collection represents a dozen or so contributions from the 'hero' invited speakers, to whom we are deeply grateful for submitting their work. We hope that this selection will faithfully convey to the readers the excitement of modern laser spectroscopy. In addition to these papers, we draw the reader's attention to the audio recordings and selected viewgraphs from the invited talks, and

  15. Stratospheric Ozone Predictions For The Late 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of ozone evolution from 1960 until ~2100 from chemistry climate models (CCMs) that participated in CCMVal-2 are broadly consistent in that stratospheric ozone increases as chlorofluorcarbons decrease and the stratosphere cools (which affects the rate of temperature dependent loss processes), however, details of the projections vary significantly. Differences in the ozone response to specified changes in chlorine containing source gases dominate during the first half of the integrations. For example, from 1980 to 2000, chlorine change is by far the most important cause of ozone change, and the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average column ozone that range between -3 DU and -17 DU. In the second half of the 21st century climate change is primarily responsible for ozone change. By 2080 the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average upper stratospheric ozone column that range from 4 DU to 10 DU. The CCM range of differences is due to differences in both composition and upper stratospheric temperature. Ozone loss processes each have their own temperature sensitivity, and the net sensitivity of ozone to temperature change in each CCM depends on the relative importance of each loss process; this depends on the composition and temperature for the baseline atmosphere. In the lower stratosphere, climate change affects ozone evolution through changes in photochemical reaction rates due to stratospheric cooling and through circulation differences affecting transport of ozone and other trace gases. These are not separable using an approach such as multiple linear regression because changes in circulation and temperature have the same time dependence after accounting for contributions due to chlorine change. Recent attention has focused on similarity of the CCMs in that all predict a speed-up of the Brewer Dobson circulation. However, differences in the magnitude of the speed-up, differences in horizontal mixing and differences in the photochemical response to

  16. Global peat erosion risk assessment for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Irvine, Brian; Holden, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Many peatlands across the world are suffering from degradation and erosion exacerbated by human influences. Blanket peat erosion has adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, reservoir capacity and water quality, and also leads to accelerated carbon release. Bioclimatic modelling suggests that some areas, which are currently suitable for active peat growth, may be no longer under a climate supporting the accumulation of peat by the end of the century. Peat erosion in these marginal regions is thus more likely. A recently developed blanket peat erosion model, PESERA-PEAT, was established through significantly modifying the grid version of the Pan-European Soil Erosion Assessment model (PESERA-GRID) to explicitly include the freeze-thaw and desiccation processes, which appear to be the crucial drivers of peat erosion, and typical land management practices in blanket peatlands such as artificial drainage, grazing and managed burning. Freeze-thaw and desiccation are estimated based on climate (i.e. temperature) and soil moisture conditions. Land management practices interact with hydrology, erosion and vegetation growth via their influence on vegetation cover, biomass and soil moisture condition. The model has been demonstrated to be robust for blanket peat erosion modelling with riverine sediment flux data in the UK. In this paper, the PESERA-PEAT model is applied to investigate the impact of environmental change on the blanket peat erosion at a global scale. Climatic scenarios to the end of 21st Century were derived, as part of the QUEST-GSI initiative, from the outputs of seven global climate models: CGCM3 and CCCMA (Canada); CSIRO Mark III (Australia); IPSL (France); ECHAM5 (Germany); CCSM (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)); HadCM3 and HadGEM1 (UK). Land management practice such as artificial drainage is considered to examine if it is possible to buffer the impact of climate change on erosion through managing blanket peatlands in

  17. General Education in the 21st Century: A Report of the University of California Commission on General Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Studies in Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the Commission on General Education in the 21st Century--a panel of University of California faculty and administrators--issues a call for renewed attention to general education in research universities, highlighting specific reforms for University of California campuses. In addition to analyzing the historical, institutional, and…

  18. Scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping for climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Davis, S. J.; Zender, C. S.; Smith, L. C.

    2013-12-01

    Receding Arctic sea ice coupled with increased resource demand in east Asia have recast the Arctic as an international trade space facilitating export of petroleum and minerals and offering potential alternative pathways for global maritime trade. Several studies have examined the future impact of increased vessel traffic in the Arctic on emissions of greenhouse gases and black carbon (BC); however, the net impact of these emissions on climate forcing in the region is not well understood. Here we present several scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping for climate studies. Vessel transits between 5 east Asian ports (Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Tokyo/Yokohama, Busan) and 2 European ports (Rotterdam, Hamburg) are estimated from 2010-2050 according to projected sea ice concentration and thickness, trends in cargo export volumes, and vessel ice class and cargo capacity. Sea ice data are represented by a 7-model ensemble mean from CMIP5 under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5). Emissions presented (CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, SOx, BC) are obtained by convolving projected transits with trends in emissions factors. Results illustrate a range of emissions inventories for the Arctic owing to differences in vessel accessibility, trade volume, routes, and fuel mixtures.

  19. The Twins Study: NASA's First Foray into 21st Century Omics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, C. E.; Shelhamer, M.; Scott, G. B. I.

    2015-01-01

    The full array of 21st century omics-based research methods should be intelligently employed to reduce the health and performance risks that astronauts will be exposed to during exploration missions beyond low Earth Orbit. In March of 2015, US Astronaut Scott Kelly will launch to the International Space Station for a one year mission while his twin brother, Mark Kelly, a retired US Astronaut, remains on the ground. This situation presents an extremely rare flight opportunity to perform an integrated omics-based demonstration pilot study involving identical twin astronauts. A group of 10 principal investigators has been competitively selected, funded, and teamed together to form the Twins Study. A very broad range of biological function are being examined including the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, gut microbiome, immunological response to vaccinations, indicators of atherosclerosis, physiological fluid shifts, and cognition. The plans for the Twins Study and an overview of initial results will be described as well as the technological and ethical issues raised for such spaceflight studies. An anticipated outcome of the Twins Study is that it will place NASA on a trajectory of using omics-based information to develop precision countermeasures for individual astronauts.

  20. Tuberculosis: a new vision for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Small, Peter M

    2009-11-01

    accelerate the development of new tools for the future. Simple improvements in tuberculosis control, such as expanding the use of under-utilized technologies, can have enormous impact. Fixed-dose combinations have existed for over 25 years, and could help ensure that more patients complete treatment; yet globally, only 15 percent of patients are using them. We also need new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics, as well as innovations in tuberculosis control and case management. Better diagnostics are already available, and new drugs and vaccines are coming. But more commitment and resources are needed. Better prevention and control of tuberculosis is the surest way to stop drug resistance. To ensure that drug resistance does not pose a wider threat, we need to employ a number of equally important approaches. These include improved basic tuberculosis control, increased use of underutilized technologies such as fixed-dose combinations, and new technologies and health systems innovations. At the same time, we should expand access to M/XDR-TB treatment and diagnostics for those who already have drug resistant tuberculosis. Some of the most innovative solutions can come from the private sector and through partnerships. An untapped market of two billion people carries the tuberculosis bacterium. Since tuberculosis requires a comprehensive approach, companies should also explore opportunities to work together and pool complementary technologies to ensure new tools are used most effectively. Japan is poised to play a leading role in the discovery, development and delivery of tuberculosis solutions in the 21st century. PMID:19999594

  1. Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vu, Briac; Palmieri, Julien; Orr, James C.; Dutay, Jean Claude; Sevault, Florence

    2014-05-01

    We modeled the carbon cycle in the Mediterranean Sea to study how its changes due to climate change and rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may differ from those typical of the global ocean. More specifically, we coupled offline an ocean biogeochemical model (PISCES) to a regional eddy-permitting model of the Mediterranean Sea (NEMO-MED8, 1/8° nominal horizonal resolution) using forcing from coupled regional climate model simulations of which the ocean circulation component was identical. Here we describe the simulated changes in pH and the associated carbonate system during the 21st century. Separate simulations were made with climate forcing for a hindcast (1965-2008) and for the future (2000-2100). For the former, climate and CO2 forcings were based on observations; for the latter, both climate and CO2 were driven by the IPCC SRES-A2 scenario. Our hindcast simulation over the period 1965-2008 allowed us to evaluate the model and assess recent variability of the carbonate system. In our future simulation, we used separate tracers to distinguish (1) the change due to climate change and the increase in atmospheric CO2 (from 370 to 800 ppm) and (2) the change due only to climate change (holding atmospheric CO2 to the year-2000 level of 370 ppm). By difference, we isolated the geochemical effect (anthropogenic CO2 perturbation). The hindcast simulation demonstrates that the model captures the amplitude and phase of the annual cycle of temperature, pCO2 and pH, in agreement with data from the DYFAMED station. That seasonal variability of surface pCO2 is everywhere driven by variations in temperature. These results lends support that the model is able to quantify the acidification of the Mediterranean Sea during the industrial period and for the future. However, they do not constrain the model's simulated effects of future climate change on ocean circulation and ocean biology, both of which in turn influence the carbon cycle. Similar to estimates for the global ocean

  2. International Space Station Solar Array Wing On-Orbit Electrical Performance Degradation Measured

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Eric D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The port-side photovoltaic power module (P6) was activated on the International Space Station in December 2000. P6 provides electrical power to channels 2B and 4B to operate ISS power loads. A P6 is shown in the preceding photograph. This article highlights the work done at the NASA Glenn Research Center to calculate the on-orbit degradation of the P6 solar array wings (SAWs) using on-orbit data from December 2000 to February 2003. During early ISS operations, the 82 strings of photovoltaic cells that make up a SAW can provide much more power than is necessary to meet the demand. To deal with excess power, a sequential shunt unit successively shunts the current from the strings. This shunt current was the parameter chosen for the SAW performance degradation study for the following reasons: (1) it is based on a direct shunt current measurement in the sequential shunt unit, (2) the shunt current has a low temperature dependence that reduces the data correction error from using a computationally derived array temperature, and (3) the SSU shunt current is essentially the same as the SAW short-circuit current on a per-string basis.

  3. Sequentially-coupled space-time FSI analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of an MAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kostov, Nikolay

    2014-08-01

    We present a sequentially-coupled space-time (ST) computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV). The wing motion and deformation data, whether prescribed fully or partially, is from an actual locust, extracted from high-speed, multi-camera video recordings of the locust in a wind tunnel. The core computational FSI technology is based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized ST (DSD/SST) formulation. This is supplemented with using NURBS basis functions in temporal representation of the wing and mesh motion, and in remeshing. Here we use the version of the DSD/SST formulation derived in conjunction with the variational multiscale (VMS) method, and this version is called "DSD/SST-VMST." The structural mechanics computations are based on the Kirchhoff-Love shell model. The sequential-coupling technique is applicable to some classes of FSI problems, especially those with temporally-periodic behavior. We show that it performs well in FSI computations of the flapping-wing aerodynamics we consider here. In addition to the straight-flight case, we analyze cases where the MAV body has rolling, pitching, or rolling and pitching motion. We study how all these influence the lift and thrust.

  4. The characterization of tandem and corrugated wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yongsheng; Broering, Timothy; Hord, Kyle; Prater, Russell

    2014-02-01

    Dragonfly wings have two distinct features: a tandem configuration and wing corrugation. Both features have been extensively studied with the aim to understand the superior flight performance of dragonflies. In this paper we review recent development of tandem and corrugated wing aerodynamics. With regards to the tandem configuration, this review will focus on wing/wing and wing/vortex interactions at different flapping modes and wing spacing. In addition, the aerodynamics of tandem wings under gusty conditions will be reviewed and compared with isolated wings to demonstrate the gust resistance characteristics of flapping wings. Regarding corrugated wings, we review their structural and aerodynamic characteristics.

  5. Multimodel Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution over the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J. F.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from 14 chemistry-climate models, driven by prescribed levels of halogens and greenhouse gases. There is general agreement among the models that total column ozone reached a minimum around year 2000 at all latitudes, projected to be followed by an increase over the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the 21st century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off, or even decrease depending on the latitude. Separation into partial columns above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely caused by differences in the model projections of ozone in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and is projected to return to 1960 levels well before the end of the century, although there is a spread among models in the dates that ozone returns to specific historical values. We find decreasing halogens and declining upper atmospheric temperatures, driven by increasing greenhouse gases, contribute almost equally to increases in upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere, an increase in upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in most of the models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century, returning to 1960 levels well before the end of the century in most models.

  6. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  7. NASA in the 21st century: A vision of greatness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kathleen J.

    1992-01-01

    Notions of greatness are discussed that have guided NASA in the past, values are presented that might be delivered by NASA in the future, and the the skills required for NASA to execute a vision of greatness are examined. Three possible patterns of space development by NASA are reviewed: (1) a mission to protect the ecology of the Earth; (2) the engineering of the technologies critical to space transportation and a healthy, productive life in space; and (3) the management of a major nonterrestrial resource project. Potential sources of funds are discussed along with opportunities for sustainable collaboration, and the life cycle of NASA's funding responsibility for its space development program.

  8. Challenging Technology, and Technology Infusion into 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, S. N.; Hunter, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In preparing for the space exploration challenges of the next century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Center for Integrated Space Micro-Systems (CISM) is chartered to develop advanced spacecraft systems that can be adapted for a large spectrum of future space missions. Enabling this task are revolutions in the miniaturization of electrical, mechanical, and computational functions. On the other hand, these revolutionary technologies usually have much lower readiness levels than those required by flight projects. The mission of the Advanced Micro Spacecraft (AMS) task in CISM is to bridge the readiness gap between advanced technologies and flight projects. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Potential damage to modern building materials from 21st century air pollution.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota Maria

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950-2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation. PMID:20098955

  10. Observed multivariable signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, Benjamin D.; Solomon, Susan; Bonfils, Céline; Zelinka, Mark D.; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Beltran, Francisco; Fyfe, John C.; Johannesson, Gardar; Mears, Carl; Ridley, David A.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Wentz, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively muted warming of the surface and lower troposphere since 1998 has attracted considerable attention. One contributory factor to this "warming hiatus" is an increase in volcanically induced cooling over the early 21st century. Here we identify the signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic activity in multiple observed climate variables. Volcanic signals are statistically discernible in spatial averages of tropical and near-global SST, tropospheric temperature, net clear-sky short-wave radiation, and atmospheric water vapor. Signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic eruptions are also detectable in near-global averages of rainfall. In tropical average rainfall, however, only a Pinatubo-caused drying signal is identifiable. Successful volcanic signal detection is critically dependent on removal of variability induced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

  11. Efficacy of geoengineering to limit 21st century sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J. C.; Jevrejeva, S.; Grinsted, A.

    2010-01-01

    Geoengineering has been proposed as a feasible way of mitigating anthropogenic climate change, especially increasing global temperatures in the 21st century. The two main geoengineering options are limiting incoming solar radiation, or modifying the carbon cycle. Here we examine the impact of five geoengineering approaches on sea level; SO2 aerosol injection into the stratosphere, mirrors in space, afforestation, biochar, and bioenergy with carbon sequestration. Sea level responds mainly at centennial time scales to temperature change, and has been largely driven by anthropogenic forcing since 1850. Making use a model of sea-level rise as a function of time-varying climate forcing factors (solar radiation, volcanism, and greenhouse gas emissions) we find that sea-level rise by 2100 will likely be 30 cm higher than 2000 levels despite all but the most aggressive geoengineering under all except the most stringent greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The least risky and most desirable way of limiting sea-level rise is bioenergy with carbon sequestration. However aerosol injection or a space mirror system reducing insolation at an accelerating rate of 1 W m-2 per decade from now to 2100 could limit or reduce sea levels. Aerosol injection delivering a constant 4 W m-2 reduction in radiative forcing (similar to a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 18 months) could delay sea-level rise by 40–80 years. Aerosol injection appears to fail cost-benefit analysis unless it can be maintained continuously, and damage caused by the climate response to the aerosols is less than about 0.6% Global World Product. PMID:20798055

  12. Ares V: A National Launch Asset for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V as the cargo launch vehicle to carry NASA's exploration plans into the 21st century. The Ares V is the heavy-lift component of NASA's dual-launch architecture that will replace the current space shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and establish a permanent human presence on the Moon as a stepping stone to destinations beyond. During extensive independent and internal architecture and vehicle trade studies as part of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V to support future exploration. The smaller Ares I will launch the Orion crew exploration vehicle with four to six astronauts into orbit. The Ares V is designed to carry the Altair lunar lander into orbit, rendezvous with Orion, and send the mated spacecraft toward lunar orbit. The Ares V will be the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in history, providing unprecedented payload mass and volume to establish a permanent lunar outpost and explore significantly more of the lunar surface than was done during the Apollo missions. The Ares V also represents a national asset offering opportunities for new science, national security, and commercial missions of unmatched size and scope. Using the dual-launch Earth Orbit Rendezvous approach, the Ares I and Ares V together will be able to inject roughly 57percent more mass to the Moon than the Apollo-era Saturn V. Ares V alone will be able to send nearly 414,000 pounds into low Earth orbit (LEO) or more than 138,000 pounds directly to the Moon, compared with 262,000 pounds and 99,000 pounds, respectively for the Saturn V. Significant progress has been made on the Ares V to support a planned fiscal 2011 authority-to-proceed (ATP) milestone. This paper discusses recent progress on the Ares V and planned future activities.

  13. 21st Century Learning Skills Embedded in Climate Literacy Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T. G.; Blaney, L.

    2011-12-01

    Trilling and Fadel's "21st Century Learning Skills" defines a vision of how to infuse an expanded set of skills, competencies and flexibilities into the classroom. Among these skills are global awareness, health and environmental literacy. The authors contend that in order for our students to compete, they will need critical thinking and problem solving skills, communication and collaboration, and creativity and innovation. Students will also need to be digital savvy. This poster outlines a program of preparing teachers to implement inquiry-based modules that allow students to exercise hypothetical deductive reasoning to address climate literacy issues such as: the Dust Bowl, thermohaline circulation, droughts, the North Atlantic Oscillation, climate variability and energy challenges. This program is implemented through the Earth System Science Education Alliance. ESSEA supports the educational goal of "attracting and retaining students in science careers" and the associated goal of "attracting and retaining students in science through a progression of educational opportunities for students, teachers and faculty." ESSEA provides long-duration educator professional development that results in deeper content understanding and confidence in teaching global climate change and science disciplines. The target audience for this effort is pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers. The ESSEA program develops shared educational resources - including modules and courses - that are based on NASA and NOAA climate science and data. The program is disseminated through the ESSEA Web site: http://essea.courses.strategies.org. ESSEA increases teachers' access to high-quality materials, standards-based instructional methods and content knowledge. Started in 2000 and based on online courses for K-12 teachers, ESSEA includes the participation of faculty at 45 universities and science centers. Over 3,500 pre- and in-service K-12 teachers have completed ESSEA courses. In addition to 21st

  14. [Severe acute respiratory syndrome: the first transmissible disease of the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Nicastri, Emanuele; Petrosillo, Nicola; Macrì, Giulia; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is the first severe and easily transmissible disease to emerge in the 21st century. It is caused by the infection with a coronavirus, a single strand RNA capsulated virus, recently found in a small mammalian, the masked palm civet. It is likely to represent the source of human infection. The first cases of SARS have been reported in the Chinese province of Guangdong and, since then, probable cases have been reported world wide. The clinical picture is characterized by nonspecific symptoms such as fever, cough or dyspnea in patients affected by air-space opacities (unifocal involvement in the 54.6% of cases) or distress respiratory syndrome and linked to a recent exposure to a SARS case or to a travel/residence in an affected area. The empirical therapy is based on broad-spectrum antibiotics, steroids and ribavirin, but susceptibility testing have failed to demonstrate direct anti-viral activity of ribavirin against SARS-related coronavirus in vitro. The exposure to respiratory droplets and the contact with biologic fluids (respiratory and gastrointestinal secretions) represent the most efficient transmission modality of the SARS-related coronavirus. Hand hygiene is the most simple and cost effective measure of infection control to prevent contagion, and the use of airborne, contact and droplet precaution is strictly recommended to all health care workers taking care of such patients. The spread of SARS, to less developed country with limited resource for public health programs, represent the emerging alarming threat in the new global scenario. PMID:12868234

  15. Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century: Progress and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.; Wake, C.; Aron, J.

    2005-12-01

    Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century (ESSE 21) is a collaborative undergraduate/graduate Earth system science education program sponsored by NASA offering small grants to colleges and universities with special emphasis on including minority institutions to engage faculty and scientists in the development of Earth system science courses, curricula, degree programs and shared learning resources. The annual ESSE 21 meeting in Fairbanks in August, 2005 provided an opportunity for 70 undergraduate educators and scientists to share their best classroom learning resources through a series of short presentations, posters and skills workshops. This poster will highlight meeting results, advances in the development of ESS learning modules, and describe a community-led proposal to develop in the coming year a Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth system Science Education to be based upon the experience of the 63 NASA-supported ESSE teams over the past 15 years. As a living document on the Web, the Design Guide would utilize and share ESSE experiences that: - Advance understanding of the Earth as a system - Apply ESS to the Vision for Space Exploration - Create environments appropriate for teaching and learning ESS - Improve STEM literacy and broaden career paths - Transform institutional priorities and approaches to ESS - Embrace ESS within Minority Serving Institutions - Build collaborative interdisciplinary partnerships - Develop ESS learning resources and modules The Design Guide aims to be a synthesis of just how ESS has been and is being implemented in the college and university environment, listing items essential for undergraduate Earth system education that reflect the collective wisdom of the ESS education community. The Design Guide will focus the vision for ESS in the coming decades, define the challenges, and explore collaborative processes that utilize the next generation of information and communication technology.

  16. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award: The Public Obligation of Scientists in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Henry

    2002-04-01

    As many as ten billion people may be alive at the end of the 21st century. Without order-of-magnitude changes in the productivity of systems for satisfying this population’s needs and whimsies, we face starkly growing worldwide inequality, unsustainable plundering of shrinking supplies of natural resources, or both. Can we invent energy sources that are sustainable, affordable, and consistent with security? Can we mimic the ability of biological systems and build small, inexpensive machines that can fabricate tens of thousands of products on demand from simple raw materials? Can we use information and communication systems to optimize design and performance (the human brain uses half the energy of modern Pentium chips but most people seem much more clever.) Can we cut the resources needed to move people and things from point to point or to maintain homes and office spaces with comfortable light by an order of magnitude? As an APS summer study proved nearly three decades ago, there is much room for optimism about what we can do to address these problems and much has been learned since this initial foray. But there is there less room to be optimistic about changing incentive systems to reflect what we collectively want to do. Scientists who recognize what is possible can not in conscience ignore the complex, frustrating, and morally perilous world of domestic and international politics. Learning to be effective is not easy. Understanding political systems is not easy and being effective means engaging in the agonizing business of sorting through third or fourth-best solutions that are vastly better than no solution at all. The century can not end well without an effective partnership between science and politics.

  17. Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, A.; Guinan, E.; Niarchos, P.; Rucinski, S.

    2006-12-01

    An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and evolution of close binaries and the interaction effects displayed by these exciting objects. Close Binaries are classic examples of the fundamental contribution that stellar astrophysics makes to our general understanding of physical processes in the universe. Ground-based and space surveys will discover many new close binaries, which were previously unknown. In the future, new approaches will also be possible with highly efficient photometric searches looking for very shallow eclipses, such as those produced by Earth-like extra-solar planets. Contributions to this conference covered the latest achievements in the field and reflected the state of the art of the dynamically evolving area of binary star research. Link: http://www.springer.com/east/home/generic/search/results?SGWID=5-40109-22-173660047-0

  18. Exhaustive Versus Randomized Searchers for Nonlinear Optimization in 21st Century Computing: Solar Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Syamal K.; AliShaykhian, Gholam

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple multi-dimensional exhaustive search method to obtain, in a reasonable time, the optimal solution of a nonlinear programming problem. It is more relevant in the present day non-mainframe computing scenario where an estimated 95% computing resources remains unutilized and computing speed touches petaflops. While the processor speed is doubling every 18 months, the band width is doubling every 12 months, and the hard disk space is doubling every 9 months. A randomized search algorithm or, equivalently, an evolutionary search method is often used instead of an exhaustive search algorithm. The reason is that a randomized approach is usually polynomial-time, i.e., fast while an exhaustive search method is exponential-time i.e., slow. We discuss the increasing importance of exhaustive search in optimization with the steady increase of computing power for solving many real-world problems of reasonable size. We also discuss the computational error and complexity of the search algorithm focusing on the fact that no measuring device can usually measure a quantity with an accuracy greater than 0.005%. We stress the fact that the quality of solution of the exhaustive search - a deterministic method - is better than that of randomized search. In 21 st century computing environment, exhaustive search cannot be left aside as an untouchable and it is not always exponential. We also describe a possible application of these algorithms in improving the efficiency of solar cells - a real hot topic - in the current energy crisis. These algorithms could be excellent tools in the hands of experimentalists and could save not only large amount of time needed for experiments but also could validate the theory against experimental results fast.

  19. The Worker's Life in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William L.

    1979-01-01

    What will life be like for occupational education graduates in the next century? This article offers a provocative look at the life of James Jones, a hypothetical twenty-first-century worker whose horizons extend to outer space and inner consciousness. (CT)

  20. College Students Look at the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Maxwell H.

    Twenty-two extracts from the writings of authorities in a number of fields are included in this anthology intended for use in college courses concerned with the implications of trends in cybernetics, economics, resource use, transportation, communication, genetics, population, psychology, religion, oceanography, education, and space travel for…

  1. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  2. Looking toward the Future: Competences for 21st-Century Teacher-Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Joanne; Branch, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    What are the core competences required by teacher-librarians for developing exemplary school library programs in 21st-century schools? This article reports on a study that explored the experiences and attitudes of graduates from the Teacher Librarianship by Distance Learning program at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. Key findings from this…

  3. Remaking Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century: What Role for High School Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard

    2005-01-01

    As part of the broader policy debate on how to reform K-12 education, particularly high schools, basic questions about career and technical education are on the table. "Remaking Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century" begins with a summary of what researchers know--and do not know--about the value of high school career-focused…

  4. Eastman Kodak Company: 21st Century Learning Challenge. Volunteer Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strother, Wanda M.; And Others

    The Kodak 21st Century Learning Challenge is a companywide, 10-year corporate commitment to improve mathematics, science, and technology achievement for all students in the communities around Kodak's manufacturing plants. The Rochester (New York) initiative for which this training manual is presented is a partnership among Kodak, the Rochester…

  5. Rethinking the Framework for 21st-Century Education: Toward a Communitarian Conception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene; Chua, Catherine S. K.; Goh, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine the current frameworks for 21st-century education by critiquing the individualist view of education that underpins them. It is argued that such a view of education overemphasizes technical rationality and neglects the importance of moral values and the role of the community in shaping the individual's identity, ethics, and…

  6. Engineering Students for the 21st Century: Student Development through the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, Alan; Bunting, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Through support of the National Science Foundation's Department Level Reform program, "Engineering Students for the 21st Century" (ES21C) has implemented a ten-course sequence designed to help students develop into engineers. Spread across the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) curriculum at Oklahoma State University, these…

  7. Buildings for the 21st Century Newsletter, Volume 1: News You Can Use

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Eber, K.; Jones, J.

    1999-06-04

    This is the first edition of the Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter which is designed for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy stakeholders with interest in the Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS).

  8. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  9. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  10. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require different…

  11. Meeting the Tests of Time: Small States in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    The analytic category of "small states" remains problematic in the 21st century. Its legitimacy as a rigorous conceptual category continues to be debated; even as small states assume a strident visibility on the world stage because of climate change negotiations. This paper reviews the scepticism that hovers around the small state concept, and…

  12. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  13. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  14. The 21st Century Writing Program: Collaboration for the Common Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the literature on theoretical frameworks, best practices, and conceptual models for the 21st century collegiate writing program. Methods include electronic database searches for recent and historical peer-reviewed scholarly literature on collegiate writing programs. The author analyzed over 65 sources from…

  15. Theater for the 21st Century and beyond: The New Digital Stagecraft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, George

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Theatricality Lab uses media innovations such as digital video, stereoscopic 3D projection, motion capture, and real time virtual reality navigation. These resources nurture the daring creative visions of theater artists who will embrace the multidimensional technological performance arena of the 21st century and beyond. (Contains 2…

  16. Who Will Challenge Our Youth? Preparing Our Youth for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    Urges young people to concentrate on building new bridges of hope and renewal to the 21st century, noting the work of Martin Luther King, Jr. Encourages youths to challenge their peers to prepare for the new century by striving to change social inequalities and reaching across artificial barriers to ensure that each member of society shares fully…

  17. Curricular Adaptations in Inpatient Child Psychiatry for the 21st Century: The Flexner Model Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Cathy K.; Guerrero, Anthony; Matsu, Courtenay; Takeshita, Junji; Haning, William; Schultz, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe curricular modifications created in response to the changing culture of medical education, health care systems, academic medicine, and generational differences. The authors propose a model child psychiatry inpatient curriculum that is sustainable within a community teaching hospital in the 21st century. Methods: The…

  18. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM 21ST STREET VIADUCT TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM 21ST STREET VIADUCT TOWARDS 2000 BLOCK OF MORRIS AVENUE WITH HEAVIEST CORNER ON EARTH BUILDINGS (TOP LEFT) AND COMER BUILDING (TOP RIGHT) - Morris Avenue Warehouse District, 2000-2400 blocks of Morris Avenue & 2100-2500 blocks of First Avenue, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM 21ST STREET VIADUCT (SOUTHSIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM 21ST STREET VIADUCT (SOUTHSIDE) 2000 BLOCK OF MORRIS AVENUE AND HEAVIEST CORNER ON EARTH DISTRICT AT FIRST AVENUE NORTH AND 20TH STREET (CENTER TOP) - Morris Avenue Warehouse District, 2000-2400 blocks of Morris Avenue & 2100-2500 blocks of First Avenue, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. The Library Profession in the 21st Century: Transformation for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Mary L.

    The approaching information age will encompass a different societal system in the 21st century due to the impact of the information revolution resulting from developments in computer and communications technology. In light of these changes, libraries need to evolve with the new technology by preparing now to become part of the electronic…

  1. A New 21st Century Approach for Battling Bullying: How We Can Empower Our Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Clearly, U.S. schools must prepare students with the academic insights and skills necessary for success in work and life in the 21st century. But they also must ensure that students gain responsible social relationship skills. These social competencies are equally important for success in work and life. By focusing on such social competencies,…

  2. Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century: Implications for the Profession and Administrator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Joanne; And Others

    In 1991, the Oregon Legislature passed a landmark educational reform bill, the "Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century," providing for an extended school year, instructional accountability, establishment of state-funded, alternative learning centers, and a restructured high school program issuing certificates of mastery. High school as it is…

  3. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills Programs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Skills, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and innovation are necessary for the 21st Century. The economy and the forums of international business and globalization demand skilled workers. Some schools in the United States are producing such workers, however it is unclear the programs and practices these schools utilize. This study…

  4. Change for Public Education: Practical Approaches for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germinario, Vito; Cram, Henry G.

    Current demands to prepare students for the 21st century represent a dramatic departure from the mission for which the American system of public education was originally designed. To help educators with these changes, a conceptual framework of strategies in planning for and bringing out essential shifts in philosophy is presented here. The text…

  5. The Development of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missett, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted studies, linked by investigation into the development of thinking skills deemed necessary for the 21st Century. While educators and policy makers advocate teaching students creative and critical thinking skills to address an increasingly global and complex world, they simultaneously…

  6. Learning Outcomes for the 21st Century: Report of a Community College Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia D.; Miles, Cindy L.; Baker, Ronald L.; Schoenberger, R. Laurence

    This booklet describes a study that helped clarify the current status of community college efforts in defining and documenting student acquisition of 21st Century Skills (general education skills). This study is traced through four stages: (1) an exploratory focus group involving presidents from ten U.S. community colleges recognized as leaders in…

  7. Wiki Use in the 21st-Century Literacy Classroom: A Framework for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanden, Sherry; Darragh, Janine

    2011-01-01

    In today's Web 2.0 world, teachers are perpetually struggling with how to incorporate technology into the classroom effectively in order to meet the diverse literacy needs of 21st-century learners. Utilizing the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE, 2008) Position Statement addressing these needs, the theoretical framework of Lankshear…

  8. A Better Bargain: Overhauling Teacher Collective Bargaining for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; West, Martin R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors argue that at a time when disappointing student performance, stark achievement gaps, and an ever-"flattening" world call for retooling American schools for the 21st century, the most daunting impediments to doing so are the teacher collective bargaining agreements that regulate virtually all aspects of school district…

  9. Life Design: A Paradigm for Career Intervention in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm is implicit within the constructivist and narrative methods for career intervention that have emerged in the 21st century. This article makes that general pattern explicit by abstracting its key elements from the specific instances that substantiate the new conceptual model. The paradigm for life design interventions constructs…

  10. Beyond Restructuring: Building a University for the 21st Century. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Sharon S.

    This ethnographic study of the creation of a new public university, California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), highlighted the struggle of the founders to build a collective identity based on a distinctive vision for the 21st century. The original plan envisioned a model pluralistic academic community with a culture of innovation that…

  11. The Six Pillars of Character in 21st Century Newbery Award Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bones, Gail Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative content analysis was to determine how the The Six Pillars of Character as defined by the Character Counts! Curriculum are exemplified in 21st century Newbery Award books (2000-2010). A team of 5 reader/coders, all experienced educational professionals, examined each of the 11 titles in order to investigate…

  12. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  13. Show Me the Money Resources: Financial Literacy for 21st-Century Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavigan, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Some economists have called the current U.S. economic environment the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Many educators and parents believe it is more important than ever for students to master financial literacy skills. To become successful and responsible 21st century citizens, students need to graduate globally competitive for…

  14. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2012-01-01

    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  15. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at ; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  16. Reframing Student Outcomes to Develop 21st Century Skills. Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this brief, Erik Rice identifies three strategic practices schools, districts, and communities can use to help prepare students for college and career success: (1) To collectively articulate and align a set of student outcomes that prioritize 21st century skills; (2) Transform defined outcomes into functioning frameworks for curriculum and…

  17. Partnering for Success: A 21st Century Model for Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kathryn, Ed.; Archambault, Leanna, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This report studies the best practices necessary to rethink the skills, methods, and pedagogical evolution that teacher education must address. If we are to ensure great teachers are trained, mentored, and retained for our students--the programs themselves must emulate 21st century skills. The examples found in this report have unique elements and…

  18. Smartphones and Other Mobile Devices: The Swiss Army Knives of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Alan

    2004-01-01

    MIAD stands for "mobile Internet access device." MIADs are the Swiss Army knives of the 21st century; they help users perform specific tasks in specific situations (including academic tasks in academic situations), thereby making users smarter and more productive. There are, however, significant obstacles to their effective use in higher…

  19. Realizing the Promise of 21st-Century Education: An Owner's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce; Calhoun, Emily

    2012-01-01

    While many futurists tout the value of teaching students 21st-century skills, bridging the concept with the practice is best accomplished by professional educators. Authors Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun know how to actualize the critical reforms that enable schools to prepare students for today's workforce. They outline a clear vision for…

  20. What Knowledge Is of Most Worth: Teacher Knowledge for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kereluik, Kristen; Mishra, Punya; Fahnoe, Chris; Terry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the literature on 21st century knowledge frameworks, with a particular focus on what this means for teachers and teacher educators. The authors accomplish this by identifying common themes and knowledge domains in 15 reports, books, and articles that describe the kinds of knowledge that researchers state…

  1. Preparing Preservice Teachers for 21st Century Classrooms: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviors about Innovative Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mia Kim; Foulger, Teresa S.; Wetzel, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Keeping-up with progressing technology tools has been a troublesome issue for educational technology instructors for over ten years as they endeavor to prepare beginning teachers to integrate technology in their future classrooms. This paper promotes instructors' ideas about behaviors of 21st century teachers, and explores efforts to support their…

  2. Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration: Addressing Challenges for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David L.; Smith, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    Authors David L. Gray and Agnes E. Smith have written a book of cases to give prospective school leaders opportunities to resolve complex issues in K-12 school settings through reflective questions, activities, and authentic assessment tools for skill development. "Case Studies in 21st Century School Administration" presents thought-provoking case…

  3. Using Form+Theme+Context (FTC) for Rebalancing 21st-Century Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Renee

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the need to rebalance 21st-century art education for inclusion and integration leading to fuller art engagement in an increasingly visual world. I expand upon the form versus content canon in art and offset the typically predominant use of sensory, formal, or technical qualities in comprehending meaning from, as well as in…

  4. Critical Thinking Skills for Rehabilitation Professionals in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Allen N.; King, Eric S.; Pitt, Jenelle S.; Getachew, Almaz; Shamburger, Aisha

    2010-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is an essential tool for rehabilitation professionals in the 21st century. Well developed CT skills are indicated for rehabilitation professionals in the new century to promote continuous quality improvement of the service delivery system. Such improvement will occur as rehabilitation professionals learn to routinely…

  5. Career Counselling in the 21st Century: South African Institutions of Higher Education at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, J. G.

    2009-01-01

    The current state of career counselling in South African institutions of higher education in the 21st century is explored in this article in an attempt to locate current work in the field of career counselling in South Africa in the light of global trends (academic and economic) and in terms of local history and current economic climate. The…

  6. 21st Century Challenges. Reexamining the Base of the Federal Government. GAO-05-325SP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The federal government's financial condition and long-term fiscal outlook present enormous challenges to the nation's ability to respond to emerging forces reshaping American society, the United States' place in the world, and the future role of the federal government. This report includes education and employment challenges for the 21st century…

  7. Teaching 21st Century Process Skills to Strengthen and Enhance Family and Consumer Sciences Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosenson, Andrea B.; Fox, Wanda S.

    2011-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be equipped with a set of strategies and tools to prepare their students for the challenges they will face in the 21st century. Nationwide, educators are integrating a set of skills deemed essential for student success in college and a career. Building upon these skills and the process areas…

  8. Futuristic Exercises. A Workbook on Emerging Lifestyles and Careers in the 21st Century and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feingold, S. Norman

    This workbook, which is intended to be used in conjunction with the handbook entitled "New Emerging Careers: Today, Tomorrow, and in the 21st Century," contains exercises designed to help individuals or groups of people envision future careers, life-styles, and jobs and their significance to workers and society. Chapter 1 introduces the workbook.…

  9. The Role of 21st Century Skills in Two Rural Regional Areas of Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sean B.; McDermott, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    Budgetary shortfalls and excessive layoffs have left public schools with a deficiency of professional innovation as well as modern theory and practice. It is imperative that educators identify the exemplary school systems that are engaging students and adults in 21st century education, and broadcast those patterns of success to schools in need of…

  10. Race to the Future: Integrating 21st Century Skills into Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Emilio; Yaussy, Daniel; Yaussy, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Race to the Future is an exciting and dynamic activity modeled after the reality television show "The Amazing Race." It exemplifies how 21st century skills can be incorporated into core subject instruction and at the same time positively enhance student engagement. In this activity, students work quickly and cooperatively with their teammates and…

  11. Catholic Schools for the 21st Century: An Overview. [Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, DC.

    Part of a six-volume series, this publication contains summaries of theme papers commissioned for the National Congress on Catholic Schools for the 21st century, Nov. 6-10, 1991. The meeting had three broad goals: (1) to communicate the story of the academic and religious effectiveness of Catholic schools to a national audience; (2) to celebrate…

  12. Bibliographic Control or Chaos: An Agenda for National Bibliographic Services in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper addresses bibliographic services in the 21st century. The paper begins by reviewing achievements of the past 30 years, including Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC), MARC, International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), and the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2). The cataloging of electronic resources is…

  13. Functional response of U.S. grasslands to the early 21st century drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands across the United States play a key role in regional livelihood and national food security. Yet, it is still unclear how this important resource will respond to the regional drying and warming predicted with climate change. The early 21st century drought in the southwestern U.S. resulte...

  14. Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsi, Ace; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Employers, postsecondary institutions, and civic leaders are urging greater focus on 21st century skills essential for college, career, and civic success: problem solving, interpersonal skills, and collaboration, among others. In response to these demands, states across the country are working to realign policies--on learning standards,…

  15. Chapter 10: Cotton harvesting and ginning in the 21st century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter briefly reviews the history of cotton harvest preparation, harvesting, and ginning in the U. S. up until the beginning of the 21st century. The review particularly focuses on the mechanization of the U. S. cotton industry and its defining characteristics in the latter portion of t...

  16. Behavioral Toxicology in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for Behavioral Scientists

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Research Council of the National Academies of Science recently published a report of its vision of toxicity testing in the 21st Century. The report proposes that the current toxicity testing paradigm that depends upon whole-animal tests be replaced with a strategy ba...

  17. Preparing the Workforce for the 21st Century: The Nurse Educator's Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This document consists of synopses of selected presentations on the nurse educator's challenge in preparing the workforce for the 21st century that were made during the 1998 meeting of the Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing. In her paper "Redesigning Health Care Delivery," Karlene Kerfoot described changes in health care delivery systems…

  18. Leading to Reform: Educational Leadership for the 21st Century. [Booklet with Audiotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    As schools focus on improvement, a key to sustaining reform is active and effective leadership. This multimedia package (a booklet and two audiotapes) provides a general overview of the central issues related to the crisis in school leadership and offers solution options to policymakers. The booklet, "School Leadership in the 21st Century: Why and…

  19. Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills and Web 2.0 Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Shelia Y.

    2014-01-01

    According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today's education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these…

  20. Weather, Climate, Web 2.0: 21st Century Students Speak Climate Science Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Cheryl White; Kennedy, Teresa; Odell, Michael R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) and inquiry learning (IL) employ extensive scaffolding that results in cognitive load reduction and allows students to learn in complex domains. Hybrid teacher professional development models (PDM) using 21st century social collaboration tools embedding PBL and IL shows promise as a systemic approach for increasing…

  1. Is Mobile Learning the Future of 21st Century Education? Educational Considerations from Various Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Minakshi; Moseley, James L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key trends currently affecting the practices of teaching, learning, and creative inquiry, as mentioned in "The 2011 Horizon Report," is that learners prefer flexibility and mobility. Mobile learning is gaining popularity as an emerging trend facilitating the process of teaching and learning in the 21st Century. Research indicates…

  2. Paving the Way for the 21st Century: The Human Factor in Higher Education Financial Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Sigmund G., Ed.

    This book presents human resources issues that will affect the financial management of colleges and universities as they move into the 21st century. It examines how business managers and human resources managers must balance human resources management policies and practices against the financial demands on the institution. It discusses the…

  3. The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardiman, Mariale

    2012-01-01

    "The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools" serves as a bridge between research and practice by providing a cohesive, proven, and usable model of effective instruction. Compatible with other professional development programs, this model shows how to apply relevant research from educational and cognitive neuroscience to classroom…

  4. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies: Donald Bren Hall, Santa Barbara, California

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Carlisle: NREL

    2004-03-23

    This publication is one of a series of case studies of energy-efficient modern laboratories; it was prepared for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. DOE Federal Energy Management Program

  5. Distance Learning in the 21st Century University: Key Issues for Leaders and Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirault, Ray J.

    2012-01-01

    The changes precipitated by today's computer-based technologies are perhaps no more keenly felt than in the field of education, where technological innovation signals fundamental transformations in the manner in which educational programs will be delivered to 21st century students. Online learning is providing higher education institutions with an…

  6. Digital Andragogy: A Richer Blend of Initial Teacher Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackley, Susan; Sheffield, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the term "andragogy" (adult education) and develops a new concept based upon an analysis of the skills and dispositions of 21st century learners in initial teacher education through the lens of adult education: "digital andragogy." In order to engage and retain students and revitalise education courses by…

  7. Achieving Quality Assurance and Moving to a World Class University in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    2013-01-01

    Globalization in the 21st century has brought innumerable challenges and opportunities to universities and countries. Universities are primarily concerned with how to ensure the quality of their education and how to boost their local and global competitiveness. The pressure from both international competition and public accountability on…

  8. Technological Readiness of the UAE Higher Education Institutions for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Blooshi, Asma; Ezziane, Zoheir

    2013-01-01

    Educational institutions are considered as main indicator of a nation's competitiveness and the excellence of implementing their goals and objectives increase a nation's sense of competitiveness. Thus, it is important to receive a progress report showing how close the educational institutions are in accomplishing the 21st century visions and…

  9. Degrees of Hope: Redefining Access for the 21st Century Student. Viewing Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    To complement the 40-minute documentary, "Degrees of Hope: Redefining Access for the 21st Century Student," the "Institute for Higher Education Policy" (IHEP) has developed a viewing guide to help facilitate thought-provoking and meaningful dialogue. This guide provides a film synopsis, suggested discussion formats, profiles of…

  10. Making an Impact Statewide to Benefit 21st-Century School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Mullen, Carol A.; Davis, Ann W.; Lashley, Carl

    2012-01-01

    How can institutions of higher education, local education agencies, and departments of education partner to build capacity for 21st-Century school leadership? The model (IMPACT V) we describe utilizes a systems-wide partnership approach to cultivate shared leadership within influenced middle and high schools statewide to leverage technology as a…

  11. Mindful Strengths Development: Leveraging Students' Strengths for 21st Century Learning and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanious, Christy M.

    2012-01-01

    The continuous change characterizing 21st century society has significant implications for higher education. Educators and business leaders increasingly recognize that education within and preparation for a context of change requires learning environments fostering openness, flexibility, and engagement with other ideas and people. Such…

  12. Using "The Joy Luck Club" to Teach Core Standards and 21st Century Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Leslie David; Botzakis, Stergios G.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors illustrate an instructional unit based on a Common Core grades 9-10 illustrative text--Amy Tan's "Two Kinds" from "The Joy Luck Club." They demonstrate how teachers can meet the new standards "and" respond to students' 21st-century needs by using this modern classic along with other traditional and new media resources.…

  13. The Next Frontier in Making Disciples: 21st-Century Technology Use in CCCU Member Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented opportunity exists for Christian colleges and universities to utilize 21st-century technology and the impact of globalization to broaden the use of distance learning for missional purposes through their educational offerings. Some institutions offer open education that allows those with Internet access to take courses at no cost…

  14. EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement: Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief slide presentation that will provide an overview of several projects that are being conducted in EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement, Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century. The cooperative agreement objectives are to produce, evaluate, &...

  15. Great 21st Century Debates about the Usefulness of Research: Can They Help Rural Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to reflection on how rural research can better serve rural communities. Using the results of literature searches across the disciplines, it explores some major 21st Century debates about improving the usefulness of research for policy and practice. The paper begins with an examination of different debates in…

  16. 75 FR 49928 - California Independent System Operator Corporation; Green Energy Express LLC; 21st Century...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... the following topics, among others: How the RTPP incorporates participation from all stakeholders, including the California Transmission Planning Group, and complies with the transmission planning principles...; 21st Century Transmission Holdings, LLC; Notice of Technical Conference August 3, 2010. By order...

  17. The Effect of a Birthday Card Intervention on 21st Birthday Celebratory Drinking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Ellen J.; Bruce, Susan E.; Lee, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    birthday card was mailed to 2,380 college students who later completed an online instrument to assess the campaign's impact. Students reported drinking more during their 21st birthday celebrations than on a typical weekend night. Men consumed more drinks, reached higher…

  18. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria in order to provide suggestions for its effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while print media…

  19. "What Have the Humanities to Offer 21st-Century Europe?": Reflections of a Note Taker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Humanities have much to offer 21st-century Europe, in terms of both method and issues which may complement and correct those of Science and Social Science. These include, for instance, humanities' generation of plural narratives and plural explanations, of attention to singularity and complexity, and to others' sensibilities and ways of…

  20. The Practice of Psychiatry in the 21st Century: Challenges for Psychiatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To consider how shifting scientific, technological, social, and financial pressures are likely to significantly alter psychiatric practice, careers, and education in the 21st century, this article reviews trends and innovations likely to have an effect on tomorrow's psychiatrists and their educators. Results: The psychiatric profession…