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Sample records for 222rn exhalation ratio

  1. Concentrations of 222Rn, Its Short-Lived Daughters And 212Pb And Their Ratios Under Complex Atmospheric Conditions And Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Toshio; Yunoki, Eiji; Shimizu, Mitsuo; Mori, Tadashige; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Fudeyasu, Hironori; Ohashi, Yukitaka; Sahashi, Ken; Maitani, Toshihiko; Miyashita, Koh'ichi; Iwata, Toru; Sasaki, Takayuki; Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira; Shaw, Roger H.

    Atmospheric activity concentrations of 212Pb and short-lived 222Rndaughters, together with meteorological elements, have been observed continuously atthree sites at Kamisaibara Village in Japan. In addition, atmospheric activity concentrationof 222Rn, equilibrium-equivalent concentration of 222Rn and conditionsof the lower atmosphere were observed for three intensive observation periods at Akawase,one of the three sites in Kamisaibara Village. The equilibrium-equivalent concentration of222Rn is almost the same as the atmospheric activity concentration of short-lived222Rn daughters.The activity concentrations of 212Pb and the short-lived 222Rn daughtersand their ratio were low in the daytime owing to convective mixing, and high at nightowing to the surface-based inversion during periods of no precipitation. Their variationshave several patterns corresponding to the scale of the drainage wind or weak mixing.

  2. Experimental studies about the ratio between 210Po deposited on surfaces and retrospective indoor 222Rn concentrations.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B

    2014-07-01

    Measurements of radon concentration may not be sufficiently representative for the cumulative total exposure suffered by a person throughout his life. Retrospective dosimetry can help estimating from the direct measurement of 210Po (descendant of 222Rn) implanted on surfaces, because this quantity is related (through the conversion factor) with the mean indoor 222Rn concentration existing in a room for long time. This factor depends on multiple variables. Theoretical models can provide some values. Experiments are tedious and very time consuming. The 210Po activity concentration was measured in mirrors, which were previously exposed to 222Rn concentrations under real environmental conditions. This work deals with the preliminary results in two known places (a room and a cave), which have very different characteristics, in order to show experimentally the large differences found in the values of this factor. PMID:24729559

  3. Determination of (222)Rn absorption properties of polycarbonate foils by liquid scintillation counting. Application to (222)Rn measurements.

    PubMed

    Mitev, K; Cassette, P; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Sabot, B; Boshkova, T; Tartès, I; Pressyanov, D

    2016-03-01

    This work demonstrates that a Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique using a Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio counter with extending dead-time is very appropriate for the accurate measurement of (222)Rn activity absorbed in thin polycarbonate foils. It is demonstrated that using a toluene-based LS cocktail, which dissolves polycarbonates, the (222)Rn activity absorbed in thin Makrofol N foil can be determined with a relative standard uncertainty of about 0.7%. A LSC-based application of the methodology for determination of the diffusion length of (222)Rn in thin polycarbonate foils is proposed and the diffusion length of (222)Rn in Makrofol N (38.9±1.3µm) and the partition coefficient of (222)Rn in Makrofol N from air (112±12, at 20°C) and from water (272±17, at 21°C) are determined. Calibration of commercial LS spectrometers for (222)Rn measurements by LSC of thin polycarbonate foils is performed and the minimum detectable activities by this technique are estimated. PMID:26640234

  4. Measurements of 222Rn activity in well water of the Curitiba metropolitan area (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; França, Alana C.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    Considering that 222Rn activity concentration in well water can contribute to indoor radon concentration levels, which represent a radiation risk for the public, measurements of 226Ra and 222Rn activity in well water in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil were performed. Each water sample was submitted to four measurements for radon concentration over an interval of three days. After two months, the same samples were submitted again to 222Rn concentration measurements with the objective of indirectly evaluating the amount of 226Ra in them. The 222Rn concentration measurements were performed with an AlphaGUARD radon monitor (SAPHYMO), and the 226Ra concentration was evaluated with the decay curves of 222Rn. Within a few hours after extraction, about 70% of water samples from monitored wells presented 222Rn concentration values above the limit of 11.1 Bq/L recommended by the EPA of the United States. The obtained activity values varied between 1.6 Bq/L and 215 Bq/L for radon concentration, and radium concentrations deviated within an interval of 0.50 Bq/L and 6.8 Bq/L. The results reveal that the biggest part of 222Rn found in water samples originated not from soluble 226Ra compounds but from gas exhalation by the soil and rocks adjacent to the well. The results point to the necessity of mitigation procedure development for better control of global alpha radioactivity in drinking water.

  5. Radon ((222)Rn) concentration in indoor air near the coal mining area of Nui Beo, North of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nhan, Dang Duc; Fernando, Carvalho P; Thu Ha, Nguyen Thi; Long, Nguyen Quang; Thuan, Dao Dinh; Fonseca, Heloisa

    2012-08-01

    Concentrations of radioactive radon gas ((222)Rn) were measured using passive monitors based on LR115 solid state track detectors during June-July 2010 in indoor air of dwellings in the Nui Beo coal mining area, mostly in Cam Pha and Ha Long coastal towns, Quang Ninh province, in the North of Vietnam. Global results of (222)Rn concentrations indoors varied from ≤6 to 145 Bq m(-3) averaging 46 ± 26 Bq m(-3) (n = 37), with a median value of 47 Bq m(-3). This was similar to outdoor (222)Rn concentrations in the region, averaging 43 ± 19 Bq m(-3) (n = 10), with a median value of 44 Bq m(-3). Indoor (222)Rn concentrations in the coastal town dwellings only were in average lower although not significantly different from indoor (222)Rn concentrations measured at the coal storage field near the harbor, 67 ± 4 Bq m(-3) (n = 3). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the average (222)Rn concentration in indoor air measured in the coastal towns region and those at the touristic Tuan Chau Island located about 45 km south of the coal mine, in the Ha Long Bay. The indoor (222)Rn concentration in a floating house at the Bai Tu Long Bay, and assumed as the best estimate of the baseline (222)Rn in surface air, was 27 ± 3 Bq m(-3) (n = 3). Indoor average concentration of (222)Rn in dwellings at the Ha Noi city, inland and outside the coal mining area, was determined at 30 Bq m(-3). These results suggest that (222)Rn exhalation from the ground at the Nui Beo coal mining area may have contributed to generally increase (222)Rn concentration in the surface air of that region up to 1.7 times above the baseline value measured at the Bai Tu Long Bay and Ha Noi. The average indoor concentration of (222)Rn in Cam Pha-Ha Long area is about one-third of the value of the so-called Action Level set up by the US EPA of 148 Bq m(-3). Results suggest that there is no significant public health risk from (222)Rn exposure in the study region. PMID

  6. 222Rn variations in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Krafthefer, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    222Rn concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured at 4- h intervals over a 2-y period in Mystery Cave, southeastern Minnesota. Continuous radon monitors and meteorological sensors connected to data loggers were installed at several locations along commercial tour routes. 222Rn concentrations ranged as high as 25 kBq m-3 in summer and 20 kBq m-3 in winter. Average winter concentrations were lower than summer by at least a factor of two. Seasonal radon variations were correlative with outside air temperatures. During the winter, radon concentrations were observed to fluctuate periodically by factors of 20 or more in under 24 h. Both the long- and short-term variations are correlative with temperature- induced mixing of cave air with surface air.

  7. Errors in measurements of 222Rn in methane and carbon dioxide using scintillation cells calibrated for 222Rn in air.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Phillip H; Burkhart, James F; Camley, Robert E

    2014-03-01

    Scintillation cells are used typically for measuring the concentration of (222)Rn in air and are calibrated for that purpose. However, scintillation cells are sometimes used for measuring (222)Rn in natural gas or carbon dioxide. The counting efficiencies of scintillation cells for measurements of (222)Rn in these gases should be different from those for measuring (222)Rn in air because the ranges of alpha particles emitted by (222)Rn and its progeny are greater in methane and smaller in carbon dioxide than in air. If these effects are not taken into consideration, measurements of (222)Rn in natural gas will be biased high and in carbon dioxide will be biased low. The authors previously investigated the effects of barometric pressure on measurements of (222)Rn in air using scintillation cells. A modeling technique was used in a previous study to calculate theoretical errors that would result if atmospheric pressure were not considered. In the current study, the same modeling technique was used to calculate theoretical errors that would be made for measurements of (222)Rn in methane and carbon dioxide if the calibration for (222)Rn in air were used. Results are presented for four types of scintillation cells of varying geometries and for barometric pressures representative of four elevations ranging from sea level to 1,963 m (6,440 feet). These results indicate that the errors introduced by the ranges of the alpha particles in gases different from air can be significant. Depending on the type of cell and the local pressure, a measurement of (222)Rn in methane may be biased high by 2-7%, while a measurement of (222)Rn in CO2 may be biased low by 15-20% if the calibration for (222)Rn in air is used. PMID:25208015

  8. Determination of waterborne {sup 222}Rn concentrations using AC canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, C.; Giannelli, G.

    1995-09-01

    A method for measuring {sup 222}Rn concentration in water using charcoal canisters is presented. {sup 222}Rn is transferred within a few minutes from water contained in a 0.720 L bottle to a charcoal canister using a portable degassing unit. In the laboratory, gamma counting is performed at least 10 h after sampling to determine waterborne {sup 222}Rn concentration. The results obtained with charcoal canisters are compared to measurements made with Marinelli beakers calibrated in a comparison with liquid scintillation counting. The efficiency of transferring dissolved {sup 222}Rn in water to activated charcoal is 99% based on measurements made using Marinelli beakers. The lower limit of detection at the 95% confidence level is approximately 1 kBq m{sup -3} for a 15 min gamma count. the system was used to measure radon concentration in mineral groundwater near Rome. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Two-filter monitor for atmospheric 222Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schery, S. D.; Gaeddert, D. H.; Wilkening, M. H.

    1980-03-01

    A two-filter, continuous monitor has been developed for atmospheric 222Rn. Features include a sensitivity of better than 0.01 pCi/l, a high specificity for 222Rn, and immediate start up capability. The monitor has been computer modeled to facilitate calibration and selection of operating parameters. The filters are stationary and require no moving parts for control. Field trials indicate high reliability and maintenance-free operation for periods of a week and longer.

  10. The Effect of CO2 on the Measurement of 220Rn and 222Rn with Instruments Utilising Electrostatic Precipitation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lane-Smith, Derek; Sims, Kenneth

    2013-06-09

    In some volcanic systems, thoron and radon activity and CO2 flux, in soil and fumaroles, show a relationship between (220Rn/222Rn) and CO2 efflux. It is theorized that deep, magmatic sources of gas are characterized by high 222Rn activity and high CO2 efflux, whereas shallow sources are indicated by high 220Rn activity and relatively low CO2 efflux. In this paper we evaluate whether the observed inverse relationship is a true geochemical signal, or potentially an analytical artifact of high CO2 concentrations. We report results from a laboratory experiment using the RAD7 radon detector, known 222Rn (radon) and 220Rn (thorn), and amore » controllable percentage of CO2 in the carrier gas. Our results show that for every percentage of CO2, the 220Rn reading should be multiplied by 1.019, the 222Rn radon should be multiplied by 1.003 and the 220Rn/222Rn ratio should be multiplied by 1.016 to correct for the presence of the CO2.« less

  11. Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, E.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Nyberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous- monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply.

  12. Developing soil gas and 222Rn entry potentials for substructure surfaces and assessing 222Rn control diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Turk, B H; Harrison, J; Prill, R J; Sextro, R G

    1990-10-01

    Research-based procedures for characterizing the causes of elevated indoor 222Rn levels and guiding the selection of an appropriate control technique were evaluated at seven New Jersey houses. Procedures such as thorough visual inspections, blower door air leakage tests, pressure field mapping, subsurface vacuum extension tests, sampling of 222Rn concentrations throughout the substructure, and measurements of the additional depressurization caused by various appliances all were found to furnish important information to the mitigation contractor or researcher. An analysis of data from these and other diagnostic techniques performed at the seven houses also indicated: (1) regions of very high permeability existed directly adjacent to the exterior of substructure walls and floors; (2) the additional substructure depressurization caused by operation of forced-air furnaces and attic exhaust fans could exceed 1 Pascal; (3) 222Rn concentrations below basement slabs and slabs-on-grade adjoining below grade basement walls were approximately seven times higher than those within block wall cavities; and (4) air leakage areas of crawlspace and basement ceilings were quite large, ranging up to 0.15 m2. The pressure field mapping tests identified the areas surrounding the substructure that were well coupled to the indoors. Using flow, pressure difference, and 222Rn concentration data, indices of soil gas entry potential and 222Rn entry potential were developed to indicate the areas of the substructure that may have high entry rates of soil gas and 222Rn, respectively. These indices could be helpful for quantifying the relative resistance to soil gas movement of substructure surfaces and surrounding soils and for determining the placement of 222Rn control systems. PMID:2398009

  13. Behaviour of {sup 222}Rn at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, Sebastian; Simgen, Hardy; Zuzel, Grzegorz

    2011-04-27

    The behaviour of radon in a cryogenic environment is still not well known. Therefore, measured radon emanation rates at room temperature cannot be translated directly to cryogenic conditions. In this work we present a table-top experiment that provides a direct way of determining the behaviour of {sup 222}Rn in cryogenic argon and helium at liquid argon temperature. We observe an increased emanation rate of {sup 222}Rn atoms to liquid argon compared to the rate observed to helium at room temperature. We also find that {sup 222}Rn atoms stick to cold metal surfaces when emanated to helium at liquid argon temperature but partly distribute in the liquid when emanated to cryogenic argon. Concluding, we give possible interpretations of the observations.

  14. A micromegas detector for {sup 222}Rn emanations measurements

    SciTech Connect

    García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Irastorza, I. G.; Mirallas, H.

    2013-08-08

    The {sup 222}Rn emanation has significant contribution in the overall background for rare event searches experiments. In order to measure this emanations a high sensitivity detector has been designed. The detection method is based on the electrostatic collection of the {sup 222}Rn daughters on a Micromegas detector. Using a chamber with a volume of 21.2 l for the collection of {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po progeny of {sup 222}Rn and a 12 × 12cm{sup 2} pixelized Micromegas for the α detection. The advantages of the Micromegas detectors are the low intrinsic radioactivity and the track reconstruction of the α’s, having excellent capabilities for event discrimination.

  15. Highly Sensitive Measurements of 222Rn Diffusion and Emanation

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzel, Grzegorz

    2005-09-08

    Highly sensitive techniques for determination of the 222Rn emanation from solids and diffusion through different membranes are presented. 222Rn and its daughters are measured via the alpha decays in special proportional counters at the absolute sensitivity of {approx}30 {mu}Bq. Radon diffusion can be measured at the level of {approx}10-13 cm2/s. Several samples were examined, e.g. stainless steel, teflon, various gaskets (emanation and diffusion measurements) and tanks. A combination of measurements of the 222Rn diffusion and emanation of thin nylon foils (used in the Borexino experiment) allowed the determination of 226Ra in the materials of interest at the level of {approx}10-12 g/g 238U-equivalent.

  16. Atmospheric /sup 222/Rn in tourist caves of Slovenia, Yugoslavia

    SciTech Connect

    Kobal, I.; Smodis, B.; Burger, J.; Skofljanec, M.

    1987-04-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in the air of 12 tourist caves in Slovenia, Yugoslavia were measured. In almost all the caves concentrations are higher than in the outdoor air, with the highest concentration in the Tabor Cave at about 6000 Bq m-3. From the /sup 222/Rn concentrations obtained, the activity of /sup 222/Rn inhaled by a visitor breathing cave air was calculated, and the bronchial dose was estimated. The inhaled activity and the bronchial dose were highest in the Tabor Cave with values of 10 kBq and 540 microSv, respectively.

  17. Risk analysis of 222Rn gas received from East Anatolian Fault Zone in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mucahit; Kulahci, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    In this study, risk analysis and probability distribution methodologies are applied for 222Rn gas data received from Sürgü (Malatya) station located on East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). 222Rn data are recorded between 21.02.2007 and 06.06.2010 dates. For study are used total 1151 222Rn data. Changes in concentration of 222Rn are modeled as statistically.

  18. Measurement of 222Rn flux, 222Rn emanation, and 226,228Ra concentration from injection well pipe scale.

    PubMed

    Rood, A S; White, G J; Kendrick, D T

    1998-08-01

    222Rn flux (Bq s(-1)) was measured from the ends of twenty sections of produced water injection tubing (pipe) containing barite scale contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material. Exposure measurements near the pipes were as high as 77.4 nC kg(-1)h(-1) (300 microR h(-1)). Flux measurements were accomplished by first purging the pipes with dry nitrogen and then collecting the outflow (nitrogen and radon) on charcoal columns affixed to the end of the pipe for 66 hours. As determined in this manner, 222Rn flux from the ends of the pipe ranged from 0.017 to 0.10 Bq s(-1) (0.46 to 2.7 pCi s(-1)). Following the radon flux measurements, pipe scale was removed and a representative sample was taken for 226Ra and 228Ra concentration measurements and determination of 222Rn emanation fractions (the fraction of the total radon contained in a material that is released from the material and free to migrate). The samples were also analyzed for gross mineral content. Emanation fraction measurements for 222Rn ranged from 0.020 to 0.063, while 226Ra concentrations ranged from 15.7 to 102 Bq g(-1) (424 to 2,760 pCi g(-1)). Barite was the predominate mineral in 17 of the 20 scale samples collected. Much of the previous work dealing with radon emanation fraction measurements has involved uranium mill tailings. Compared to mill tailings and natural soils which have emanation fractions that typically range from 0.1 to 0.3, the emanation fractions measured for these NORM scales are substantially lower. PMID:9685074

  19. Estimation of 222Rn release from the phosphogypsum board used in housing panels.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mee; Kang, Chang-Sun; Hyun Moon, Joo

    2005-01-01

    Phosphogypsum board is a popular construction material used for housing panels in Korea. Phosphogypsum often contains (226)Ra which decays into (222)Rn through an alpha transformation. (222)Rn emanated from the (226)Ra-bearing phosphogypsum board has drawn the public concern due to its potential radiological impacts to indoor occupants. The emanation rate of (222)Rn from the board is estimated in this paper. A mathematical model of the emanation rate of (222)Rn from the board is presented and validated through a series of experiments. The back diffusion effect due to accumulation of (222)Rn-laden air was incorporated in the model and found to have a strong impact on the (222)Rn emanation characteristics. PMID:15701380

  20. Precursory Subsurface 222Rn and 220Rn Degassing Signatures of the 2004 Seismic Crisis at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys; Marrero, Rayco; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Nolasco, Dácil

    2007-12-01

    Precursory geochemical signatures of radon degassing in the subsurface of the Tenerife Island were observed several months prior to the recent 2004 seismic-volcanic crisis. These premonitory signatures were detected by means of a continuous monitoring of 222Rn and 220Rn activity from a bubbling CO2-rich gas spot located at 2.850 m depth inside a horizontal gallery for groundwater exploitation at Tenerife. Multivariate Regression Analysis (MRA) on time series of the radon activity was applied to eliminate the radon activity fluctuation due to external variables such as barometric pressure, temperature and relative humidity as well as power supply. Material Failure Forecast Method (FFM) was successfully applied to forecast the anomalous seismicity registered in Tenerife Island in 2004. The changes in the 222Rn/220Rn ratio observed after the period of anomalous seismicity might suggest a higher gas flow rate and/or changes in the vertical permeability induced by seismic activity.

  1. sup 222 Rn, sup 222 Rn progeny and sup 220 Rn progeny as atmospheric tracers of air masses at the Mauno Loa Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, A.R.; George, A.C.; Maiello, M.L.; Fisenne, I.M.; Larsen, R.J.; Beck, H.L.; Wilson, F.C.

    1990-03-01

    {sup 222}Rn, {sup 222}Rn progeny and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations in air were measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) in Hawaii during March 1989 in order to investigate the feasibility of using them as atmospheric tracers to help determine local air mass flow patterns. Charcoal traps, cooled to dry ice temperatures, were used to collect {sup 222}Rn, which was subsequently measured in pulse ionization chambers at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML). {sup 222}Rn progeny and {sup 220}Rn progeny for 37 samples were measured at the Observatory by sampling high volumes of air through filters, which were counted for up to 11 h in alpha scintillation counters. Individual progeny concentrations were calculated using both least squares and maximum likelihood techniques. In general, {sup 222}Rn progeny and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations were low when free tropospheric air was present (downslope and tradewind conditions), and consistently higher when surface air from the island broke through the trade wind inversion layer (upslope conditions). The data suggest that {sup 222}Rn, {sup 222}Rn progeny, or {sup 220}Rn progeny monitoring may provide new and useful information to help indicate the different air flow patterns present at MLO. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Apparatus for the Measurement of {sup 222}Rn Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Mamedov, F.; Konicek, J.; Stekl, I.

    2009-11-09

    A new apparatus for the measurement of {sup 222}Rn diffusion through shielding foils developed in the frame of the NEMO collaboration is briefly described. The setup is based on the electrostatic collection of radon progenies {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po. The NEMO project is an underground experiment for the study of double beta decay processes. For such type of experiments the efficient suppression of background caused by radon is essential. The first test of the apparatus has been carried out using Penefol foil (0.8 mm thickness) and the suppression factor of radon concentration has been obtained.

  3. [The content of radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of the Pojezierze Mazurskie terrain].

    PubMed

    Pachocki, K A; Gorzkowski, B; Majle, T; Rózycki, Z

    1997-01-01

    Radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of Pojezierze Mazurskie region has been quantitative determined. The measurement were performed using the alpha liquid scintillation counting method. The water samples were examined from three voivodships: Elblag, Olsztyn and Suwałki. In some cases the concentrations of 222Rn in investigated water samples exceed 11 Bq/l. PMID:9273666

  4. Laboratory scale studies on mitigation of high 222Rn concentrations in air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamoon, A.; Gomma, M. A.; Sohsah, M.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the occasional occurrence of high 222Rn concentrations in air and water under certain circumstances, and in view of the potential health hazards of increased levels of 222Rn in respirable air and in potable water, mitigation of such high 222Rn concentration has become of primary concern. To facilitate the study of the efficiency of the various 222Rn mitigating factors simple laboratory systems were used. Altered alkali granite was used as radon source to enrich air and a piece of pitchblende was used as radon source to enrich water samples. Both enriched media will then be subjected to the mitigation treatments. Charcoal canister technique along with gamma spectrometry were used to measure 222Rn concentrations in air before and after the different mitigating treatments. These were: use of ventilation, radon barriers such as geo-membranes and aluminum sheet, and sealant such as epoxy and vinyl tape. Regarding high levels of 222Rn in air ventilation was the most efficient mitigating factor. Standard liquid scintillation counting was used to measure 222Rn concentrations in water before and after the different mitigation treatments. These were: use of aeration, activated charcoal and heating. Regarding high levels of 222Rn in water, aeration using bubblers and large volume of air was most effective in removing radon from water in a short time. However all the mitigating factors proved effective, in different degrees in decreasing 222Rn concentrations in the respective media. The result from these studies are in general agreement with reports in the literature. It can be concluded then that the different 222Rn mitigating factors can be tested and compared effectively under controlled conditions using simple laboratory scale systems.

  5. 222Rn transport in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer: Results from numerical simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folger, P.F.; Poeter, E.; Wanty, R.B.; Day, W.; Frishman, D.

    1997-01-01

    Dissolved 222Rn concentrations in ground water from a small wellfield underlain by fractured Middle Proterozoic Pikes Peak Granite southwest of Denver, Colorado range from 124 to 840 kBq m-3 (3360-22700 pCi L-1). Numerical simulations of flow and transport between two wells show that differences in equivalent hydraulic aperture of transmissive fractures, assuming a simplified two-fracture system and the parallel-plate model, can account for the different 222Rn concentrations in each well under steady-state conditions. Transient flow and transport simulations show that 222Rn concentrations along the fracture profile are influenced by 222Rn concentrations in the adjoining fracture and depend on boundary conditions, proximity of the pumping well to the fracture intersection, transmissivity of the conductive fractures, and pumping rate. Non-homogeneous distribution (point sources) of 222Rn parent radionuclides, uranium and 226Ra, can strongly perturb the dissolved 222Rn concentrations in a fracture system. Without detailed information on the geometry and hydraulic properties of the connected fracture system, it may be impossible to distinguish the influence of factors controlling 222Rn distribution or to determine location of 222Rn point sources in the field in areas where ground water exhibits moderate 222Rn concentrations. Flow and transport simulations of a hypothetical multifracture system consisting of ten connected fractures, each 10 m in length with fracture apertures ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, show that 222Rn concentrations at the pumping well can vary significantly over time. Assuming parallel-plate flow, transmissivities of the hypothetical system vary over four orders of magnitude because transmissivity varies with the cube of fracture aperture. The extreme hydraulic heterogeneity of the simple hypothetical system leads to widely ranging 222Rn values, even assuming homogeneous distribution of uranium and 226Ra along fracture walls. Consequently, it is

  6. Removal of {sup 222}Rn daughters from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzel, G.; Wojcik, M.; Majorovits, B.; Lampert, M. O.; Wendling, P.

    2015-08-17

    Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po) from copper, stainless steel and germanium surfaces was investigated. As cleaning techniques etching and electro-polishing was applied to samples in a form of discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source. Reduction of the {sup 210}Pb activity was tested using a HPGe spectrometer, for {sup 210}Bi a beta spectrometer and for {sup 210}Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the conducted measurements electro-polishing was always more efficient compared to etching and in case of copper the activity reduction factors for {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po were between 200 and 400. Etching does not remove {sup 210}Po from copper but works very efficiently from germanium. Results obtained for {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Bi for etched stainless steel were worse but still slightly better than those achieved for copper.

  7. 222Rn+220Rn monitoring by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Buompane, R; Roca, V; Sabbarese, C; Pugliese, M; Quarto, M; Mattone, C

    2014-07-01

    Controlled 222Rn+220Rn mixed atmospheres have been realised introducing calibrated sources in a stainless steel chamber. An electrostatic alpha monitor internal to the chamber has been used for an accurate discrimination of alpha peaks due to the products of the two isotopes. In the chamber, different specific activities are achieved in order to test the response of the internal reference instrument and to evaluate the possible interferences due to contemporary presence of both radon isotopes. Results show that: (i) the atmospheres are very stable, (ii) the monitor is adequate for their control because the various alpha lines are well evaluated and (iii) using Tyvek® filter, the efficiency of monitor is stable and constant vs. activity. PMID:24723194

  8. Removal of 222Rn daughters from metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzel, G.; Wojcik, M.; Majorovits, B.; Lampert, M. O.; Wendling, P.

    2015-08-01

    Removal of the long-lived 222Rn daughters (210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po) from copper, stainless steel and germanium surfaces was investigated. As cleaning techniques etching and electro-polishing was applied to samples in a form of discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source. Reduction of the 210Pb activity was tested using a HPGe spectrometer, for 210Bi a beta spectrometer and for 210Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the conducted measurements electro-polishing was always more efficient compared to etching and in case of copper the activity reduction factors for 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po were between 200 and 400. Etching does not remove 210Po from copper but works very efficiently from germanium. Results obtained for 210Pb and 210Bi for etched stainless steel were worse but still slightly better than those achieved for copper.

  9. [sup 222]Rn dosimetry in the dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Meyers, O.A.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The alpha dose to cells in bronchial airways in the beagle dog during historical exposures to [sup 222]Rn decay products is calculated using updated information on airway morphometry, call nucleus depth, mucus thickness, physical dosimetry and atmospheric characteristics. The alpha dose per unit exposure to basal call nuclei in the upper airways ranges from 2 to 7 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1] (excluding the trachea) depending upon the exposure protocol used. The dose to alveolar tissue is 3 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1]. In the human lung, the dose factor for the bronchial airways is 9 mGy WLM[sub [minus]1] and for the pulmonary parenchyma 0.5 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1] The human tumors appear primarily in the first few branching airway generations while the only tumors observed in the animals were in the bronchioloalveolar region suggesting a difference in cell sensitivity to alpha radiation.

  10. {sup 222}Rn dosimetry in the dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Meyers, O.A.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-12-31

    The alpha dose to cells in bronchial airways in the beagle dog during historical exposures to {sup 222}Rn decay products is calculated using updated information on airway morphometry, call nucleus depth, mucus thickness, physical dosimetry and atmospheric characteristics. The alpha dose per unit exposure to basal call nuclei in the upper airways ranges from 2 to 7 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1} (excluding the trachea) depending upon the exposure protocol used. The dose to alveolar tissue is 3 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1}. In the human lung, the dose factor for the bronchial airways is 9 mGy WLM{sub {minus}1} and for the pulmonary parenchyma 0.5 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1} The human tumors appear primarily in the first few branching airway generations while the only tumors observed in the animals were in the bronchioloalveolar region suggesting a difference in cell sensitivity to alpha radiation.

  11. Outdoor (222)Rn-concentrations in Germany - part 2 - former mining areas.

    PubMed

    Kümmel, M; Dushe, C; Müller, S; Gehrcke, K

    2014-06-01

    In the German Federal States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, centuries of mining and milling activities resulted in numerous residues with increased levels of natural radioactivity such as waste rock dumps and tailings ponds. These may have altered potential radiation exposures of the population significantly. Especially waste rock dumps from old mining activities as well as 20th century uranium mining may, due to their radon ((222)Rn) exhalation capacity, lead to significant radiation exposures. They often lie close to or within residential areas. In order to study the impact on the natural radon level, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has run networks of radon measurement points in 16 former mining areas, together with 2 networks in regions not influenced by mining for comparison purposes. Representative overviews of the long-term outdoor radon concentrations could be established including estimates of regional background concentrations. Former mining and milling activities did not result in large-area impacts on the outdoor radon level. However, significantly increased radon concentrations were observed in close vicinity of shafts and large waste rock dumps. They are partly located in residential areas and need to be considered under radiation protection aspects. Examples are given that illustrate the consequences of the Wismut Ltd. Company's reclamation activities on the radon situation. PMID:24508448

  12. Radon (222Rn) in ground water of fractured rocks: a diffusion/ion exchange model.

    PubMed

    Wood, Warren W; Kraemer, Thomas F; Shapiro, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Ground waters from fractured igneous and high-grade sialic metamorphic rocks frequently have elevated activity of dissolved radon (222Rn). A chemically based model is proposed whereby radium (226Ra) from the decay of uranium (238U) diffuses through the primary porosity of the rock to the water-transmitting fracture where it is sorbed on weathering products. Sorption of 226Ra on the fracture surface maintains an activity gradient in the rock matrix, ensuring a continuous supply of 226Ra to fracture surfaces. As a result of the relatively long half-life of 226Ra (1601 years), significant activity can accumulate on fracture surfaces. The proximity of this sorbed 226Ra to the active ground water flow system allows its decay progeny 222Rn to enter directly into the water. Laboratory analyses of primary porosity and diffusion coefficients of the rock matrix, radon emanation, and ion exchange at fracture surfaces are consistent with the requirements of a diffusion/ion-exchange model. A dipole-brine injection/withdrawal experiment conducted between bedrock boreholes in the high-grade metamorphic and granite rocks at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States (42 degrees 56'N, 71 degrees 43'W) shows a large activity of 226Ra exchanged from fracture surfaces by a magnesium brine. The 226Ra activity removed by the exchange process is 34 times greater than that of 238U activity. These observations are consistent with the diffusion/ion-exchange model. Elutriate isotopic ratios of 223Ra/226Ra and 238U/226Ra are also consistent with the proposed chemically based diffusion/ion-exchange model. PMID:15318778

  13. Radon (222Rn) in ground water of fractured rocks: A diffusion/ion exchange model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Kraemer, T.F.; Shapiro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Ground waters from fractured igneous and high-grade sialic metamorphic rocks frequently have elevated activity of dissolved radon (222Rn). A chemically based model is proposed whereby radium (226Ra) from the decay of uranium (238U) diffuses through the primary porosity of the rock to the water-transmitting fracture where it is sorbed on weathering products. Sorption of 226Ra on the fracture surface maintains an activity gradient in the rock matrix, ensuring a continuous supply of 226Ra to fracture surfaces. As a result of the relatively long half-life of 226Ra (1601 years), significant activity can accumulate on fracture surfaces. The proximity of this sorbed 226Ra to the active ground water flow system allows its decay progeny 222Rn to enter directly into the water. Laboratory analyses of primary porosity and diffusion coefficients of the rock matrix, radon emanation, and ion exchange at fracture surfaces are consistent with the requirements of a diffusion/ion- exchange model. A dipole-brine injection/withdrawal experiment conducted between bedrock boreholes in the high-grade metamorphic and granite rocks at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States (42??56???N, 71??43???W) shows a large activity of 226Ra exchanged from fracture surfaces by a magnesium brine. The 226Ra activity removed by the exchange process is 34 times greater than that of 238U activity. These observations are consistent with the diffusion/ion-exchange model. Elutriate isotopic ratios of 223Ra/226Ra and 238U/226Ra are also consistent with the proposed chemically based diffusion/ion-exchange model.

  14. Measurement of liquid scintillation sources of (210)Pb obtained from (222)Rn decay.

    PubMed

    Antohe, A; Sahagia, M; Luca, A; Ioan, M-R; Ivan, C

    2016-03-01

    Liquid scintillation samples were filled with (222)Rn and the activity was measured with good precision after reaching the secular equilibrium with the progeny (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi and (214)Po. After decay of most of (222)Rn activity, the samples contain (210)Pb and progeny. The activities of (210)Pb and progeny can be calculated as a function of time using the initial (222)Rn activity. The samples were measured in a TDCR counter and the experimentally determined counting efficiencies are in accordance with previously published results. PMID:26725538

  15. An electrostatic integrating 222Rn monitor with cellulose nitrate film for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Iida, T; Ikebe, Y; Hattori, T; Yamanishi, H; Abe, S; Ochifuji, K; Yokoyama, S

    1988-02-01

    This paper describes a new type of electrostatic integrating 222Rn monitor designed for the environmental 222Rn monitoring. The window area of the monitor was selected to make the exchange rate optimal. The collecting electrode was positioned on the basis of calculating the internal electric field. A drying agent, P2O5, was placed in the bottom of the monitor, since the collection efficiency of 218Po+ atoms depends on the humidity of the air. The monitors have been calibrated against known 222Rn exposures. The detection limit is 1.2 Bq m-3 for an exposure time of 2 mo. In a small survey, annual mean 222Rn concentrations between 3.7 and 9.5 Bq m-3 in outdoor air and between 6.4 and 11.9 Bq m-3 in indoor air were measured. PMID:3338911

  16. Measurements of soil and canopy exchange rates in the Amazon rain forest using 222Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbore, S. E.; Keller, M.; Wofsy, S. C.; da Costa, J. M.

    1990-09-01

    Measurements of the emission of 222Rn from Amazon forest soils, and profiles of 222Rn in air were used to study the ventilation of the soil atmosphere and the nocturnal forest canopy. The emission of 222Rn from the yellow clay soils dominant in the study area averaged 0.38±0.07 atom cm-2 s-1. Nearby sand soils had similar fluxes, averaging 0.30 ± 0.07 atom cm-2 s-1. The effective diffusivity in the clay soil (0.008±0.004 cm2 s-1), was lower than that for the sand soil (0.033±0.030 cm2 s-1). Profiles of 222Rn and CO2 in air showed steepest concentration gradients in the layer between 0 and 3 m above the soil surface. Aerodynamic resistances calculated for this layer from 222Rn and CO2 varied from 1.6 to 18 s cm-1, with greater resistance during the afternoon than at night. Time averaged profiles of 222Rn in the forest canopy measured during the evening and night were combined with the soil flux measurements to compute the resistance of the subcanopy to exchange with overlying air. The integrated nocturnal rate of gas exchange between the canopy layer (0 to 41 m) and overlying atmosphere based on 222Rn averaged 0.33±0.15 cm s-1. An independent estimate of gas exchange, based on 13 nights of CO2 profiles, averaged 0.21±0.40 cm s-1. These exchange rates correspond to flushing times for the 41 m canopy layer of 3.4 and 5.5 hours, respectively. Comparison of 222Rn and CO2 profiles show that the nocturnal production of CO2 by above-ground vegetation was about 20% of the soil emission source, consistent with data from eddy-correlation experiments (Fan et al., this issue).

  17. 222Rn and 212Pb exposures at a Brazilian spa.

    PubMed

    Campos, M P; Pecequilo, B R S; Mazzilli, B P

    2010-09-01

    Termas de Araxá spa is located in Araxá, State of Minas Gerais. In this region, several minerals rich in uranium and thorium are found. The mineral waters and mud from Termas de Araxá spa have been used for therapeutic and recreation purposes. In this study, the committed effective dose was evaluated for workers and patients at Araxá spa due to (222)Rn and (212)Pb inhalation. Radon measurements were carried out through the passive method with solid state nuclear track detectors (Makrofol E) over a period of 21 months, with results varying from 258 +/- 20 to 1634 +/- 111 Bq m(-3). The (212)Pb air concentration was assessed through the modified Kusnetz's method, the results varying from 0.3 +/- 0.1 to 2.1 +/- 0.2 Bq m(-3). Doses received by the spa workers are below 20 mSv.y(-1), suggested by ICRP 60 as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure. The radiation doses for the patients are below the mean annual effective dose due to natural sources estimated to be 2.4 mSv.y(-1). PMID:20513732

  18. Summertime elevation of sup 222 Rn levels in Huntsville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Saultz, R.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Indoor Rn concentrations and Rn in adjacent karst terrains were studied at four houses with crawlspaces in Huntsville, AL. In warm summertime weather, Rn-rich air may vent through limestone solution cavities exposed as holes at the surface of the properties. A probable interrelated-finding is that the indoor levels of {sup 222}Rn are distinctly higher in the summer than winter. The karst underlying the homes is structurally faulted and, in all probability, facilitates Rn transport from the solution cavities to the crawlspaces. Abrupt day-to-day changes in indoor Rn concentrations were recorded in addition to large seasonal changes. If the owners or residents of these particular homes had attempted to make, and interpret, short-term screening measurements for Rn during the fall season, problems, including false negatives, could have arisen because of order-of-magnitude changes in Rn concentration occurring over a few days. The best time of year to make screening measurements would be during the summer when indoor Rn concentrations are more likely to reach their maximum values.

  19. Measurement of {sup 222}Rn flux, {sup 222}Rn emanation and {sup 226}Ra concentration from injection well pipe scale

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; Kendrick, D.T.

    1996-02-01

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) has been recognized since the early 1930s in petroleum reservoirs and in oil and gas production and processing facilities. NORM was typically observed in barite scale that accumulated on the interior of oil production tubing and in storage tank and heater-treater separation sludge. Recent concern has been expressed over the health impacts from the uncontrolled release of NORM to the public. There are several potential exposure pathways to humans from oil-field NORM. Among these is inhalation of radon gas and its daughter products. For this exposure pathway to be of any significance, radon must first be released from the NORM matrix and diffuse in free air. The radon emanation fraction refers to the fraction of radon atoms produced by the decay of radium, that migrate from the bulk material as free gaseous atoms. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the radon release rates from NORM-scale contaminated production tubing being stored above ground, characterize the radon emanation fraction of the bulk scale material when removed from the tubing, and characterize the radium concentrations of the scale. Accurate characterization of {sup 222}Rn emanation fractions from pipe scale may dictate the type of disposal options available for this waste. Characterization of radon release from stored pipes will assist in determining if controls are needed for workers or members of the public downwind from the source. Due to the sensitive nature of this data, the location of this facility is not disclosed.

  20. Soil radon ( 222 Rn) monitoring at Furnas Volcano (São Miguel, Azores): Applications and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C.; Ferreira, T.; Viveiros, F.; Allard, P.

    2015-05-01

    A soil 222Rn continuous monitoring test was performed in three sampling points inside Furnas Volcano caldera and 222Rn concentration varied between 0 and 153000 Bq/m3. Multivariate regression and spectral analyses were applied to the time series registered in order to understand and filter the influence of external factors on soil 222Rn concentration and to recognise anomalies correlated with deep processes. The regression models show that barometric pressure, soil water content, soil temperature, soil CO2 flux, air temperature, relative air humidity and wind speed are the statistical meaningful variables explaining between 15.8% and 73.6% of 222Rn variations. Spectral analysis allowed to identify seasonal variations and daily variations associated with one cycle per day on winter months only in one of the monitored sites. This diurnal variation is correlated with air temperature, relative air humidity and wind speed cycles. The change in the location of the sampling points was caused by both artificial and natural constrains. On the three monitoring sites, after a period of continuous register, a sudden drop on the 222Rn concentration values was observed and the cause is still under debate. The work performed can be applied for seismovolcanic monitoring and for public health risk assessment.

  1. Development and calibration of a portable radon sampling system for groundwater 222Rn activity concentration measurements.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Fabio de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Igor José Chaves; Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha

    2009-10-01

    The assembling of a system for field sampling and activity concentration measurement of radon dissolved in groundwater is described. Special attention is given in presenting the calibration procedure to obtain the radon activity concentration in groundwater from the raw counting rate registered in a portable scintillation detector and in establishing the precision of the activity concentration measurements. A field procedure was established and the system tested during one year of monthly observations of (222)Rn activity concentration in groundwater drawn from two wells drilled on metamorphic rocks exposed at Eastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The observed mean (222)Rn activity concentrations are 374Bq/dm(3) in one well and about 1275Bq/dm(3) in the other one. In both wells the (222)Rn activity concentrations showed a seasonal variation similar to variations previously reported in the literature for the same region. PMID:19608307

  2. A portable battery-powered continuous airborne {sup 222}Rn sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpitta, S.; Kadnar, M.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyport, designed at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for deployment in atmospheric balloons or remote areas, was laboratory and field tested to determine its effectiveness in collecting {sup 222}Rn gas in dry and humid air. Twelve 6-cm long tubes containing 0.4 g of Carboxen{trademark}-564 a hydrophobic beaded carbon molecular sieve (BCMS) material efficiently adsorbs airborne {sup 222}Rn under dynamic sampling conditions of 1--2 hr duration. The exposed sorbent is later weighed for water uptake, transferred and counted in a low background liquid scintillation (LS) counter that can detect alpha and beta emitting {sup 222}Rn progeny with a maximum counting efficiency of 5 cpm per dpm. Each sorbent tube can be gamma counted if it contains sufficient adsorbed {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi activity. The variables tested were sampling flow rate, temperature, sampling time and relative humidity (RH).

  3. Using (222)Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments.

    PubMed

    Valladares, D L; da Silva, A A R; Lacerda, T; Anjos, R M; Rizzotto, M; Velasco, H; de Rosas, J P; Tognelli, G; Yoshimura, E M; Ayub, J Juri

    2014-01-15

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of (222)Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments. PMID:24012891

  4. Measurements of soil and canopy exchange rates in the Amazon rain forest using sup 222 Rn

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbore, S.E. Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY ); Keller, M. ); Wofsy, S.C. ); Da Costa, J.M. )

    1990-09-20

    Measurements of the emission of {sup 222}Rn from Amazon forest soils, and profiles of {sup 222}Rn in air were used to study the ventilation of the soil atmosphere and the nocturnal forest canopy. The emission of {sup 222}Rn from the yellow clay soils dominant in the study area averaged 0.38 {plus minus} 0.07 atom cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Nearby sand soils had similar fluxes, averaging 0.30 {plus minus} 0.07 atom cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The effective diffusivity in the clay soil (0.008 {plus minus} 0.004 cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1}), was lower than that for the sand soil (0.033 {plus minus} 0.030 cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1}). Profiles of {sup 222}Rn and CO{sub 2} in air showed steepest concentration gradients in the layer between 0 and 3 m above the soil surface. Aerodynamic resistances calculated for this layer from {sup 222}Rn and CO{sub 2} varied from 1.6 to 18 s cm{sup {minus}1}, with greater resistance during the afternoon than at night. Time averaged profiles of {sup 222}Rn in the forest canopy measured during the evening and night were combined with the soil flux measurements to compute the resistance of the subcanopy to exchange with overlying air. The integrated nocturnal rate of gas exchange between the canopy layer (0 to 41 m) and overlying atmosphere based on {sup 222}Rn averaged 0.33 {plus minus} 0.15 cm s{sup {minus}1}. An independent estimate of gas exchange, based on 13 nights of CO{sub 2} profiles, averaged 0.21 {plus minus} 0.40 cm s{sup {minus}1}. These exchange rates correspond to flushing times for the 41 m canopy layer of 3.4 and 5.5 hours, respectively. Comparison of {sup 222}Rn and CO{sub 2} profiles show that the nocturnal production of CO{sub 2} by above-ground vegetation was about 20% of the soil emission source, consistent with data from eddy-correlation experiments.

  5. Gas exchange in the Pee Dee River based on /sup 222/Rn evasion

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Elsinger, R.J.

    1983-06-01

    Excess /sup 222/Rn concentrations decrease downstream in the fresh water section of the Pee Dee River. Ground water is the primary source of the excess /sup 222/Rn to the River. Using the radon concentration gradients determined during four sampling periods, gas exchange rates based on the stagnant film model are calculated. Stagnant film thicknesses range from 19 ..mu..m to 48 ..mu..m and mass transfer coefficients range from 2.1 m/d to 4.1 m/d.

  6. Estimation of Hg 0 exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere using 222Rn and Hg 0 concentration changes in the stable nocturnal boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, Daniel; Conen, Franz; Vogt, Roland; Siegwolf, Rolf; Alewell, Christine

    The goal of this study was to test a 222Rn/Hg 0 method to measure exchange fluxes of Hg 0 between ecosystems and the atmosphere complementing gradient-based micrometeorological methods which are difficult to apply when exchange fluxes are very low, during calm nights, and over heterogeneous surfaces. The method is based on absolute concentration changes of Hg 0 and of the trace gas 222Rn over several hours in the stable nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) when absolute gas concentrations change according to the source or sink strength of the underlying landscape. 222Rn accumulations were observed in 28 of 66 measured nights in an urban area and in 14 of the 40 nights at a subalpine grassland. Concurrent and significant increases in atmospheric Hg 0 concentrations were observed 22 times in the urban area and calculated Hg 0 emissions—for the first time measured over a city area—averaged 6.4±0.9 ng m -2 h -1. Concurrent changes in Hg 0 in the stable NBLs at the subalpine site were very small and significant only nine times with calculated Hg 0 fluxes averaging -0.2±0.3 ng m -2 h -1, indicating that the flux of Hg 0 in the grassland was a very small net deposition of atmospheric Hg 0 to the ecosystem. At the subalpine grassland the 222Rn/Hg 0 method compared reasonably well to a modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method applied during turbulent conditions (-1.9±0.2 ng m -2 h -1 [or -1.7±0.4 ng m -2 h -1 during nights only]). The MBR, however, was not applicable in the urban area due to high surface roughness. We conclude that the 222Rn/Hg 0 method—although limited to nighttime periods in our study—can complement gradient-based methods during stable NBL periods and can be used over heterogeneous surfaces when conventional micrometeorological approaches are not applicable.

  7. INDOOR 222RN IN TENNESSEE VALLEY HOUSES: SEASONAL, BUILDING AND GEOLOGICAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-season survey of indoor 222Rn concentrations was conducted in 226 occupied houses in Roane County, TN, during 1985 and 1986. A similar survey of 86 houses in Madison County, AL, was conducted in 1988 and 1989. Alpha track detectors were placed in each of the houses for thre...

  8. Equilibration correction of temporal measurements for sudden 222Rn concentration changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Tokonami, S.; Liu, H.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    222Rn and 220Rn can be used as tracers of groundwater or submarine springs, and 222Rn in water also could indicate indoor radon problems in some regions. The half-life of 222Rn is long enough that its concentration may remain significant during transit over relatively long distances, while that of 220Rn is not. Prior research revealed that it took about 15 min for the radon to achieve gas equilibrium at a water flow rate of 17.5 L min-1, which is approximately equivalent to the time required for the 222Rn-218Po pair to approach radioactive equilibrium and is limiting in terms of measurements of sudden radon concentration change. In this work, an algorithm is applied to improve the continuous tracing of radon concentrations in the field environment. Results of a laboratory experiment analyzed applying the analysis method illustrated its ability to allow immediate identification of sharp concentration increases. In this paper we find that a precipitous drop in radon concentrations lead to improper corrected values as the result of measurement uncertainties prior to the drop, and a method using zero instead negative values for reducing the uncertainties under such condition also is proposed.

  9. The 222Rn standard system established at IFIN-HH, Romania.

    PubMed

    Sahagia, M; Stanga, D; Wätjen, A C; Luca, A; Cassette, P; Ivan, C; Antohe, A

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the (222)Rn Standard System realized at the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory from IFIN-HH, Romania. It contains a Pylon solid (226)Ra source, and a glass circuit for circulation and recovery of (222)Rn in glass ampoules, at the 77K temperature. The radon can be recovered both in ampoules with liquid scintillator (LS), for absolute standardization of (222)Rn by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) (Cassette et al., 2006), and in evacuated ampoules as gas, simultaneously or by the transfer of radon from gas into LS ampoules, in order to establish the traceability chain. The absolute standardization consists in the registration of the double coincidence counting rate in LS, due to the whole sequence of short life components of the (222)Rn chain, in equilibrium conditions. The main correction applied to the measurement results is due to the decay of (214)Po during the extendable dead time of the system. The following procedure was applied to take it into account. The value of the base duration of the dead time was precisely measured and used for the data corrections. The measurements of each source were repeated during a period of several days, and the decay curve parameters were calculated. If the dead time value and the correction formulae, presented throughout the paper, were adequate, then the re-determination of the (222)Rn half life, T(1/2)=(3.8232+/-0.0008) d, using the decay curve of the corrected counting rates should be correct. On the other hand, the effective dead time values obtained by parallel calculations were compared. The paper presents the results obtained in the standardization of several sources, by LSC, and the evaluation of the uncertainties associated to the method. PMID:20022259

  10. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. PMID:24973780

  11. Surface radioactivity resulting from the deposition of /sup 222/Rn daughter products

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, R.S.; Ney, E.P.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the /sup 222/Rn in air, and the level of surface radioactivity that results from the build-up and decay of the daughter isotope, /sup 210/Pb. Samples of /sup 222/Rn were collected from Mystery Cave, which is located in southeastern Minnesota and from the basement of a house in Minneapolis, MN. Lead-210 was measured on surfaces within the cave, on a rock removed from the cave, and on a basement window. Surface alpha activities were measured on the rock sample and on the window. Radon-222 concentrations in the cave air ranged from 3 to 13 kBq m-3. In the basement, /sup 222/Rn levels were between 0.2 and 0.4 kBq m-3. Virtually all the surface radioactivity resulted from the deposition and decay of airborne /sup 222/Rn daughter products and was not produced by the decay of U in the rock. Radon-222 concentrations in the cave air were almost 30 times higher than in the basement air; however, the surface /sup 210/Pb activity in the cave was 100 times higher than that in the basement. This suggests that in the cave air, /sup 222/Rn daughter products are more likely to reach the walls and decay to /sup 210/Pb. The measurements of surface alpha activity did not show a similar trend primarily because /sup 210/Pb had diffused further into the coating of dirt on the rock than into the glass of the window. The resulting surface activity of the rock was lower than expected based on the /sup 210/Pb concentration, because many of the alpha-emitting nuclei were at depths beyond the range of emitted alpha particles. On surfaces where the penetration range of alpha particles is greater than the diffusion depth of /sup 210/Pb atoms, either the /sup 210/Pb concentration or surface alpha-activity measurements should provide estimates of average long-term /sup 222/Rn concentrations.

  12. Long-term temporal variability of the radon-222 exhalation flux from a landform covered by low uranium grade waste rock.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Doering, Che

    2016-01-01

    Radon-222 exhalation flux densities from two different substrates of several metres thickness, waste rock and waste rock mixed with approximately 30% lateritic material, were measured over a period of five years in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Fourteen measurement campaigns using activated charcoal canisters (n > 1000) covered both dry and wet seasons and showed differences in seasonal and long term trends of the (222)Rn exhalation flux densities normalised to the (226)Ra activity concentrations of the substrate. Dry season (222)Rn exhalation was generally higher for the mixed substrate, due to the larger fraction of fines. Seasonality established within the first year of landform construction on the mixed substrate, due to the higher water holding capacity of the lateritic material. In contrast, waste rock only shows no seasonality until years four and five after construction, when average normalised dry season (222)Rn exhalation flux densities from waste rock increase to values (0.47 ± 0.06 mBq m(-2) s(-1) per Bq kg(-1)) similar to the mixed substrate (0.64 ± 0.08 mBq m(-2) s(-1) per Bq kg(-1)), likely due to an increase in fines from rapid weathering of the schistose waste rock. Volumetric water content has been used to parametrize relative (222)Rn exhalation and we determined that wet season (222)Rn exhalation is about 40% of the dry season exhalation. PMID:26100675

  13. Behavior of the 222Rn daughters on copper surfaces during cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Marcin; Zuzel, Grzegorz

    2007-03-28

    Removal of the long-living 222Rn daughters (210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po) from the copper surface has been investigated. Different methods, like chemical etching and electropolishing, were applied to discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source. A long exposure assured effective accumulation of the 222Rn progenies on the copper surface. Cleaning efficiency for 210Pb was tested using a HPGe spectrometer, for 210Bi a beta spectrometer and for 210Po an alpha spectrometer were used. According to the conducted measurements electropolishing removes very effectively all the isotopes, while etching works only for lead and bismuth, for polonium the cleaning effect is practically negligible. Most probable 210Po is re-deposited on the treated surface.

  14. Measurements of indoor 222RN activity in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Del Claro, Flávia; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    The present work describes the results of systematic measurements of radon (222Rn) in residential environments and workplaces in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil) during the period 2004-2012. For radon in air activity measurements, polycarbonate Track Etch Detectors CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers protected by borosilicate glass fiber filters, were used. After being exposed in air, the CR-39 detectors were submitted to a chemical etching in a 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 °C for 14 h. The alpha particle tracks were identified and manually counted with an optical microscope, and with the results of previously performed calibrations, the indoor activity concentration of 222Rn was calculated. The calibration of CR-39 and the alpha particle tracks chemical development procedures were performed in collaboration the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan). The major part of indoor 222Rn concentration in residences was found to be below 100 Bq/m3. In the case of working places, all measurements of 222Rn concentrations were below 100 Bq/m3. These values are considered within the limits set by international regulatory agencies, such as the US EPA and ICRP, which adopt up to 148 and 300 Bq/m3 as upper values for the reference levels for radon gas activity in dwellings, respectively. The latest value of 300 Bq/m3 for radon activity in air is proposed by ICRP considering the upper value for the individual dose reference level for radon exposure of 10 mSv/yr.

  15. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively. PMID:21642647

  16. {sup 222}Rn Measurements at Federal University of Technology (UTFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil)

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Fior, Loriane; Schelin, Hugo R.; Flores da Silva, Ruben D.; Poettker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-08-07

    Numerous studies and reports indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has to be considered as the main source of radiological hazard and probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after that of smoking. During the last decades, many countries have put considerable efforts into direct measurements and monitoring of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny exposure, as well as {sup 222}Rn concentration mapping. Present measurements were performed with an aim to study possible correlation between used construction materials and {sup 222}Rn indoor concentration levels. For this purpose, 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor) during two months (June and July) within the central region of Curitiba and Campo Largo (Parana St., Brazil). Since this period of the year is usually rather cold in the South of Brazil, exposition time was chosen to prevent possible saturation of alpha tracks. The second step of measurements was performed during the months of November, December and January, when 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor and outdoor) within the same urban area. Achieved results are being compared with other experimental data.

  17. Determination of 210Pb and 222Rn in ground water of Okinawa Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, M.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we developed the method of 210Pb measurement from a large amount of ground water. The chelating resin (NOBIAS CHELATE-PA1; Hitachi High-technology) column combined with the ion-exchange resin (DOWEX-88; Dow Chemical Company) column were used for pre-treatment of 210Pb from ground water of 20 litter. It should be mentioned that this determination procedure is simple, fast, and give high recovery (more than 80 %). It avoids precipitation and large consumption of chemicals. Finally 210Pb was precipitated as PbSO4 and determined with low background 2πgas flow counter. 210Pb concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 1.40-16.7 mBq/L. We also found that the organo-210Pb complex which could not be detected by this method was involved in some water samples. By increasing the column radius and the resin mass, while keeping a constant height of the resin column, it is possible to additionally increase the flow rate and accelerate the isolation procedure. 222Rn was determined by the direct method. The emulsion scintillation cocktail (10 mL) and water sample (10 mL) were put into a vial. After shaking and stand for 200 min, 222Rn was counted by LSC for 120 min. 222Rn concentration in ground water of Okinawa Island ranged from 0.71-14.0 Bq/L.

  18. 222Rn Measurements at Federal University of Technology (UTFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Fior, Loriane; Schelin, Hugo R.; da Silva, Ruben D. Flores; Pöttker, Fabiana; de Paula Melo, Vicente

    2008-08-01

    Numerous studies and reports indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has to be considered as the main source of radiological hazard and probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after that of smoking. During the last decades, many countries have put considerable efforts into direct measurements and monitoring of 222Rn and its progeny exposure, as well as 222Rn concentration mapping. Present measurements were performed with an aim to study possible correlation between used construction materials and 222Rn indoor concentration levels. For this purpose, 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor) during two months (June and July) within the central region of Curitiba and Campo Largo (Parana St., Brazil). Since this period of the year is usually rather cold in the South of Brazil, exposition time was chosen to prevent possible saturation of alpha tracks. The second step of measurements was performed during the months of November, December and January, when 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor and outdoor) within the same urban area. Achieved results are being compared with other experimental data.

  19. Occurrence of 222Rn in irrigation water from Wadi Al-Rummah Qassim province, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Taher, Atef; Alashrah, Saleh

    2015-08-01

    Naturally accruing radioactive materials in the environment have received attention since they may be present in high level and pose risk to human health. The present work deals with measuring of 222Rn in irrigation water samples from Wadi Al-Rummah, Qassim province, in central of Saudi Arabia. 222Rn concentrations were measured by RAD7. It was found that the concentration of 222Rn ranged from 2.1 ± 1.2 to 7.2 ± 1.5 BqL-1. These values are below 11.1 BqL-1 the maximum contamination level recommended from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The calculated annual effective dose (AED) ranging from 7.5 to 26.1 µSv/y. It was evident that the total annual effective dose resulting from radon in irrigation groundwater in Wadi Al-Rummah in Qassim area were significantly lower than the recommended limit 1 mSv/y for the public.

  20. A high-sensitivity method for the measurement of 222Rn based on liquid scintillation counting of polycarbonate powder.

    PubMed

    Mitev, K; Georgiev, S; Pressyanov, D; Dimitrova, I; Zhivkova, V; Boshkova, T

    2014-07-01

    This work describes a technique for the measurement of 222Rn by absorption in polycarbonate (PC) powder and liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The work is an improvement of the recently proposed method for 222Rn measurements by LSC of exposed PC grains. It is demonstrated that the use of PC powder as a 222Rn sampler improves 13.6 times the sampling efficiency and leads to 6.5 times smaller minimmal detectable activity concentrations (MDAC) compared with the PC grains used so far. For a 40-h exposure of 7.4-g PC powder to 222Rn in air, the MDAC with a RackBeta 1219 LS counter is 62 Bq m(-3) (assuming a 8-h sample counting time and 24-h background time). For the same conditions the estimated 222Rn MDAC with a Quantulus 1220 LS counter is 20 Bq m(-3). The proposed technique is suitable for radon in air and radon in soil-gas measurements. PMID:24723190

  1. An improved sup 222 Rn canister using a two-stage charcoal system

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpitta, S.C.; Harley, N.H. )

    1991-02-01

    A prototype for an improved passive {sup 222}Rn canister (R-Canister) was designed and compared to conventional charcoal canisters for its adsorptive and desorptive characteristics following exposures to {sup 222}Rn at 23{degrees}C in the presence of water vapor. The R-Canister, containing a two-stage charcoal system, minimizes the adverse effects of water vapor by maintaining the amount of adsorbed water vapor in the primary Rn adsorbent below the break-point of the charcoal. This is achieved by the placement of a desiccant charcoal cartridge 6 cm above the primary Rn adsorbent. The optimal bed depth of the primary adsorbent, determined from a diffusion study, was found to be 2.3 cm. The measured value for the effective diffusion coefficient of RN in a peat-based charcoal at 15% humidity and 25{degrees}C is 7.97 x 10(-10) m2 s-1. Exposures to 70% humidity for 7 d increased the buildup time-constant of Rn in the R-Canisters by 33% as compared to R-Canisters exposed to 15% humidity. At relative humidities ranging from 15-70%, the {sup 222}Rn buildup time-constant of the R-Canister ranged from 43-94 h, whereas the desorption time-constant ranged from 46-64 h. Typical buildup time-constants and desorption time-constants for conventional fully-opened charcoal canisters currently in field use ranged from 30-43 h and 17-29 h, respectively, over the same range of humidities.

  2. Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters from steel and germanium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Marcin; Zuzel, Grzegorz; Majorovits, Bela

    2011-04-27

    Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po) from stainless steel and germanium surfaces was investigated. As cleaning technique etching was applied to samples in a form of discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source. Reduction of the {sup 210}Pb activity was tested using a HPGe spectrometer, for {sup 210}Bi a beta spectrometer and for {sup 210}Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the conducted measurements all the isotopes were removed very efficiently from germanium. Results obtained for stainless steel were worse but still better than those achieved for copper.

  3. Modeling and experimental validation of the dispersion of 222Rn released from a uranium mine ventilation shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong; Wang, Hanqing; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2012-12-01

    Radon (222Rn) found in uranium mine shaft ventilation exhaust gases could pose hazards to the surrounding environment and the public by virtue of its progeny. Radon migration under complex terrain is complicated by pollution source characteristics, geographical features of the dispersion region, meteorological conditions and precipitation. Fluid dynamics computations of 222Rn dispersion are performed for uranium mine shaft exhausts for complex models of the actual physical terrain corresponding to a mine in the Jiangxi Province of China. The eight cases studied included a ventilation shaft source, four downwind velocities (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 m s-1) and two underlying surface roughness characteristics (0.1 m, 1.0 m). 222Rn distributions in the vicinity of uranium mine ventilation shaft are computed and compared with field measurements.

  4. (The determination of sup 222 Rn flux from soils based on sup 210 Pb and sup 226 Ra disequilibrium)

    SciTech Connect

    Turekian, K.K.

    1991-01-01

    The emanating fraction of radon in soils from the southern part of the United States is about 40% greater than in those from the northern part. The mean {sup 226}Ra activity in the southern soils is also slightly higher and as a consequence the {sup 222}Rn flux derived from the top 50 cm. is greater in the southern samples. We tentatively attribute these observations to the greater degree of weathering associated with the pre-glacial age of the parent material of many of the southern soils. The weathering has concentrated {sup 226}Ra near grain surfaces and results in an increased emanating power for {sup 222}Rn. The estimated correction in {sup 210}Pb analyses described above results in a small decrease in our estimate of the mean loss rate of {sup 222}Rn from the upper 50 cm of soils.

  5. Attached, unattached fraction of progeny concentrations and equilibrium factor for dose assessments from (222)Rn and (220)Rn.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parminder; Saini, Komal; Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, measurements of indoor radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) were carried out in 96 dwellings from 22 different villages situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, by using LR-115 type II-based pinhole twin cup dosimeters and deposition-based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). The annual average indoor (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentrations observed in these dwellings were 63.82 and 89.59 Bq/m(3), respectively, while the average EEC (attached + unattached) for (222)Rn and (220)Rn was 29.28 and 2.74 Bq/m(3). For (222)Rn (f Rn) and (220)Rn (f Tn), the average values of unattached fraction were 0.11 and 0.09, respectively. The equilibrium factors for radon (F Rn) and thoron (F Tn) varied from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average of 0.50, and from 0.01 to 0.34 with an average of 0.05, respectively. The annual inhalation dose due to mouth and nasal breathing was calculated using dose conversion factors and unattached fractions. The indoor annual effective doses for (222)Rn (AEDR) and (220)Rn (AEDT) were found to be 1.92 and 0.83 mSv a(-1), respectively. The values of (222)Rn/(220)Rn concentrations and annual effective doses obtained in the present study are within the safe limits as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for indoor dwelling exposure conditions. PMID:27289385

  6. PSA discriminator influence on (222)Rn efficiency detection in waters by liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Ivana; Todorović, Nataša; Nikolov, Jovana; Tenjović, Branislava

    2016-06-01

    A procedure for the (222)Rn determination in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was evaluated and optimized. Measurements were performed by ultra-low background spectrometer Quantulus 1220™ equipped with PSA (Pulse Shape Analysis) circuit which discriminates alpha/beta spectra. Since calibration procedure is carried out with (226)Ra standard, which has both alpha and beta progenies, it is clear that PSA discriminator has vital importance in order to provide precise spectra separation. Improvement of calibration procedure was done through investigation of PSA discriminator level and, consequentially, the activity of (226)Ra calibration standard influence on (222)Rn efficiency detection. Quench effects on generated spectra i.e. determination of radon efficiency detection were also investigated with quench calibration curve obtained. Radon determination in waters based on modified procedure according to the activity of (226)Ra standard used, dependent on PSA setup, was evaluated with prepared (226)Ra solution samples and drinking water samples with assessment of measurement uncertainty variation included. PMID:27016710

  7. Integrated measurements of short-lived 222Rn progeny by rotating filters.

    PubMed

    Pressyanov, D S; Guelev, M G; Pentchev, O J

    1993-05-01

    The dependence of the risk from inhalation of radon progeny on their disequilibrium suggests that the measurements of the time-integrated concentrations of each of the short-lived radon progeny are necessary for complete risk estimations. This paper presents a method that, in principle, allows the determination of the integrated specific volume activities in air of each of the radionuclides 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi, 212Pb, and 212Bi. The method employs thermoluminescence detectors positioned around uniformly rotating filters. Two prototypes that are suitable for practical applications are described and mathematical expressions for data processing are given. Experiments with these "rotating filter dosimeters" were conducted in atmospheres radiologically dominated by 222Rn progeny. The comparison between the results obtained by the proposed method and those given by simultaneously conducted series of instantaneous grab-sampling measurements support the conclusion that the method works for 222Rn progeny. The method can be experimentally extended for 220Rn progeny as well as for unattached fractions. PMID:8387983

  8. Radon exhalation and natural radiation exposure in low ventilated rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, A. M.; Mohery, M.; Yaghmour, Saud J.; Alddin, S. H.

    2012-11-01

    In the first part of this paper, the influence of radon (222Rn) exhalation rate from walls and air exchange upon its concentration in room air was considered using a simple mathematical room model. The exhalation rates have been determined in ten low ventilated rooms of ten villas in Jeddah city (Western Province) of Saudi Arabia. An electroprecipitation method has been applied for the determination of the 222Rn gas concentration in these rooms. The mean 222Rn gas concentration was found to be 46.80±8.80 Bq m-3. The mean 222Rn exhalation rate was estimated to be 20.11±6.90 Bq m-2 h-1. The mean inhalation dose due to the exposure to 222Rn gas was calculated to be 1.18±2.30 mSv y-1. The second part of this paper deals with a study of natural radionuclide contents of samples collected from the building materials of these rooms under investigations in part one. Analyses were performed in Marinelli beakers with a gamma spectroscopy system to quantify radioactivity concentrations. The collected samples revealed the presence of the uranium-radium (226Ra) and thorium (232Th) radioisotopes as well as 40K. The mean activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was determined to be 48.30±5.08, 43.90±5.63 and 223.90±7.55 Bq kg-1, respectively. These activities amount to a radium equivalent (Raeq) of 125.96±15.90 Bq kg-1 and to a mean value of external hazard index (Hex) of 0.34±0.04.

  9. Comparative performance of short-term diffusion barrier charcoal canisters and long-term alpha-track monitors for indoor 222Rn measurements.

    PubMed

    Martz, D E; George, J L; Langner, G H

    1991-04-01

    The accuracy and precision of indoor 222Rn measurements obtained with the use of diffusion barrier charcoal canisters (DBCC) under actual field conditions were determined by comparing the integrated average of 26 successive 7-d exposures of DBCC in each of 16 occupied residences over a 6-mo period with simultaneous measurements using four types of commercially available alpha-track monitors (ATM) and one type of scintillation chamber continuous 222Rn monitor. The results suggest that properly calibrated DBCCs provide very good estimates of the integrated 222Rn concentrations in residential structures over the standard 1-wk exposure period despite the occurrence of large diurnal variations in the actual 222Rn concentrations. The results also suggest that a relatively small number of 1-wk DBCC measurements at selected times throughout the calendar year would provide estimates of the annual average indoor 222Rn concentrations that compare favorably with single long-term ATM measurements. PMID:2001945

  10. Comparative performance of short-term diffusion barrier charcoal canisters and long-term alpha-track monitors for indoor sup 222 Rn measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, D.E.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr. )

    1991-04-01

    The accuracy and precision of indoor {sup 222}Rn measurements obtained with the use of diffusion barrier charcoal canisters (DBCC) under actual field conditions were determined by comparing the integrated average of 26 successive 7-d exposures of DBCC in each of 16 occupied residences over a 6-mo period with simultaneous measurements using four types of commercially available alpha-track monitors (ATM) and one type of scintillation chamber continuous {sup 222}Rn monitor. The results suggest that properly calibrated DBCCs provide very good estimates of the integrated {sup 222}Rn concentrations in residential structures over the standard 1-wk exposure period despite the occurrence of large diurnal variations in the actual {sup 222}Rn concentrations. The results also suggest that a relatively small number of 1-wk DBCC measurements at selected times throughout the calendar year would provide estimates of the annual average indoor {sup 222}Rn concentrations that compare favorably with single long-term ATM measurements.

  11. Assessment of (222)Rn emanation from ore body and backfill tailings in low-grade underground uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Devi Prasad; Sahu, Patitapaban; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of (222)Rn emanation from the ore and backfill tailings in an underground uranium mine located at Jaduguda, India. The effects of surface area, porosity, (226)Ra and moisture contents on (222)Rn emanation rate were examined. The study revealed that the bulk porosity of backfill tailings is more than two orders of magnitude than that of the ore. The geometric mean radon emanation rates from the ore body and backfill tailings were found to be 10.01 × 10(-3) and 1.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Significant positive linear correlations between (222)Rn emanation rate and the (226)Ra content of ore and tailings were observed. For normalised (226)Ra content, the (222)Rn emanation rate from tailings was found to be 283 times higher than the ore due to higher bulk porosity and surface area. The relative radon emanation from the tailings with moisture fraction of 0.14 was found to be 2.4 times higher than the oven-dried tailings. The study suggested that the mill tailings used as a backfill material significantly contributes to radon emanation as compared to the ore body itself and the (226)Ra content and bulk porosity are the dominant factors for radon emanation into the mine atmosphere. PMID:24057960

  12. Estimation of submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes in eastern Laizhou Bay, China using 222Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Hailong; Wang, Xuejing; Zheng, Chunmiao; Wang, Chaoyue; Xiao, Kai; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Guo, Huaming

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that the inputs of nutrients to the Bohai Sea are closely related to submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). In this study, the naturally occurring isotope of radon (222Rn) was used as a tracer to assess SGD in eastern Laizhou Bay. The 222Rn concentration during a tidal period was measured continuously and a mass balance model that included atmospheric loss, tidal effects, mixing loss, diffusion from sediments, and SGD was established. The model budget indicated that 222Rn flux attributed to SGD accounted for 58.3% of the total tracer input to the study area. The time-series of 222Rn revealed that the SGD flux ranged from 6.64 to 7.21 cm d-1, with an average of 6.93 cm d-1, in September 2014. The estimated SGD flux is reasonable compared with those previously estimated in other studies by direct measurement methods, hydrogeological simulation and geochemical tracers. This result, as well as the current understanding of nutrients dissolved in groundwater, confirms the importance of SGD in delivering nutrients to Laizhou Bay and possible impact on marine ecological environment.

  13. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  14. Radionuclide content of and 222Rn emanation from building materials made from phosphate industry waste products.

    PubMed

    Paredes, C H; Kessler, W V; Landolt, R R; Ziemer, P L; Paustenbach, D J

    1987-07-01

    The radionuclide content and 222Rn emanation coefficients of selected construction materials were determined. The materials were analyzed for 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K by gamma-ray spectrometry. Mineral wool insulation, which is made from Tennessee phosphate slag, and commonly used insulation, which is made from blast furnace slag, had similar concentrations of these radionuclides. Concrete blocks made with phosphate slag had enhanced 226Ra and 228Ra contents when compared to ordinary concrete block. The mineral wool insulation materials which were examined had emanation coefficients that were a few (2-6) times 10(-3). All other materials had emanation coefficients that ranged from 6 X 10(-4) to 4 X 10(-2). PMID:3597095

  15. Bronchial dysplasia induced by radiation in miners exposed to 222Rn progeny.

    PubMed Central

    Michaylov, M A; Pressyanov, D S; Kalinov, K B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate whether sputum cytology can be used to monitor epithelial cell changes in groups at high risk of lung cancer from exposure to radiation. METHODS--Dysplasia of bronchial cells was investigated by means of sputum cytology in a group of 434 underground miners. 100 of them were not exposed, and 334 were exposed to 222Rn progeny at cumulative exposures < 450 working level months. RESULTS--The frequency of dysplasia in the exposed group was significantly higher than that in the not exposed group (P < 0.0001), and an exposure-response relation was found. This relation was different for smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS--Possibly the frequencies of dysplasia could be used to assess past exposures of groups of miners. This approach could be applied to cases where data on radiation monitoring are not available or are very scarce. Images p82-a PMID:7757171

  16. High-resolution ion pulse ionization chamber with air filling for the 222Rn decays detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gezhaev, A. M.; Etezov, R. A.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The construction and characteristics of the cylindrical ion pulse ionization chamber (CIPIC) with a working volume of 3.2 L are described. The chamber is intended to register α-particles from the 222Rn and its daughter's decays in the filled air sample. The detector is less sensitive to electromagnetic pick-ups and mechanical noises. The digital pulse processing method is proposed to improve the energy resolution of the ion pulse ionization chamber. An energy resolution of 1.6% has been achieved for the 5.49 MeV α-line. The dependence of the energy resolution on high voltage and working media pressure has been investigated and the results are presented.

  17. Removal of the long-lived 222Rn daughters from copper and stainless steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzel, G.; Wójcik, M.

    2012-06-01

    Removal of the long-lived 222Rn daughters from copper and stainless steel surfaces was investigated. Etching and electropolishing were applied to discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source for 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po deposition. Cleaning efficiency for 210Pb was tested with a n-type high purity germanium spectrometer, for 210Bi a beta spectrometer and for 210Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the performed measurements electropolishing removes very effectively all the isotopes from copper and stainless steel. Copper etching reduces efficiently lead and bismuth however for polonium the effect is negligible because of its fast re-deposition. For stainless steel, etching is much more effective compared to copper and it also works for 210Po.

  18. Removal of long-lived 222Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J.; Cushman, P.; Pepin, M.; Guiseppe, V. E.

    2013-08-01

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the 222Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing < 1 μm from stainless-steel plates reduces the contamination efficiently, by a factor > 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener's energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  19. Quantification of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Using a Radon (222-Rn) Mass Balance and Hydrogeological Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petermann, Eric; Stollberg, Reiner; Scholten, Jan; Knöller, Kay; Schubert, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Apart from river and surface water runoff subsurface discharge of groundwater plays a key role in coastal water and matter budgets. Two major forms of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can be distinguished: (i) pure freshwater discharge from continental aquifers that are connected to the coastal sea driven by a positive hydraulic gradient (fresh SGD) and (ii) re-circulation of seawater that has penetrated permeable coastal sediments (re-circulated SGD), e.g. driven by tidal pumping. The localization of SGD zones and the quantification of SGD fluxes is of high interest for coastal water management due to potential threats related to SGD, namely (i) the detrimental impact of discharging nutrient- or contaminant-laden groundwater on coastal seawater quality, an aspect that is of relevance along coastlines which are impacted by agriculture, industry or intense urbanization, and (ii) the loss of freshwater to the ocean, an issue that is of major relevance in all coastal areas with (seasonally) limited freshwater availability. In this work, we discuss estimates for the total (fresh + re-circulated) SGD fluxes derived from a mass balance of the radioactive noble gas radon (222-Rn) with estimates of fresh SGD fluxes derived by hydrogeological modelling. The precision of the mass balance results depends on the adequate determination of the mass balance source and sink terms. These terms are calculated based on field observations of environmental tracers (salinity, δ18O, 222-Rn, 223-Ra, 224-Ra, 226-Ra) in seawater and porewater, as well as on meteorological data. The numerical hydrogeological model estimates groundwater flow based on groundwater monitoring data, river flow data, groundwater recharge estimates, tidal dynamics, and density effects along the freshwater/seawater interface. We compare these two independent methodological approaches of SGD flux estimation, discuss results regarding their relevance for the regional water balance and reason the implications of

  20. Measurement of (222)Rn by absorption in plastic scintillators and alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination.

    PubMed

    Mitev, Krasimir K

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates that common plastic scintillators like BC-400, EJ-200 and SCSF-81 absorb radon and their scintillation pulse decay times are different for alpha- and beta-particles. This allows the application of pulse shape analysis for separation of the pulses of alpha- and beta-particles emitted by the absorbed radon and its progeny. It is shown that after pulse shape discrimination of beta-particles' pulses, the energy resolution of BC-400 and EJ-200 alpha spectra is sufficient to separate the peaks of (222)Rn, (218)Po and (214)Po and allows (222)Rn measurements that are unaffected by the presence of thoron ((220)Rn) in the environment. The alpha energy resolution of SCSF-81 in the experiments degrades due to imperfect collection of the light emitted inside the scintillating fibers. The experiments with plastic scintillation microspheres (PSM) confirm previous findings of other researchers that PSM have alpha-/beta-discrimination properties and show suitability for radon measurements. The diffusion length of radon in BC-400 and EJ-200 is determined. The pilot experiments show that the plastic scintillators are suitable for radon-in-soil-gas measurements. Overall, the results of this work suggest that it is possible to develop a new type of radon measurement instruments which employ absorption in plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination and analysis of the alpha spectra. Such instruments can be very compact and can perform continuous, real-time radon measurements and thoron detection. They can find applications in various fields from radiation protection to earth sciences. PMID:26851823

  1. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon. PMID:25437521

  2. Role of gas exchange in the inorganic carbon, oxygen, and /sup 222/Rn budgets of the Amazon River

    SciTech Connect

    Devol, A.H.; Quay, P.D.; Richey, J.E.; Martinelli, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen, /sup 222/Rn, pCO/sub 2/, alkalinity, respiration rate, and discharge have been measured at eight mainstem and seven tributary stations during February-March 1984 in a 1700-km stretch of the Amazon River between Vargem Grande and Obidos in Brazil. Air-water gas exchange rates were estimated two ways: measurements of the flux of /sup 222/Rn int floating domes yielded an average boundary layer thickness of 78..mu..m, and oxygen mass balance calculations resulted in an average of 38..mu..m. Given a boundary layer thickness on the order of 50..mu..m, CO/sub 2/ loss to the atmosphere in the entire reach would have been 37.4 kmol s/sup -1/, which is about equal to the total tributary dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) input and is about half of the total fluvial DIC input to the section. Thus, CO/sub 2/ evasion is a major component of Amazon River DIC balance. Because gas exchange within the section was rapid relative to water travel time through the section, a quasi-steady state was maintained between respiratory input and evasion of CO/sub 2/. Dissolved /sup 222/Rn activities in the mainstem varied from 3.5 to 8.3 dpm liter/sup -1/ and were always highly supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. Dissolved radon was also not supported by decay of /sup 222/Ra in the mainstem. A /sup 222/Rn mass balance indicated that direct groundwater input into this stretch of the Amazon mainstem probably accounted for no more than 1% of water discharge.

  3. A novel approach for long-term determination of indoor 222Rn progeny equilibrium factor using nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amgarou, K.; Font, Ll.; Baixeras, C.

    2003-06-01

    A detailed study of the measurement principles of airborne 222Rn decay products by means of nuclear track detectors (NTDs), taking into account the range of variation of the parameters influencing their concentration indoors, has shown that it is not possible for the existing methods to obtain the associated long-term equilibrium factor with an appropriate accuracy. For this reason, we have established a novel approach based on the new concept of reduced equilibrium factor, which can be obtained from the only measurement of airborne 222Rn and its α-emitter daughter ( 218Po and 214Po) concentrations using a passive, integrating and multi-component system of NTDs. We have found that the equilibrium factor has a linear dependence on the reduced equilibrium factor regardless the values taken for the rates of ventilation, of aerosol attachment and of surface deposition. By using well-controlled exposures in a reference laboratory, we have shown that the equilibrium factor values determined with our system agree with those obtained by active monitors. Finally, as a pilot test, several dosimeters were exposed in an inhabited Swedish single-family house. The results of this exposure suggest the usefulness of this method to perform routine surveys in private homes and in workplaces in order to estimate the annual effective dose received by the general public and the workers due to the presence of 222Rn daughters.

  4. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: A probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, E.; Broggini, C.; Di Carlo, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Menegazzo, R.

    2015-04-01

    We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days) source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years) source. In particular, we give a possible reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8 ṡ10-5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the 222Rn half-life: 3.82146(16)stat(4)syst days.

  5. Occurrence of {sup 222}Rn in irrigation water from Wadi Al-Rummah Qassim province, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    El-Taher, Atef; Alashrah, Saleh

    2015-08-28

    Naturally accruing radioactive materials in the environment have received attention since they may be present in high level and pose risk to human health. The present work deals with measuring of {sup 222}Rn in irrigation water samples from Wadi Al-Rummah, Qassim province, in central of Saudi Arabia. {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured by RAD7. It was found that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn ranged from 2.1 ± 1.2 to 7.2 ± 1.5 BqL{sup −1}. These values are below 11.1 BqL{sup −1} the maximum contamination level recommended from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The calculated annual effective dose (AED) ranging from 7.5 to 26.1 µSv/y. It was evident that the total annual effective dose resulting from radon in irrigation groundwater in Wadi Al-Rummah in Qassim area were significantly lower than the recommended limit 1 mSv/y for the public.

  6. Year-to-year variations in annual average indoor 222Rn concentrations.

    PubMed

    Martz, D E; Rood, A S; George, J L; Pearson, M D; Langner, G H

    1991-09-01

    Annual average indoor 222Rn concentrations in 40 residences in and around Grand Junction, CO, have been measured repeatedly since 1984 using commercial alpha-track monitors (ATM) deployed for successive 12-mo time periods. Data obtained provide a quantitative measure of the year-to-year variations in the annual average Rn concentrations in these structures over this 6-y period. A mean coefficient of variation of 25% was observed for the year-to-year variability of the measurements at 25 sampling stations for which complete data were available. Individual coefficients of variation at the various stations ranged from a low of 7.7% to a high of 51%. The observed mean coefficient of variation includes contributions due to the variability in detector response as well as the true year-to-year variation in the annual average Rn concentrations. Factoring out the contributions from the measured variability in the response of the detectors used, the actual year-to-year variability of the annual average Rn concentrations was approximately 22%. PMID:1880029

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of semiconductor detector response to (222)Rn and (220)Rn environments.

    PubMed

    Irlinger, J; Trinkl, S; Wielunksi, M; Tschiersch, J; Rühm, W

    2016-07-01

    A new electronic radon/thoron monitor employing semiconductor detectors based on a passive diffusion chamber design has been recently developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU). This device allows for acquisition of alpha particle energy spectra, in order to distinguish alpha particles originating from radon and radon progeny decays, as well as those originating from thoron and its progeny decays. A Monte-Carlo application is described which uses the Geant4 toolkit to simulate these alpha particle spectra. Reasonable agreement between measured and simulated spectra were obtained for both (220)Rn and (222)Rn, in the energy range between 1 and 10 MeV. Measured calibration factors could be reproduced by the simulation, given the uncertainties involved in the measurement and simulation. The simulated alpha particle spectra can now be used to interpret spectra measured in mixed radon/thoron atmospheres. The results agreed well with measurements performed in both radon and thoron gas environments. It is concluded that the developed simulation allows for an accurate prediction of calibration factors and alpha particle energy spectra. PMID:27074199

  8. Real-time radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano: influence of environmental parameters on 222Rn degassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigolini, C.; Ripepe, M.; Poggi, P.; Laiolo, M.

    2008-12-01

    Two real-time stations for radon monitoring are currently operative at Stromboli volcano. The 222Rn electronic dosimeters are interfaced with an electronic board connected to a radiomodem for wireless data transfer (through a directional antenna) to a receiving station at the volcano observatory (COA). Radon activity data and enviromental parameters (soil temperature and atmospheric pressure) are sampled every 15 minutes and are instantaneously elaborated and transferred via web so that they can be checked in remote. Collected time series show that there is an overall inverse correlation between radon emissions and seasonal temperature variations. Signal processing analysis show that radon emissions in sectors of diffuse degassing are modulated by tidal forces as well. In addition, radon activities recorded at the summit station, located along the summit fracture zone where the gas flux is concentrated, are positively correlated with changes in atmospheric pressure and confirm the occurrence of the 'atmospheric stack effect'. It is not excluded that this process may play an active role in modulating Stromboli explosivity.

  9. Removal of long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J.; Cushman, P.; Pepin, M.; Guiseppe, V. E.

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing < 1 μm from stainless-steel plates reduces the contamination efficiently, by a factor > 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener’s energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  10. Surface-deposition and Distribution of the Radon (222Rn and 220Rn) Decay Products Indoors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, G.; Tommasino, Luigi

    The exposure to radon (222Rn and 220Rn) decay products is of great concern both in dwellings and workplaces. The model to estimate the lung dose refers to the deposition mechanisms and particle sizes. Unfortunately, most of the dose data available are based on the measurement of radon concentration and the concentration of radon decay products. These combined measurements are widely used in spite of the fact that accurate dose assessments require information on the particle deposition mechanisms and the spatial distribution of radon decay products indoors. Most of the airborne particles and/or radon decay products are deposited onto indoor surfaces, which deposition makes the radon decay products unavailable for inhalation. These deposition processes, if properly known, could be successfully exploited to reduce the exposure to radon decay products. In spite of the importance of the surface deposition of the radon decay products, both for the correct evaluation of the dose and for reducing the exposure, little or no efforts have been made to investigate these deposition processes. Recently, two parallel investigations have been carried out in Rome and at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City respectively, which address the issue of the surface-deposited radon decay products. Even though these investigations have been carried independently, they complement one another. It is with these considerations in mind that it was decided to report both investigations in the same paper.

  11. Surface deposition of 222Rn decay products with and without enhanced air motion.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, S N; Maher, E F

    1986-09-01

    The effectiveness of fan-induced air motion in reducing airborne activities of short-lived 222Rn decay products was evaluated in a 78.5-m3 chamber. Observed reductions were as high as 50% for 218Po (RaA), 79% for 214Pb (RaB), and 86% for 214Bi (RaC). Activity measurements of these nuclides on chamber and fan surfaces, along with airborne activities, were used to calculate material balances. Greater than about 90% of deposited activity was found on chamber surfaces, although areal activity densities were higher on fan surfaces. Deposition velocities for decay products not attached to particles were 2.3 mm s-1 when no fans were in operation and 9.2 to 13 mm s-1 when fans were used. Mean boundary layer thicknesses for unattached decay products were estimated to be about four times the recoil distance of a 214Pb atom when no fans were used and about equal to the recoil distance when fans were used. PMID:3744829

  12. Surface deposition of 222Rn decay products with and without enhanced air motion

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnick, S.N.; Maher, E.F.

    1986-09-01

    The effectiveness of fan-induced air motion in reducing airborne activities of short-lived /sup 222/Rn decay products was evaluated in a 78.5-m3 chamber. Observed reductions were as high as 50% for 218Po (RaA), 79% for /sup 214/Pb (RaB), and 86% for /sup 214/Bi (RaC). Activity measurements of these nuclides on chamber and fan surfaces, along with airborne activities, were used to calculate material balances. Greater than about 90% of deposited activity was found on chamber surfaces, although areal activity densities were higher on fan surfaces. Deposition velocities for decay products not attached to particles were 2.3 mm s-1 when no fans were in operation and 9.2 to 13 mm s-1 when fans were used. Mean boundary layer thicknesses for unattached decay products were estimated to be about four times the recoil distance of a /sup 214/Pb atom when no fans were used and about equal to the recoil distance when fans were used.

  13. Seasonal variation of N2O emissions in France inferred from atmospheric N2O and 222Rn measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Yver, C.; Messager, C.; Worthy, D.; Kazan, V.; Ramonet, M.; Bousquet, P.; Ciais, P.

    2012-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations and 222Rn activities are measured semi-continuously at three stations in France: Gif-sur-Yvette (a semi-urban station near Paris), Trainou tower (a rural station) and Puy-de-Dôme (a mountain site). From 2002 to 2011, we have found a mean rate of N2O increase of 0.7 pbb a-1. The analysis of the mean diurnal N2O and 222Rn cycles shows maximum variabilities at the semi-urban site of Gif-sur-Yvette (0.96 ppb for N2O and 2 Bq m-3 for 222Rn) compared to the rural site of Trainou tower (0.32 ppb for N2O and 1.3 Bq m-3 for 222Rn). The use of 222Rn as a tracer for vertical mixing and atmospheric transport, combined with the semi-continuous N2O measurements, allows estimation of N2O emissions by applying the Radon-Tracer-Method. Mean N2O emissions values between 0.34 ± 0.12 and 0.51 ± 0.18 g(N2O) m-2 a-1 and 0.52 ± 0.18 g(N2O) m-2 a-1were estimated in the catchment area of Gif-sur-Yvette and Trainou, respectively. The mean annual N2O fluxes at Gif-sur-Yvette station correlate well with annual precipitation. A 25% increase in precipitation corresponds to a 32% increase in N2O flux. The N2O fluxes calculated with the Radon-Tracer-Method show a seasonal cycle, which indicates a strong contribution from the agricultural source, with the application of fertilizers in the early spring inducing a strong increase in N2O emissions. Finally, the results of the Radon-Tracer-Method agree well with the national and global emission inventories, accounting for the uncertainties of both methods.

  14. The role of mesoscale meteorology in modulating the (222)Rn concentrations in Huelva (Spain)--impact of phosphogypsum piles.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Vargas, A; Arnold, D; Bolívar, J P

    2015-07-01

    The combined analysis of (222)Rn activity concentrations and mesoscale meteorological conditions at Huelva city (Spain) was addressed in this study to understand the potential impact of phosphogypsum piles on the (222)Rn activity concentrations registered at this area. Hourly mean data from April 2012 to February 2013 registered at two sampling sites (Huelva city and in the background station of El Arenosillo, located 27 km to the south-east) have been used in the study. The results of the present study showed a large difference in mean radon concentrations between the two stations during the sampling period, 6.3 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) at Huelva and 3.0 ± 0.2 Bq m(-3) at El Arenosillo. The analysis has demonstrated that hourly (222)Rn concentrations at Huelva city above 22 Bq m(-3), with nocturnal peaks up to 50 Bq/m(3), mainly coincided with the occurrence of a pure sea-land breeze cycle. Mesoscale circulations in this region are mainly characterized by two patterns of sea-land breeze, pure and non-pure, with the phosphosypsum piles directly upstream (south) of the city during the afternoon on pure sea-breeze days. The difference between mean (222)Rn activity concentrations at Huelva city were 9.9 ± 1.5 Bq m(-3) for the pure pattern and 3.3 ± 0.5 Bq m(-3) for the non-pure pattern, while in the background station concentrations were 3.9 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) and 2.8 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3) respectively. Considering these large differences, a detailed analysis of composites and case studies of representative sea-land breeze cycles of both types and their impact on (222)Rn activity concentration was performed. The results suggested that the presence of the phosphogypsum piles was necessary in order to justify the high (222)Rn activity concentrations observed at Huelva compared with the background station in the afternoons on pure sea breeze days (1.5-2.0 Bq m(-3)). On the other hand, large night time differences between the two sites on these days were

  15. Use of 222Rn as natural tracer for LNAPL quantification and recovery efficiency in a crude-oil contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsin, Violaine; Chablais, Amélie; Dumont, Julien; Cardetti, Marc; Radakovitch, Olivier; Höhener, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    In august 2009, five hectares of the pristine gravel aquifer of Crau in southern France were contaminated by 5,100 m3 of crude oil due to the sudden break of a pipeline. The remediation of this site is still ongoing and consists in replacement and off-site disposal of contaminated topsoils, plume management by hydraulic groundwater barriers with re-injection of activated charcoal-treated waters, and dual-phase LNAPL extraction in the source zone. It is anticipated to stop these remediation actions when the rate of hydrocarbon extraction becomes inefficient. The volume of LNAPL is estimated between 100 and 1000 m3. A more accurate estimation is needed for the implementation of natural attenuation once physical treatment is discontinued. 222Rn has been introduced as a natural tracer for the quantification of LNAPL saturation in porous media under natural gradient conditions (Hunkeler et al., 1997; Semprini et al., 2000; Schubert et al., 2007). The objective of this study was to investigate whether 222Rn in groundwater can be used as a tracer for LNAPL quantification at a field site treated by LNAPL removal. To this end, groundwater samples were obtained in pristine monitoring wells from upgradient the contamination using submersible electric pumps, and in LNAPL recovery wells. There, samples were obtained from the tap on the hard PVC tubing used for pumping groundwater to the treatment facility. For 222Rn analysis, flasks of 250 mL were gently filled and were capped thereafter without permitting air bubbles. The flasks were analysed within 6 to 24 hours. The 222Rn activity of groundwater was measured by a Rn detector (RAD7-Durridge, Co. Inc.). The measurements were spaced over more than 15 months in order to account for seasonal changes. Each well was sampled at least 3 times. In pristine groundwater, the radon activity was relatively constant and remained always > 14 Bq/L. The radon activities in the groundwater of source zone wells were also relatively constant and

  16. A theoretical model for {sup 222}Rn adsorption on activated charcoal canisters in humid air based on Polanyi`s potential theory

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpitta, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Water vapor interferes with adsorption {sup 222}Rn gas by passive activated charcoal devices used to estimate indoor air concentrations. The {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing charcoal`s ability to adsorb {sup 222}Rn. The Dubinin-Radushkevich equation, based on Polanyi`s potential theory, was modified to include two terms quantifying the effect of both water vapor and sampling time on the {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficient of passive charcoal devices. A single equation was derived that quantities the {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficients at any temperature, humidity and exposure time using six experimentally determined physical constants that are unique for a particular passive charcoal device. The theoretical model was verified with published experimental data, and it showed a good correlation between theory and experiment. The model proved to be consistent with experimental data, provided that the amount of water vapor adsorbed by the charcoal device during sampling remains below a critical level, termed the breakpoint. 44 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mean annual (222)Rn concentration in homes located in different geological regions of Poland: first approach to whole country area.

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Zebrowski, Adam; Karpińska, Maria; Kapała, Jacek; Kozak, Krzysztof; Mazur, Jadwiga; Grządziel, Dominik; Mamont-Cieśla, Kalina; Stawarz, Olga; Kozłowska, Beata; Kłos, Barbara; Dorda, Jerzy; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Olszewski, Jerzy; Dohojda, Marek

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents the results of year-long measurements of radon ((222)Rn) concentration inside 129 buildings in Poland in relation to the geological conditions of their foundation. The authors took into account the division of the country into tectonic units, as well as the lithology of the rocks forming the bedrock of these buildings. As expected, the highest value of mean annual (222)Rn concentration (845 Bq/m(3)) was recorded in a building situated in the area of the Sudetes, while the highest geometric mean (characteristic of the expected log-normal data distribution) was calculated based on measurements from buildings located within the East-European craton, in the area of Mazury-Podlasie monocline, where it reached 231 Bq/m(3). Such results reflect geological conditions - the occurrence of crystalline rocks (especially U- and Ra-enriched granites and orthogneisses) on the surface in the Sudetes, and of young post-glacial sediments containing fragments of Scandinavian crystalline rocks, also enriched with U and Ra, in the area of Mazury-Podlasie monocline. However, the least expected result of the investigations was finding out that, contrary to the hitherto widespread belief, none of the major tectonic units of Poland can be excluded from the list of those containing buildings with mean annual (222)Rn concentration exceeding 200 Bq/m(3). The mean annual concentration of radon for all the buildings were much higher than the mean concentration value (49.1 Bq/m(3)) of indoor radon in Poland quoted so far. These results cast a completely new light on the necessity to perform measurements of radon concentration in residential buildings in Poland, no more with reference to small areas with outcrops of crystalline rocks (especially the Sudetes, being the Polish fragment of the European Variscan belt), but for all the major tectonic units within Poland. PMID:21555169

  18. [The determination of {sup 222}Rn flux from soils based on {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra disequilibrium]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Turekian, K.K.

    1991-12-31

    The emanating fraction of radon in soils from the southern part of the United States is about 40% greater than in those from the northern part. The mean {sup 226}Ra activity in the southern soils is also slightly higher and as a consequence the {sup 222}Rn flux derived from the top 50 cm. is greater in the southern samples. We tentatively attribute these observations to the greater degree of weathering associated with the pre-glacial age of the parent material of many of the southern soils. The weathering has concentrated {sup 226}Ra near grain surfaces and results in an increased emanating power for {sup 222}Rn. The estimated correction in {sup 210}Pb analyses described above results in a small decrease in our estimate of the mean loss rate of {sup 222}Rn from the upper 50 cm of soils.

  19. Activity concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn, and their decay products in german dwellings, dose calculations and estimate of risk.

    PubMed

    Keller, G; Folkerts, K H; Muth, H

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of 222Rn, its short-lived decay products and of 212Pb - 212Bi were performed in 150 dwellings and in the open air in the Federal Republic of Germany. The concentrations of 222Rn was measured by electrostatic deposition of 218Po. The concentration of the short-lived decay products were measured by air sampling and alpha-spectroscopy. It was found that inside dwellings the average potential alpha-energy concentration of the short-lived daughters is about three times higher than in the open air. The total potential alpha-energy concentration indoors amounts to 2.6 . 10(-3) Working Level (W.L.). Direct measurements of the equilibrium factor inside dwellings gave a mean value of 0.3. A strong dependence of the potential alpha energy concentration on the ventilation rate in dwellings has been observed. These ventilation effects exceed the effects caused by differences in the activity concentrations due to different building materials. The dose calculation results in an average dose to the whole lung due to the inhalation of short-lived radon daughters of about 0.05-0.2 m/Gy/a. An estimate of risk - based on the risk factors for uranium miners - shows an average lifetime risk of about 6 . 10(-4) for the incidence of lung cancer caused by inhalation of radon and thoron daughters in dwellings in the Federal Republic of Germany. PMID:7146318

  20. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. PMID:26065929

  1. Survey of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in the air of a tunnel located in Nagano City using the solid-state nuclear track detector method

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, H.; Hasegawa, N.; Misawa, C.; Minami, M.; Tanaka, E.; Asami, K.; Kuroda, C.; Kawakami, A. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1999-07-01

    The survey of [sup 222]Rn concentration in the air of tunnels constructed during World War II has been performed using a solid-state nuclear track detector technique. For the practical application of this technique t the determination of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in air, some basic properties were experimentally examined on the cellulose nitrate film, Kodak LR 115 type II. The calibration coefficient of the cellulose nitrate film used is determined from a correlation between the [sup 222]Rn concentration in air and the observed number of perforated etched tracks for widespread radon concentrations. The slope of the linear relationship observed yields a calibration coefficient of (0.00209 [+-] 0.00018) tracks cm[sup [minus]2] (Bq m[sup [minus]3] h)[sup [minus]1]. From the survey of [sup 222]Rn concentration in the air of tunnels, the concentration of several thousand Bq m[sup [minus]3] was observed at the inner most area of the tunnel, and the seasonal variation was clearly observed. The exponential distribution of radon concentration as a function of distance from the openings of the tunnel suggests that the radon concentration in the tunnel is basically governed by diffusion and mixing of radon gas with air.

  2. Chemical fertilizers as a source of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, and trace metal pollutant of the environment in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alshahri, Fatimh; Alqahtani, Muna

    2015-06-01

    The specific activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (222)Rn in chemical fertilizers were measured using gamma ray spectrometer and Cr-39 detector. In this study, 21 chemical fertilizers were collected from Eastern Saudi Arabian markets. The specific activities of (238)U ranged from 23 ± 0.5 to 3900 ± 195 Bq kg(-1); (226)Ra ranged from 5.60 ± 2.80 to 392 ± 18 Bq kg(-1); and (40)K ranged from 18.4 ± 3 to 16,476 ± 820 Bq kg(-1). The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 3.20 ± 1.20 to 1532 ± 160 Bq m(-3) and from 1.60 to 774 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these chemical fertilizers in the agriculture soil. The Raeq for six local samples (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) and single superphosphate (SSP)) and one imported sample (Sulfate of Potash (SOP)) were greater than the acceptable value 370 Bq kg(-1). The total air absorbed doses rates in air 1 m above the ground (D) were calculated for all samples. All samples, except one imported granule sample diammonium phosphate (DAP), were higher than the estimated average global terrestrial radiation of 55 nGy h(-1). The highest annual effective dose was in triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizers (2.1 mSv y(-1)). The results show that the local TSP, imported SOP, and local NPK (sample 13) fertilizers were unacceptable for use as fertilizers in agricultural soil. Furthermore, the toxic elements and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Hg, and As) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentrations of chromium in chemical fertilizers were higher than the global values. PMID:25532871

  3. Removal and deposition efficiencies of the long-lived 222Rn daughters during etching of germanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzel, G.; Wójcik, M.; Majorovits, B.; Lampert, M. O.; Wendling, P.

    2012-06-01

    Removal and deposition efficiencies of the long-lived 222Rn daughters during etching from and onto surfaces of standard and high purity germanium were investigated. The standard etching procedure of Canberra-France used during production of high purity n-type germanium diodes was applied to germanium discs, which have been exposed earlier to a strong radon source for deposition of its progenies. An uncontaminated sample was etched in a solution containing 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po. All isotopes were measured before and after etching with appropriate detectors. In contrast to copper and stainless steel, they were removed from germanium very efficiently. However, the reverse process was also observed. Considerable amounts of radioactive lead, bismuth and polonium isotopes present initially in the artificially polluted etchant were transferred to the clean high purity surface during processing of the sample.

  4. A note on "an erroneous formula in use for estimating radon exhalation rates from samples using sealed can technique".

    PubMed

    Mayya, Y S; Sahoo, B K

    2016-05-01

    In this note, we point out a serious fallacy in a formula that has appeared in literature for calculating the (222)Rn exhalation rates using the Solid-State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) based sealed can technique. It is shown that this formula underestimates true exhalation rates by a factor of more than 10(6). Several publications have used this formula instead of the well-known Abu-Jarad formula and have reported unrealistically low (µBq/m(2)/d) surface exhalation rates for normal materials. PMID:26896680

  5. A comparative study between the dynamic method and passive can technique of radon exhalation measurements from samples.

    PubMed

    Raj Menon, Sreeja; Sahoo, B K; Balasundar, S; Gaware, J J; Jose, M T; Venkatraman, B; Mayya, Y S

    2015-05-01

    A comparative study has been carried out between the SSNTD based 'can' technique and active monitors based dynamic method using nine different samples, eight of granite and one of phosphogypsum. Besides radon ((222)Rn) exhalation, thoron((220)Rn) exhalation and (226)Ra and (232)Th content were also measured. The results are: (i) presence of significant thoron exhalation from samples and (ii) observation of thoron interference and leak (~0.05h(-1)) from the 'can' in the SSNTD based 'can' technqiue. The study unequivocally demonstrates the presence of intrinsic uncertainty in SSNTD based 'can' technique. Instead, dynamic method offers a more reliable and faster method. PMID:25770859

  6. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum discharged into the Venice lagoon: 222Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantaluppi, C.; Ceccotto, F.; Cianchi, A.; Fasson, A.; Degetto, S.

    2012-04-01

    For about 20 years, between the 60 's and the 80 's of the last century, in the Passo a Campalto area (Lagoon of Venice - Italy) about 400,000 m3 of phosphogypsum (PG) were deposited at the border of the lagoon and next to urban areas without any environmental control. These materials are a by-product formed during the wet processing of phosphate rocks by sulphuric acid and have a significant environmental impact due to their abundance and their chemical-physical and radiochemical characteristics. The PG contains both chemical elements, which are considered dangerous for the ecosystems and natural radionuclides whose concentrations are much higher if compared to those typical for the Earth's crust. These discarded materials caused for many years the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment due to the tidal erosion, the re-suspension of radioactive inhalable dusts, the uncontrolled radon exhalation and the bioaccumulation of some radionuclides in the lagoon environment. After a decision of the appointed authorities, the Venice Water Authority (Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport), planned a permanent safety control of the site resulting in the complete isolation of the entire volume of contaminated materials from the environmental system. The entire project was specific for the particular features of the site and it required the improvement of analytical, sampling and measurement techniques in order to verify the effectiveness of the safety action. The radon assessment, in particular the check of the effectiveness of the inhibition of radon exhalation, is part of a more complex study, covering many other aspects of the management of a permanent disposal; they will be the object of further notes. The ultimate results of this study prove the efficacy of the intervention: radon concentrations in air and exhalation values from the restored area, measured during surveys, have been proved to be well in agreement with those of non contaminated soils.

  7. Uranium distribution and radon exhalation from Brazilian dimension stones.

    PubMed

    Amaral, P G Q; Galembeck, T M B; Bonotto, D M; Artur, A C

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides evaluations of the radiometric behavior and exhalation patterns of radon gas in decorative and dimension stones explored in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, given the importance of determining radon gas concentrations in human-inhabited environments. A total of 10 silicate rock types were studied, featuring different petrographic/petrophysical characteristics given by seven magmatic rocks (three of which are granitic pegmatites) and three metamorphic rocks. The study, comprising radiometric data of U and monitoring of (222)Rn gas exhalation, shows a strong correlation between petrographic parameters and the physical properties of rocks. U levels ranged between 2.9 and 37 ppm, revealing a good coherence between the presence and the absence of radioactive element-bearing accessory minerals for each rock type. The rate of radon exhalation from the stones is related to the petrographic/petrophysical features of each material. By comparing the (222)Rn level generated by a rock to the amount effectively emanated by it, the rate of emanated gas proves to be insignificant; also, a rock that produces more Rn will not always emanate more. Simulations performed to estimate the radon levels inside residences or any given indoor environment showed that nine samples attained values below the 4 pCi/L EPA limit, whereas one was above that limit. PMID:22244194

  8. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Laser analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.

    2002-11-01

    Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) are applied to the diagnostics of gastroenterological diseases using respiratory tests and preparations enriched with the stable 13C isotope. This method of the analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air is based on the selective measurement of the resonance absorption at the vibrational — rotational structure of 12CO2 and 13CO2. The CO2 transmission spectra in the region of 4.35 μm were measured with a PbEuSe double-heterostructure TDL. The accuracy of carbon isotope ratio measurements in CO2 of exhaled air performed with the TDL was ~0.5%. The data of clinical tests of the developed laser-based analyser are presented.

  9. Estimating the input of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and SGD-derived nutrients in Geoje Bay, Korea using (222)Rn-Si mass balance model.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong-Woon; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Kim, Tae-Hoon

    2016-09-15

    In order to evaluate the main source of nutrients for maintaining the high production in shellfish farming bay, we have measured (222)Rn activities and the concentrations of nutrients in stream water, seawater, and coastal groundwater around Geoje Bay, one of the largest cultivation areas of oyster in the southern sea of Korea in April 2013. Using the (222)Rn and Si mass balance model, the residence time of bay seawater was about 5days and the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the bay was estimated to be approximately 1.8×10(6)m(3) d(-1). The SGD-derived nutrient fluxes contributed approximately 54% for DIN, 5% for DIP, and 50% for DSi of total nutrient input entering into the bay. Thus, our results suggest that SGD is the major source of nutrients in Geoje Bay, and SGD-derived nutrients are very important to support the biological production of this shellfish farming bay. PMID:27377001

  10. A novel silicon diffusion membrane method for high-resolution continuous quantification of groundwater-surface water interaction using 222-Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, H.; Gilfedder, B.; Cartwright, I.

    2012-04-01

    222Rn is a naturally produced radioactive isotopic tracer that is commonly used to quantify groundwater discharge to streams, rivers, and wetlands. Traditional sampling and analysis techniques are usually confined to point measurements taken at a specific time. However, it is difficult to constrain short- or medium-term processes occurring at the groundwater-surface water interface using single measurements. Here we describe a method for high-resolution, autonomous, and continuous, measurement of radon in rivers and streams using a silicon diffusion membrane system coupled to a solid-state radon-in-air detector (Durridge RAD7). In this system, water is pumped through a silicon diffusion tube placed inside an outer air circuit tube that is connected to the radon-in-air detector. Radon diffuses from the water into the air loop and is measured by the detector. By optimising the membrane tube length, wall thickness, and water flow rates through the membrane, it was possible to quantify the variability of 222Rn concentrations over timescales of about 3 hours and qualitatively observe changes in as little as 20 minutes. The detection limit for the entire system with 20 minutes counting was 0.018 Bq/L at the 3σ level, which is solely determined by the sensitivity of the detector. Results from the diffusion membrane agree well with conventional measurements of 222Rn made using a RAD7 and an air-water exchanger at both high (20 Bq/L) and low (30 days without requiring attendance. In both cases the system showed variability in 222Rn concentrations that have allowed the short-timescale variations in groundwater inflow and degassing to be constrained and which allow the dynamic processes in these environments to be addressed.

  11. Gas exchange dependency on diffusion coefficient: direct /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He comparisons in a small lake

    SciTech Connect

    Torgersen, T.; Mathieu, G.; Hesslein, R.H.; Broecker, W.S.

    1982-01-20

    A direct field comparison was conducted to determine the dependency of gas exchange coefficient (k/sub x/) on the diffusion coefficient (D/sub x/). The study also sought to confirm the enhanced vertical exchange properties of limnocorrals and similar enclosures. Gas exchange coefficients for /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He were determined in a small northern Ontario lake, using a /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H spike to gain the necessary precision. The results indicate that the gas exchange coefficient is functionally dependent on the diffusion coefficient raised to the 1.22/sub -35//sup + > 12/ power (k/sub x/ = f(D/sub x//sup 1.22)), clearly supporting the stagnant film model of gas exchange. Limnocorrals were found to have gas exchange rates up to 1.7 times higher than the whole lake in spite of the observation of more calm surface conditions in the corral than in the open lake. 33 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  12. Examining the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater inflows to a valley-to-floodplain river using 222Rn, geochemistry and river discharge: the Ovens River, southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M. C. L.; Cartwright, I.; Braden, J. L.; de Bree, S. T.

    2013-04-01

    Radon (222Rn) and major ion geochemistry were used to define and quantify the catchment-scale river-aquifer interactions along the Ovens River in the southeast Murray-Darling Basin, Victoria, Australia, between September 2009 and October 2011. The Ovens River is characterized by the transition from a single channel river residing within a mountain valley in the upper catchment to a multi-channel meandering river on flat alluvial plains in the lower catchment. Overall, the river is dominated by gaining reaches, receiving groundwater from both alluvial and basement aquifers. The distribution of gaining and losing reaches is governed by catchment morphology and lithology. In the upper catchment, rapid groundwater recharge through sediments that have high hydraulic conductivities in a narrow valley produces higher baseflow to the river during wet (high flow) periods as a result of hydraulic loading. In the lower catchment, the open and flat alluvial plains, lower rainfall and finer-gained sediments reduce the magnitude and variability of hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the river, producing lower and constant groundwater inflow. With a small difference between the water table and the river height, small changes in river height or in groundwater level can result fluctuating gaining and losing behaviour along the river. The middle catchment represents a transition in river-aquifer interactions from upper to lower catchment. High baseflow in some parts of the middle and lower catchments is caused by groundwater flow over basement highs. Mass balance calculations based on 222Rn activities indicate that groundwater inflow is 4-22% of total flow with higher baseflow occurring in high flow periods. Uncertainties in gas exchange coefficient and 222Rn activities of groundwater alter the calculated groundwater inflow to 3-35%. Ignoring hyporheic exchange appears not to have a significant impact on the total groundwater estimates. In comparison to 222Rn activities, Cl

  13. Estimate of the annual per capita surplus dose due to the elevated indoor exposure to 222Rn progeny caused by the use of slag and spoil of uranium rich coal for building purposes in Ajka Town, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Papp, Z

    1998-03-01

    Ajka is a mining and industrial town in Hungary. Brown coal rich in uranium (300 to 900 Bq kg(-1)) has been mined by the town since 1865. Slag and spoil of the coal were frequently used in the town for building purposes before 1960. Screening measurements of 222Rn progeny in indoor air were performed in 86 Ajka buildings. Elevated 222Rn progeny levels were found in houses that used the above by-products as building materials or foundations. Annual per capita surplus effective doses due to the exposure to elevated 222Rn progeny levels were estimated from the results of the screening measurements. The possibility of estimating the mean of the annual averages of 222Rn or 222Rn progeny concentration for a group of houses from the results of screening measurements is discussed in detail. The estimated annual surplus dose is 0.64 mSv for the population of the whole town and 1.86 mSv for the 7,000 occupants of family houses built before 1960. PMID:9482606

  14. Development of an integrated sampler based on direct 222Rn/ 220Rn progeny sensors in flow-mode for estimating unattached/attached progeny concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B. K.; Mayya, Y. S.

    2009-11-01

    A flow-mode integrated sampler consisting of a wire-mesh and filter-paper array along with passive solid state nuclear track detectors has been developed for estimating unattached and attached fraction of 222Rn/ 220Rn progeny concentration. The essential element of this sampler is the direct 222Rn/ 220Rn progeny sensor (DRPS/DTPS), which is an absorber-mounted-LR115 type nuclear track detector that selectively registers the alpha particles emitted from the progeny deposited on its surface. During sampling at a specified flow-rate, the unattached progeny is captured on the wire-mesh; while the attached progeny gets transmitted and is captured on the filter-paper. The alpha particles emitted by the deposited progeny atoms are registered on the sensors placed at a specified distance facing the wire-mesh and the filter-paper, respectively. The various steps involved in the development of this flow-mode direct progeny sampler such as the optimization of the sampling rate and the distance between the sensor and the deposition substrate are discussed. The sensitivity factor of the DTPS-loaded sampler for 220Rn progeny deposited on the wire-mesh and filter-paper is found to be 23.77 ± 0.64 (track cm -2 h -1) (Bq m -3) -1 and 22.30 ± 0.18 (track cm -2 h -1) (Bq m -3) -1, respectively; while that of DRPS-loaded sampler for 222Rn progeny deposition, is 3.03 ± 0.14 (track cm -2 h -1) (Bq m -3) -1 and 2.08 ± 0.07 (track cm -2 h -1) (Bq m -3) -1, respectively. The highlight of this flow-mode sampler is its high sensitivity and that it utilizes the passive technique for estimating the unattached and attached progeny concentration, thus doing away with the alpha counting procedures.

  15. Examining the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater inflows to a valley-to-floodplain river using 222Rn, geochemistry and river discharge: the Ovens River, southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M. C. L.; Cartwright, I.; Braden, J. L.; de Bree, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Radon (222Rn) and major ion geochemistry were used to define and quantify the catchment-scale groundwater-surface water interactions along the Ovens River in the southeast Murray-Darling Basin, Victoria, Australia, between September 2009 and October 2011. The Ovens River is characterized by the transition from a single channel within a mountain valley in the upper catchment to a multi-channel meandering river on flat alluvial plains in the lower catchment. Overall, the Ovens River is dominated by gaining reaches, receiving groundwater from both alluvial and basement aquifers. The distribution of gaining and losing reaches is governed by catchment morphology and lithology. In the upper catchment, rapid groundwater recharge through the permeable aquifers increases the water table. The rising water table, referred to as hydraulic loading, increases the hydraulic head gradient toward the river and hence causes high baseflow to the river during wet (high flow) periods. In the lower catchment, lower rainfall and finer-gained sediments reduce the magnitude and variability of hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the river, producing lower but more constant groundwater inflows. The water table in the lower reaches has a shallow gradient, and small changes in river height or groundwater level can result in fluctuating gaining and losing behaviour. The middle catchment represents a transition in river-aquifer interactions from the upper to the lower catchment. High baseflow in some parts of the middle and lower catchments is caused by groundwater flowing over basement highs. Mass balance calculations based on 222Rn activities indicate that groundwater inflows are 2 to 17% of total flow with higher inflows occurring during high flow periods. In comparison to 222Rn activities, estimates of groundwater inflows from Cl concentrations are higher by up to 2000% in the upper and middle catchment but lower by 50 to 100% in the lower catchment. The high baseflow estimates using

  16. A novel silicon diffusion membrane method for high-resolution continuous quantification of groundwater-surface water interaction using 222Rn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, I.; Hofmann, H.; Gilfedder, B.

    2011-12-01

    222Rn is a naturally produced radioactive isotopic tracer that is commonly used to quantify groundwater discharge to streams, rivers, and wetlands. Traditional sampling and analysis techniques are usually confined to point measurements taken at a specific time. However, it is difficult to constrain short- or medium-term processes occurring at the groundwater-surface water interface using single measurements. Here we describe a method for high-resolution, autonomous, and continuous, measurement of radon in rivers and streams using a silicon diffusion membrane system coupled to a solid state radon-in-air detector (Durridge RAD7). In this system, water is pumped through a silicon diffusion tube placed inside an outer air circuit tube that is connected to the radon-in-air detector. Radon diffuses from the water into the air loop and is measured by the detector. By optimising the membrane tube length, wall thickness, and water flow rates through the membrane, it was possible to quantify the variability of 222Rn concentrations over timescales of about 3 hours and qualitatively observe changes in as little as 20 minutes. The detection limit for the entire system with 20 minutes counting was 0.018 Bq/L at the 3σ level, which is solely determined by the sensitivity of the detector. Results from the diffusion membrane agree well with conventional measurements of 222Rn made using a RAD7 and an air-water exchanger at both high (20 Bq/L) and low (<1 Bq/L) concentrations. The silicon membrane system is suitable for continuous and autonomous monitoring of groundwater-surface water interactions on hourly to monthly times scales. Unlike unshielded diffusion membranes (such as the Membrana system), the system is not prone to clogging with sediment or biofilms even in turbid water; additionally, the silicon membrane is flexible and can be coiled for installation at sites where space is restricted. While the response times are slower than air-water exchangers, the silicon membrane

  17. (222)Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Gorecka, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of (222)Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential. PMID:24657989

  18. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  19. Early results of experimental 222Rn flux campaign carried out at a mountain Spanish region and comparison with available radon flux inventories results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nofuentes, Manel; Grossi, Claudia; Morguí, Josep Anton; Curcoll, Roger; Cañas, Lidia; Occhipinti, Paola; Borràs, Silvia; Vazquez, Eusebi; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of components impacting the greenhouse effect (CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, and aerosols) have increased significantly in the last two centuries, leading to a direct impact on our climate. These climatic changes deeply affect the geochemistry and the dynamics of the main reservoirs such as the atmosphere, the ocean, and the biosphere. Therefore, reductions of the emissions are needed for all four of the most important anthropogenic GHGs: CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. Particularly, the relative contribution of human induced CH4 in the atmosphere to the total human direct greenhouse effect is about 25%. Furthermore, the CH4 has the shortest lifetime in the atmosphere (about 9 years), so that emissions reduction measures for CH4 will lead to changes in concentration growth rates, or even a concentration decline, at relatively shor time scales. All these reasons make the CH4 an attractive compound to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. Nowadays, the study and attribution of categories for GHGs sources is carried out by using bottom-up inventories and top-down techniques. The atmospheric concentrations and the fluxes of the noble and radioactive 222Rn gas are widely used for retriving indirectly GHGs fluxes, improving top-down techniques and analysing different type of sources. In the frame of the "Methane exchange between soil and atmosphere over the Iberian Peninsula" (MIP) project (Reference: CGL2013-46186-R, Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness) four experimental radon flux campaigns are carried out at mountain as well as at coastal Spanish regions using integrated and continuous monitors. The early results of first radon flux campaign carried out at the Gredos and Iruelas climate station (GIC3) of the Catalan Institute of Climate Science (IC3) are presented and compared with available radon flux inventories maps.

  20. Temporal 222Rn distributions to reveal groundwater discharge into desert lakes: Implication of water balance in the Badain Jaran Desert, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Wang, Xu-sheng; Liu, Kun

    2016-03-01

    How lake systems are maintained and water is balanced in the lake areas in the Badain Jaran Desert (BJD), northeast of China have been debated for about a decade. In this study, continuous 222Rn measurement is used to quantify groundwater discharge into two representative fresh and brine water lakes in the desert using a steady-state mass-balance model. Two empirical equations are used to calculate atmospheric evasion loss crossing the water-air interface of the lakes. Groundwater discharge rates yielded from the radon mass balance model based on the two empirical equations are well correlated and of almost the same values, confirming the validity of the model. The fresh water and brine lakes have a daily averaged groundwater discharge rate of 7.6 ± 1.7 mm d-1 and 6.4 ± 1.8 mm d-1, respectively. The temporal fluctuations of groundwater discharge show similar patterns to those of the lake water level, suggesting that the lakes are recharged from nearby groundwater. Assuming that all the lakes have the same discharge rate as the two studied lakes, total groundwater discharge into all the lakes in the desert is estimated to be 1.59 × 105 m3 d-1. A conceptual model of water balance within a desert lake catchment is proposed to characterize water behaviors within the catchment. This study sheds lights on the water balance in the BJD and is of significance in sustainable regional water resource utilization in such an ecologically fragile area.

  1. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    PubMed

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing. PMID:23374080

  2. Radon permeability and radon exhalation of building materials.

    PubMed

    Keller, G; Hoffmann, B; Feigenspan, T

    2001-05-14

    High radon concentrations indoors usually depend on the possibilities of radon penetration from the surrounding soil into the buildings. Radon concentrations in dwellings up to 100 kBq/m3 were found in some special regions (i.e. Schneeberg/Saxony, Umhausen/Tyrol), where the soil shows a high uranium content and additionally, a fast radon transport in the soil is possible. To reduce the radon exposure of the inhabitants in these 'radon prone areas' it is necessary to look for building and insulating materials with low radon permeability. We examined several building materials, like cements, concretes and bricks of different constitutions for their diffusion coefficients and their exhalation rates. The insulating materials, like foils and bitumen were tested also on their radon tightness. The measurements were performed with an online radon measuring device, using electrostatic deposition of 218Po ions onto a surface barrier detector and subsequent alpha spectroscopy. The mean diffusion lengths for the investigated building materials range from lower than 0.7 mm (i.e. for plastic foil), up to 1.1 m for gypsum. The diffusion length R was calculated from the diffusion coefficient D with R = square root(D/lambda). If the thickness of the material is more than 3 times the diffusion length, then it is called radon-tight. The mean 222Rn exhalation rates for the building materials varied between 0.05 and 0.4 mBq/m2s. The samples were investigated as stones, plates, blocks, foils, coatings, powders etc., no statement can be made about working at the construction site of a building. Also the fabrication and processing of the materials has to be considered, because the material characteristics may have changed. PMID:11379942

  3. Multivariate determination of 13CO2/12CO2 ratios in exhaled mouse breath with mid-infrared hollow waveguide gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Seichter, Felicia; Wilk, Andreas; Wörle, Katharina; Kim, Seong-Soo; Vogt, Josef A; Wachter, Ulrich; Radermacher, Peter; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-05-01

    The (12)CO2/(13)CO2 isotope ratio is a well-known marker in breath for a variety of biochemical processes and enables monitoring, e.g., of the glucose metabolism during sepsis. Using animal models-here, at a mouse intensive care unit-the simultaneous determination of (12)CO2 and (13)CO2 within small volumes of mouse breath was enabled by coupling a novel low-volume hollow waveguide gas cell to a compact Fourier transform infrared spectrometer combined with multivariate data evaluation based on partial least squares regression along with optimized data preprocessing routines. PMID:23503745

  4. Elevation in Exhaled Nitric Oxide Predicts for Radiation Pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, Thomas; Martinez, Josue; McCurdy, Matthew R.; Wolski, Michael; McAleer, Mary Francis

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis is a major toxicity after thoracic radiotherapy (RT), with no method available to accurately predict the individual risk. This was a prospective study to evaluate exhaled nitric oxide as a predictive biomarker for radiation pneumonitis in esophageal cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 34 patients prescribed neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer were enrolled in the present trial. Each patient underwent respiratory surveys and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements before, at the end of, and 1 to 2 months after completing RT. Pneumonitis toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The demographics, dosimetric factors, and exhaled NO levels were evaluated for correlation with symptomatic patients (scores {>=}2). Results: Of the 34 patients, 28 were evaluable. All had received 50.4 Gy RT with concurrent chemotherapy. The pneumonitis toxicity score was Grade 3 for 1, Grade 2 for 3, Grade 1 for 7, and Grade 0 for 17. The dosimetric factors were not predictive of symptoms. The mean exhaled NO level measured before, at completion, and at restaging was 17.3 {+-} 8.5 (range, 5.5-36.7), 16.0 {+-} 14.2 (range, 5.8-67.7), and 14.7 {+-} 6.2 (range, 5.5-28.0) parts per billion, respectively. The ratio of exhaled NO at the end of RT vs. before treatment was 3.4 (range, 1.7-6.7) for the symptomatic and 0.8 (range, 0.3-1.3) for the asymptomatic (p = .0017) patients. The elevation in exhaled NO preceded the peak symptoms by 33 days (range, 21-50). The interval to peak symptoms was inversely related to the exhaled NO elevation. Conclusions: Elevations in exhaled NO at the end of RT was found to predict for radiation pneumonitis symptoms.

  5. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Man, Jonathan C; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P; Sommerer, K; Stone, Howard A; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-12-14

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These "exhaled bioaerosols" may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these "high-producer" individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 +/- 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension. PMID:15583121

  6. Exhaled breath analysis and sleep.

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E

    2011-10-15

    It is currently estimated that the economic burden for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) cases not coming to medical attention is steadily increasing, thus making OSAS a major public health concern. For its increasing incidence among the common population, the interest of researchers and clinicians has been recently directed to the study of pathological mechanisms underlying sleep disorders. Current opinion is that airway inflammation and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of OSAS. Recently there has been increasing interest in the investigation of lungs by non-invasive means measuring the exhaled breath volatile mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ethane and pentane and finally the non-volatile substances in the liquid phase of exhalate, termed breath condensate. The non-invasiveness of these techniques for the study of airways affected by different respiratory disorders and among those, the OSAS, makes these ideally suited for the evaluation and serial monitoring of patients. Notwithstanding the increasing number of scientific contributions on the use of the exhaled markers in sleep disorders, at the moment, their use is not completely suitable for clinical application. An important contribution to the increase of our knowledge on exhaled markers and for their possible concrete application in clinical practice may come from future studies using proteomics, genomics and metabolomics. In this review, we focus on exhaled breath analysis giving an update on its general aspects, its application in OSAS, and finally its actual clinical applicability and areas for future direction. PMID:22003329

  7. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  8. Analyzing spatial and temporal (222)Rn trends in Maine.

    PubMed

    Farah, Christopher; Beard, Kate; Hess, C T; Hock, Janet M

    2012-02-01

    Prolonged radon exposure has been linked to lung cancer. Cancer registry data indicates excess risk for age-adjusted lung cancer in Maine. Maine's mean residential radon activity exceeds the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL). This paper describes the application of spatial autocorrelation methods to retrospective data as a means of analyzing radon activity in Maine. Retrospective air and well water radon activity data, sampled throughout Maine between 1993 and 2008, are standardized and geocoded for analysis. Three spatial autocorrelation algorithms-local Getis-Ord, local Moran, and spatial scan statistic-are used to identify spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal radon activity clusters and/or outliers. Spatial clusters of high air- and well water-Rn activity are associated with Maine's Lucerne and Sebago granitic formations. Spatial clusters of low air- and well water-Rn activity are associated with Biddeford Granite and the metamorphic bedrock formation Silurian Ordovician Vassalboro. Space-time analysis indicates that most spatial clusters persist over the period of sampling. No significant temporal clusters are identified. Persistent spatial variations in radon may help to better understand and predict radon-related health risks associated with Maine residences. PMID:22217584

  9. Exhaled methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, A; Ruzsanyi, V; Unterkofler, K; Mohácsi, Á; Tuboly, E; Boros, M; Szabó, G; Hinterhuber, H; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled methane concentration measurements are extensively used in medical investigation of certain gastrointestinal conditions. However, the dynamics of endogenous methane release is largely unknown. Breath methane profiles during ergometer tests were measured by means of a photoacoustic spectroscopy based sensor. Five methane-producing volunteers (with exhaled methane level being at least 1 ppm higher than room air) were measured. The experimental protocol consisted of 5 min rest—15 min pedalling (at a workload of 75 W)—5 min rest. In addition, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were determined and compared to the estimated alveolar methane concentration. The alveolar breath methane level decreased considerably, by a factor of 3–4 within 1.5 min, while the estimated ventilation-perfusion ratio increased by a factor of 2–3. Mean pre-exercise and exercise methane concentrations were 11.4 ppm (SD:7.3) and 2.8 ppm (SD:1.9), respectively. The changes can be described by the high sensitivity of exhaled methane to ventilationperfusion ratio and are in line with the Farhi equation. PMID:25749807

  10. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  11. Associations of Exhaled Carbon Monoxide and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide with Metabolic Syndrome: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanjun; Ma, Jixuan; Lu, Wei; He, Jintong; Zhang, Runbo; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could reflect underlying inflammatory and oxidative stresses, which play important roles in pathogenetic pathways of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, epidemiologic evidence was limited. We conducted a study in Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) cohort of 3649 community participants to investigate the association between eCO, FeNO and MetS in both cross-sectional and prospective ways. The results showed that higher eCO and FeNO were associated cross-sectionally with a higher prevalence of MetS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for MetS at baseline were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11 to 1.35) associated with per log eCO and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.30) associated with per log FeNO. During a follow-up of 3 years, 358/2181 new developed MetS cases were identified. Compared with lowest quartile of eCO and FeNO, the multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.48 (1.06 to 2.06) related to the highest quartile of eCO. These findings remained consistent across sex but not smoking status, eCO was only associated with MetS in non-smokers when stratified by smoking status. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that eCO and FeNO were independently and positively associated with the prevalence of MetS cross-sectionally, while only eCO was positively related with the incidence of MetS prospectively. PMID:27076211

  12. Associations of Exhaled Carbon Monoxide and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide with Metabolic Syndrome: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanjun; Ma, Jixuan; Lu, Wei; He, Jintong; Zhang, Runbo; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could reflect underlying inflammatory and oxidative stresses, which play important roles in pathogenetic pathways of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, epidemiologic evidence was limited. We conducted a study in Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) cohort of 3649 community participants to investigate the association between eCO, FeNO and MetS in both cross-sectional and prospective ways. The results showed that higher eCO and FeNO were associated cross-sectionally with a higher prevalence of MetS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for MetS at baseline were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11 to 1.35) associated with per log eCO and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.30) associated with per log FeNO. During a follow-up of 3 years, 358/2181 new developed MetS cases were identified. Compared with lowest quartile of eCO and FeNO, the multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) for MetS were 1.48 (1.06 to 2.06) related to the highest quartile of eCO. These findings remained consistent across sex but not smoking status, eCO was only associated with MetS in non-smokers when stratified by smoking status. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that eCO and FeNO were independently and positively associated with the prevalence of MetS cross-sectionally, while only eCO was positively related with the incidence of MetS prospectively. PMID:27076211

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide and clinical phenotypes of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Mahut, Bruno; Peyrard, Séverine; Delclaux, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Whether exhaled NO helps to identify a specific phenotype of asthmatic patients remains debated. Our aims were to evaluate whether exhaled NO (FENO(0.05)) is independently associated (1) with underlying pathophysiological characteristics of asthma such as airway tone (bronchodilator response) and airway inflammation (inhaled corticosteroid [ICS]-dependant inflammation), and (2) with clinical phenotypes of asthma.We performed multivariate (exhaled NO as dependent variable) and k-means cluster analyses in a population of 169 asthmatic children (age ± SD: 10.5 ± 2.6 years) recruited in a monocenter cohort that was characterized in a cross-sectional design using 28 parameters describing potentially different asthma domains: atopy, environment (tobacco), control, exacerbations, treatment (inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting bronchodilator agonist), and lung function (airway architecture and tone). Two subject-related characteristics (height and atopy) and two disease-related characteristics (bronchodilator response and ICS dose > 200 μg/d) explained 36% of exhaled NO variance. Nine domains were isolated using principal component analysis. Four clusters were further identified: cluster 1 (47%): boys, unexposed to tobacco, with well-controlled asthma; cluster 2 (26%): girls, unexposed to tobacco, with well-controlled asthma; cluster 3 (6%): girls or boys, unexposed to tobacco, with uncontrolled asthma associated with increased airway tone, and cluster 4 (21%): girls or boys, exposed to parental smoking, with small airway to lung size ratio and uncontrolled asthma. FENO(0.05) was not different in these four clusters.In conclusion, FENO(0.05) is independently linked to two pathophysiological characteristics of asthma (ICS-dependant inflammation and bronchomotor tone) but does not help to identify a clinically relevant phenotype of asthmatic children. PMID:21599913

  14. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  15. Natural radioactivity in the scale of water well pipes.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, A; Al-Jarallah, M; Al-Haddad, M N

    2002-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of 226Ra and 228Ra in scale samples taken from pipes used in several local water wells was investigated. The results showed 226Ra activities to be varying from 1284 to 3613 Bq/kg whereas, the 228Ra concentrations did not show any significant variation, all being low, below 30 Bq/kg. The 222Rn exhalations from these scale samples were also measured and compared with the 226Ra contents. The average ratio of 222Rn/226Ra was 31%. Chemical analyses showed that the main constituent of the scale samples was iron. The radiation dose rates from the pipes and scale were up to 100nSv/h. Although not a major hazard this could present a long-term risk if the scale materials were handled indiscriminately. PMID:12113504

  16. Radon and Thoron exhalation rate map in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Masahiro, Hosoda; Michikuni, Shimo; Kazuyuki, Minami; Kazutaka, Ejiri; Masato, Sugino; Masahide, Furukawa; Masahiro, Fukushi

    2008-08-07

    Measurements of radon and thoron exhalation rates have been done using the radon and thoron exhalation rate measuring instrument adopting the accumulation method. We obtained the 111 data in the 40 sites of the 14 prefectures in Japan. The arithmetic average value of the radon and thoron exhalation rates by all 111 data were obtained to be 8.6 mBq{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1} and 0.80 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1}, respectively, and we have reported the radon and thoron exhalation rates in relation to the geological features. The relation between the exhalation rate and geology was shown that the exhalation rate had an increasing tendency in order of basic rock, neutral rock and acidic rock. We made the nationwide exhalation-rate map using the survey data of exhalation-rate of radon and thoron and the geological distribution map.

  17. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  18. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  19. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  20. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  1. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  2. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  3. 42 CFR 84.92 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.92 Section 84.92... Breathing Apparatus § 84.92 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be...) Leakage between the valve and the valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  4. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be... between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  5. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84... Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to a suction of 25 mm. water-column height while in a normal operating position. (b)...

  6. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to...

  7. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to...

  8. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to...

  9. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY....123 Exhalation valve leakage test. (a) Dry exhalation valves and valve seats will be subjected to...

  10. [Exhaled nitric oxide in pediatric asthma].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Caro, Francisco; Pérez Guirado, Alejandro; Ruiz Del Árbol Sánchez, Paloma; de Miguel Mallén, Angeles; Alvarez Berciano, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide has become a new diagnostic tool in pediatric daily practice. It provides valuable information on the nature of the underlying inflammation, being useful to establish the diagnosis and to differentiate which patients could benefit more from the anti-inflammatory treatment. As well, it can be useful in predicting asthmatic exacerbations and be used as a guide to make therapeutic modifications. Taking everything to account, the pediatrician has to know its interpretation and its applications. This manuscript reviews the main applications of exhaled nitric oxide in pediatric asthma. PMID:21132252

  11. Continuous Exhaled Breath Analysis on the Icu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-09-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  12. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  13. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  14. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma. PMID:27456161

  15. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  16. Exhaled Breath Analysis in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Marcondes-Braga, Fabiana G; Batista, Guilherme Lopes; Bacal, Fernando; Gutz, Ivano

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a clinical condition that presents high morbidity and mortality and is one of the main reasons for hospital admissions all over the world. Although biochemical processes that occur in the body during heart failure are known, this syndrome is still associated to poor prognosis. Exhaled breath analysis has emerged as a promising noninvasive tool in different clinical conditions and, recently, it has been also tested in patients with HF. This review presents the main breath HF biomarkers, which reflect metabolic changes that occur in this complex syndrome. It also discusses the diagnostic and prognostic value of exhaled breath compounds for HF and makes a short description of the main technologies involved in this analysis. Some perspectives on the area are presented as well. PMID:27287200

  17. 42 CFR 84.158 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.158 Section 84.158 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.158 Exhalation valve leakage...

  18. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  19. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M.; Lappas, Andreas S.; Tzortzi, Anna S.; Behrakis, Panagiotis K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice. PMID:26106641

  20. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Solga, Steven F.; Mudalel, Matthew L.; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations. PMID:24962141

  1. Diurnal Variation in Radon Concentration and Mixing-Layer Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Toshio

    Variation of 222Rn, its short-lived daughters and 212Pb concentrations in the atmosphere, and conditions of the lower atmosphere were observed simultaneously at Kamisaibara Village in Japan. The variation of 222Rn concentration and the ratio of the concentrations of 212Pb and the short-lived daughters of 222Rn during nighttime is explained by sodar echoes and temperature profiles obtained by an instrumented tethered balloon. Depths of the convective mixing layer estimated using the 222Rn concentration, using the surface sensible heat flux, and obtained by low-level sondes are compared and found to be in approximate agreement.

  2. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump. PMID:25461511

  3. Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Alving, K; Weitzberg, E; Lundberg, J M

    1993-10-01

    The presence of nitric oxide (NO) in the exhaled air of humans has recently been described. We wanted to assess at what level exhaled NO originates in normal airways, and to determine whether airway inflammation induces changes in the levels of exhaled NO. Exhaled NO was continuously measured by chemiluminescence technique during normal tidal breathing through the nose or mouth, with a detection limit of 1 part per billion (ppb). Twelve control subjects were compared to eight patients with mild atopic asthma and rhinitis caused by occupational allergen. In control subjects, the major part of NO in exhaled air (up to 30 ppb) seemed to originate in the nasal airways, with only minor contribution from the lower airways and the oral cavity. However, in mild asthmatics, the level of exhaled NO during oral breathing, indicating the involvement of the lower airways, was increased 2-3 fold. Since increased production of NO in the lower airways may involve activated macrophages or neutrophils, we suggest that exhaled NO may be used to instantly monitor ongoing bronchial inflammation, at least when involving inducible NO synthase. PMID:7507065

  4. Microgravity decreases and hypergravity increases exhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Lars L; Kerckx, Yannick; Gustafsson, Lars E; Hemmingsson, Tryggve E; Linnarsson, Dag

    2009-11-01

    Inhalation of toxic dust during planetary space missions may cause airway inflammation, which can be monitored with exhaled nitric oxide (NO). Gravity will differ from earth, and we hypothesized that gravity changes would influence exhaled NO by altering lung diffusing capacity and alveolar uptake of NO. Five subjects were studied during microgravity aboard the International Space Station, and 10 subjects were studied during hypergravity in a human centrifuge. Exhaled NO concentrations were measured during flows of 50 (all gravity conditions), 100, 200, and 500 ml/s (hypergravity). During microgravity, exhaled NO fell from a ground control value of 12.3 +/- 4.7 parts/billion (mean +/- SD) to 6.6 +/- 4.4 parts/billion (P = 0.016). In the centrifuge experiments and at the same flow, exhaled NO values were 16.0 +/- 4.3, 19.5 +/- 5.1, and 18.6 +/- 4.7 parts/billion at one, two, and three times normal gravity, where exhaled NO in hypergravity was significantly elevated compared with normal gravity (P exhaled NO in microgravity and increased exhaled and estimated alveolar NO values in hypergravity suggest that gravity-induced changes in alveolar-to-lung capillary gas transfer modify exhaled NO. PMID:19745185

  5. Radon exhalation from building materials used in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, A. F.; Al-Awami, Hend H.; Hussein, N. A.

    2014-08-01

    Radon exhalation rates have been determined for various different samples of domestic and imported building materials available in the Libyan market for home construction and interior decoration. Radon exhalation rates were measured by the sealed-can technique based on CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The results show that radon exhalation rates from some imported building materials used as foundations and for decoration are extremely high, and these samples are the main sources of indoor radon emanation. Radium contents and annual effective doses have also been estimated.

  6. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide-measuring devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco, Mauro; Vitale, Carolina; Vatrella, Alessandro; Molino, Antonio; Bianco, Andrea; Mazzarella, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been employed in the diagnosis of specific types of airway inflammation, guiding treatment monitoring by predicting and assessing response to anti-inflammatory therapy and monitoring for compliance and detecting relapse. Various techniques are currently used to analyze exhaled NO concentrations under a range of conditions for both health and disease. These include chemiluminescence and electrochemical sensor devices. The cost effectiveness and ability to achieve adequate flexibility in sensitivity and selectivity of NO measurement for these methods are evaluated alongside the potential for use of laser-based technology. This review explores the technologies involved in the measurement of exhaled NO. PMID:27382340

  7. MEASUREMENT METHOD FOR VOLATILE METABOLIC BIOMARKERS IN EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing biomarker methodology to interpret spot biological measurements and their linkage to previous environmental pollutants exposures for individuals. This work explores the use of a promising biological media, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), which contains trapped...

  8. USE OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE IN A HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive, repeatable collection technique to sample biomarkers of lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and environmental exposure. It is unclear whether EBC is an effective tool in human environmental exposure studies with multi-day samplin...

  9. On the exhalation rate of radon by man

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some aspects of the exhalation rate of radon by man which may be relevant to its internal dosimetry and, therefore, to possible radiobiological consequences. Prolonged exposure of a person to radon results in a reservoir or radon dissolved in body fat and fluids. If the person then moves to an environment with a lower radon concentration, there is a net exhalation of radon and the initial exhalation rate depends on the radon concentration in the first environment. This is demonstrated for seven persons whose houses contained radon at concentrations varying from 10 Bq m{sup {minus}3} to almost 1000 Bq m{sup {minus}3}. About one hour after leaving the house, the subjects' average exhalation rate of radon, expressed as the equivalent volume of house air per unit time, was 236 mL min{sup {minus}1}. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Analysis of exhaled breath by laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrall, Karla D.; Toth, James J.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    1996-04-01

    The goal of our work is two fold: (1) to develop a portable rapid laser based breath analyzer for monitoring metabolic processes, and (2) predict these metabolic processes through physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Small infrared active molecules such as ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethane are present in exhaled breath and can be readily detected by laser absorption spectroscopy. In addition, many of the stable isotopomers of these molecules can be accurately detected, making it possible to follow specific metabolic processes. Potential areas of applications for this technology include the diagnosis of certain pathologies (e.g. Helicobacter Pylori infection), detection of trauma due to either physical or chemical causes and monitoring nutrient uptake (i.e., malnutrition). In order to understand the origin and elucidate the metabolic processes associated with these small molecules, we are employing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. A PBPK model is founded on known physiological processes (i.e., blood flow rates, tissue volumes, breathing rate, etc.), chemical-specific processes (i.e., tissue solubility coefficients, molecular weight, chemical density, etc.), and on metabolic processes (tissue site and rate of metabolic biotransformation). Since many of these processes are well understood, a PBPK model can be developed and validated against the more readily available experimental animal data, and then by extrapolating the parameters to apply to man, the model can predict chemical behavior in humans.

  11. Exhaled breath analysis, a simple tool to study the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Bikov, Andras; Hull, James H; Kunos, Laszlo

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated airway inflammation may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA); however this phenomenon has been investigated only in a limited number of studies. The analysis of exhaled breath represents a promising, non-invasive tool to evaluate airway inflammation in this context. The knowledge on exhaled biomarkers in OSA has been growing with an emerging number of methodological studies which help to interpret exhaled breath data. This article not only summarises the results of studies on exhaled breath condensate (EBC) biomarkers, exhaled volatile compounds and exhaled monoxides in OSA, but also aims to critically review methodological limitations and provide some guideline for further research. PMID:26426372

  12. Influence of the porosity on the ²²²Rn exhalation rate of concrete.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Peter; van Dijk, Willem; de Rooij, Mario

    2011-02-01

    The composition of 23 concrete mixtures was varied in five separate series to evaluate the influence of porosity on the ²²²Rn exhalation rate. In each series, a range in porosities is obtained by varying (1) the amount of cement, (2) type of cement (Portland or blast furnace slag cement), (3) the amount of water at a fixed cement level, (4) addition of an air entraining agent, or (5) the amount of recycled aggregates. The porosities ranged from 1% to 16%. The ²²²Rn exhalation rate is normalized to the ²²⁶Ra activity concentration and expressed as the ²²²Rn release factor to eliminate the effect of differences in ²²⁶Ra activity concentrations among the various concrete mixtures. Since most ²²²Rn originates from the cement, a ²²²Rn release factor based on the amount of ²²⁶Ra introduced by the cements appeared to be more adequate. Although the methods to attain the porosities in the concrete mixtures differ widely, this cement-related factor corresponds well with the capillary porosity of the mixtures. Since the water-to-cement ratio of the fresh paste is a good indicator of the capillary porosity, this is the guiding factor in the fabrication of concretes low in ²²²Rn exhalation. The lower the water-to-cement ratio, the less capillary pore area will be available from which ²²²Rn can emanate from the mineral matrix into the pore system. The good correlation between the cement-based ²²²Rn release factor and literature data on the internal capillary pore area support the results of this study. PMID:21399427

  13. Measurement of Lung Phosphatidylcholines in Exhaled Breath Particles by a Convenient Collection Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Sandqvist, Sören; Beck, Olof

    2015-11-17

    An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the quantitative determination of four phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in human exhaled breath particles. Analytes were conveniently collected on an electrostatic polymer filter and extracted with methanol prior to analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ultraperformance liquid chromatographic ethylene bridged hybrid phenyl column using a mobile phase consisting of water and methanol containing 4 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% ammonia. The mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring mode. Detection limits for PC 16:0/16:0 (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC), PC 16:0/18:1, PC 16:0/18:2, and PC 18:0/18:2 were <0.01 ng/filter. Method recoveries at concentration levels of 0.1 and 10 ng/filter were 100-110% and 101-121%, respectively. Acceptable precision with coefficients of variation <20% and accuracies of 100% ± 20% were achieved. Identification of the individual PCs was performed on the basis of two product ions with correct ion ratios and chromatographic retention times. The highest amount in exhaled breath was found for DPPC with median concentration 1.14 ng/filter (range 0.6-21 ng/filter), and median molar ratios of DPPC/PC (16:0/18:1) of 1.98 (range 0.48-2.75). A different pattern with lower molar ratio (∼0.15) was found for oral fluid. The most significant element of this study was to use a precolumn in the LC system and to collecting exhaled particles in an electret polymer filter. Due to chromatographic interference by background contamination, an isolator column (PFC kit) was installed in between eluent mixer and injector to reduce contamination. This is the first LC/MS study where the method was successfully applied to analyze PCs in human exhaled breath by using a simple and convenient collection procedure. PMID:26505278

  14. The Clinical Potential of Exhaled Breath Analysis For Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Timothy Do Chau; Blake, Donald Ray; Galassetti, Pietro Renato

    2012-01-01

    Summary Various compounds in present human breath have long been loosely associated with pathological states (including acetone smell in uncontrolled diabetes). Only recently, however, the precise measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aerosolized particles was made possible at extremely low concentrations by advances in several analytical methodologies, described in detail in the international literature and each suitable for specific subsets of exhaled compounds. Exhaled gases may be generated endogenously (in the pulmonary tract, blood, or peripheral tissues), as metabolic byproducts of human cells or colonizing micro-organisms, or may be inhaled as atmospheric pollutants; growing evidence indicates that several of these molecules have distinct cell-to-cell signaling functions. Independent of origin and physiological role, exhaled VOCs are attractive candidates as biomarkers of cellular activity/metabolism, and could be incorporated in future non-invasive clinical testing devices. Indeed, several recent studies reported altered exhaled gas profiles in dysmetabolic conditions and relatively accurate predictions of glucose concentrations, at least in controlled experimental conditions, for healthy and diabetic subjects over a broad range of glycemic values. Optimization of this methodology and validation in large-scale trials under a wider range of conditions is needed to determine its true potential to transition into practical clinical use. PMID:22410396

  15. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity. PMID:26453064

  16. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  17. Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-11-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  18. 42 CFR 84.137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.137 Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation and exhalation valves shall be provided where necessary and protected...

  19. 42 CFR 84.137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.137 Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation and exhalation valves shall be provided where necessary and protected...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1150 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry exhalation valves... operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30 milliliters per minute....

  1. Radon-222 concentrations and decay-product equilibrium in dwellings and in the open air.

    PubMed

    Keller, G; Folkerts, K H

    1984-09-01

    Results are presented of measurements of the activity concentrations of 222Rn and its short-lived decay products and the 212Pb/212Bi concentrations in more than 200 dwellings in West Germany and in the open air. For more than 130 measurements of the equilibrium factor F in dwellings the median value was found to be 0.3. Measurements of F in the open air under various conditions resulted in a mean value of about 0.4. The results of the investigations showed that indoors F depends only slightly on ventilation, indoor 222Rn concentration and other parameters. The equilibrium factor F in the open air, however, was found to depend on meteorological conditions. Empirical correlations from the data obtained for the daughter/222Rn concentration ratios were derived to provide relations for the prediction of the individual daughter product concentrations at a measured 222Rn level. It was established that the daughter/222Rn concentration ratios for indoor air do not change within the range of 222Rn concentrations investigated (1-370 Bq X m-3). These relations, however, are not valid for the daughter/222Rn concentration ratios in outdoor air. The correlations derived further suggest that the individual daughter product concentrations may be assessed with sufficient accuracy by only measuring the 222Rn concentrations. Thus the daughter ratios obtained in this way should enable good estimates of the lung dose for members of the public due to inhalation of the short-lived 222Rn daughters and the dose contribution of the individual 222Rn-daughter products. PMID:6094394

  2. Revision for measuring radon exhalation rate in open loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Xiao, D.; Yuan, H.; Tang, Q.; Liu, X.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel method for quickly measuring the radon exhalation rate in open loop. We first obtain the temporal variation of radon concentration in the internal cell of the RAD7 by analyzing the work principle of RAD7. We then obtain the temporal variation of radon concentration in the ventilation-type accumulation chamber when the effects of leakage and back diffusion are neglected. This method uses the measured value before the radon concentration in the ventilation-type accumulation chamber reaches a steady state. The diameter of the air input tube to the ventilation-type accumulation is large enough to keep the differential pressure in the accumulation chamber and outdoors negligible. Short cycle time and large flow rate will be appropriate for reducing measurement error. Several radon exhalation rate measurements of the medium surface have been performed in the Radon Laboratory of the University of South China. The radon exhalation rates obtained by verification experiments are in good agreement with the reference value. This method can be applied to develop and improve the instruments for measuring radon exhalation rate.

  3. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 25 mm. (1 inch) water-column height. (c) The exhalation resistance of pressure-demand apparatus shall not exceed the static pressure in the facepiece by more than 51 mm. (2 inches) water-column height. (d) The static pressure (at zero flow) in the facepiece shall not exceed 38 mm. (1.5 inches)...

  4. 42 CFR 84.123 - Exhalation valve leakage test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test. 84.123 Section 84.123 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks §...

  5. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91 Section 84.91 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91...

  6. Radon exhalation rates from some soil samples of Kharar, Punjab

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Vimal; Singh, Tejinder Pal; Chauhan, R. P.; Mudahar, G. S.

    2015-08-28

    Radon and its progeny are major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Because radon is a noble gas, a large portion of it is free to migrate away from radium. The primary sources of radon in the houses are soils and rocks source emanations, emanation from building materials, and entry of radon into a structure from outdoor air. Keeping this in mind the study of radon exhalation rate from some soil samples of the Kharar, Punjab has been carried out using Can Technique. The equilibrium radon concentration in various soil samples of Kharar area of district Mohali varied from 12.7 Bqm{sup −3} to 82.9 Bqm{sup −3} with an average of 37.5 ± 27.0 Bqm{sup −3}. The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples varied from 0.45 to 2.9 mBq/kg/h with an average of 1.4 ± 0.9 mBq/kg/h and radon surface exhalation rates varied from 10.4 to 67.2 mBq/m{sup 2}/h with an average of 30.6 ± 21.8 mBq/m{sup 2}/h. The radon mass and surface exhalation rates of the soil samples of Kharar, Punjab were lower than that of the world wide average.

  7. Radon exhalation rate of some building materials used in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Maged, A F; Ashraf, F A

    2005-09-01

    Indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards for mankind. Common building materials used for construction of houses, which are considered as one of the major sources of this gas in indoor environment, have been studied for exhalation rate of radon. Non-nuclear industries, such as coal fired power plants or fertilizer production facilities, generate large amounts of waste gypsum as by-products. Compared to other building materials waste gypsum from fertilizer production facilities (phosphogypsum) shows increased rates of radon exhalation. In the present, investigation solid state alpha track detectors, CR-39 plastic detectors, were used to measure the indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rates from some building materials used in Egypt. The indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate ranges were found to be 24-55 Bq m(-3 )and 11-223 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The effective dose equivalent range for the indoor was found 0.6-1.4 mSv y(-1). The equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters increased with the increase of relative humidity. PMID:16237604

  8. MEASUREMENTS OF AIR POLLUTANT BIOMARKERS WITH EXHALED BREATH TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has appeal as a noninvasive surrogate sample for lung-derived fluid. Additionally, EBC can be collected multiple times over the course of a study, unlike many other lung sampling techniques which can be performed fewer times. However validat...

  9. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that u...

  10. Partitioned Exhaled Nitric Oxide to Non-Invasively Assess Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, James L.; George, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs, characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness. Chronic repetitive bouts of acute inflammation lead to airway wall remodeling and possibly the sequelae of fixed airflow obstruction. Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive molecule synthesized by NO synthases (NOS). NOS are expressed by cells within the airway wall and functionally, two NOS isoforms exist: constitutive and inducible. In asthma, the inducible isoform is over expressed, leading to increased production of NO, which diffuses into the airway lumen, where it can be detected in the exhaled breath. The exhaled NO signal can be partitioned into airway and alveolar components by measuring exhaled NO at multiple flows and applying mathematical models of pulmonary NO dynamics. The airway NO flux and alveolar NO concentration can be elevated in adults and children with asthma and have been correlated with markers of airway inflammation and airflow obstruction in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies which specifically address the clinical potential of partitioning exhaled NO for diagnosis, managing therapy, and predicting exacerbation are needed. PMID:18718562

  11. Using 222Rn as a tracer of geophysical processes in underground environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R. M.; Valladares, D. L.; da Silva, A. A. R.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; de Rosas, J. P.; Ayub, J. Juri; Yoshimura, E. M.

    2014-11-01

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, are reported and analyzed. These mines are today used for touristic visitation. Our goal was to assess the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer of geological processes in underground environments. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used during the winter and summer seasons. The findings show that the significant radon concentrations reported in this environment are subject to large seasonal modulations, due to the strong dependence of natural ventilation on the variations of outside temperature. The results also indicate that radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments.

  12. Air-water partitioning of 222Rn and its dependence on water temperature and salinity.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael; Paschke, Albrecht; Lieberman, Eric; Burnett, William C

    2012-04-01

    Radon is useful as a tracer of certain geophysical processes in marine and aquatic environments. Recent applications include detection of groundwater discharges into surface waters and assessment of air/sea gas piston velocities. Much of the research performed in the past decade has relied on continuous measurements made in the field using a radon stripping unit connected to a radon-in-air detection system. This approach assumes that chemical equilibrium is attained between the water and gas phases and that the resulting air activity can be multiplied by a partition coefficient to obtain the corresponding radon-in-water activity. We report here the results of a series of laboratory experiments that describes the dependence of the partition coefficient upon both water temperature and salinity. Our results show that the temperature dependence for freshwater closely matches results that were previously available. The salinity effect, however, has largely been ignored and our results show that this can result in an overestimation of radon concentrations, especially in cooler, more saline waters. Related overestimates in typical situations range between 10 (warmer less saline waters) and 20% (cooler, more saline waters). PMID:22385122

  13. Using {sup 222}Rn as a tracer of geophysical processes in underground environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R. M.; Silva, A. A. R. da; Yoshimura, E. M.

    2014-11-11

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, are reported and analyzed. These mines are today used for touristic visitation. Our goal was to assess the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer of geological processes in underground environments. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used during the winter and summer seasons. The findings show that the significant radon concentrations reported in this environment are subject to large seasonal modulations, due to the strong dependence of natural ventilation on the variations of outside temperature. The results also indicate that radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments.

  14. Study of {sup 222}Rn concentrations in some dwellings of Rajasthan

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.K.; Prasad, R.; Khan, A.J.

    1999-03-01

    Total potential alpha energy concentrations due to radon progeny were measured in 143 dwellings of Udaipur, Bikaner, and Barnswara towns of Rajasthan province of India with LR-115 type II detectors. The geometric mean values of total potential alpha energy concentrations in these three towns were found to be 1.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} J m{sup {minus}3}, 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} J m{sup {minus}3} and 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} J m{sup {minus}3} with a geometric standard deviation of 2.2, 2.2, and 2.5, respectively. The estimated lifetime risk of lung cancer due to indoor radon exposure for a total population of study area was estimated to be 6.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} or 0.67%. The mean relative loss of life expectancies were 0.20%, 0.12%, and 0.18%, respectively.

  15. Preparation of gaseous CRMs from the primary system for (222)Rn activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, B J; Kim, B C; Lee, K B; Lee, J M; Park, T S

    2016-03-01

    For disseminating the gaseous radon standard traceable to the KRISS primary system based on the defined solid angle counting method, two kinds of radon CRM (a glass ampule type and a stainless steel cylinder type) were developed. The activity of the CRM was certified by subtracting a residual activity from the measured activity by the primary system. After certification, the ampule CRM was used to calibrate a radon-monitoring instrument and the cylinder CRM to calibrate an HPGe system. We also improved the measurement procedure of the radon primary system. In a typical radon energy spectrum, the radon peak overlaps with the polonium peak. For more reliable and accurate measurement of radon activity, a fitting method was adopted for the evaluation of radon area in the alpha energy spectrum. The result of radon activity evaluated by using the fitting method is in good agreement with that by the previous integration method. PMID:26778761

  16. KINETICS OF INGESTED (222)RN IN HUMANS DETERMINED FROM MEASUREMENTS WITH (133)XE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of naturally occurring 222-radon contamination has received a great deal of public and scientific attention over the past several years, and has become a major public health issue worldwide. The purpose of the work reported in the document was to provide information a...

  17. A solvent extraction technique for the measurement of 222Rn at ambient air concentrations.

    PubMed

    Prichard, H M

    1983-08-01

    The high solubility of radon in cold organic solvents is exploited to extract radon directly from a sample air stream into a hexane-based liquid scintillation solution. Up to 10 l. of air is passed through 20 ml of solvent held at -78 degrees C in a bath of dry ice and acetone. The solvent is then transferred to an ordinary glass liquid scintillation vial that has been preloaded with 2 ml of concentrated fluors. A large number of samples can be prepared in a short time with minimal equipment, making it possible for field workers to conveniently collect numerous samples prior to returning to the laboratory. After allowing an interval of at least 3 hr after processing for radon daughter ingrowth, the vials are counted on an unmodified liquid scintillation system with a narrow window set around the radon and polonium alpha peaks. The large sample volume more than compensates for the relatively high alpha background of liquid scintillators. Relevant theoretical considerations and alternate sampling strategies are discussed. PMID:6885455

  18. 222RN AS AN INDICATOR OF NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUID CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER. (R825689C058)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Low background counting of 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn with electrostatic counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mong, Brian; EXO-200 Collaboration; nEXO Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. The radon counting technique based on electrostatic precipitation of progenies in gas followed by alpha spectroscopy has been applied to support the material selection programs of low background, neutrino and dark matter experiments with emphasis on EXO. An array of 8 counters operated by Laurentian University at SNOLAB and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant have reached the sensitivity of 10 atoms/day in the uranium, thorium and actinium chains. Hardware improvements are underway to further increase the capacity and sensitivity in support of nEXO. Supported by NSERC Project Grants ``Search for Double Beta Decay with EXO.''

  20. Skeletal sup 210 Pb from inhalation of sup 222 Rn and its decay products

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, A.T.; Schlenker, R.A.; Stebbings, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about health effects of radon and its decay products has recently broadened to include the potential role of radon in the causation of myeloid leukemia, multiple myeloma, and melanoma, kidney cancer, and certain childhood cancers. Description of the distribution of radon and its daughters in the skeleton and the marrow, and the dose delivered to red marrow, are of particular relevance. Our interest in a metabolic model for inhaled radon and radon decay products originated with an interest in the use of radioactivity measurement techniques in vivo to quantify the {sup 210}Pb activity of bone. In this paper we estimate the rates of transfer to body fluids of {sup 210}Pb originating from inhaled radon and radon decay products and the quantity of {sup 210}Pb deposited in compact and in cancellous bone for the ideal case of continuous exposure to a constant level of radon and its daughters. We review the contributions of ambient airborne {sup 210}Pb, diet, and active and passive smoking to skeletal levels of {sup 210}Pb, and finally, from the magnitude and the variability of the natural {sup 210}Pb content of the skeleton, we estimate the minimal rate of exposure to airborne radon and its decay products that is required to elevate the skeletal {sup 210}Pb content of an individual to a statistically significant level above the population mean skeletal {sup 210}Pb content derived from all the other environmental sources combined. 55 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. 222Rn and CO2 at Las Cañadas Caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Luis, M. C.; Steinitz, G.; Soler, V.; Quesada, M. L.; Casillas, R.

    2015-05-01

    Radon, CO2 and environmental variables are recorded during nearly three years at a shelter hosting a 505 m deep well located close to Teide volcano. Different temporal patterns are observed, annual, semi-annual, semidiurnal and multi-day fluctuations, the latter observed as gradual variation of the semidiurnal signal. CO2 is anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure at daily and at multiday scale, pointing to a barometric control on the rate of up-flow through the pipe of volcanic CO2 exsolved from the aquifer. Rn daily maximum lags pressure by 2 hours or more, exhibiting a positive correlation at the multiday scale. Also, an apparent quasi-fortnightly period is detected at Rn, CO2 and P atm during summer months, with different relations among them (reversal at CO2 compared to Rn and P atm ), pointing to a long period tidal modulation on these gases. Several anomalous large semidiurnal radon peaks were detected, some of them possibly related to seismic events within the volcanic edifice. This work defines radon baseline levels during a period of low geodynamic activity at a site which is in direct contact with a CO2 saturated aquifer that could be easily perturbed by potential unrests at the central volcanic edifice of the island.

  2. Effect of Shisha (Waterpipe) Smoking on Lung Functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi Young Adult Shisha Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; AlShehri, Khaled Ahmed; AlHarbi, Bader Bandar; Barayyan, Omar Rayyan; Bawazir, Abdulrahman Salem; Alanazi, Omar Abdulmohsin; Al-Zuhair, Ahmed Raad

    2014-01-01

    Shisha (waterpipe) smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers). The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM) range 17–33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73) of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM) range 18–28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75-85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group. PMID:25233010

  3. Effect of shisha (waterpipe) smoking on lung functions and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adult shisha smokers.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; AlShehri, Khaled Ahmed; AlHarbi, Bader Bandar; Barayyan, Omar Rayyan; Bawazir, Abdulrahman Salem; Alanazi, Omar Abdulmohsin; Al-Zuhair, Ahmed Raad

    2014-09-01

    Shisha (waterpipe) smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers). The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM) range 17-33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73) of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM) range 18-28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75-85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group. PMID:25233010

  4. Standardised exhaled breath collection for the measurement of exhaled volatile organic compounds by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis for airway disease monitoring is promising. However, contrary to nitric oxide the method for exhaled breath collection has not yet been standardized and the effects of expiratory flow and breath-hold have not been sufficiently studied. These manoeuvres may also reveal the origin of exhaled compounds. Methods 15 healthy volunteers (34 ± 7 years) participated in the study. Subjects inhaled through their nose and exhaled immediately at two different flows (5 L/min and 10 L/min) into methylated polyethylene bags. In addition, the effect of a 20 s breath-hold following inhalation to total lung capacity was studied. The samples were analyzed for ethanol and acetone levels immediately using proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS, Logan Research, UK). Results Ethanol levels were negatively affected by expiratory flow rate (232.70 ± 33.50 ppb vs. 202.30 ± 27.28 ppb at 5 L/min and 10 L/min, respectively, p < 0.05), but remained unchanged following the breath hold (242.50 ± 34.53 vs. 237.90 ± 35.86 ppb, without and with breath hold, respectively, p = 0.11). On the contrary, acetone levels were increased following breath hold (1.50 ± 0.18 ppm) compared to the baseline levels (1.38 ± 0.15 ppm), but were not affected by expiratory flow (1.40 ± 0.14 ppm vs. 1.49 ± 0.14 ppm, 5 L/min vs. 10 L/min, respectively, p = 0.14). The diet had no significant effects on the gasses levels which showed good inter and intra session reproducibility. Conclusions Exhalation parameters such as expiratory flow and breath-hold may affect VOC levels significantly; therefore standardisation of exhaled VOC measurements is mandatory. Our preliminary results suggest a different origin in the respiratory tract for these two gasses. PMID:23837867

  5. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series. PMID:11378931

  6. Exhaled breath volatile biomarker analysis for thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Changsong; Chi, Chunjie; Wang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Ke, Chaofu; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2015-08-01

    Compared with other types of cancer, thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased rapidly worldwide in the past few decades. In recent years, potential thyroid cancer biomarkers have been studied, but these biomarkers have neither specificity nor good positive predictive value. Exhaled breath analysis is a recently developed convenient and noninvasive method for screening and diagnosing the disease. In this study, potential thyroid cancer biomarkers in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected. Exhaled breath was collected from 64 patients with histologically confirmed cases of thyroid disease (including 39 individuals with papillary thyroid carcinoma and 25 individuals with nodular goiters) and 32 healthy volunteers. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The statistical methods of principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis were performed to process the final data. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between nodular goiter patients and normal controls, papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and normal controls, and papillary thyroid carcinoma patients and nodular goiter patients; 7, 7, and 3 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. Breath analysis may provide a new, noninvasive, and directly qualitative method for the clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease. PMID:25666355

  7. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement with a handheld device.

    PubMed

    Magori, Erhard; Hiltawsky, Karsten; Fleischer, Maximilian; Simon, Elfriede; Pohle, Roland; von Sicard, Oliver; Tawil, Angelika

    2011-06-01

    A sensing system for fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement is presented, which is characterized by a compact setup and a cost potential to be made available for the patient at home. The sensing is based on the work function measurement of a phthalocyanine-type sensing material, which is shown to be sufficiently sensitive for NO(2) in the ppb range. The transducer used to measure the work function is a field effect transistor with a suspended gate electrode. Selectivity is given with respect to other breath components including typically metabolic by-products. The measurement system includes breath treatments in a simple setup, which essentially are dehumidification and a quantitative conversion of NO to NO(2) with a conversion rate of approx. 95%, using a disposable oxidation catalyst. The accomplishment of the correct exhalation maneuver and feeding of the suited portion of exhaled air to the sensor is provided by breath sampling means. The sensor is not gas consuming. This allows us to fill the measurement chamber once, instead of establishing a gas flow for the measurement. This feature simplifies the device architecture. In this paper, we report on sensor characteristics, system architecture and measurement with artificial breath-gas as well as with human breath with the device. PMID:21646688

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen diving affects exhaled molecular profiles in men.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, P J A M; van Hulst, R A; Kulik, W; Brinkman, P; Houtkooper, A; Sterk, P J

    2014-07-01

    Exhaled breath contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are associated with respiratory pathophysiology. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen exposure (hyperoxia) generates a distinguishable VOC pattern. This study aimed to test this hypothesis in oxygen-breathing divers. VOCs in exhaled breath were measured in 10 male divers before and 4h after diving to 9msw (190kPa) for 1h. During the dive they breathed 100% oxygen or air in randomized order. VOCs were determined using two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Compared to air dives, after oxygen dives there was a significant increase in five VOCs (predominately methyl alkanes). Furthermore, a strong, positive correlation was found between increments in 2,4-dimethyl-hexane and those of 4-ethyl-5-methyl-nonane. Although non-submerged hyperoxia studies on VOCs have been performed, the present study is the first to demonstrate changes in exhaled molecular profiles after submerged oxygen diving. The pathophysiological background might be attributed to either a lipid peroxidation-induced pathway, an inflammatory pathway, or to both. PMID:24703972

  9. Exhaled nitric oxide in children after accidental exposure to chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Grasemann, Hartmut; Tschiedel, Eva; Groch, Manuela; Klepper, Jörg; Ratjen, Felix

    2007-08-01

    Chronic exposure to chlorine gas has been shown to cause occupational asthma. Acute inhalation of chlorine is known to cause airway inflammation and induce airway nitric oxide formation. Exhaled nitric oxide may therefore be a marker of airway damage after chlorine gas exposure. After accidental chlorine gas exposure in a swimming pool, exhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary function were repeatedly measured in 18 children over a 1-mo period. Symptomatic children with impaired pulmonary function had higher nitric oxide levels on the day after the exposure compared to day 8 and day 28. Differences in exhaled nitric oxide were more pronounced at a higher exhalation flow compared to lower flow, suggesting peripheral rather than central airway damage. This was in accordance with the observed changes in pulmonary function. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were seen in asymptomatic children. These data suggest that acute chlorine gas exposure results in a mild increase of exhaled nitric oxide in symptomatic children. PMID:17687720

  10. Study of mitochondrial DNA alteration in the exhaled breath condensate of patients affected by obstructive lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, G E; Lacedonia, D; Carone, M; Soccio, P; Cotugno, G; Palmiotti, G A; Scioscia, G; Foschino Barbaro, M P

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) has been studied as an expression of oxidative stress in asthma, COPD, lung cancer and obstructive sleep apnea, but it has been mainly investigated systemically, although the pathogenetic mechanisms begin in the airways and only later progress to systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the MtDNA alterations in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with asthma, COPD and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). In order to analyze better what happens to mitochondria, both locally and systemically, we compared MtDNA/nDNA in blood and EBC of paired patients. Thirteen (13) COPD patients, 14 asthmatics, 23 ACOS (10 according to Spanish guidelines, 13 in line with GINA guidelines) and 12 healthy subjects were enrolled. Patients underwent clinical and functional diagnostic tests as foreseen by the guidelines. They underwent blood and EBC collection. Content of MtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) was measured in the blood cells and EBC of patients by Real Time PCR. The ratio between MtDNA/nDNA was calculated. For the first time we were able to detect MtDNA/nDNA in the EBC. We found higher exhaled MtDNA/nDNA in COPD, asthmatic and ACOS patients respectively compared to healthy subjects (21.9  ±  4.9 versus 6.51  ±  0.21, p  <  0.05; 7.9  ±  2.5 versus 6.51  ±  0.21, p  =  0.06; 18.3  ±  3.4 versus 6.51  ±  0.21, p  <  0.05). The level of exhaled MtDNA/nDNA was positively correlated with the plasmatic one. The levels of MtDNA/nDNA in the EBC, as expression of oxidative stress, are increased in COPD, asthmatic and ACOS patients compared to healthy subjects. These are preliminary results in a small number of well characterized patients that requires confirmation on a larger population. We support new studies directed toward the analysis of exhaled MtDNA/nDNA as a new exhaled non-invasive marker in other inflammatory/oxidative airways diseases. PMID

  11. Instant effects of changing body positions on compositions of exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Kamysek, Svend; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may depend not only on biochemical or pathologic processes but also on physiological parameters. As breath sampling may be done in different body positions, effects of the sampling position on exhaled VOC concentrations were investigated by means of real-time mass spectrometry. Breaths from 15 healthy volunteers were analyzed in real-time by PTR-ToF-MS-8000 during paced breathing (12/min) in a continuous side-stream mode. We applied two series of body positions (setup 1: sitting, standing, supine, and sitting; setup 2: supine, left lateral, right lateral, prone, and supine). Each position was held for 2 min. Breath VOCs were quantified in inspired and alveolar air by means of a custom-made algorithm. Parallel monitoring of hemodynamics and capnometry was performed noninvasively. In setup 1, when compared to the initial sitting position, normalized mean concentrations of isoprene, furan, and acetonitrile decreased by 24%, 26%, and 9%, respectively, during standing and increased by 63%, 36%, and 10% during lying mirroring time profiles of stroke volume and pET-CO2. In contrast, acetone and H2S concentrations remained almost constant. In setup 2, when compared to the initial supine position, mean alveolar concentrations of isoprene and furan increased significantly up to 29% and 16%, respectively, when position was changed from lying on the right side to the prone position. As cardiac output and stroke volume decreased at that time, the reasons for the observed concentrations changes have to be linked to the ventilation/perfusion ratio or compartmental distribution rather than to perfusion alone. During final postures, all VOC concentrations, hemodynamics, and pET-CO2 returned to baseline. Exhaled blood-borne VOC profiles changed due to body postures. Changes depended on cardiac stroke volume, origin, compartmental distribution and physico-chemical properties of the substances. Patients' positions and

  12. Atmospheric residence time of (210)Pb determined from the activity ratios with its daughter radionuclides (210)Bi and (210)Po.

    PubMed

    Semertzidou, P; Piliposian, G T; Appleby, P G

    2016-08-01

    The residence time of (210)Pb created in the atmosphere by the decay of gaseous (222)Rn is a key parameter controlling its distribution and fallout onto the landscape. These in turn are key parameters governing the use of this natural radionuclide for dating and interpreting environmental records stored in natural archives such as lake sediments. One of the principal methods for estimating the atmospheric residence time is through measurements of the activities of the daughter radionuclides (210)Bi and (210)Po, and in particular the (210)Bi/(210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios. Calculations used in early empirical studies assumed that these were governed by a simple series of equilibrium equations. This approach does however have two failings; it takes no account of the effect of global circulation on spatial variations in the activity ratios, and no allowance is made for the impact of transport processes across the tropopause. This paper presents a simple model for calculating the distributions of (210)Pb, (210)Bi and (210)Po at northern mid-latitudes (30°-65°N), a region containing almost all the available empirical data. By comparing modelled (210)Bi/(210)Pb activity ratios with empirical data a best estimate for the tropospheric residence time of around 10 days is obtained. This is significantly longer than earlier estimates of between 4 and 7 days. The process whereby (210)Pb is transported into the stratosphere when tropospheric concentrations are high and returned from it when they are low, significantly increases the effective residence time in the atmosphere as a whole. The effect of this is to significantly enhance the long range transport of (210)Pb from its source locations. The impact is illustrated by calculations showing the distribution of (210)Pb fallout versus longitude at northern mid-latitudes. PMID:27132252

  13. Determinants of Exhaled Breath Condensate pH in a Large Population With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Teague, W. Gerald; Erzurum, Serpil; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Mantri, Sneha; Dweik, Raed A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Meyers, Deborah; Busse, William W.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, W. Nizar; Moore, Wendy; Peters, Stephen P.; Wenzel, Sally; Hunt, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH is 2 log orders below normal during acute asthma exacerbations and returns to normal with antiinflammatory therapy. However, the determinants of EBC pH, particularly in stable asthma, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that patients with severe asthma would have low EBC pH and that there would be an asthma subpopulation of patients with characteristically low values. Methods: We studied the association of EBC pH with clinical characteristics in 572 stable subjects enrolled in the Severe Asthma Research Program. These included 250 subjects with severe asthma, 291 with nonsevere asthma, and 31 healthy control subjects. Results: Overall, EBC in this population of stable, treated study subjects was not lower in severe asthma (8.02; interquartile range [IQR], 7.61-8.41) or nonsevere asthma (7.90; IQR, 7.52-8.20) than in control subjects (7.9; IQR, 7.40-8.20). However, in subjects with asthma the data clustered below and above pH 6.5. Subjects in the subpopulation with pH < 6.5 had lower fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO) values (FeNO = 22.6 ± 18.1 parts per billion) than those with pH ≥ 6.5 (39.9 ± 40.2 parts per billion; P < .0001). By multiple linear regression, low EBC pH was associated with high BMI, high BAL neutrophil counts, low prebronchodilator FEV1 ratio, high allergy symptoms, race other than white, and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Conclusion: Asthma is a complex syndrome. Subjects who are not experiencing an exacerbation but have low EBC pH appear to be a unique subpopulation. PMID:20966042

  14. Online exhaled gas measurements for radiotherapy patients by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xue; Zhou, Wenzhao; Shen, Chengyin; Wang, Hongmei; Lu, Yan; Wang, Hongzhi; Chu, Yannan

    2016-08-01

    The present study assessed whether exhaled breath analysis using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) could screen for radiation exposure. As the intensity of proton transfer reaction reagent ion H3(16)O(+) can be calculated with the intensity of H3(18)O(+), the intensity of H3(18)O(+) was monitored to observe the stability of the PTR-MS instrument during the experiment. The PTR-MS was applied for detecting the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath from 42 radiotherapy patients and other 61 patients who had not received radiotherapy. All patients were enrolled in the local cancer hospital. In the experiment, the subjects breathe slowly to the PTR-MS through a direct inlet system without any sampling bag or tube. The breath mass spectrometric data was statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and stepwise discriminant analysis to find the characteristic ions of radiation exposure. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was applied for a combination of the characteristic ions. The PTR-MS instrument was stable as the intensity of reaction ion H3(16)O(+) was maintained in 1.1%. Through statistically analysis, we found 6 kinds of characteristic ions of radiation exposure, specifically mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 93, m/z 41, m/z 102, m/z 79, m/z 131, and m/z 143. The sensitivity (true positive rate) and specificity (true negative rate) were 78.6% and 82.0% respectively. The integrated area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.869. The results in our study demonstrated the potential of the online breath tester PTR-MS as a non-invasive screening for radiation exposure. PMID:27209162

  15. Primarily nasal origin of exhaled nitric oxide and absence in Kartagener's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, J O; Weitzberg, E; Nordvall, S L; Kuylenstierna, R; Lundberg, J M; Alving, K

    1994-08-01

    The exact origin of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air is not known. We wanted to further investigate at what site exhaled NO is produced and to determine whether children with Kartagener's syndrome exhibited altered levels of exhaled NO. NO was measured by chemiluminescence technique in air sampled directly from the nose and in normally exhaled air of four children (2.5-13 years old) with Kartagener's syndrome, 20 healthy children, four healthy adults, and four conscious tracheostomized adults. NO was almost absent (98% reduced) in air sampled directly from the nose in four children with Kartagener's syndrome (4 +/- 1 parts per billion (ppb)), compared to age-matched controls (221 +/- 14 (ppb)). Tracheostomized adult subjects had considerably higher NO values in nasally (22 +/- 3 ppb) and orally (14 +/- 2 ppb) exhaled air, compared to levels in air exhaled through the tracheostomy (2 +/- 0 ppb). Treatment with intranasal corticosteroids for 14 days, or with antibiotics for 1 week, did not affect exhaled NO. These results clearly show that, basically, all NO in exhaled air of healthy subjects originates from the upper respiratory tract, with only a minor contribution from the lower airways. Furthermore, the absence of nasal NO in children with Kartagener's syndrome could be of use as a simple noninvasive diagnostic test. PMID:7957837

  16. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  17. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements...-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.182 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... height while in a normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall...

  18. 42 CFR 84.204 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.204 Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. (a) Dry... normal operating position. (b) Leakage between the valve and valve seat shall not exceed 30...

  19. Mathematical and statistical approaches for interpreting biomarker compounds in exhaled human breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    The various instrumental techniques, human studies, and diagnostic tests that produce data from samples of exhaled breath have one thing in common: they all need to be put into a context wherein a posed question can actually be answered. Exhaled breath contains numerous compoun...

  20. Reduction in exhaled nitric oxide immediately after methacholine challenge in asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Piacentini, G; Bodini, A; Peroni, D; Del Giudice, M M.; Costella, S; Boner, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: The measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has recently been proposed as a useful technique for the evaluation of airway inflammation in asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of methacholine bronchial provocation on the levels of exhaled NO in asthmatic children. Method: Exhaled NO was measurement immediately before and after methacholine provocation in 51 children with mild to moderate asthma. Results: A significant decrease occurred in the level of exhaled NO (p<0.0001) after methacholine bronchial provocation which was not correlated with the percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Conclusions: The methacholine test should not be used immediately before measurement of exhaled NO in children with asthma. PMID:12200520

  1. Host and environmental predictors of exhaled breath temperature in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exhaled breath temperature has been suggested as a new method to detect and monitor pathological processes in the respiratory system. The putative mechanism of this approach is based upon changes in the blood flow. So far potential factors that influence breath temperature have not been studied in the general population. Methods The exhaled breath temperature was measured in 151 healthy non-smoking elderly (aged: 60–80 years) at room temperature with the X-halo device with an accuracy of 0.03°C. We related exhaled breath temperature by use of regression models with potential predictors including: host factors (sex, age) and environmental factors (BMI, physical activity, and traffic indicators). Results Exhaled breath temperature was lower in women than in men and was inversely associated with age, physical activity. BMI and daily average ambient temperature were positively associated with exhaled breath temperature. Independent of the aforementioned covariates, exhaled breath temperature was significantly associated with several traffic indicators. Residential proximity to major road was inversely associated with exhaled breath temperature: doubling the distance to the nearest major intense road was observed a decrease of 0.17°C (95% CI: -0.33 to -0.01; p = 0.036). Conclusions Exhaled breath temperature has been suggested as a noninvasive method for the evaluation of airway inflammation. We provide evidence that several factors known to be involved in proinflammatory conditions including BMI, physical activity and residential proximity to traffic affect exhaled breath temperature. In addition, we identified potential confounders that should be taken into account in clinical and epidemiological studies on exhaled breath temperature including sex, age, and ambient temperature. PMID:24365236

  2. Effect of natural grass pollen exposure on exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, E; Carrá, S; Dario, C; Azzolin, N; Ongaro, R; Marcer, G; Zacchello, F

    1999-01-01

    Exhaled nitiric oxide (NO) is increased in exhaled breath of asthmatic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes of exhaled NO outside and during the pollen season in pollen-allergic asthmatic children. Twenty-one children (age 6 to 16 yr), with a seasonal allergic asthma sensitive to grass pollen, underwent measurements of exhaled NO and pulmonary function before (March), during (May), and after (November) the pollen season. Exhaled NO was measured by a tidal breathing method with a chemiluminescence analyzer and NO steady-state levels were recorded. The timing of the measurements during the pollen season was based on the atmospheric pollen count. Exhaled NO values of asthmatic children were compared with those of 21 sex- and age-matched healthy children. Pulmonary function and symptoms of asthma were also evaluated at each visit. The mean value of exhaled NO before the grass season was 12.7 +/- 5.1 ppb (mean +/- SD), significantly higher when compared with controls (7.8 +/- 2.7 ppb, p < 0.001). In the pollen season there was a significant (p < 0.001) twofold increase in exhaled NO (21.4 +/- 7.6 ppb) that, after the season, returned to values similar (12.8 +/- 5.8 ppb, p = NS) to those found before the season. There were no significant changes in FEV1 before and during the season (98.6% predicted versus 101% predicted, p = NS). We conclude that natural allergen exposure is related to an increase of exhaled NO in asthmatic grass pollen-allergic children even in absence of significant changes in airways function. We speculate that measurement of exhaled NO could be a sensitive noninvasive marker of asthma disease activity. PMID:9872848

  3. Gas analysis of human exhalation by tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Moskalenko, Konstantin L.

    1993-02-01

    Results of the application of a tunable diode laser (TDL) to determining the trace gas components of human exhalation are presented. The analyzer is specially developed to measure both carbon oxides (CO and CO2) in expired air. A few results illuminating possible applications of TDLs in high-sensitivity medical diagnostics have been obtained. For nonsmokers, expired concentrations of CO are slightly higher than those in inhaled air. The specific surplus value seems to be independent of the ambient atmospheric CO content. The surplus CO content increases by more than an order of magnitude just after intensive exercises, e.g., jogging. For smokers, the pharmacokinetic of abundant CO removal from the organism could be investigated by this technique, which provides quick and reliable measurements of smoking status. Breath-holding synchronous measurements of CO and CO2 in exhalation demonstrate behavior that is different with breath-holding time. The method seems useful for the investigation of phenomena such as molecular pulmonary diffusion through the alveolar-capillary membrane and an organism's adaptation to oxygen shortage. Prospects for the development and application of diode laser spectroscopy to trace gas analysis in medicine are also discussed.

  4. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide for the management of asthma in adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Harnan, Sue; Gomersall, Tim; Tappenden, Paul; Wong, Ruth; Pavord, Ian; Lawson, Rod; Everard, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measured in a clinical setting for the management of asthma in adults. 13 electronic databases were searched and studies were selected against predefined inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted using QUADAS-2. Class effect meta-analyses were performed. Six studies were included. Despite high levels of heterogeneity in multiple study characteristics, exploratory class effect meta-analyses were conducted. Four studies reported a wider definition of exacerbation rates (major or severe exacerbation) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.80 (95% CI 0.63–1.02). Two studies reported rates of severe exacerbations (requiring oral corticosteroid use) with a pooled rate ratio of 0.89 (95% CI 0.43–1.72). Inhaled corticosteroid use was reported by four studies, with a pooled standardised mean difference of −0.24 (95% CI −0.56–0.07). No statistically significant differences for health-related quality of life or asthma control were found. FeNO guided management showed no statistically significant benefit in terms of severe exacerbations or inhaled corticosteroid use, but showed a statistically significant reduction in exacerbations of any severity. However, further research is warranted to clearly define which management protocols (including cut-off points) offer best efficacy and which patient groups would benefit the most. PMID:26846832

  5. Soil gas Rn monitoring at Chã das Caldeiras prior the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Fernandes, Paulo; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Sagiya, Takeshi; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio

    2015-04-01

    gas 222Rn activity were originated from fracturing of rock and/or from direct magma degassing. The positive temporal correlation between 222Rn/220Rn ratio and 222Rn activity supports the hypothesis that soil 222Rn activity variations acted as a long-term precursory signal of the volcanic unrest. These results show that monitoring soil gas 222Rn, together with other geochemical and geophysical data, can be a useful monitoring tool to detect early warning signals of magma pressurization.

  6. Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

  7. Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjou, K.; Roller, C. B.; Reich, T. E.; Jeffers, J. D.; McMillen, G. L.; McCann, P. J.; Camp, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    A liquid-nitrogen free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a folded-optical-path astigmatic Herriott cell was used to measure levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) in breath. Quantification of absolute eNO concentrations was performed using NO/CO2 absorption ratios measured by the TDLAS system coupled with absolute eCO2 concentrations measured with a non-dispersive infrared sensor. This technique eliminated the need for routine calibrations using standard cylinder gases. The TDLAS system was used to measure eNO in children and adults (n=799, ages 5 to 64) over a period of more than one year as part of a field study. Volunteers for the study self-reported data including age, height, weight, and health status. The resulting data were used to assess system performance and to generate eNO and eCO2 distributions, which were found to be log-normal and Gaussian, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in mean eNO levels for males and females as well as for healthy and steroid naïve asthmatic volunteers not taking corticosteroid therapies. Ambient NO levels affected measured eNO concentrations only slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  8. Quantification of Aerosol Hydrofluoroalkane HFA-134a Elimination in the Exhaled Human Breath Following Inhaled Corticosteroids Administration.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Won; Barletta, Barbara; Yoonessi, Leila; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Randhawa, Inderpal; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Blake, Donald R; Cooper, Dan M

    2015-10-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and β2-agonists are the primary pharmacotherapies of asthma management. However, suboptimal medication compliance is common in asthmatics and is associated with increased morbidity. We hypothesized that exhaled breath measurements of the aerosol used in the inhaled medications might prove useful as surrogate marker for asthma medication compliance. To explore this, 10 healthy controls were recruited and randomly assigned to ICS (Flovent HFA) or short acting bronchodilators (Proventil HFA). Both inhalers contain HFA-134a as aerosol propellant. Exhaled breath sampling and pulmonary function tests were performed prior to the inhaler medication dispersion, immediately after inhalation, then at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hours postadministration. At baseline, mean (SD) levels of HFA-134a in the breath were 252 (156) pptv. Immediately after inhalation, HFA-134a breath levels increased to 300 × 10(6) pptv and were still well above ambient levels 24 hours postadministration. The calculated ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second over forced vital capacity did not change over time following inhaler administration. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that breath HFA-134a levels can be used to assess inhaler medication compliance. It may also be used to evaluate how effectively the medicine is delivered. PMID:26155923

  9. Exhaled breath analysis: The new interface between medicine and engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mashir, Alquam; Dweik, Raed A.

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath testing is becoming an increasingly important non-invasive diagnostic method that can be used in the evaluation of health and disease states in the lung and beyond. Potential advantages of breath tests over other conventional medical tests include their non-invasive nature, low cost, and safety. To advance in this area further, however, there has to be a close collaboration between technical experts and engineers who have devices looking for clinical application(s), the medical experts who have the clinical problems looking for a test/biomarker that can be helpful in diagnosis or monitoring, and industry/commercial experts who can build and commercialize the final product. PMID:20948990

  10. Electronic Nose To Detect Patients with COPD From Exhaled Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, Adriana; Durán, Cristhian M.; Gualdron, Oscar; Rodríguez, Juan C.; Manjarres, Leonardo

    2009-05-01

    To date, there is no effective tool analysis and detection of COPD syndrome, (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) which is linked to smoking and, less frequently to toxic substances such as, the wood smoke or other particles produced by noxious gases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of this disease show it affects more than 52 million people and kills more than 2.7 million human beings each year. In order to solve the problem, a low-cost Electronic Nose (EN) was developed at the University of Pamplona (N. S) Colombia, for this specific purpose and was applied to a sample group of patients with COPD as well as to others who were healthy. From the exhalation breath samples of these patients, the results were as expected; an appropriate classification of the patients with the disease, as well as from the healthy group was obtained.

  11. Exhaled Molecular Fingerprinting in Diagnosis and Monitoring: Validating Volatile Promises.

    PubMed

    Boots, Agnes W; Bos, Lieuwe D; van der Schee, Marc P; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan; Sterk, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    Medical diagnosis and phenotyping increasingly incorporate information from complex biological samples. This has promoted the development and clinical application of non-invasive metabolomics in exhaled air (breathomics). In respiratory medicine, expired volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are associated with inflammatory, oxidative, microbial, and neoplastic processes. After recent proof of concept studies demonstrating moderate to good diagnostic accuracies, the latest efforts in breathomics are focused on optimization of sensor technologies and analytical algorithms, as well as on independent validation of clinical classification and prediction. Current research strategies are revealing the underlying pathophysiological pathways as well as clinically-acceptable levels of diagnostic accuracy. Implementing recent guidelines on validating molecular signatures in medicine will enhance the clinical potential of breathomics and the development of point-of-care technologies. PMID:26432020

  12. Exhaled Nitric Oxide: Sources of Error in Offline Measurement

    PubMed Central

    LINN, WILLIAM S.; AVILA, MARISELA; GONG, HENRY

    2007-01-01

    Delayed offline measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), although useful in environmental and clinical research, is limited by the instability of stored breath samples. The authors characterized sources of instability with the goal of minimizing them. Breath and other air samples were stored under various conditions, and NO levels were measured repeatedly over 1–7 d. Concentration change rates varied positively with temperature and negatively with initial NO level, thus “stable” levels reflected a balance of NO-adding and NO-removing processes. Storage under refrigeration for a standardized period of time can optimize offline eNO measurement, although samples at room temperature are effectively stable for several hours. PMID:16268114

  13. Detection of cancer through exhaled breath: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Krilaviciute, Agne; Heiss, Jonathan Alexander; Leja, Marcis; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Haick, Hossam; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely diagnosis of cancer represents a challenging task; in particular, there is a need for reliable non-invasive screening tools that could achieve high levels of adherence at virtually no risk in population-based screening. In this review, we summarize the current evidence of exhaled breath analysis for cancer detection using standard analysis techniques and electronic nose. Methods Relevant studies were identified searching Pubmed and Web of Science databases until April 30, 2015. Information on breath test performance, such as sensitivity and specificity, was extracted together with volatile compounds that were used to discriminate cancer patients from controls. Performance of different breath analysis techniques is provided for various cancers together with information on methodological issues, such as breath sampling protocol and validation of the results. Results Overall, 73 studies were included, where two-thirds of the studies were conducted on lung cancer. Good discrimination usually required a combination of multiple biomarkers, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or accuracy reached levels of 0.9 or higher in multiple studies. In 25% of the reported studies, classification models were built and validated on the same datasets. Huge variability was seen in different aspects among the studies. Conclusions Analyses of exhaled breath yielded promising results, although standardization of breath collection, sample storage and data handling remain critical issues. In order to foster breath analysis implementation into practice, larger studies should be implemented in true screening settings, paying particular attention to standardization in breath collection, consideration of covariates, and validation in independent population samples. PMID:26440312

  14. Evaluation of Airway Inflammation in Compost Workers Exposed to Bioaerosols Using Exhaled Breath Condensate and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, F; van Kampen, V; Deckert, A; Neumann, H-D; Buxtrup, M; Willer, E; Felten, C; Brüning, T; Raulf, M; Bünger, J

    2015-01-01

    Occupational bioaerosol exposures are capable to cause respiratory diseases. We studied the relationship between exposure to bioaerosols and biomarkers' concentration in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in 119 bioaerosol-exposed compost workers taking into account atopy and smoking habits. Atopy was classified according to specific IgE concentrations to common inhalant allergens (sx1). Bioaerosol exposure was estimated according to job title, duration of employment, results of ambient monitoring at the workplaces, and shift time worked under protection of filtered air supply. Concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and acid-base balance (pH) in EBC and FeNO were assessed in 59 never-smoking (NS) and 60 smoking (S) compost workers. We found that atopic subjects were equally distributed among NS and S (n=16 each). Levels of 8-iso-PGF2α were significantly higher in workers considered highly exposed to bioaerosols than in low exposed workers (86.6 (66.1; 128.8) pg/mL vs. 74.4 (56.3; 96.7) pg/mL, p=0.047). No associations could be observed between exposures and biomarkers concerning compost workers in total, but there were some in atopic workers (duration of employment and FeNO: r=0.376, p=0.041; filtered air supply and FeNO: r=-0.335, p=0.071). Smokers had significantly lower pH values compared to NS (non-atopic, p=0.041; atopic p=0.050). In conclusion, EBC and FeNO might be useful tools for monitoring of inflammation due to bioaerosol exposures, especially in atopic subjects. Besides smoking also atopy should be considered when investigating airway inflammation. PMID:25786401

  15. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  16. Conditions of early chemical processing of matter - Explosive exhalations of supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic stratifications of supernova exhalations are discussed, with reference to a number of theoretical estimates. Particular attention is given to the theoretical models of the major chemical zones of explosive exhalation of isotopes of Mg, Si, and Ti in intermediate size supernovae. The contribution of supernova exhalations to oxygen anomalies in the solar system is also discussed within the framework of the theoretical models of Clayton et al. (1977, 1978, 1979, 1981). The initial stratigraphy of the major elements in the explosive exhalation of a progenitor star of 25 solar mass is illustrated in a graph, on the basis of the theoretical estimates of Waver et al. (1978), and Weaver and Woolsey (1980).

  17. MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN EXHALED BREATH AS COLLECTED IN EVACUATED ELECTROPOLISHED CANISTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of three complementary analytical methods were developed specifically for exhaled breath as collected in evacuated stainless steel canisters using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry detection. The first is a screening method to quantify the carbon dioxide component (gen...

  18. High-sensitivity sensor of gases based on IR tunable diode lasers for human exhalation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Konstantin L.; Nadezhdinskii, Alexander I.; Stepanov, Eugene V.

    1991-06-01

    Results on tunable diode laser spectroscopy applications in analysis of human expiration are presented. Carbon monoxide concentrations in exhaled air of several non-smoking adults were measured with high sensitivity. Obtained CO contents slightly exceed atmosphere level and correlate with it. Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were carried out using single diode laser generated at 4.7 microns. Dependences of their concentration in exhaled air on breath-holding time were investigated.

  19. Measurements of airborne 212Pb and 220Rn at varied indoor locations within the United States.

    PubMed

    Schery, S D

    1985-12-01

    Measurements have been made at varied locations within the United States comparing the concentration of 212Pb in air with that of the progeny of 222Rn to see if 212Pb is typically a significant contributor to indoor radioactivity. Auxiliary measurements were made comparing 220Rn with 222Rn. In terms of potential alpha-particle energy, 212Pb is significant (the ratio of its contribution to the combined contribution of 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi averaged about 0.6) and may warrant greater consideration as a component of indoor radioactivity. Correlations were found between the concentration of 220Rn progeny and 222Rn progeny, and the concentration of 220Rn and 222Rn. Environmental factors such as transport pathways and ventilation rates which exert a common influence on the concentrations of airborne isotopes provide a possible explanation for these correlations. PMID:4077512

  20. Are exhaled nitric oxide measurements using the portable NIOX MINO repeatable?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exhaled nitric oxide is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation and a portable analyser, the NIOX MINO (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden), is now available. This study aimed to assess the reproducibility of the NIOX MINO measurements across age, sex and lung function for both absolute and categorical exhaled nitric oxide values in two distinct groups of children and teenagers. Methods Paired exhaled nitric oxide readings were obtained from 494 teenagers, aged 16-18 years, enrolled in an unselected birth cohort and 65 young people, aged 6-17 years, with asthma enrolled in an interventional asthma management study. Results The birth cohort participants showed a high degree of variability between first and second exhaled nitric oxide readings (mean intra-participant difference 1.37 ppb, 95% limits of agreement -7.61 to 10.34 ppb), although there was very close agreement when values were categorised as low, normal, intermediate or high (kappa = 0.907, p < 0.001). Similar findings were seen in subgroup analyses by sex, lung function and asthma status. Similar findings were seen in the interventional study participants. Conclusions The reproducibility of exhaled nitric oxide is poor for absolute values but acceptable when values are categorised as low, normal, intermediate or high in children and teenagers. One measurement is therefore sufficient when using categorical exhaled nitric oxide values to direct asthma management but a mean of at least two measurements is required for absolute values. PMID:20416092

  1. Quantum cascade laser-based integrated cavity output spectroscopy of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, M. R.; Bakhirkin, Y. A.; Tittel, F. K.

    2006-11-01

    A nitric oxide (NO) sensor employing a thermoelectrically cooled, continuous-wave, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser operating at 5.47 μm (1828 cm-1) and off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy was used to measure NO concentrations in exhaled breath. A minimum measurable concentration (3σ) of 3.6 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) of NO with a data-acquisition time of 4 s was demonstrated. Five prepared gas mixtures and 15 exhaled breath samples were measured with both the NO sensor and for intercomparison with a chemiluminescence-based NO analyzer and were found to be in agreement within 0.6 ppbv. Exhaled NO flow-independent parameters, which may provide diagnostic and therapeutic information in respiratory diseases where single-breath measurements are equivocal, were estimated from end-tidal NO concentration measurements collected at various flow rates. The results of this work indicate that a laser-based exhaled NO sensor can be used to measure exhaled nitric oxide at a range of exhalation flow rates to determine flow-independent parameters in human clinical trials.

  2. Studying radon exhalation rates variability from phosphogypsum piles in the SW of Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Coto, I; Mas, J L; Vargas, A; Bolívar, J P

    2014-09-15

    Nearly 1.0 × 10(8) tonnes of phosphogypsum were accumulated during last 50 years on a 1,200 ha disposal site near Huelva town (SW of Spain). Previous measurements of exhalation rates offered very variable values, in such a way that a worst case scenario could not be established. Here, new experimental data coupled to numerical simulations show that increasing the moisture contents or the temperature reduces the exhalation rate whilst increasing the radon potential or porosity has the contrary effect. Once the relative effects are compared, it can be drawn that the most relevant parameters controlling the exhalation rate are radon potential (product of emanation factor by (226)Ra concentration) and moisture saturation of PG. From wastes management point of view, it can be concluded that piling up the waste increasing the height instead of the surface allows the reduction of the exhalation rate. Furthermore, a proposed cover here is expected to allow exhalation rates reductions up to 95%. We established that the worst case scenario corresponds to a situation of extremely dry winter. Under these conditions, the radon exhalation rate (0.508 Bqm(-2)s(-1)) would be below though close to the upper limit established by U.S.E.P.A. for inactive phopsphogypsum piles (0.722 Bqm(-2)s(-1)). PMID:25194815

  3. Phosgene- and chlorine-induced acute lung injury in rats: comparison of cardiopulmonary function and biomarkers in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sa; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    This study compares changes in cardiopulmonary function, selected endpoints in exhaled breath, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) following a single, high-level 30-min nose-only exposure of rats to chlorine and phosgene gas. The time-course of lung injury was systematically examined up to 1-day post-exposure with the objective to identify early diagnostic biomarkers suitable to guide countermeasures to accidental exposures. Chlorine, due to its water solubility, penetrates the lung concentration-dependently whereas the poorly water-soluble phosgene reaches the alveolar region without any appreciable extent of airway injury. Cardiopulmonary endpoints were continually recorded by telemetry and barometric plethysmography for 20h. At several time points blood was collected to evaluate evidence of hemoconcentration, changes in hemostasis, and osteopontin. One day post-exposure, protein, osteopontin, and cytodifferentials were determined in BAL. Nitric oxide (eNO) and eCO2 were non-invasively examined in exhaled breath 5 and 24h post-exposure. Chlorine-exposed rats elaborated a reflexively-induced decreased respiratory rate and bradycardia whereas phosgene-exposed rats developed minimal changes in lung function but a similar magnitude of bradycardia. Despite similar initial changes in cardiac function, the phosgene-exposed rats showed different time-course changes of hemoconcentration and lung weights as compared to chlorine-exposed rats. eNO/eCO2 ratios were most affected in chlorine-exposed rats in the absence of any marked time-related changes. This outcome appears to demonstrate that nociceptive reflexes with changes in cardiopulmonary function resemble typical patterns of mixed airway-alveolar irritation in chlorine-exposed rats and alveolar irritation in phosgene-exposed rats. The degree and time-course of pulmonary injury was reflected best by eNO/eCO2 ratios, hemoconcentration, and protein in BAL. Increased fibrin in blood occurred only in chlorine

  4. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Application of tunable diode lasers for a highly sensitive analysis of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.; Milyaev, Varerii A.

    2002-11-01

    The application of tunable diode lasers for a highly sensitive analysis of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air in biomedical diagnostics is discussed. The principle of operation and the design of a laser analyser for studying the composition of exhaled air are described. The results of detection of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air, including clinical studies, which demonstrate the diagnostic possibilities of the method, are presented.

  5. Association of Lung Inflammatory Cells with Small Airways Function and Exhaled Breath Markers in Smokers – Is There a Specific Role for Mast Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Stolk, Jan; Ferraz da Silva, Luiz F.; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; de Jeu, Ronald C.; Prins, Frans A.; Mauad, Thais; Rabe, Klaus F.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking is associated with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate in the airways. We evaluated whether airway inflammation in smokers is related to lung function parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath. Methods Thirty-seven smokers undergoing lung resection for primary lung cancer were assessed pre-operatively by lung function testing including single-breath-nitrogen washout test (sb-N2-test), measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and pH/8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Lung tissue sections containing cancer-free large (LA) and small airways (SA) were stained for inflammatory cells. Mucosal (MCT) respectively connective tissue mast cells (MCTC) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) expression by mast cells was analysed using a double-staining protocol. Results The median number of neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells infiltrating the lamina propria and adventitia of SA was higher than in LA. Both MCTC and MCT were higher in the lamina propria of SA compared to LA (MCTC: 49 vs. 27.4 cells/mm2; MCT: 162.5 vs. 35.4 cells/mm2; P<0.005 for both instances). IL-17A expression was predominantly detected in MCTC of LA. Significant correlations were found for the slope of phase III % pred. of the sb-N2-test (rs= -0.39), for the FEV1% pred. (rs= 0.37) and for FEV1/FVC ratio (rs=0.38) with MCT in SA (P<0.05 for all instances). 8-isoprostane concentration correlated with the mast cells in the SA (rs=0.44), there was no correlation for pH or FeNO with cellular distribution in SA. Conclusions Neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells are more prominent in the SA indicating that these cells are involved in the development of small airway dysfunction in smokers. Among these cell types, the best correlation was found for mast cells with lung function parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath. Furthermore, the observed predominant expression of IL-17A in mast cells warrants further investigation to elucidate their role in smoking

  6. Leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in workers exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Komarc, Martin; Navratil, Tomas; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zikova, Nadezda; Makes, Otakar; Syslova, Kamila; Belacek, Jaroslav; Zakharov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Human health data regarding exposure to nanoparticles are extremely scarce and biomonitoring of exposure is lacking in spite of rodent pathological experimental data. Potential markers of the health-effects of engineered nanoparticles were examined in 30 workers exposed to TiO2 aerosol, 22 office employees of the same plant, and 45 unexposed controls. Leukotrienes (LT) B4, C4, E4, and D4 were analysed in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and spirometry was also measured. The median particle number concentration of the aerosol in the production ranged from 1.98  ×  10(4) to 2.32  ×  10(4) particles cm(-3); about 80% of the particles were  <100 nm in diameter. Median total mass concentration varied between 0.4 and 0.65 mg m(-3). All LT levels in workers' EBC were elevated relative to the controls (p  <  0.01). LTs in the EBC sample were correlated with titanium levels. Urinary LTs were not elevated in the workers and office employees. Office workers had higher LTB4 in EBC (p  <  0.05), and higher levels of FeNO (p  <  0.01). FeNO was higher in office employees with allergic diseases and was negatively correlated with smoking (p  <  0.01). In spirometry significant impairment in the workers was seen only for %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). Multiple regression analysis confirmed a significant association between production of TiO2 and all cysteinyl LTs in EBC (p  <  0.01) and impaired %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). LTB4 was also associated with smoking (p  <  0.01). LT levels complemented our earlier findings of DNA, protein, and lipid damage in the EBC of workers with nanoTiO2 exposures. Cysteinyl LTs in EBC analysis suggest inflammation and potential fibrotic changes in the lungs; they may be helpful for monitoring the biological

  7. Exhaled Aerosol Transmission of Pandemic and Seasonal H1N1 Influenza Viruses in the Ferret

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Frederick; Gouveia, Kristine; Zhou, Yue; Lowery, Kristin; Russell, Robert; MacInnes, Heather; Pollock, Zemmie; Layton, R. Colby; Cromwell, Jennifer; Toleno, Denise; Pyle, John; Zubelewicz, Michael; Harrod, Kevin; Sampath, Rangarajan; Hofstadler, Steven; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yushi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of influenza viruses occurs by contact (direct and fomites) and non-contact (droplet and small particle aerosol) routes, but the quantitative dynamics and relative contributions of these routes are incompletely understood. The transmissibility of influenza strains estimated from secondary attack rates in closed human populations is confounded by large variations in population susceptibilities. An experimental method to phenotype strains for transmissibility in an animal model could provide relative efficiencies of transmission. We developed an experimental method to detect exhaled viral aerosol transmission between unanesthetized infected and susceptible ferrets, measured aerosol particle size and number, and quantified the viral genomic RNA in the exhaled aerosol. During brief 3-hour exposures to exhaled viral aerosols in airflow-controlled chambers, three strains of pandemic 2009 H1N1 strains were frequently transmitted to susceptible ferrets. In contrast one seasonal H1N1 strain was not transmitted in spite of higher levels of viral RNA in the exhaled aerosol. Among three pandemic strains, the two strains causing weight loss and illness in the intranasally infected ‘donor’ ferrets were transmitted less efficiently from the donor than the strain causing no detectable illness, suggesting that the mucosal inflammatory response may attenuate viable exhaled virus. Although exhaled viral RNA remained constant, transmission efficiency diminished from day 1 to day 5 after donor infection. Thus, aerosol transmission between ferrets may be dependent on at least four characteristics of virus-host relationships including the level of exhaled virus, infectious particle size, mucosal inflammation, and viral replication efficiency in susceptible mucosa. PMID:22509254

  8. Increased exhaled nitric oxide in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, M.; Majori, M.; Cacciani, G. C.; Consigli, G. F.; de'Munari, E.; Pesci, A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role as an inflammatory mediator in the airways. Since chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airway inflammation, a study was undertaken to determine NO levels in the exhaled air of patients with COPD.
METHODS—Two groups of patients with clinically stable COPD were studied, 10 current smokers and 10 ex-smokers. Two control groups of healthy subjects consisting of 10 current smokers and 20 non-smokers were also studied. Exhaled NO levels were measured by the collection bag technique and NO chemiluminescence analyser.
RESULTS—Mean (SE) levels of exhaled NO in ex-smokers and current smokers with COPD (25.7 (3.0) ppb and 10.2 (1.4) ppb, respectively) were significantly higher than in non-smoker and current smoker control subjects (9.4 (0.8) ppb and 4.6 (0.4) ppb, respectively). In current smokers with COPD exhaled levels of NO were significantly lower than in ex-smokers. In this latter group of patients there was a significant negative correlation between smoking history (pack years) and levels of exhaled NO (r = -0.8, p = 0.002). A positive correlation was seen between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and levels of exhaled NO (r = 0.65, p = 0.001) in patients with COPD.
CONCLUSIONS—These data show that exhaled NO is increased in patients with stable COPD, both current and ex-smokers, compared with healthy control subjects.

 PMID:10377199

  9. Childhood wheezing phenotypes influence asthma, lung function and exhaled nitric oxide fraction in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Duijts, Liesbeth; Granell, Raquel; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Henderson, A John

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations of childhood wheezing phenotypes with asthma, lung function and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO) in adolescence.In a population-based, prospective cohort study of 6841 children, we used latent class analysis to identify wheezing phenotypes during the first 7 years of life. Physician-diagnosed asthma, spirometry and FeNO were assessed at 14-15 years.Compared with never/infrequent wheeze, intermediate-onset and persistent wheeze were consistently strongest associated with higher risk of asthma (risk ratio (95% CI) 10.9 (8.97-13.16) and 9.13 (7.74-10.77), respectively), lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (mean difference in standard deviation units (SDU) (95% CI) -0.34 (-0.54- -0.14) and -0.50 (-0.62- -0.38), respectively), lower forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC (FEF25-75%) (mean difference in SDU (95% CI) -0.30 (-0.49- -0.10) and -0.42 (-0.54- -0.30), respectively) and increased FEV1 bronchodilator reversibility (mean difference in SDU (95% CI) 0.12 (0.02-0.22) and 0.13 (0.06-0.19), respectively). Prolonged early and persistent wheeze were associated with a decline in FEV1/FVC ratio and FEF25-75% between 8-9 and 14-15 years. Intermediate-onset, late-onset and persistent wheeze were associated with higher FeNO ratios (ratio of geometric means (95% CI) 1.90 (1.59-2.29), 1.57 (1.39-1.77) and 1.37 (1.22-1.53), respectively, compared with never/infrequent wheeze).Early-onset wheezing phenotypes persisting after 18 months of age show the strongest associations with asthma, lower lung function, even worsening from mid-childhood, and higher FeNO levels in adolescence. PMID:26647439

  10. An estimate of hydrothermal fluid residence times and vent chimney growth rates based on 210Pb Pb ratios and mineralogic studies of sulfides dredged from the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kadko, D.; Koski, R.; Tatsumoto, M.; Bouse, R.

    1985-01-01

    The 210Pb Pb ratios across two sulfide samples dredged from the Juan de Fuca Ridge are used to estimate the growth rate of the sulfide material and the residence time of the hydrothermal fluid within the oceanic crust from the onset of basalt alteration. 210Pb is added to the hydrothermal fluid by two processes: (1) high-temperature alteration of basalt and (2) if the residence time of the fluid is on the order of the 22.3-year half-life of 210Pb, by in-situ growth from 222Rn (Krishnaswami and Turekian, 1982). Stable lead is derived only from the alteration of basalt. The 210Pb Pb ratio across one sample was ??? 0.5 dpm/10-6 g Pb, and across the other it was ??? 0.4 dpm/10-6 g Pb. These values are quite close to the 238U Pb ratios of basalts from the area, suggesting that the residence time of the hydrothermal fluid from the onset of basalt alteration is appreciably less than the mean life of 210Pb, i.e., the time required for ingrowth from the radon. An apparent growth rate of 1.2 cm/yr is derived from the slope of the 210Pb Pb curve for one of the samples. This is consistent with its mineralogy and texture which suggest an accretionary pattern of development. There is no obvious sequential growth pattern, and virtually no gradient in 210Pb Pb across the second sample. This is consistent with alteration of the original 210Pb Pb distribution by extensive remobilization reactions which are inferred from the mineralogic and textural relationships of the sample. ?? 1985.

  11. Diagnostic Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using a Novel Sub-Millimeter Spectroscopic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Moran, Benjamin L.; Branco, Daniela R.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    As many as 3000 chemicals are reported to be found in exhaled human breath. Many of these chemicals are linked to certain health conditions and environmental exposures. Present state of the art techniques used for analysis of exhaled human breath include mass spectrometry based methods, infrared spectroscopic sensors, electro chemical sensors and semiconductor oxide based testers. Some of these techniques are commercially available but are somewhat limited in their specificity and exhibit fairly high probability of false alarm. Here, we present the results of our most recent study which demonstrated a novel application of a terahertz high resolutions spectroscopic technique to the analysis of exhaled human breath, focused on detection of ethanol in the exhaled breath of a person which consumed an alcoholic drink. This technique possesses nearly ``absolute'' specificity and we demonstrated its ability to uniquely identify ethanol, methanol, and acetone in human breath. This project is now complete and we are looking to extend this method of chemical analysis of exhaled human breath to a broader range of chemicals in an attempt to demonstrate its potential for biomedical diagnostic purposes.

  12. Comparison of active and passive methods for radon exhalation from a high-exposure building material.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Mirekhtiary, F

    2013-12-01

    The radon exhalation rates and radon concentrations in granite stones used in Iran were measured by means of a high-resolution high purity Germanium gamma-spectroscopy system (passive method) and an AlphaGUARD model PQ 2000 (active method). For standard rooms (4.0 × 5.0 m area × 2.8 height) where ground and walls have been covered by granite stones, the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate by two methods were calculated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the selected granite samples ranged from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg(-1). The radon exhalation rate from the calculation of the (226)Ra activity concentration was obtained. The radon exhalation rates were 1.31-7.86 Bq m(-2)h(-1). The direction measurements using an AlphaGUARD were from 218 to 1306 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 625 Bq m(-3). Also, the exhalation rates measured by the passive and active methods were compared and the results of this study were the same, with the active method being 22 % higher than the passive method. PMID:23798709

  13. 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate after experimental exposure to wood smoke in humans.

    PubMed

    Murgia, N; Barregard, L; Sallsten, G; Almstrand, A C; Montuschi, P; Ciabattoni, G; Olin, A C

    2016-01-01

    Wood smoke, a well-known indoor and outdoor air pollutant, may cause adverse health effects through oxidative stress. In this study 8-isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, was measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine before and after experimental exposure to wood smoke. The results were compared with measurements of other biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Thirteen subjects were exposed first to clean air and then, after 1 week, to wood smoke in an exposure chamber during 4-hour sessions. Exhaled breath condensate, exhaled nitric oxide, blood and urine were sampled before and at various intervals after exposure to wood smoke and clean air. Exhaled breath condensate was examined for 8-isoprostane and malondialdehyde (MDA), while exhaled air was examined for nitric oxide, serum for Clara cell protein (CC16) and urine for 8-isoprostane. 8-isoprostane in EBC did not increase after wood smoke exposure and its net change immediately after exposure was inversely correlated with net changes in MDA (r(s)= -0.57, p= 0.041) and serum CC16 (S-CC16) (r(p)= -0.64, p= 0.020) immediately after the exposure. No correlation was found between 8-isoprostane in urine and 8-isoprostane in EBC. In this study controlled wood smoke exposure in healthy subjects did not increase 8-isoprostane in EBC. PMID:27049101

  14. Adsorption and desorption of noble gases on activated charcoal: II. sup 222 Rn studies in a monolayer and packed bed

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpitta, S.C.; Harley, N.H. )

    1990-10-01

    The adsorptive and desorptive characteristics of canisters containing a petroleum-based charcoal were investigated under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and Rn concentration. Charcoals exposed in a monolayer and packed bed during exposure intervals of 1-7 d demonstrate that Rn adsorption and desorption are dependent on bed depth and the amount of water adsorbed. Changes in the adsorptive and desorptive properties of the charcoal occurred near the break-point where the pores became occluded by water vapor that condenses in the entrance capillaries. Radon-222 adsorption is decreased by an order of magnitude as the amount of adsorbed water exceeds the break-point of the charcoal. The reduction in pore surface due to adsorbed water results in a marked increase in the rate of Rn loss from exposed canisters, accounting for reduced adsorption. The apparent desorption time-constant for a 2-cm bed of loose Witco 6 x 10 mesh charcoal containing 0.220-0.365 kg H{sub 2}O kg-1 is typically between 2-8 h. The apparent desorption time-constant for an equivalent packed bed containing a water vapor content of 0.026-0.060 kg H{sub 2}O kg-1, which is below the break-point of the charcoal, is about 15-30 h. Conventional charcoal canisters, if exposed in the fully-opened configuration, can achieve the break-point in less than 4 d at 70% humidity. The use of a diffusion barrier would allow for longer exposure times until the break-point of the charcoal is achieved.

  15. Exhaled breath condensate collection in the mechanically ventilated patient.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stewart R; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-05-01

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive means of sampling the airway-lining fluid of the lungs. EBC contains numerous measurable mediators, whose analysis could change the management of patients with certain pulmonary diseases. While initially popularized in investigations involving spontaneously breathing patients, an increasing number of studies have been performed using EBC in association with mechanical ventilation. Collection of EBC in mechanically ventilated patients follows basic principles of condensation, but is influenced by multiple factors. Effective collection requires selection of a collection device, adequate minute ventilation, low cooling temperatures, and sampling times of greater than 10 min. Condensate can be contaminated by saliva, which needs to be filtered. Dilution of samples occurs secondary to distilled water in vapors and humidification in the ventilator circuit. Dilution factors may need to be employed when investigating non-volatile biomarkers. Storage and analysis should occur promptly at -70 °C to -80 °C to prevent rapid degradation of samples. The purpose of this review is to examine and describe methodologies and problems of EBC collection in mechanically ventilated patients. A straightforward and safe framework has been established to investigate disease processes in this population, yet technical aspects of EBC collection still exist that prevent clinical practicality of this technology. These include a lack of standardization of procedure and analysis of biomarkers, and of normal reference ranges for mediators in healthy individuals. Once these procedural aspects have been addressed, EBC could serve as a non-invasive alternative to invasive evaluation of lungs in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:22398157

  16. Values in Elderly People for Exhaled Nitric Oxide Study.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Mario; Damiani, Giovanni; Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Olivini, Alessia; Radaeli, Alessandro; Ragnoli, Beatrice; Foschino, Maria Pia; Olivieri, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Ageing population is constantly increasing due to rising life expectancy; consequently, the percentage of the elderly patients with asthma is increasing, as well. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker of lung inflammation, and currently it is widely used in clinical practice for asthma diagnosis and monitoring. Yet, there are no data about normal values of FeNO in patients of more than 65 years of age with normal lung function. The aim of this study was to establish adult FeNO reference values for subjects older than 65 years, according to the international guidelines. FeNO was measured in 303 healthy, nonsmoking adults more than 65 years of age, with normal spirometry values measured using the online single-breath technique. The results were analyzed by chemiluminescent detection. The FeNO levels obtained range from 5.00 to 29.9 ppb, with a mean value of 12.48 ± 2.80 ppb. A significant association of FeNO levels with age (p < 0.05) was observed. There was no difference in FeNO values between men and women unlike what was observed in younger patients. FeNO levels in healthy controls over 65 years of age are influenced by age as in younger adults. However, there is no difference in FeNO values in male and female seniors, in contrast with what was found in younger adults in other studies. These data can be useful for the clinician to interpret the values of FeNO assessed during clinical practice. PMID:26414479

  17. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Brazilian igneous rocks.

    PubMed

    Moura, C L; Artur, A C; Bonotto, D M; Guedes, S; Martinelli, C D

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports the natural radioactivity of Brazilian igneous rocks that are used as dimension stones, following the trend of other studies on the evaluation of the risks to the human health caused by the rocks radioactivity as a consequence of their use as cover indoors. Gamma-ray spectrometry has been utilized to determine the (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations in 14 rock types collected at different quarries. The following activity concentration range was found: 12.18-251.90 Bq/kg for (226)Ra, 9.55-347.47 Bq/kg for (232)Th and 407.5-1615.0 Bq/kg for (40)K. Such data were used to estimate Ra(eq), H(ex) and I(γ), which were compared with the threshold limit values recommended in literature. They have been exceeded for Ra(eq) and H(ex) in five samples, where the highest indices corresponded to a rock that suffered a process of ductile-brittle deformation that caused it a microbrecciated shape. The exhalation rate of Rn and daughters has also been determined in slabs consisting of rock pieces ~10 cm-long, 5 cm-wide and 3 cm-thick. It ranged from 0.24 to 3.93 Bq/m(2)/h and exhibited significant correlation with eU (=(226)Ra), as expected. The results indicated that most of the studied rocks did not present risk to human health and may be used indoors, even with low ventilation. On the other hand, igneous rocks that yielded indices above the threshold limit values recommended in literature may be used outdoors without any restriction or indoors with ample ventilation. PMID:21459585

  18. Role of exhaled nitric oxide as a predictor of atopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive and safe measure of airways inflammation that may complement the assessment of asthma. Elevations of FeNO have recently been found to correlate with allergic sensitization. Therefore, FeNO may be a useful predictor of atopy in the general population. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO in predicting atopy in a population-based study. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in an age- and sex- stratified random sample of 13 to 15 year-olds in two communities in Peru. We asked participants about asthma symptoms, environmental exposures and sociodemographics, and underwent spirometry, assessment of FeNO and an allergy skin test. We used multivariable logistic regression to model the odds of atopy as a function of FeNO, and calculated area-under-the-curves (AUC) to determine the diagnostic accuracy of FeNO as a predictor of atopy. Results Of 1441 recruited participants, 1119 (83%) completed all evaluations. Mean FeNO was 17.6 ppb (SD=0.6) in atopics and 11.6 ppb (SD=0.8) in non-atopics (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, a FeNO>20 ppb was associated with an increase in the odds of atopy in non-asthmatics (OR=5.3, 95% CI 3.3 to 8.5) and asthmatics (OR=16.2, 95% CI 3.4 to 77.5). A FeNO>20 ppb was the best predictor for atopy with an AUC of 68% (95% CI 64% to 69%). Stratified by asthma, the AUC was 65% (95% CI 61% to 69%) in non-asthmatics and 82% (95% CI 71% to 91%) in asthmatics. Conclusions FeNO had limited accuracy to identify atopy among the general population; however, it may be a useful indicator of atopic phenotype among asthmatics. PMID:23639047

  19. Is the Exhaled Breath Temperature Sensitive to Cigarette Smoking?

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Ruggieri, Cinzia; Scioscia, Giulia; Storto, Maria Maddalena Lo; Zoppo, Luigi; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria P

    2016-10-01

    The smoking habit is accompanied by an acute inflammatory response which follows tissue injury. It would be desirable to find a non-invasive inflammatory marker that would simplify the task of studying and monitoring smokers more simply and allow us to identify populations at risk of contracting Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Today's expectations regarding research focus on issues ranging from inflammatory markers to those of exhaled breath temperature (EBT) are considerable. That said, although the EBT has been largely studied in asthma and COPD, there have not been any studies thus far that have analysed the effect of cigarette smoking on the EBT.  Bearing this in mind, in this longitudinal study we aim to analyse the EBT in current smokers, monitor the effects both of cigarette smoking on EBT and of what happens after smoking cessation. Twenty-five (25) smokers (59.5 ± 3.1 yrs, 12 M) who participated in a multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme and 25 healthy never-smokers (58.7 ± 2.9, 13 M) underwent EBT measurement. EBT values were higher in smokers before smoking (T0) than in never-smokers [34.6 (34.2-35) vs 33.2 (32.4-33.7)°C, p < 0.001. The smokers repeated measurement 5 minutes after smoking a cigarette (T1) and 2 hours after (T2). They repeated EBC measurement after 1 week (T3) and then after 3 months (T4) from smoking cessation. EBT is higher in smokers compared to controls. EBT increases after cigarette smoking and progressively decreases with the increase of time from when the last cigarette was smoked.  Thus, we can conclude that EBT is increased in smokers and also sensitive to the acute effect of cigarette smoke. PMID:26934668

  20. Breath carbon stable isotope ratios identify changes in energy balance and substrate utilization in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid detection of shifts in substrate utilization and energy balance would provide a compelling biofeedback tool to enable individuals to lose weight. In a pilot study, we tested whether the natural abundance of exhaled carbon stable isotope ratios (breath d13C values) reflects shifts between negat...

  1. A breath sampling system assessing the influence of respiratory rate on exhaled breath composition.

    PubMed

    Lomonaco, T; Salvo, P; Ghimenti, S; Biagini, D; Bellagambi, F; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a computerized system to monitor mouth pressure, tidal volume, exhaled airflow, respiration rate and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 during breath collection. The system was used to investigate the effect of different respiratory rates on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations in exhaled breath. For this purpose, VOCs with well-defined biochemical pathways and different chemical and physical properties were selected as biomarkers related to metabolism (acetone and isopropyl alcohol), cholesterol synthesis (isoprene) and intestinal microflora activity (ethanol). Mixed breath was collected from a nominally healthy volunteer in resting conditions by filling a Nalophan bag. The subject followed a regimented breathing pattern at different respiratory rates (10, 30 and 50 breaths per minute). Results highlight that ventilation pattern strongly influences the concentration of the selected compounds. The proposed system allows exhaled breath to be collected also in patients showing dyspnea such as in case of chronic heart failure, asthma and pulmonary diseases. PMID:26738056

  2. Complementary system for long term measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.

    2014-02-15

    A special set-up for continuous measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil is presented. It was constructed at Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), Krakow, Poland. Radon exhalation rate was determined using the AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO (Genitron) radon monitor together with a special accumulation container which was put on the soil surface during the measurement. A special automatic device was built and used to raise and lower back onto the ground the accumulation container. The time of raising and putting down the container was controlled by an electronic timer. This set-up made it possible to perform 4–6 automatic measurements a day. Besides, some additional soil and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. In this way, the diurnal and seasonal variability of radon exhalation rate from soil can be studied as well as its dependence on soil properties and meteorological conditions.

  3. Dynamic Nanoparticle-Based Flexible Sensors: Diagnosis of Ovarian Carcinoma from Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Nicole; Lavie, Ofer; Paz, Moran; Segev, Yakir; Haick, Hossam

    2015-10-14

    Flexible sensors based on molecularly modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were integrated into a dynamic cross-reactive diagnostic sensing array. Each bending state of the GNP-based flexible sensor gives unique nanoparticle spatial organization, altering the interaction between GNP ligands and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which increases the amount of data obtainable from each sensor. Individual dynamic flexible sensor could selectively detect parts per billion (ppb) level VOCs that are linked with ovarian cancers in exhaled breath and discriminate them from environmental VOCs that exist in exhaled breath samples, but do not relate to ovarian cancer per se. Strain-related response successfully discriminated between exhaled breath collected from control subjects and those with ovarian cancer, with data from a single sensor being sufficient to obtain 82% accuracy, irrespective of important confounding factors, such as tobacco consumption and comorbidities. The approach raises the hope of achieving an extremely simple, inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive diagnostic procedure for cancer and other diseases. PMID:26352191

  4. The Effect of Grain Size on Radon Exhalation Rate in Natural-dust and Stone-dust Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Raj; Kant, Krishan; Garg, Maneesha

    Radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contributes more than 50% of the total dose from the natural sources which is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In the present work the dependence of radon exhalation rate on the physical sample parameters of stone dust and natural dust were studied. The samples under study were first crushed, grinded, dried and then passed through sieves with different pore sizes to get samples of various grain sizes (μm). The average value of radon mass exhalation rate is 5.95±2.7 mBqkg-1hr-1 and average value of radon surface exhalation rate is 286±36 mBqm-2 hr-1 for stone dust, and the average value of radon mass exhalation rate is 9.02±5.37 mBqkg-1hr-1 and average value of radon surface exhalation rate is 360±67 mBqm-2 hr-1 for natural dust. The exhalation rate was found to increase with the increase in grain size of the sample. The obtained values of radon exhalation rate for all the samples are found to be under the radon exhalation rate limit reported worldwide.

  5. Detection of exhaled hydrogen sulphide gas in healthy human volunteers during intravenous administration of sodium sulphide

    PubMed Central

    Toombs, Christopher F; Insko, Michael A; Wintner, Edward A; Deckwerth, Thomas L; Usansky, Helen; Jamil, Khurram; Goldstein, Brahm; Cooreman, Michael; Szabo, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule and potential therapeutic agent. Emerging studies indicate its therapeutic potential in a variety of cardiovascular diseases and in critical illness. Augmentation of endogenous sulphide concentrations by intravenous administration of sodium sulphide can be used for the delivery of H2S to the tissues. In the current study, we have measured H2S concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy human volunteers subjected to increasing doses sodium sulphide in a human phase I safety and tolerability study. METHODS We have measured reactive sulphide in the blood via ex vivo derivatization of sulphide with monobromobimane to form sulphide-dibimane and blood concentrations of thiosulfate (major oxidative metabolite of sulphide) via ion chromatography. We have measured exhaled H2S concentrations using a custom-made device based on a sulphide gas detector (Interscan). RESULTS Administration of IK-1001, a parenteral formulation of Na2S (0.005–0.20 mg kg−1, i.v., infused over 1 min) induced an elevation of blood sulphide and thiosulfate concentrations over baseline, which was observed within the first 1–5 min following administration of IK-1001 at 0.10 mg kg−1 dose and higher. In all subjects, basal exhaled H2S was observed to be higher than the ambient concentration of H2S gas in room air, indicative of on-going endogenous H2S production in human subjects. Upon intravenous administration of Na2S, a rapid elevation of exhaled H2S concentrations was observed. The amount of exhaled H2S rapidly decreased after discontinuation of the infusion of Na2S. CONCLUSION Exhaled H2S represents a detectable route of elimination after parenteral administration of Na2S. PMID:20565454

  6. Diagnostic significance of nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled air from the airways in allergic rhinitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Samoliński, Bolesław K; Zalewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the human body is very important due its physiological regulation of the following functions of airways: modulation of ciliary movement and maintenance of sterility in sinuses. Aim To evaluate the diagnostic significance of NO concentrations in exhaled air from the upper and lower airways in patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (AR). Material and methods The subjects included in the study were a group of 30 people diagnosed with sensitivity to environmental allergens and a control group consisting of 30 healthy subjects. The measurement of NO in the air exhaled from the lower and upper airways was performed using an on-line method by means of Restricted Exhaled Breath (REB), as well as using the measurement procedure (chemiluminescence) set out in the guidelines prepared in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Results In the late phase of the allergic reaction, higher values of the level of exhaled NO concentration from the lower airways were observed in the groups of subjects up to the threshold values of 25.17 ppb in the group of subjects with year-round allergic rhinitis and 21.78 ppb in the group with diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis. The difference in the concentration of NO exhaled from the lungs between the test group and the control group in the 4th h of the test was statistically significant (p = 0.045). Conclusions Exhaled NO should be considered as a marker of airway inflammation. It plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of allergy. PMID:27279816

  7. Characteristics of exhaled particle production in healthy volunteers: possible implications for infectious disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wurie, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    The size and concentration of exhaled particles may influence respiratory infection transmission risk. We assessed variation in exhaled particle production between individuals, factors associated with high production and stability over time. We measured exhaled particle production during tidal breathing in a sample of 79 healthy volunteers, using optical particle counter technology. Repeat measurements (several months after baseline) were obtained for 37 of the 79 participants.   Multilevel linear regression models of log transformed particle production measures were used to assess risk factors for high production.  Stability between measurements over time was assessed using Lin’s correlation coefficients. Ninety-nine percent of expired particles were <1μm in diameter. Considerable variation in exhaled particle production was observed between individuals and within individuals over time. Distribution of particle production was right skewed.  Approximately 90% of individuals produce <150 particles per litre in normal breathing.  A few individuals had measurements of over 1000 particles per litre (maximum 1456). Particle production increased with age (p<0.001) and was associated with high tree pollen counts. Particle production levels did not remain stable over time [rho 0.14 (95%CI -0.10, 0.38, p=0.238)]. Sub-micron particles conducive to airborne rather than droplet transmission form the great majority of exhaled particles in tidal breathing. There is a high level of variability between subjects but measurements are not stable over time. Production increases with age and may be influenced by airway inflammation caused by environmental irritants. Further research is needed to determine whether the observed variations in exhaled particle production affect transmission of respiratory infection. PMID:24555026

  8. Influence of humidity on radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials.

    PubMed

    Janik, M; Omori, Y; Yonehara, H

    2014-10-24

    The contributions of radon and thoron from building materials to total radon (thoron) entry rates in dwellings range from almost zero to several percent. It is necessary to measure radon and thoron exhalation rates, among other things, to assess the radiological hazard to human health in a living environment. Brick and granite specimens were used to study the changes of these rates as a function of the relative and absolute humidities. Measurement results showed that radon and thoron exhalation rates change to humidity with the same trends as well as effective dose could be changed by the factor of 2 due to this. PMID:25464185

  9. Detection of ammonia in exhaled breath for clinical diagnosis- A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafare, Mawahib; Dennis, J. O.; Md Khir, M. H.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents ammonia gas as a biomarker for different clinical conditions when it exceeds the normal concentration in the exhaled breath. In peculiar, detection of ammonia in human breath has the effort to investigate various practicabilities inclusive those comprising the kidneys, liver and bacterial infection of either the stomach or mouth. Laser spectroscopy, gas chromatography, photo-acoustic spectroscopy, chemical ionization, and chemical sensing are used to measure and detect ammonia gas from exhaled breath. These methods and techniques are discussed in terms of their response time and the minimum concentration detectable. Furthermore, the benefits and importance of these methods and their limitation and drawback are highlighted.

  10. Exhaled nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in mechanically ventilated brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Korovesi, I; Kotanidou, A; Papadomichelakis, E; Livaditi, O; Sotiropoulou, C; Koutsoukou, A; Marczin, N; Orfanos, S E

    2016-03-01

    The inflammatory influence and biological markers of prolonged mechanical-ventilation in uninjured human lungs remains controversial. We investigated exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) in mechanically-ventilated, brain-injured patients in the absence of lung injury or sepsis at two different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Exhaled NO and CO were assessed in 27 patients, without lung injury or sepsis, who were ventilated with 8 ml kg(-1) tidal volumes under zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP group, n  =  12) or 8 cm H2O PEEP (PEEP group, n  =  15). Exhaled NO and CO was analysed on days 1, 3 and 5 of mechanical ventilation and correlated with previously reported markers of inflammation and gas exchange. Exhaled NO was higher on day 3 and 5 in both patient groups compared to day 1: (PEEP group: 5.8 (4.4-9.7) versus 11.7 (6.9-13.9) versus 10.7 (5.6-16.6) ppb (p  <  0.05); ZEEP group: 5.3 (3.8-8.8) versus 9.8 (5.3-12.4) versus 9.6 (6.2-13.5) ppb NO peak levels for days 1, 3 and 5, respectively, p  <  0.05). Exhaled CO remained stable on day 3 but significantly decreased by day 5 in the ZEEP group only (6.3 (4.3-9.0) versus 8.1 (5.8-12.1) ppm CO peak levels for day 5 versus 1, p  <  0.05). The change scores for peak exhaled CO over day 1 and 5 showed significant correlations with arterial blood pH and plasma TNF levels (r s  =  0.49, p  =  0.02 and r s  =  -0.51 p  =  0.02, respectively). Exhaled NO correlated with blood pH in the ZEEP group and with plasma levels of IL-6 in the PEEP group. We observed differential changes in exhaled NO and CO in mechanically-ventilated patients even in the absence of manifest lung injury or sepsis. These may suggest subtle pulmonary inflammation and support application of real time breath analysis for molecular monitoring in critically ill patients. PMID:26934167

  11. Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrzycki, R.; Wojtas, J.; Rutecka, B.; Bielecki, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The article describes an application one of the most sensitive optoelectronic method - Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy in investigation of nitric oxide in exhaled breath. Measurement of nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath is a quantitative, non-invasive, simple, and safe method of respiratory inflammation and asthma diagnosis. For detection of nitric oxide by developed optoelectronic sensor the vibronic molecular transitions were used. The wavelength ranges of these transitions are situated in the infrared spectral region. A setup consists of the optoelectronic nitric oxide sensor integrated with sampling and sample conditioning unit. The constructed detection system provides to measure nitric oxide in a sample of 0-97% relative humidity.

  12. Secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and a novel statistical bioinformatic approach identifies a cancer-related profile in exhaled breath of breast cancer patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lozano Sinues, Pablo; Landoni, Elena; Miceli, Rosalba; Dibari, Vincenza F; Dugo, Matteo; Agresti, Roberto; Tagliabue, Elda; Cristoni, Simone; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis represents a new frontier in medical diagnosis and a powerful tool for cancer biomarker discovery due to the recent development of analytical platforms for the detection and identification of human exhaled volatile compounds. Statistical and bioinformatic tools may represent an effective complement to the technical and instrumental enhancements needed to fully exploit clinical applications of breath analysis. Our exploratory study in a cohort of 14 breast cancer patients and 11 healthy volunteers used secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) to detect a cancer-related volatile profile. SESI-MS full-scan spectra were acquired in a range of 40-350 mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), converted to matrix data and analyzed using a procedure integrating data pre-processing for quality control, and a two-step class prediction based on machine-learning techniques, including a robust feature selection, and a classifier development with internal validation. MS spectra from exhaled breath showed an individual-specific breath profile and high reciprocal homogeneity among samples, with strong agreement among technical replicates, suggesting a robust responsiveness of SESI-MS. Supervised analysis of breath data identified a support vector machine (SVM) model including 8 features corresponding to m/z 106, 126, 147, 78, 148, 52, 128, 315 and able to discriminate exhaled breath from breast cancer patients from that of healthy individuals, with sensitivity and specificity above 0.9.Our data highlight the significance of SESI-MS as an analytical technique for clinical studies of breath analysis and provide evidence that our noninvasive strategy detects volatile signatures that may support existing technologies to diagnose breast cancer. PMID:26390050

  13. Microbial content of household dust associated with exhaled NO in asthmatic children.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is increasingly used as a non-invasive measure of airway inflammation. Despite this, little information exists regarding the potential effects of indoor microbial components on eNO. We determined the influence of microbial contaminants in house dust and...

  14. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Ronny; Fijten, Rianne; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Dallinga, Jan; Boumans, Marie-Louise; Stobberingh, Ellen; Boots, Agnes; Roekaerts, Paul; Bergmans, Dennis; van Schooten, Frederik Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection occurring in the intensive care unit (ICU). The diagnostic standard is based on clinical criteria and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Exhaled breath analysis is a promising non-invasive method for rapid diagnosis of diseases and contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can differentiate diseased from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether analysis of VOCs in exhaled breath can be used as a non-invasive monitoring tool for VAP. One hundred critically ill patients with clinical suspicion of VAP underwent BAL. Before BAL, exhaled air samples were collected and analysed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-tof-MS). The clinical suspicion of VAP was confirmed by BAL diagnostic criteria in 32 patients [VAP(+)] and rejected in 68 patients [VAP(−)]. Multivariate statistical comparison of VOC profiles between VAP(+) and VAP(−) revealed a subset of 12 VOCs that correctly discriminated between those two patient groups with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.8% ± 13.5% and 73.0% ± 11.8%, respectively. These results suggest that detection of VAP in ICU patients is possible by examining exhaled breath, enabling a simple, safe and non-invasive approach that could diminish diagnostic burden of VAP. PMID:26608483

  15. 42 CFR 84.120 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.120 Section 84.120 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.120 Inhalation...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.1137 Section 84.1137 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide;...

  17. 42 CFR 84.1150 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. 84.1150 Section 84.1150 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide;...

  18. Capillary electrophoresis--a new tool for ionic analysis of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Petr; Kobrin, Eeva-Gerda; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2012-12-01

    Exhaled breath condensate has been analyzed for its ionic content by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductometric detection. A simple device for collection of small volumes (100-200 μL) of exhaled breath condensate in less than 2 min was developed. A method for simultaneous determination of inorganic cations, inorganic anions and organic anions from the samples using dual-opposite end injection principle with a short fused silica capillary (35 cm, 50 μm I.D.) was developed. A background electrolyte composed of 20mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, 20 mM l-histidine, 30 μM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and 2mM 18-crown-6 was used. The analysis time was less than 3 min with limits of detection reaching low μM levels for most of the anions and cations. It has been shown that changes of nitrite could be observed in acute inflammation of upper airways and in a person with diagnosed mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, while changes of other ions could also be observed. Lactate concentrations could also be monitored and about 4-fold increase of lactate concentration in exhaled breath condensate was determined following an exhaustive cycling exercise. The developed non-invasive sampling of exhaled breath condensate, followed by rapid capillary electrophoretic analysis, could be very useful in lung inflammatory disease screening as well as in monitoring fast metabolic processes such as lactate build-up and removal. PMID:22796027

  19. Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmanesh, Nahid; Cristescu, Simona M.; Ghorbanzadeh, Atamalek; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mandon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important biomarker as it originates in the human body from the heme (component of hemoglobin) degradation. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength region is used for sensitive trace gas sensing of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Based on a quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.61 µm, two different spectroscopic methods are investigated: off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and wavelength modulation 2f/1f spectroscopy (WMS). The optical sensors integrate a slow feedback system to correct for wavelength drifts improving their stability over days. Both approaches demonstrate a high reproducibility and sensitivity during online measurements of exhaled human breath. Considering the detection limit to be the equal to the standard deviation of the background fluctuations, the noise-equivalent detection limit for both OA-ICOS and WMS is 7 ppbv (1-s averaging time), leading to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity of 3.1 × 10-7 cm-1 Hz-1/2, which is sufficient for measurements of exhaled CO (eCO). Collection and measurements of eCO samples were investigated, and different exhalation flow rates and breath-holding time were explored, to provide a reliable sampling method for future medical investigations.

  20. Exhaled volatile organic compounds as lung cancer biomarkers during one-lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changsong; Dong, Ran; Wang, Xiaoyang; Lian, Ailing; Chi, Chunjie; Ke, Chaofu; Guo, Lei; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2014-01-01

    In this study, single-lung ventilation was used to detect differences in the volatile organic compound (VOCs) profiles between lung tissues in healthy and affected lungs. In addition, changes that occurred after lung cancer resection in both the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath from ipsilateral and contralateral lungs and the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath and blood sample headspaces were also determined. Eighteen patients with non-small cell carcinoma were enrolled. Alveolar breath samples were taken separately from healthy and diseased lungs before and after the tumor resection. Solid phase microextraction–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs before surgery, the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs after surgery, the ipsilateral lungs before and after surgery, and the blood samples from before and after surgery; 12, 19, 12 and 5 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. 2,2-Dimethyldecane, tetradecane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, 2,3,4-trimethyldecane, nonane, 3,4,5,6-tetramethyloctane, and hexadecane may be generated from lipid peroxidation during surgery. Caprolactam and propanoic acid may be more promising exhaled breath biomarkers for lung cancer. PMID:25482491

  1. A REVIEW OF THE US EPA'S SINGLE BREATH CANISTER (SBC) METHOD FOR EXHALED VOLATILE ORGANIC BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled alveolar breath can provide a great deal of information about an individual?s health and previous exposure to potentially harmful xenobiotic materials. Because breath can be obtained noninvasively and its constituents directly reflect concentrations in the blood, its us...

  2. Exhaled nitric oxide decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel E; Beall, Cynthia M; Strohl, Kingman P; Mills, Phoebe S

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a vasodilator that plays a role in blood flow and oxygen delivery. Acute hypoxia down regulates NO synthesis, a response that may exacerbate hypoxic stress by decreasing blood flow. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that pulmonary NO decreases upon acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia and that relatively low levels of NO at altitude are associated with greater stress as reflected in more symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). A sample of 47 healthy, adult, nonsmoking, sea-level residents provided measurements at sea level, at 2,800 m, and at 0-, 2-, and 3-h exposure times at 4,200 m altitude on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Measurements were made of exhaled NO, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, heart rate, and reported symptoms of AMS. The partial pressure of NO concentration in exhaled breath decreased significantly from a sea level mean of 4.2 nmHg to 3.8 nmHg at 2,800 m and 3.4 nmHg at 4,200 m. NO concentration in exhaled breath did not change significantly over a 3-h exposure at 4,200 m and recovered to pre-exposure baseline upon return to sea level. There was no significant association between the level of NO exhaled and the number of self-reported symptoms of AMS during this brief exposure. PMID:16493632

  3. 42 CFR 84.182 - Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhalation valve leakage test; minimum requirements. 84.182 Section 84.182 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying...

  4. 42 CFR 84.137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; check valves; minimum requirements. 84.137 Section 84.137 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators...

  5. 42 CFR 84.177 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.177 Section 84.177 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying...

  6. 42 CFR 84.200 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.200 Section 84.200 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators §...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1137 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements. 84.1137 Section 84.1137 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide;...

  8. Exhaled breath malondialdehyde as a matter of effect of exposure to airpollution in children with asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the adverse effects of oxidative stress related to air pollution is limited by the lack of biological markers of dose to the lungs. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) malondialdehyde as a biomarker of exposure to traffic-r...

  9. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    PubMed

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05).There was a correlation between heart rate and changes in environmental temperature, time of exposure to the sun and relative humidity (p < 0.05). In elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested. PMID:27076001

  10. Measuring Compounds in Exhaled Air to Detect Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hattesohl, Akira; Lubbe, Dirk; Schmid, Severin; Tackenberg, Björn; Rieke, Jürgen; Maddula, Sasidhar; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Nell, Christoph; Boeselt, Tobias; Michelis, Joan; Alferink, Judith; Heneka, Michael; Oertel, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Vogelmeier, Claus; Dodel, Richard; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

    2015-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is diagnosed based upon medical history, neuropsychiatric examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, extensive laboratory analyses and cerebral imaging. Diagnosis is time consuming and labour intensive. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is mainly diagnosed on clinical grounds. Objective The primary aim of this study was to differentiate patients suffering from AD, PD and healthy controls by investigating exhaled air with the electronic nose technique. After demonstrating a difference between the three groups the secondary aim was the identification of specific substances responsible for the difference(s) using ion mobility spectroscopy. Thirdly we analysed whether amyloid beta (Aβ) in exhaled breath was causative for the observed differences between patients suffering from AD and healthy controls. Methods We employed novel pulmonary diagnostic tools (electronic nose device/ion-mobility spectrometry) for the identification of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Specifically, we analysed breath pattern differences in exhaled air of patients with AD, those with PD and healthy controls using the electronic nose device (eNose). Using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), we identified the compounds responsible for the observed differences in breath patterns. We applied ELISA technique to measure Aβ in exhaled breath condensates. Results The eNose was able to differentiate between AD, PD and HC correctly. Using IMS, we identified markers that could be used to differentiate healthy controls from patients with AD and PD with an accuracy of 94%. In addition, patients suffering from PD were identified with sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Altogether, 3 AD patients out of 53 participants were misclassified. Although we found Aβ in exhaled breath condensate from both AD and healthy controls, no significant differences between groups were detected. Conclusion These data may open a new field in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease

  11. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel. PMID:24438778

  12. Respiratory symptoms, lung functions, and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in two types of fish processing workers: Russian trawler fishermen and Norwegian salmon industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Shiryaeva, Olga; Aasmoe, Lisbeth; Straume, Bjørn; Bang, Berit Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory outcomes and work-related factors were studied in two seafood worker populations representing different occupational environments. Methods: Levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometric values, prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and self-evaluated exposures were compared between 139 Norwegian salmon workers and 127 Russian trawler workers. Results: Increased odds ratios (ORs) of shortness of breath with wheezing and prolonged cough as general respiratory symptoms were found in salmon workers, while increased ORs of work-related dry cough and running nose were found in trawler fishermen. Both worker groups ranked “cold work environment,” “use of disinfectants,” and “contaminated indoor air” as the first, second, and third most important causes of work-related respiratory symptoms, respectively. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels were higher in asthmatic trawler workers compared to asthmatic salmon workers. Conclusions: Respiratory symptoms commonly associated with obstructive airway diseases were more prevalent in salmon workers, while symptoms commonly associated with asthma and short-term effects of cold air exposure were more prevalent in trawler workers. PMID:25351376

  13. Measurement of Radon Exhalation Rate in Sand Samples from Gopalpur and Rushikulya Beach Orissa, Eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahur, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Anil; Sonkawade, R. G.; Sengupta, D.; Sharma, A. C.; Prasad, Rajendra

    Natural radioactivity is wide spread in the earth's environment and exists in various geological formations like soils, rocks, water and sand etc. The measurement of activities of naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K is important for the estimation of radiation risk and has been the subject of interest of research scientists all over the world. Building construction materials and soil beneath the house are the main sources of radon inside the dwellings. Radon exhalation rate from building materials like, cement, sand and concrete etc. is a major source of radiation to the habitants. In the present studies radon exhalation rates in sand samples collected from Gopalpur and Rushikulya beach placer deposit in Orissa are measured by using "Sealed Can technique" with LR-115 type II nuclear track detectors. In Samples from Rushikulya beach show radon activities varying from 389 ± 24 to 997 ± 38 Bq m-3 with an average value of 549 ±28 Bq m-3. Surface exhalation rates in these samples are found to vary from 140 ± 9 to 359 ± 14 mBq m-2 h-1with an average value of 197 ±10 mBq m-2 h-1, whereas, mass exhalation rates vary from 5 ± 0.3 to 14 ± 0.5 mBq kg-1 h-1 with an average value of 8 ± 0.4 mBq kg-1 h-1. Samples from Gopalpur radon activities are found to vary from 371 ± 23 to 800 ± 34 Bq m-3 with an average value of 549 ± 28 Bq m-3. Surface exhalation rates in these samples are found to vary from 133 ± 8 to 288 ± 12 mBq m-2h-1 with an average value of 197 ± 10 mBq m-2 h-1, whereas, mass exhalation rates vary from 5 ± 0.3 to 11 ± 1 mBq kg-1 h-1 with an average value of 8 ± 0.4 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  14. Integration of electronic nose technology with spirometry: validation of a new approach for exhaled breath analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R; Brinkman, P; van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Dijkers, E; Bootsma, S K; de Jongh, F H C; Sterk, P J

    2015-12-01

    New 'omics'-technologies have the potential to better define airway disease in terms of pathophysiological and clinical phenotyping. The integration of electronic nose (eNose) technology with existing diagnostic tests, such as routine spirometry, can bring this technology to 'point-of-care'. We aimed to determine and optimize the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of exhaled breath analysis linked to routine spirometry. Exhaled breath was collected in triplicate in healthy subjects by an eNose (SpiroNose) based on five identical metal oxide semiconductor sensor arrays (three arrays monitoring exhaled breath and two reference arrays monitoring ambient air) at the rear end of a pneumotachograph. First, the influence of flow, volume, humidity, temperature, environment, etc, was assessed. Secondly, a two-centre case-control study was performed using diagnostic and monitoring visits in day-to-day clinical care in patients with a (differential) diagnosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. Breathprint analysis involved signal processing, environment correction based on alveolar gradients and statistics based on principal component (PC) analysis, followed by discriminant analysis (Matlab2014/SPSS20). Expiratory flow showed a significant linear correlation with raw sensor deflections (R(2)  =  0.84) in 60 healthy subjects (age 43  ±  11 years). No correlation was found between sensor readings and exhaled volume, humidity and temperature. Exhaled data after environment correction were highly reproducible for each sensor array (Cohen's Kappa 0.81-0.94). Thirty-seven asthmatics (41  ±  14.2 years), 31 COPD patients (66  ±  8.4 years), 31 lung cancer patients (63  ±  10.8 years) and 45 healthy controls (41  ±  12.5 years) entered the cross-sectional study. SpiroNose could adequately distinguish between controls, asthma, COPD and lung cancer patients with cross-validation values

  15. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  16. Application of Novel Method to Measure Endogenous VOCs in Exhaled Breath Condensate Before and After Exposure to Diesel Exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polar volatile organic compounds (PVOCs) such as aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols are byproducts of normal human metabolism and are present in exhaled breath and blood. Environmental exposures, individual activities, and disease states can perturb normal metabolic processes and ...

  17. Post-operative elimination of sevoflurane anesthetic and hexafluoroisopropanol metabolite in exhaled breath: Pharmacokinetic models for assessing liver function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sevoflurane (SEV), a commonly used anesthetic agent for invasive surgery, is directly eliminated via exhaled breath and indirectly by metabolic conversion to inorganic fluoride and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), which is also eliminated in the breath. We studied the post-operativ...

  18. Exhaled and non-exhaled non-invasive markers for assessment of respiratory inflammation in patients with stable COPD and healthy smokers.

    PubMed

    Santini, Giuseppe; Mores, Nadia; Shohreh, Rugia; Valente, Salvatore; Dabrowska, Malgorzata; Trové, Andrea; Zini, Gina; Cattani, Paola; Fuso, Leonello; Mautone, Antonella; Mondino, Chiara; Pagliari, Gabriella; Sala, Angelo; Folco, Giancarlo; Aiello, Marina; Pisi, Roberta; Chetta, Alfredo; Losi, Monica; Clini, Enrico; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Montuschi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    We aimed at comparing exhaled and non-exhaled non-invasive markers of respiratory inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy subjects and define their relationships with smoking habit. Forty-eight patients with stable COPD who were ex-smokers, 17 patients with stable COPD who were current smokers, 12 healthy current smokers and 12 healthy ex-smokers were included in a cross-sectional, observational study. Inflammatory outcomes, including prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP) concentrations in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and sputum supernatants, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and sputum cell counts, and functional (spirometry) outcomes were measured. Sputum PGE2 was elevated in both groups of smokers compared with ex-smoker counterpart (COPD: P  <  0.02; healthy subjects: P  <  0.03), whereas EBC PGE2 was elevated in current (P  =  0.0065) and ex-smokers with COPD (P  =  0.0029) versus healthy ex-smokers. EBC 15-F2t-IsoP, a marker of oxidative stress, was increased in current and ex-smokers with COPD (P  <  0.0001 for both) compared with healthy ex-smokers, whereas urinary 15-F2t-IsoP was elevated in both smoker groups (COPD: P  <  0.01; healthy subjects: P  <  0.02) versus healthy ex-smokers. FENO was elevated in ex-smokers with COPD versus smoker groups (P  =  0.0001 for both). These data suggest that the biological meaning of these inflammatory markers depends on type of marker and biological matrix in which is measured. An approach combining different types of outcomes can be used for assessing respiratory inflammation in patients with COPD. Large studies are required to establish the clinical utility of this strategy. PMID:26814886

  19. Online Measurement of Exhaled NO Concentration and Its Production Sites by Fast Non-equilibrium Dilution Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment. PMID:26975333

  20. Online Measurement of Exhaled NO Concentration and Its Production Sites by Fast Non-equilibrium Dilution Ion Mobility Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment. PMID:26975333

  1. [Determination of proteomic and metabolic composition of exhaled breath condensate of newborns].

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Chagovets, V V; Starodubtseva, N L; Ryndin, A Y; Bugrova, A E; Kostyukevich, Y I; Popov, I A; Frankevich, V E; Ionov, O V; Sukhikh, G T; Nikolaev, E N

    2016-01-01

    Here, the possibility of proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the composition of exhaled breath condensate of neonates with respiratory support. The developed method allows non-invasive collecting sufficient amount of the material for identification of disease-specific biomarkers. Samples were collected by using a condensing device that was incorporated into the ventilation system. The collected condensate was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The isolated substances were identified with a use of databases for proteins and metabolites. As a result, a number of compounds that compose the exhaled breath condensate was determined and can be considered as possible biomarkers of newborn diseases or stage of development. PMID:27414793

  2. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in beef cattle using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roller, C. B.; Holland, B. P.; McMillen, G.; Step, D. L.; Krehbiel, C. R.; Namjou, K.; McCann, P. J.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in the expired breath of crossbred calves received at a research facility was performed using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Exhaled NO (eNO) concentrations were measured using NO absorption lines at 1912.07 cm-1 and employing background subtraction. The lower detection limit and measurement precision were determined to be ˜330 parts in 1012 per unit volume. A custom breath collection system was designed to collect lower airway breath of spontaneously breathing calves while in a restraint chute. Breath was collected and analyzed from calves upon arrival and periodically during a 42 day receiving period. There was a statistically significant relationship between eNO, severity of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in terms of number of times treated, and average daily weight gain over the first 15 days postarrival. In addition, breathing patterns and exhaled CO2 showed a statistically significant relationship with BRD morbidity.

  3. Radon exhalation rates and effective radium contents of the soil samples in Adapazarı, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuş, Adem; Yakut, Hakan; Tabar, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this study effective radium content and radon exhalation rates in soil samples collected from Adapazarı district of Sakarya, Turkey have been measured using LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors by closed-can technique for the first time. The obtained effective radium contents are found to vary from 6.66 to 34.32 Bqkg-1 with a mean value of 18.01 Bqkg-1. The radon exhalation rates measured in terms of mass and area of soil samples are found to vary from 50.35-259.41 mBqkg-1h-1 with a mean value of 136.12 mBqkg-1h-1 and 1035.18-5333.39 mBqm-2h-1 with a mean value of mBqm-2h-1. All the measurements show that the values of radium content are under the safe limit recommended by Organization for Cooperation and Development.

  4. Detection of small trace molecules in human and animal exhalation by tunable diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Galagan, Marina E.

    1995-09-01

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is proposed for content measurements of trace gases like CO, CO2, NH3, CH4, NO, NO2 in human and animal's exhalation. High sensitivity and wide dynamic range of the method ensure fast detection of these gases at ppb level and within the accuracy better than 10%. One-expiration sample is enough to reach these parameters. There is no need for any preliminary preparation of tested samples. Some pairs of the gases, for instance, CO and CO2, NH3, and CO2, and CO and N2O, can be measured simultaneously by one laser providing complex studies. The high sensitive gas analysis could provide necessary background to the noninvasive diagnostics in a wide variety of medical problems. Perspectives of the TDLS methods in application to medicine diagnostics are demonstrated by the first results of exhalation tests.

  5. Prediction of Asthma Exacerbations in Children by Innovative Exhaled Inflammatory Markers: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Dillys; Alonso, Ariel; Rijkers, Ger; Heynens, Jan; Rosias, Philippe; Muris, Jean; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background In asthma management guidelines the primary goal of treatment is asthma control. To date, asthma control, guided by symptoms and lung function, is not optimal in many children and adults. Direct monitoring of airway inflammation in exhaled breath may improve asthma control and reduce the number of exacerbations. Aim 1) To study the use of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), in the prediction of asthma exacerbations in a pediatric population. 2) To study the predictive power of these exhaled inflammatory markers combined with clinical parameters. Methods 96 asthmatic children were included in this one-year prospective observational study, with clinical visits every 2 months. Between visits, daily symptom scores and lung function were recorded using a home monitor. During clinical visits, asthma control and FeNO were assessed. Furthermore, lung function measurements were performed and EBC was collected. Statistical analysis was performed using a test dataset and validation dataset for 1) conditionally specified models, receiver operating characteristic-curves (ROC-curves); 2) k-nearest neighbors algorithm. Results Three conditionally specified predictive models were constructed. Model 1 included inflammatory markers in EBC alone, model 2 included FeNO plus clinical characteristics and the ACQ score, and model 3 included all the predictors used in model 1 and 2. The area under the ROC-curves was estimated as 47%, 54% and 59% for models 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The k-nearest neighbors predictive algorithm, using the information of all the variables in model 3, produced correct predictions for 52% of the exacerbations in the validation dataset. Conclusion The predictive power of FeNO and inflammatory markers in EBC for prediction of an asthma exacerbation was low, even when combined with clinical characteristics and symptoms. Qualitative improvement of the chemical analysis of EBC may lead to a

  6. Radon in soil gas--exhalation tests and in situ measurements.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, A; Rosen, B

    1985-10-01

    Radon in soil can move into buildings resulting in high radon daughter concentrations. The foundation of a dwelling should be adapted to the radon "risk" which is determined by the radon concentration and the air permeability of the soil. Different measuring procedures are discussed in this paper, both in situ measurements of radon content and laboratory tests on radon exhalation from different types of soils at different water contents. PMID:4081740

  7. Exhaled Breath Analysis with a Colorimetric Sensor Array for the Identification and Characterization of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Peter J; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yaomin; Mekhail, Tarek; Beukemann, Mary C; Na, Jie; Kemling, Jonathan W; Suslick, Kenneth S; Sasidhar, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The pattern of exhaled breath volatile organic compounds represents a metabolic biosignature with the potential to identify and characterize lung cancer. Breath biosignature-based classification of homogeneous subgroups of lung cancer may be more accurate than a global breath signature. Combining breath biosignatures with clinical risk factors may improve the accuracy of the signature. Objectives Develop an exhaled breath biosignature of lung cancer using a colorimetric sensor array. Determine the accuracy of breath biosignatures of lung cancer characteristics with and without the inclusion of clinical risk factors. Methods The exhaled breath of 229 study subjects, 92 with lung cancer and 137 controls, was drawn across a colorimetric sensor array. Logistic prediction models were developed and statistically validated based on the color changes of the sensor. Age, sex, smoking history, and COPD were incorporated in the prediction models. Results The validated prediction model of the combined breath and clinical biosignature was moderately accurate at distinguishing lung cancer from control subjects (C-statistic 0.811). The accuracy improved when the model focused on only one histology (C-statistic 0.825 – 0.890). Individuals with different histologies could be accurately distinguished from one another (C-statistic 0.889 for adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma). Moderate accuracies were noted for validated breath biosignatures of stage and survival (C-statistic 0.793, 0.770 respectively). Conclusions A colorimetric sensor array is capable of identifying exhaled breath biosignatures of lung cancer. The accuracy of breath biosignatures can be optimized by evaluating specific histologies and incorporating clinical risk factors. PMID:22071780

  8. Noninvasive measurement of plasma glucose from exhaled breath in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Stacy R.; Ngo, Jerry; Flores, Rebecca; Midyett, Jason; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Blake, Donald R.; Galassetti, Pietro R.

    2011-01-01

    Effective management of diabetes mellitus, affecting tens of millions of patients, requires frequent assessment of plasma glucose. Patient compliance for sufficient testing is often reduced by the unpleasantness of current methodologies, which require blood samples and often cause pain and skin callusing. We propose that the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath can be used as a novel, alternative, noninvasive means to monitor glycemia in these patients. Seventeen healthy (9 females and 8 males, 28.0 ± 1.0 yr) and eight type 1 diabetic (T1DM) volunteers (5 females and 3 males, 25.8 ± 1.7 yr) were enrolled in a 240-min triphasic intravenous dextrose infusion protocol (baseline, hyperglycemia, euglycemia-hyperinsulinemia). In T1DM patients, insulin was also administered (using differing protocols on 2 repeated visits to separate the effects of insulinemia on breath composition). Exhaled breath and room air samples were collected at 12 time points, and concentrations of ∼100 VOCs were determined by gas chromatography and matched with direct plasma glucose measurements. Standard least squares regression was used on several subsets of exhaled gases to generate multilinear models to predict plasma glucose for each subject. Plasma glucose estimates based on two groups of four gases each (cluster A: acetone, methyl nitrate, ethanol, and ethyl benzene; cluster B: 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone) displayed very strong correlations with glucose concentrations (0.883 and 0.869 for clusters A and B, respectively) across nearly 300 measurements. Our study demonstrates the feasibility to accurately predict glycemia through exhaled breath analysis over a broad range of clinically relevant concentrations in both healthy and T1DM subjects. PMID:21467303

  9. Associations between Nitric Oxide Synthase Genes and Exhaled NO-Related Phenotypes according to Asthma Status

    PubMed Central

    Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Monier, Florent; Boussaha, Mekki; Le Moual, Nicole; Huyvaert, Hélène; Matran, Régis; Letort, Sébastien; Bousquet, Jean; Pin, Isabelle; Lathrop, Mark; Kauffmann, Francine; Demenais, Florence; Nadif, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Background The nitric oxide (NO) pathway is involved in asthma, and eosinophils participate in the regulation of the NO pool in pulmonary tissues. We investigated associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NO synthase genes (NOS) and biological NO-related phenotypes measured in two compartments (exhaled breath condensate and plasma) and blood eosinophil counts. Methodology SNPs (N = 121) belonging to NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3 genes were genotyped in 1277 adults from the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). Association analyses were conducted on four quantitative phenotypes: the exhaled fraction of NO (FeNO), plasma and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) nitrite-nitrate levels (NO2–NO3) and blood eosinophils in asthmatics and non-asthmatics separately. Genetic heterogeneity of these phenotypes between asthmatics and non-asthmatics was also investigated. Principal Findings In non-asthmatics, after correction for multiple comparisons, we found significant associations of FeNO levels with three SNPs in NOS3 and NOS2 (P≤0.002), and of EBC NO2–NO3 level with NOS2 (P = 0.002). In asthmatics, a single significant association was detected between FeNO levels and one SNP in NOS3 (P = 0.004). Moreover, there was significant heterogeneity of NOS3 SNP effect on FeNO between asthmatics and non-asthmatics (P = 0.0002 to 0.005). No significant association was found between any SNP and NO2–NO3 plasma levels or blood eosinophil counts. Conclusions Variants in NO synthase genes influence FeNO and EBC NO2–NO3 levels in adults. These genetic determinants differ according to asthma status. Significant associations were only detected for exhaled phenotypes, highlighting the critical relevance to have access to specific phenotypes measured in relevant biological fluid. PMID:22590587

  10. Exhalation of volatile organic compounds during hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion in rats: an exploratory trial.

    PubMed

    Hüppe, Tobias; Lorenz, Dominik; Maurer, Felix; Albrecht, Frederic W; Schnauber, Kristina; Wolf, Beate; Sessler, Daniel I; Volk, Thomas; Fink, Tobias; Kreuer, Sascha

    2016-03-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion alter metabolism. Multi-capillary column ion-mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) can identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled gas. We therefore used MCC-IMS to evaluate exhaled gas in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock with reperfusion. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n  =  10 in control group, n  =  15 in intervention group) were anaesthetized and ventilated via tracheostomy for 14 h or until death. Hemorrhagic shock was maintained for 90 min by removing blood from the femoral artery to a target of MAP 35  ±  5 mmHg, and then retransfusing the blood over 60 min in 15 rats; 10 control rats were evaluated without shock and reperfusion. Exhaled gas was analyzed with MCC-IMS, VOCs were identified using the BS-MCC/IMS analytes database (Version 1209). VOC intensities were analyzed at the end of shock, end of reperfusion, and after 9 h. All normotensive animals survived the observation period, whereas mean survival time was 11.2 h in shock and reperfusion animals. 16 VOCs differed significantly for at least one of the three analysis periods. Peak intensities of butanone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, nonanal, and an unknown compound were higher in shocked than normotensive rats, and another unknown compound increased over the time. 1-butanol increased only during reperfusion. Acetone, butanal, 1.2-butandiol, isoprene, 3-methylbutanal, 3-pentanone, 2-propanol, and two unknown compounds were lower and decreased during shock and reperfusion. 1-pentanol and 1-propanol were significant greater in the hypotensive animals during shock, were comparable during reperfusion, and then decreased after resuscitation. VOCs differ during hemorrhagic shock, reperfusion, and after reperfusion. MCC-IMS of exhaled breath deserves additional study as a non-invasive approach for monitoring changes in metabolism during ischemia and reperfusion. PMID:26971584

  11. Electronic Nose and Exhaled Breath NMR-based Metabolomics Applications in Airways Disease.

    PubMed

    Santini, Giuseppe; Mores, Nadia; Penas, Andreu; Capuano, Rosamaria; Mondino, Chiara; Trové, Andrea; Macagno, Francesco; Zini, Gina; Cattani, Paola; Martinelli, Eugenio; Motta, Andrea; Macis, Giuseppe; Ciabattoni, Giovanni; Montuschi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Breathomics, the multidimensional molecular analysis of exhaled breath, includes analysis of exhaled breath with gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and electronic noses (e-noses), and metabolomics of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a non-invasive technique which provides information on the composition of airway lining fluid, generally by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or MS methods. Metabolomics is the identification and quantification of small molecular weight metabolites in a biofluid. Specific profiles of volatile compounds in exhaled breath and metabolites in EBC (breathprints) are potentially useful surrogate markers of inflammatory respiratory diseases. Electronic noses (e-noses) are artificial sensor systems, usually consisting of chemical cross-reactive sensor arrays for characterization of patterns of breath volatile compounds, and algorithms for breathprints classification. E-noses are handheld, portable, and provide real-time data. E-nose breathprints can reflect respiratory inflammation. E-noses and NMR-based metabolomics of EBC can distinguish patients with respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, or diseases with a clinically relevant respiratory component including cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia, and healthy individuals. Breathomics has also been reported to identify patients affected by different types of respiratory diseases. Patterns of breath volatile compounds detected by e-nose and EBC metabolic profiles have been associated with asthma phenotypes. In combination with other -omics platforms, breathomics might provide a molecular approach to respiratory disease phenotyping and a molecular basis to tailored pharmacotherapeutic strategies. Breathomics might also contribute to identify new surrogate markers of respiratory inflammation, thus, facilitating drug discovery. Validation in newly recruited, prospective independent cohorts is essential for development of e

  12. An evaluation of irritant smoke to detect exhalation valve leakage in respirators.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Erin M; McKay, Roy T

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluated the ability of a qualitative fit-test method (irritant smoke) to detect known exhalation valve leakage. The OSHA protocol for the irritant smoke test mandates the use of a low flow air pump at 200 mL/minute or an aspirator squeeze bulb. Many commercial test kits include an aspirator bulb, which is subject to variation in frequency, depth of squeeze, fatigue rate, and individual hand strength. Previous studies on irritant smoke used a handheld squeeze bulb. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a low flow pump for irritant smoke fit-testing. Twenty subjects wearing North 7600 series full-face respirators equipped with P100 filters were fit-tested with a Portacount Plus to ensure adequate fit. After successful fit was demonstrated, the exhalation valve was replaced with a damaged valve and/or rotated approximately 90 degrees to produce a fit factor below 100. Having induced an exhalation valve leak, the irritant smoke fit-test was performed using the OSHA irritant smoke protocol. To avoid introducing additional unknown leakage, all head movement exercises were replaced with the head straight, normal breathing maneuver. Irritant smoke did not detect 40 percent of respirators with leaking exhalation valves. Sixty percent of the subjects were able to detect the irritant smoke. Test sensitivity was 60 percent, well below the recommended 95 percent criterion. Of the 12 subjects that detected irritant smoke, none detected the smoke in less than a minute; the average detection time was 3 min 5 s. Some subjects were able to suppress the cough reflex. These findings suggest that qualitative fit-testing using irritant smoke with a 200 ml/min continuous flow pump does not have adequate sensitivity to detect fit factors less than 100. PMID:12909538

  13. Blood and exhaled air can be used for biomonitoring of hydrofluorocarbon exposure.

    PubMed

    Ernstgård, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Gunnare, Sara; Johanson, Gunnar

    2014-02-10

    Various hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have replaced the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons during the last decades. The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of blood and breath for exposure biomonitoring of HFCs. We compared data on blood and exhaled air from a series of experiments where healthy volunteers were exposed to vapors of four commonly used HFCs; 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane. All four HFCs had similar toxicokinetic profiles in blood with a rapid initial increase and an apparent steady-state reached within a few minutes. For all HFCs, the inhalation uptake during exposure was low (less than 6%), most of which was exhaled post-exposure. No metabolism could be detected and only minor amounts were excreted unchanged in urine. The observed time courses in blood and breath were well described by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Simulations of 8-h exposures show that the HFC levels in both blood and breath drop rapidly during the first minutes post-exposure, whereafter the decline is considerably slower and mainly reflects washout from fat tissues. We conclude that blood and exhaled air can be used for biological exposure monitoring. Samples should not be taken immediately at the end of shift but rather 20-30 min later. PMID:24296009

  14. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in Sannur cave, eastern desert of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amin, Rafat M; Mansy, M; Eissa, M F; Eissa, H M; Shahin, F M

    2008-06-01

    Activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K in rocks and soil samples collected from Sannur cave, Beni Suef governorate, eastern desert of Egypt, were determined using the high-resolution gamma spectrometry technique. The results show that the concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides are the following: 238U ranged from 8.51 +/- 1.23 to 20.66 +/- 2.12 Bq kg(-1), 232Th ranged from 7.69 +/- 1.02 to 22.73 +/- 1.60 Bq kg(-1) and 40K ranged from 185.74 +/- 0.42 to 2084.70 +/- 23.30 Bq kg(-1). The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), and the external hazard index (Hex) were also calculated and compared to the international recommended values. The radon concentration and radon exhalation rate from the rock and soil samples were measured using the Can technique. The average value of annual effective dose for cave workers is 1.98 mSv y(-1), while for visitors it is 2.4 microSv per visit. The radon exhalation rate varies from 0.21 +/- 0.03 to 1.28 +/- 0.02 Bq m(-2) h(-1). A positive correlation has been observed between uranium content and radon exhalation rate. PMID:18495986

  15. Aspergillus spp. colonization in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia Region of Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of lung cancer, with this preliminary study we aim to give our small contribution to this field of research by analysing the fungal microbiome of the exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia, a region of Italy. Methods We enrolled 43 lung cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects that underwent exhaled breath condensate and bronchial brushing collection. The fungal incidence and nature of sample collected were analysed by using a selected media for Aspergillus species. Results For the first time we were able to analyse the fungal microbioma of the exhaled breath condensate. 27.9% of lung cancer patients showed a presence of Aspergillus niger, or A. ochraceus or Penicillium ssp. while none of the healthy subjects did so. Conclusion The results confirmed the high percentage of fungal colonization of the airways of lung cancer patients from Puglia, suggesting the need to conduct further analyses in this field in order to evaluate the exact pathogenetic role of these fungi in lung cancer as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. PMID:24548615

  16. Ascent exhalations of Antarctic fur seals: a behavioural adaptation for breath-hold diving?

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Miller, Patrick J. O.; Johnson, Mark P.; Cox, Oliver P.; Boyd, Ian L.

    2005-01-01

    Novel observations collected from video, acoustic and conductivity sensors showed that Antarctic fur seals consistently exhale during the last 50–85% of ascent from all dives (10–160 m, n>8000 dives from 50 seals). The depth of initial bubble emission was best predicted by maximum dive depth, suggesting an underlying physical mechanism. Bubble sound intensity recorded from one seal followed predictions of a simple model based on venting expanding lung air with decreasing pressure. Comparison of air release between dives, together with lack of variation in intensity of thrusting movement during initial descent regardless of ultimate dive depth, suggested that inhaled diving lung volume was constant for all dives. The thrusting intensity in the final phase of ascent was greater for dives in which ascent exhalation began at a greater depth, suggesting an energetic cost to this behaviour, probably as a result of loss of buoyancy from reduced lung volume. These results suggest that fur seals descend with full lung air stores, and thus face the physiological consequences of pressure at depth. We suggest that these regular and predictable ascent exhalations could function to reduce the potential for a precipitous drop in blood oxygen that would result in shallow-water blackout. PMID:15734689

  17. Assessment of the exhalation kinetics of volatile cancer biomarkers based on their physicochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Anton; Mochalski, Pawel; Ruzsanyi, Vera; Broza, Yoav Y; Haick, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    The current review provides an assessment of the exhalation kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have been linked with cancer. Towards this end, we evaluate various physicochemical properties, such as ‘breath:air’ and ‘blood:fat’ partition coefficients, of 112 VOCs that have been suggested over the past decade as potential markers of cancer. With these data, we show that the cancer VOC concentrations in the blood and in the fat span over 12 and 8 orders of magnitude, respectively, in order to provide a specific counterpart concentration in the exhaled breath (e.g., 1 ppb). This finding suggests that these 112 different compounds have different storage compartments in the body and that their exhalation kinetics depends on one or a combination of the following factors: (i) the VOC concentrations in different parts of the body; (ii) the VOC synthesis and metabolism rates; (iii) the partition coefficients between tissue(s), blood and air; and (iv) the VOCs’ diffusion constants. Based on this analysis, we discuss how this knowledge allows modeling and simulating the behavior of a specific VOC under different sampling protocols (with and without exertion of effort). We end this review by a brief discussion on the potential role of these scenarios in screening and therapeutic monitoring of cancer. PMID:24566039

  18. Air contamination with nitric oxide: effect on exhaled nitric oxide response.

    PubMed

    Therminarias, A; Flore, P; Favre-Juvin, A; Oddou, M F; Delaire, M; Grimbert, F

    1998-03-01

    This study examines the response of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration (ECNO) and quantity of exhaled NO over time (EVNO) in 10 healthy subjects breathing into five polyethylene bags, one in which synthetic air was free of NO and four in which NO was diluted to concentrations of 20 +/- 0.6, 49 +/- 0.8, 98 +/- 2, and 148 +/- 2 ppb, respectively. Each subject was connected to each bag for 10 min at random. Minute ventilation and ECNO were measured continuously, and EVNO was calculated continuously. ECNO and EVNO values were significantly higher for an inhaled NO concentration of 20 ppb than for NO-free air. Above 20 ppb, ECNO and EVNO increased linearly with inhaled NO concentration. It is reasonable to assume that a share of the quantity of inspired NO over time (InspVNO) because of air contamination by pollution is rejected by the ventilatory pathway. Insofar as InspVNO does not affect endogenous production or the metabolic fate of NO in the airway, this share may be estimated as being approximately one third of InspVNO, the remainder being taken by the endogenous pathway. Thus, air contamination by the NO resulting from pollution greatly increases the NO response in exhaled air. PMID:9517592

  19. Effect of gravity on lung exhaled nitric oxide at rest and during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogliaghi, S.; Krasney, J. A.; Pendergast, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) from the lungs (VNO) in nose-clipped subjects increases during exercise. This may be due to endothelial shear stress secondary to changes in pulmonary blood flow. We measured VNO after modifying pulmonary blood flow with head-out water immersion (WI) or increased gravity (2 Gz) at rest and during exercise. Ten sedentary males were studied during exercise performed in air and WI. Nine subjects were studied at 1 and 2 Gz. Resting NO concentrations in exhaled air ([NO]) were 16.3 +/- 8.2 ppb (air). 15 +/- 8.2 ppb (WI) and 17.4 +/- 5 ppb (2 Gz). VNO (ppb/min) was calculated as [NO]VE and was unchanged at rest by either WI or 2 Gz. VNO increased linearly with Vo2, VE and fii during exercise in air, WI and at 2 Gz. These relationships did not differ among the experimental conditions. Therefore, changes in pulmonary blood flow failed to alter the output of NO exhaled from the lungs at rest or during exercise.

  20. Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from exhaled breath as noninvasive methods for cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohua; Shao, Kang; Wang, Tie

    2016-04-01

    The detection of cancer at an early stage is often significant in the successful treatment of the disease. Tumor cells have been reported to generate unique cancer volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles which can reflect the disease conditions. The detection and analysis of VOC biomarkers from exhaled breath has been recognized as a new frontier in cancer diagnostics and health inspections owing to its potential in developing rapid, noninvasive, and inexpensive cancer screening tools. To detect specific VOCs of low concentrations from exhaled breath, and to enhance the accuracy of early diagnosis, many breath collection and analysis approaches have been developed. This paper will summarize and critically review the exhaled-breath VOC-related sampling, collection, detection, and analytical methods, especially the recent development in VOC sensors. VOC sensors are commonly inexpensive, portable, programmable, easy to use, and can obtain data in real time with high sensitivities. Therefore, many sensor-based VOC detection techniques have huge potential in clinical point-of-care use. PMID:26677028

  1. Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Frank; Schiller, Amanda; Ehehalt, Robert; Greule, Markus; Hartmann, Jan; Polag, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian formation of methane (methanogenesis) is widely considered to occur exclusively by anaerobic microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Approximately one third of humans, depending on colonization of the gut by methanogenic archaea, are considered methane producers based on the classification terminology of high and low emitters. In this study laser absorption spectroscopy was used to precisely measure concentrations and stable carbon isotope signatures of exhaled methane in breath samples from 112 volunteers with an age range from 1 to 80 years. Here we provide analytical evidence that volunteers exhaled methane levels were significantly above background (inhaled) air. Furthermore, stable carbon isotope values of the exhaled methane unambiguously confirmed that this gas was produced by all of the human subjects studied. Based on the emission and stable carbon isotope patterns of various age groups we hypothesize that next to microbial sources in the gastrointestinal tracts there might be other, as yet unidentified, processes involved in methane formation supporting the idea that humans might also produce methane endogenously in cells. Finally we suggest that stable isotope measurements of volatile organic compounds such as methane might become a useful tool in future medical research diagnostic programs. PMID:26824393

  2. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface.

    PubMed

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3-5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. PMID:27132250

  3. The origin of intermittent exhalation (A! Ha! Ha!) peculiar to human laugh.

    PubMed

    Sumitsuji, N

    2000-01-01

    Since Darwin (1872), the origin of the laugh with an intermittent exhalation "A! Ha! Ha!" which is peculiar to human, has been a great question. The author found out that this laugh is caused by the three sets of emotion. Firstly, light surprise or discovery. The ability to estimate "light" is absolutely important, because the amount of the first exhalation "A!" caused by the stimulation is decided by the amount of "surprise" felt by the subject. The ability to estimate the amount of "surprise" to be "light", makes the partial exhalation "A!". Secondly, consciousness of this harmlessness or delight, and thirdly, the following expectation of some safe circumstances. The author proved this theory by electromyography (EMG), photoplethysmography and galvanic skin reaction (GSR). The similarity between the facial EMG distribution pattern of "the beginning of laugh" and "the light surprise" was proved by electromyography about many facial muscles, with special fine electrode which did not disturb any natural facial expression of the subjects. Plethysmography and GSR proved light sympathetic tension and following relaxation when laughing. The author also suggests relationships between human laugh and human history such as the origin of clothing, language, and use of fire, which are specific in human. PMID:10938997

  4. Dose-dependent onset and cessation of action of inhaled budesonide on exhaled nitric oxide and symptoms in mild asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kharitonov, S; Donnelly, L; Montuschi, P; Corradi, M; Collins, J; Barnes, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Dose dependent anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids in asthma are difficult to demonstrate in clinical practice. The anti-inflammatory effect of low dose inhaled budesonide on non-invasive exhaled markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed in patients with mild asthma. Methods: 28 patients entered a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study and were randomly given either 100 or 400 µg budesonide or placebo once daily, inhaled from a dry powder inhaler (Turbohaler), for 3 weeks followed by 1 week without treatment. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO), exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), nitrite/nitrate, S-nitrosothiols, and 8-isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate were measured four times during weeks 1 and 4, and once a week during weeks 2 and 3. Results: A dose-dependent speed of onset and cessation of action of budesonide was seen on exhaled NO and asthma symptoms. Treatment with 400 µg/day reduced exhaled NO faster (–2.06 (0.37) ppb/day) than 100 µg/day (–0.51 (0.35) ppb/day; p<0.01). The mean difference between the effect of 100 and 400 µg budesonide was –1.55 ppb/day (95% CI –2.50 to –0.60). Pretreatment NO levels were positively related to the subsequent speed of reduction during the first 3–5 days of treatment. Faster recovery of exhaled NO was seen after stopping treatment with budesonide 400 µg/day (1.89 (1.43) ppb/day) than 100 µg/day (0.49 (0.34) ppb/day, p<0.01). The mean difference between the effect of 100 and 400 µg budesonide was 1.40 ppb/day (95% CI –0.49 to 2.31). Symptom improvement was dose-dependent, although symptoms returned faster in patients treated with 400 µg/day. A significant reduction in exhaled nitrite/nitrate and S-nitrosothiols after budesonide treatment was not dose-dependent. There were no significant changes in exhaled CO or 8-isoprostanes in breath condensate. Conclusion: Measurement of exhaled NO levels can indicate a dose-dependent onset and cessation of anti

  5. Dependence of exhaled breath composition on exogenous factors, smoking habits and exposure to air pollutants*

    PubMed Central

    Mochalski, P; Filipiak, A; Bajtarevic, A; Ager, C; Denz, H; Hilbe, W; Jamnig, H; Hackl, M; Dzien, A; Amann, A

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive disease monitoring on the basis of volatile breath markers is a very attractive but challenging task. Several hundreds of compounds have been detected in exhaled air using modern analytical techniques (e.g. proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and have even been linked to various diseases. However, the biochemical background for most of compounds detected in breath samples has not been elucidated; therefore, the obtained results should be interpreted with care to avoid false correlations. The major aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking on the composition of exhaled breath. Additionally, the potential origin of breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is discussed focusing on diet, environmental exposure and biological pathways based on other’s studies. Profiles of VOCs detected in exhaled breath and inspired air samples of 115 subjects with addition of urine headspace derived from 50 volunteers are presented. Samples were analyzed with GC-MS after preconcentration on multibed sorption tubes in case of breath samples and solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) in the case of urine samples. Altogether 266 compounds were found in exhaled breath of at least 10% of the volunteers. From these, 162 compounds were identified by spectral library match and retention time (based on reference standards). It is shown that the composition of exhaled breath is considerably influenced by exposure to pollution and indoor-air contaminants and particularly by smoking. More than 80 organic compounds were found to be significantly related to smoking, the largest group comprising unsaturated hydrocarbons (29 dienes, 27 alkenes and 3 alkynes). On the basis of the presented results, we suggest that for the future understanding of breath data it will be necessary to carefully investigate the potential biological origin of volatiles, e.g., by means of analysis of tissues, isolated cell lines or other body fluids. In

  6. Quantification of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chloroform emissions from atmospheric observations at Mace Head and Radon efflux measurement over Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BIRAUD, S.; IELSCH, G.

    2001-12-01

    Flux estimates of CO2, CH4, N2O, and CHCl3 over Ireland are inferred from continuous atmospheric records of these species. We use radon-222 (222Rn) as a reference compound to estimate unknown sources of other species. In order to better quantify 222Rn exhalation from the soil and its seasonal variability, two field campaigns have been conducted during wintertime (October 2000) and summertime (July 2001). The correlation between each species and 222Rn is calculated for a suite of diurnal events that have been selected in the Mace Head record over the period 1995-1997 to represent air masses exposed to sources over Ireland. We established data selection based on criteria using 222Rn and 212Pb thresholds. We estimated flux densities of 12-15 103 kg CH4 km-2 yr-1, 680-830 kg N2O km-2 yr-1, and 20-30 kg CHCl3 km-2 yr-1 for CH4, N2O, and CHCl3, respectively. We also inferred flux densities of 250-310 103 kg C km-2 yr-1 for CO2 during wintertime, of 760-950 103 kg C km-2 yr-1 for CO2 during summer nighttime.

  7. Surfactant Protein A in Exhaled Endogenous Particles Is Decreased in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lärstad, Mona; Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Per; Bake, Björn; Larsson, Sven; Ljungström, Evert; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Background Exhaled, endogenous particles are formed from the epithelial lining fluid in small airways, where surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in pulmonary host defense. Based on the knowledge that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) starts in the small airway epithelium, we hypothesized that chronic inflammation modulates peripheral exhaled particle SP-A and albumin levels. The main objective of this explorative study was to compare the SP-A and albumin contents in exhaled particles from patients with COPD and healthy subjects and to determine exhaled particle number concentrations. Methods Patients with stable COPD ranging from moderate to very severe (n = 13), and healthy non-smoking subjects (n = 12) were studied. Subjects performed repeated breath maneuvers allowing for airway closure and re-opening, and exhaled particles were optically counted and collected on a membrane using the novel PExA® instrument setup. Immunoassays were used to quantify SP-A and albumin. Results COPD patients exhibited significantly lower SP-A mass content of the exhaled particles (2.7 vs. 3.9 weight percent, p = 0.036) and lower particle number concentration (p<0.0001) than healthy subjects. Albumin mass contents were similar for both groups. Conclusions Decreased levels of SP-A may lead to impaired host defense functions of surfactant in the airways, contributing to increased susceptibility to COPD exacerbations. SP-A in exhaled particles from small airways may represent a promising non-invasive biomarker of disease in COPD patients. PMID:26656890

  8. Fractionation of families of major, minor, and trace metals across the melt-vapor interface in volcanic exhalations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.; Le Cloarec, M.-F.; Lambert, G.

    1994-01-01

    volcanic plumes, and Cd and Tl are enriched relative to the others. Indium is much more abundant in the plume of the hotspot volcano Kilauea than in the Etna plume (probably non-hotspot in character). It may be a useful indicator of the tapping of deep mantle zones, or could aid in the interpretation of reports of Pt group metals in exhalations from hot spot volcanoes. Indium in old glacial ice strata could help assess magnitude and variability of exhalations from hotspot volcanoes in past time. Strong melt-vapor fractionation of the alkali and alkaline earth metals may only be observed in plumes during quiescent degassing of volcanoes; when large amounts of ash or spatter (undifferentiated lava) enter the plume, its alkali and alkaline earth metal composition may approach that of the melt. Ratios among the chalcophile metals may not be much changed by addition of ash, because their concentrations in melt are so small, and masses of them in any plume may remain dominated by transfer across the melt-vapor interface. Radon daughter nuclides give information about state of volcanic activity at time of sampling. The precisely known origins, ultratrace detectability, decay systematics, and wide variations in volatility of these species provide information about residence times, degassing and travel histories, and identities of melt bodies in volcanic systems. ?? 1994.

  9. Increased nitric oxide in exhaled air: an early marker of asthma in non-smoking aluminium potroom workers?

    PubMed Central

    Lund, M; Oksne, P; Hamre, R; Kongerud, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study exhaled nitric oxide (NO) as a marker of airway inflammation caused by potroom exposure, hypothesising that (a) workers exposed to potroom pollutants would have higher concentrations of NO in expired air than control subjects employed at the same plant but working outside of the potroom atmosphere, and (b) that concentrations of exhaled NO in potroom employees might be positively associated with concentrations of fluoride and exposure to dust.
METHODS—A study group comprising 186 male subjects (aged 24-63 years), employed in the potrooms of one Norwegian aluminium smelter, and 40 comparable control subjects (aged 25-60 years) recruited from the same plant, were examined by measurements of exhaled and nasal concentrations of NO, spirometry, and a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms as a part of an annual health surveillance programme. Estimates of exposure to fluorides and dust for selected job categories were obtained by means of personal samplers carried by the workers.
RESULTS—In the non-smokers, the concentrations of exhaled NO were higher in the potroom workers than in the controls (median (interquartile range) 9.3 (6.2-15.6) v 5.7 (4.6-8.3) ppb, p=0.001). The two groups did not differ in spirometry and asthma-like symptoms. Non-smoking potroom workers with asthma-like symptoms had higher concentrations of exhaled NO than those with no symptoms (median (interquartile range) 21.0 (19.3-41.4) v 8.5 (5.9-12.8) ppb, p=0.001), but had comparable spirometric values. In subjects who smoked, the concentrations of exhaled NO did not differ significantly between potroom workers and controls (median (interquartile range) 4.6 (3.3-8.0) v 4.0 (3.4-5.1) ppb. Exhaled NO was not significantly associated with either duration of employment or routine measurements of dust and fluorides.
CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to potroom pollutants is associated with increased concentrations of exhaled NO in non-smoking subjects. Nitric oxide in exhaled

  10. Detecting Lung Diseases from Exhaled Aerosols: Non-Invasive Lung Diagnosis Using Fractal Analysis and SVM Classification

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Zhao, Weizhong; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua; Xu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Background Each lung structure exhales a unique pattern of aerosols, which can be used to detect and monitor lung diseases non-invasively. The challenges are accurately interpreting the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and quantitatively correlating them to the lung diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, we presented a paradigm of an exhaled aerosol test that addresses the above two challenges and is promising to detect the site and severity of lung diseases. This paradigm consists of two steps: image feature extraction using sub-regional fractal analysis and data classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the breath test in four asthmatic lung models. A high-fidelity image-CFD approach was employed to compute the exhaled aerosol patterns under different disease conditions. Findings By employing the 10-fold cross-validation method, we achieved 100% classification accuracy among four asthmatic models using an ideal 108-sample dataset and 99.1% accuracy using a more realistic 324-sample dataset. The fractal-SVM classifier has been shown to be robust, highly sensitive to structural variations, and inherently suitable for investigating aerosol-disease correlations. Conclusion For the first time, this study quantitatively linked the exhaled aerosol patterns with their underlying diseases and set the stage for the development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for non-invasive detection of obstructive respiratory diseases. PMID:26422016

  11. Fiber content of diet affects exhaled breath volatiles in fasting and postprandial state in a pilot crossover study.

    PubMed

    Raninen, Kaisa J; Lappi, Jenni E; Mukkala, Maria L; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Raatikainen, Olavi J

    2016-06-01

    Our pilot study examined the potential of exhaled breath analysis in studying the metabolic effects of dietary fiber (DF). We hypothesized that a high-fiber diet (HFD) containing whole grain rye changes volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in exhaled breath and that consuming a single meal affects these levels. Seven healthy men followed a week-long low-fiber diet (17 g/d) and HFD (44 g/d) in a randomized crossover design. A test meal containing 50 g of the available carbohydrates from wheat bread was served as breakfast after each week. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analyzed at fasting state and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after this meal parallel to plasma glucose, insulin, and serum lipids. We used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for detecting changes in 15 VOCs. These VOCs were acetone, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, hexanoic acid, acetoin, diacetyl, and phenol. Exhaled breath 2-methylbutyric acid in the fasting state and 1-propanol at 120 minutes decreased (P = .091 for both) after an HFD. Ingestion of the test meal increased ethanol, 1-propanol, acetoin, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels while reducing acetone, 1-butanol, diacetyl, and phenol levels. Both DF diet content and having a single meal affected breathVOCs. Exploring exhaled breath further could help to develop tools for monitoring the metabolic effects of DF. PMID:27188907

  12. Sedimentary exhalative nickel-molybdenum ores in south China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lott, D.A.; Coveney, R.M., Jr.; Murowchick, J.B.; Grauch, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    Unique bedded Ni-Mo ores hosted by black shales were discovered in localized paleobasins along the Yangzte platform of southern China in 1971. Textural evidence and radiometric dates imply ore formation during sedimentation of black shales that grade into readily combustible beds, termed stone coals, which contain 10 to 15 percent organic carbon. Studies of 427 fluid inclusions indicate extreme variation in hydrothermal brine salinities that were contained by Proterozoic dolostones underlying the ore zone in Hunan and Guizhou. Variations of fluid inclusion salinities, which range from 0.1 to 21.6 wt percent NaCl equiv, are attributed to differences in the compositions of brines in strata underlying the ore bed, complicated by the presence of seawater and dilute fluids that represent condensates of vapors generated by boiling of mineralizing fluids or Cambrian meteoric water. The complex processes of ore deposition led to scattered homogenization temperatures ranging from 100??to 187??C within the Hunan ore zone and from 65??to 183??C within the Guizhou ore zone. While living organisms probably did not directly accumulate metals in situ in sufficient amounts to explain the unusually high grades of the deposits, sulfur isotope ratios indicate that bacteria, now preserved as abundant microfossils, provided sufficient sulfide for the ores by reduction of seawater sulfate. Such microbiota may have depended on vent fluids and transported organic matter for key nutrients and are consistent with a sedex origin for the ores. Vent fluids interacted with organic remains, including rounded fragments of microbial mats that were likely transported to the site of ore deposition by the action of waves and bottom currents prior to replacement by ore minerals.

  13. New miniaturized exhaled nitric oxide sensor based on a high Q/V mid-infrared 1D photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Conteduca, D; Dell'Olio, F; Ciminelli, C; Armenise, M N

    2015-03-20

    A high Q/V mid-infrared 1D photonic crystal cavity in chalcogenide glass AMTIR-1 (Ge33As12Se55) resonating at λR=5.26  μm has been proposed as a key element of a sensor able to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) concentration in the exhaled breath, namely fraction exhaled NO. The cavity design has been carried out through 3D finite-element method simulations. A Q-factor of 1.1×104 and a mode volume V=0.8  (λ/n)3, corresponding to a Q/V ratio of 1.4×104(λ/n)-3, have been obtained with a resonance transmission coefficient T=15%. A sensitivity of 10 ppb has been calculated with reference to the photothermal physical property of the material. Such a result is lower than the state-of-the-art of NO sensors proposed in literature, where hundreds of parts per trillion-level detection seem to have been achieved, but comparable with the performance obtained by commercial devices. The main advantages of the new device are in terms of footprint (=150  μm2), smaller at least 1 order of magnitude than those in literature, fast response time (only few seconds), and potential low cost. Such properties make possible in a handheld device the sensor integration in a multi-analysis system for detecting the presence of several trace gases, improving prevention, and reducing the duration of drug treatment for asthma and viral infections. PMID:25968502

  14. Evaluation of exhaled nitric oxide in acute paraquat poisoning: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang-cheon; Oh, Sungho; Min, Young-gi; Cha, Ju Young; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is nitric oxide (NO) in the lower airway measured by oral exhalation. FENO can be a useful non-invasive marker for asthma. Paraquat-mediated lung injury can be reflective of an ROS-induced lung injury. We aimed to verify if FENO is a clinical parameter of ROS formation and responsiveness to medical therapies in acute paraquat intoxication. Material/Methods We recruited 12 patients admitted with acute paraquat poisoning. A portable and noninvasive device called NIOX MINO™ (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden) was used to measure FENO. Measurements were made at the time of hospital admission and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after paraquat ingestion. Results Six out of the total 12 recruited patients had general conditions (e.g. oral pain) that made it difficult for them to exhale with adequate force. Mean plasma paraquat level was 1.4±2.5 μg/mL. We found no direct correlation between the paraquat levels (both ingestion amount and plasma concentration) and FENO (initial, maximal, and minimal values). All the measured FENO values were no greater than 20 ppb for the 2 patients who died. FENO did not vary more than 20% from the baseline. Compared to the above findings, FENO measurements were found to be greater than 20 ppb for the patients who survived. FENO tends to reach its peak value at between 50 h and 80 h. Conclusions FENO did not predict mortality, and there was no increase of FENO in patients with severe paraquat intoxication. PMID:24487780

  15. Anodic alumina coating for extraction of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, GuoJuan; Zou, LiangYuan; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to develop a facile and highly sensitive solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath vapor. For the purpose, a highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina coating was prepared by a two-step anodic oxidization method based on aluminum substrate. To have a good knowledge of the fiber, some features were characterized and the results indicate that the coating has several advantages, including excellent chemical and thermal stability, high mechanical strength, large surface area and good extraction performance. In addition, some parameters related to extraction efficiency were also studied. Under the optimal conditions, the coating was used to quantitatively extract volatile organic compounds. Good linearity and wide linear range were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.9933 to 0.9999. The detection limits of benzene homologues, aldehydes and ketones were between 0.7 and 3.4 ng L(-1). Relative standard deviations (n=5) ranged from 1.8 to 15.0%. Satisfied recovery (89-115%) was obtained at two spiked concentration levels. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled vapor samples of lung cancer patients and the controls, and the results were statistically analyzed with Independent-Sample T Test. The proposed method exhibits some outstanding merits, including convenience, non-invasion, low cost and sensitivity. It provides a potential tool for rapid detection of volatile organic compounds in human exhaled breath. PMID:25476340

  16. Radon exhalation of hardening concrete: monitoring cement hydration and prediction of radon concentration in construction site.

    PubMed

    Kovler, Konstantin

    2006-01-01

    The unique properties of radon as a noble gas are used for monitoring cement hydration and microstructural transformations in cementitious system. It is found that the radon concentration curve for hydrating cement paste enclosed in the chamber increases from zero (more accurately - background) concentrations, similar to unhydrated cement. However, radon concentrations developed within 3 days in the test chamber containing cement paste were approximately 20 times higher than those of unhydrated cement. This fact proves the importance of microstructural transformations taking place in the process of cement hydration, in comparison with cement grain, which is a time-stable material. It is concluded that monitoring cement hydration by means of radon exhalation method makes it possible to distinguish between three main stages, which are readily seen in the time dependence of radon concentration: stage I (dormant period), stage II (setting and intensive microstructural transformations) and stage III (densification of the structure and drying). The information presented improves our understanding of the main physical mechanisms resulting in the characteristic behavior of radon exhalation in the course of cement hydration. The maximum value of radon exhalation rate observed, when cement sets, can reach 0.6 mBq kg(-1) s(-1) and sometimes exceeds 1.0 mBq kg(-1) s(-1). These values exceed significantly to those known before for cementitious materials. At the same time, the minimum ventilation rate accepted in the design practice (0.5 h(-1)), guarantees that the concentrations in most of the cases will not exceed the action level and that they are not of any radiological concern for construction workers employed in concreting in closed spaces. PMID:16356604

  17. Lactobacillus reuteri modulates cytokines production in exhaled breath condensate of children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miniello, Vito Leonardo; Brunetti, Luigia; Tesse, Riccardina; Natile, Miria; Armenio, Lucio; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2010-05-01

    We measured the concentration of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 in the exhaled breath condensate of children with atopic and nonallergic dermatitis receiving a probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730) or placebo for 8 weeks. We demonstrated that the levels of these cytokines increased and decreased respectively only in atopic subjects receiving active treatment. Our data suggest that the oral administration of a specific probiotic strain in patients with atopic dermatitis can modulate in vivo the cytokine pattern at a different site from intestine. PMID:20639717

  18. Increased exhaled cysteinyl-leukotrienes and 8-isoprostane in aspirin-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Antczak, Adam; Montuschi, Paolo; Kharitonov, Sergei; Gorski, Pawel; Barnes, Peter J

    2002-08-01

    The pathogenesis of aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) has not yet been clearly elucidated, although eicosanoid metabolites appear to play an important role. We hypothesized that levels of eicosanoids in exhaled air condensate are abnormal in patients with AIA and that they change in patients receiving steroid therapy. We measured cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), and also 8-isoprostane as a marker of oxidative stress, by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate from patients with AIA (17 steroid naive; mean age, 41 +/- 23 years; FEV(1), 63%pred), 26 patients with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) (11 steroid naive; mean age, 47 +/- 18 years; FEV(1), 69%pred), and 16 healthy subjects (mean age, 45 +/- 17 years; FEV(1), 93%pred). Cys-LTs were significantly higher in steroid-naive patients with AIA compared with steroid-naive patients with ATA and healthy subjects (152.3 +/- 30.4 and 36.6 +/- 7.1 versus 19.4 +/- 2.8 pg/ml; p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). Steroid-naive patients with AIA also had higher levels of 8-isoprostane than normal subjects (131.8 +/- 31.0 versus 21.9 +/- 4.5 pg/ml; p < 0.05). There were significantly lower levels of both cys-LTs and 8-isoprostanes in steroid-treated patients with AIA. There was no difference in either the PGE(2) or LTB(4) level between the patient groups. This is the first study to show that cys-LTs and 8-isoprostanes are elevated in expired breath condensate of steroid-naive patients with AIA, and that cys-LTs are decreased in steroid-treated patients. Exhaled PGE(2) levels are not reduced, so that it is unlikely that a deficiency of PGE(2) is an important mechanism, whereas exhaled LTB(4) levels are unchanged, indicating an abnormality beyond 5-lipoxygenase. PMID:12153961

  19. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    PubMed

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer

  20. Characterization of exhaled breath particles collected by an electret filter technique.

    PubMed

    Tinglev, Åsa Danielsson; Ullah, Shahid; Ljungkvist, Göran; Viklund, Emilia; Olin, Anna-Carin; Beck, Olof

    2016-06-01

    Aerosol particles that are present in exhaled breath carry nonvolatile components and have gained interest as a specimen for potential biomarkers. Nonvolatile compounds detected in exhaled breath include both endogenous and exogenous compounds. The aim of this study was to study particles collected with a new, simple and convenient filter technique. Samples of breath were collected from healthy volunteers from approximately 30 l of exhaled air. Particles were counted with an optical particle counter and two phosphatidylcholines were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, phosphatidylcholines and methadone was analysed in breath from patients in treatment with methadone and oral fluid was collected with the Quantisal device. The results demonstrated that the majority of particles are  <1 μm in size and that the fraction of larger particle contributes most to the total mass. The phosphatidylcholine PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) dominated over PC(16 : 0/18 : 1) and represented a major constituent of the particles. The concentration of the PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) homolog was significantly correlated (p  <  0.001) with total mass. From the low concentration of the two phosphatidylcholines and their relative abundance in oral fluid a major contribution from the oral cavity could be ruled out. The concentration of PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) in breath was positively correlated with age (p  <  0.01). An attempt to use PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) as a sample size indicator for methadone was not successful, as the large intra-individual variability between samplings even increased after normalization. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that exhaled breath sampled with the filter device represents a specimen corresponding to surfactant. The possible use of PC(16 : 0/16 : 0) as a sample size indicator was supported and deserves further investigations. We propose that the direct and selective collection of the breath aerosol particles is a promising strategy

  1. Application of End-Exhaled Breath Monitoring to Assess Carbon Monoxide Exposures of Wildland Firefighters at Prescribed Burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.H.; Devaux, I; Stock, A.; Naeher, L.P.

    2009-04-01

    Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in February–March 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

  2. Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose), resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age) could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively).Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose. PMID:27167436

  3. Exhaled nitric oxide levels in childhood asthma: a more reliable indicator of asthma severity than lung function measurement?

    PubMed

    Piacentini, G L; Suzuki, Y; Bodini, A

    2000-04-01

    The level of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to reflect the degree of airway inflammation in patients with asthma and to be related to the severity of asthma, as well as to the efficacy of treatment. In contrast, lung function tests provide information about airway volumes and flows reflecting the level of airway obstruction, but do not allow any direct information about the degree of airway inflammation. Several studies have evaluated the relationships between the level of airway inflammation assessed by exhaled NO and the levels of airway obstruction and/or bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic adults and children. These studies highlight the complex pathophysiology of asthma and suggest that exhaled NO may have a promising role in addition to lung function measurement in the evaluation of asthma severity in children. PMID:18034534

  4. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children: a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early life microbial exposures, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) at school age. Methods Endotoxin, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and β(1,3)-D-glucan were measured in living room dust collected at 2–3 months of age in homes of participants of three prospective European birth cohorts (LISA, n = 182; PIAMA, n = 244; and INMA, n = 355). Home dampness and pet ownership were periodically reported by the parents through questionnaires. FeNO was measured at age 8 for PIAMA and at age 10/11 for LISA and INMA. Cohort-specific associations between the indoor microbial exposures and FeNO were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses. Estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Results FeNO at school age was lower in children exposed to endotoxin at age 2–3 months (β -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10;-0.01) and in children with reported dog ownership during the first two years of life (GM ratio 0.82, CI 0.70-0.96). FeNO was not significantly associated with early life exposure to EPS, β(1,3)-D-glucan, indoor dampness and cat ownership. Conclusion Early life exposure to bacterial endotoxin and early life dog ownership are associated with lower FeNO at school age. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to unravel the underlying mechanisms and possible clinical relevance of this finding. PMID:24295277

  5. Relations between isoprene and nitric oxide in exhaled breath and the potential influence of outdoor ozone: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Alya; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Galassetti, Pietro; Blake, Donald R.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of endogenous isoprene in the human body, if any, is unclear because previous research is inconsistent and mechanistic evidence for the biologic function of isoprene is lacking. Given previous evidence that exhaled isoprene is elevated in systemic inflammatory states, we hypothesized that exhaled isoprene would be positively associated with a breath biomarker of airway inflammation, the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). We examined relationships of exhaled breath isoprene with FENO and with outdoor ozone given that ozone chemically reacts with isoprene and has been positively associated with FENO in past studies. Sixteen elderly subjects were followed with ≤12 weekly exhaled hydrocarbon and FENO collections at the subjects’ retirement community. Outdoor ozone concentrations were measured continuously on site. Mixed-effects regression analyses tested relations of FENO with isoprene, and FENO and isoprene with ozone, adjusted for temperature. We found FENO was inversely associated with isoprene, and this was not confounded by ozone. Isoprene was inversely related to ozone. FENO was positively related to ozone and this relation was not confounded by isoprene. In contrast to hypothesized relations, we conclude that exhaled isoprene is inversely associated with FENO as well as outdoor ozone, which suggests possible protective ozone-scavenging functions of endogenous isoprene. Findings may indicate chemical reactions of isoprene oxidation by ozone and by hydroxyl radicals in the presence of O2 that is dependent on NO concentration. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in additional studies of human subjects, particularly as they apply to FENO monitoring in asthma. PMID:23999846

  6. [Influence of changed gas media on acoustic parameters of human forced exhalation].

    PubMed

    D'iachenko, A I; Korenbaum, V I; Shulagin, Iu A; Osipova, A A; Mikhaĭlovskaia, A N; Popova, Iu A; Kir'ianova, E V; Kostiv, A E; Mokerova, E S; Shin, S N; Pochekutova, I A

    2012-01-01

    In previous study it was shown that duration of tracheal forced expiratory noises is promising to reveal negative changes of lung function after dive. The objective is a study of parameters of tracheal forced expiratory noises in changed gas media. The first experiment involved 25 volunteers (22-60 years), performed forced exhalation under normal pressure with air, oxygen-helium and oxygen-krypton mixtures. The second experiment in the chamber involved 6 volunteers (25-46 years), which performed forced exhalation with air under normal pressure (0.1 MPa), and under elevated pressure 0.263 MPa with air and oxygen-helium mixture. In the first experiment the direct linear dependence on gas density was found for forced expiratory noises common duration in the band of 200-2000 Hz and for its durations in narrow 200-Hz bands, excluding high frequency range 1400-2000 Hz. In the second experiment a significant reversed dependence of high frequency durations and spectral energies in 200-Hz bands (1600-2000 Hz) on adiabatic gas compressibility. Individual dynamics of common duration of tracheal forced expiratory noises under model dive of 16.3 m (0.263 MPa) is more then the diagnostic threshold of this parameter for lung function decrease, previously obtained for divers under normal pressure. PMID:22567842

  7. [John Snow (1813-1858): experimental studies on rebreathing of anesthetic gases in exhaled air].

    PubMed

    Baum, J

    1995-02-01

    As early as in 1850 (only 4 years after the first clinical performance of ether anaesthesia by W. T. G. Morton on 16 October 1846) John Snow recognised that ether and chloroform were exhaled unchanged with the expired air. To reuse these unchanged vapours in the following inspiration and thereby prolonging the narcotic effect of a given amount of anaesthetic vapour, he converted his ether inhaler into a To-and-Fro Rebreathing System: The apparatus was equipped with a facemask without an expiratory valve and a large reservoir bag containing pure oxygen; an aqueous solution of caustic potash was used as CO2 absorbent. In several experiments, performed on himself, Snow succeeded to demonstrate that rebreathing of the exhaled vapours was possible following carbon dioxide absorption, and that it resulted in a pronounced prolongation of the narcotic effects of the volatile anaesthetics. Furthermore, Snow performed experiments on animals using a closed system for evaluating the carbon dioxide production during anaesthesia. It is all the more worthwhile to introduce Snow's publications on these topics, as, despite their extraordinary theoretical and practical significance, they remained nearly unnoticed. Even in the fundamental articles by D. Jackson and R. Waters, both being the respected protagonists of the rebreathing technique in anaesthesia, the Snow papers remained uncited. PMID:7888519

  8. Quantitative detection of nitric oxide in exhaled human breath by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Susu; Tian, Yong; Li, Ming; Zhao, Jiuyan; Zhu, Lanlan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Haiwei; Wang, Haidong; Shi, Jianbo; Fang, Xiang; Li, Penghui; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a useful biomarker of various physiological conditions, including asthma and other pulmonary diseases. Herein a fast and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the quantitative detection of eNO based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Exhaled NO molecules selectively reacted with 2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) reagent, and eNO concentration was derived based on the EESI-MS response of 1-oxyl-2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline (PTI) product. The method allowed quantification of eNO below ppb level (~0.02 ppbv) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 11.6%. In addition, eNO levels of 20 volunteers were monitored by EESI-MS over the time period of 10 hrs. Long-term eNO response to smoking a cigarette was recorded, and the observed time-dependent profile was discussed. This work extends the application of EESI-MS to small molecules (<30 Da) with low proton affinity and collision-induced dissociation efficiency, which are usually poorly visible by conventional ion trap mass spectrometers. Long-term quantitative profiling of eNO by EESI-MS opens new possibilities for the research of human metabolism and clinical diagnosis.

  9. Exhaled 8-isoprostane in sarcoidosis: relation to superoxide anion production by bronchoalveolar lavage cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurmanowska, Zofia; Antczak, Adam; Marczak, Jerzy; Ciebiada, Maciej; Górski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to examine the mutual relationship between 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and superoxide anion generation by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells in patients with sarcoidosis. Design About 29 patients with sarcoidosis, 34 healthy never smokers (control group for EBC) and 15 healthy never smokers (control group for BAL) were examined. EBC was collected directly before bronchoscopy. 8-Isoprostane was measured by ELISA, and superoxide anion by colorimetry. Results Exhaled breath condensate 8-isoprostane is increased in sarcoidosis (median, 25–75 percentile): 2.50; 2.50–3.90 versus 6.20; 2.50–16.95 pg/ml, p ≤ 0.05). Spontaneous superoxide anion release from BALF cells was significantly elevated only in patients with a high percentage of lymphocytes in BALF (6.42 ± 1.24 vs. 23.52 ± 4.30 nmol/106 cells, p ≤ 0.01). There were no correlations between 8-isoprostane and spontaneous or stimulated superoxide anion release. Conclusions We confirmed higher concentrations of EBC 8-isoprostane in sarcoidosis and higher spontaneous release of superoxide anion from BALF cells in patients with sarcoidosis. The increase of EBC 8-isoprostane is not directly related to superoxide anion released from BALF cells. PMID:20521080

  10. Terahertz Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath - Broad Essay of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, Daniela R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 3000 chemicals are thought to be present in human breath. Of these chemicals, many are considered typical of exhaled air. Yet, others can allude to different disease pathologies. The detection of chemicals in breath could have many practical purposes in medicine and provide a noninvasive means of diagnostics. We have previously reported on detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in exhaled human breath using a novel sub-millimeter/THz spectroscopic approach. This paper reports on our most recent study. A tentative list has been made of approximately 20 chemicals previously found in breath using other methods. Though many of these chemicals are only expressed in samples from donors with certain pathologies, at the time of this submission we are able to detect and quantitatively measure acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide in the breath of several healthy donors. Additional tentatively identified chemicals have been seen using this approach. This presentation will explain our experimental procedures and present our most recent results in THz breath analysis. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed.

  11. Is the exhaled breath temperature in lung cancer influenced by airways neoangiogenesis or by inflammation?

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Lacedonia, Donato; Spanevello, Antonio; Cotugno, Grazia; Saliani, Valerio; Martinelli, Domenico; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria P

    2015-10-01

    Recently the exhaled breath temperature (EBT) was seen to increase in non-small cell lung cancer and was subsequently proposed as a possible non-invasive tool for its diagnosis. The need for further studies that confirm the previous findings and support the potential scope of this method underlies the main aim of this study that seeks to explore the pathogenic mechanisms determining the EBT in lung cancer. We enrolled 44 consecutive patients with a radiological suspicion of lung cancer and ten healthy non-smoker volunteers, after which their EBT was measured. On the same day, the subjects underwent breath condensate collection for the measurement of leukotriene (LTB)-4 and of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the former being a marker of airways inflammation and the latter of neoangiogenesis. We confirmed the presence of a higher EBT in lung cancer patients compared to the controls. The multiple linear regression model showed that the exhaled VEGF was the only predictor of elevations of EBT. In conclusion, it can be stated that for the first time in this study, we have shown that EBT is higher in subjects with lung cancer and that the airways angiogenesis drives the increase in EBT in lung cancer. Moreover, the study suggests the potential for the use of EBT in monitoring the lung cancer progression, although the implementation of more in-depth studies to verify this result is recommended. PMID:26323590

  12. Endogenous CO monitoring in exhalation with tunable diode lasers: applications to clinical and biomedical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; D'yachenko, Alexander I.

    1999-07-01

    Middle IR tunable diode lasers were applied to studies of pulmonary excretion of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO). Variations of the CO content level in exhaled air of healthy nonsmokers were investigated for different environmental conditions with the applied laser technique. Correlation of the obtained data with atmospheric CO contamination and elevated oxygen content were studied as well as diurnal variations of the endogenous CO in exhalation was observed. Criteria for correct conditions of the endogenous CO detection in breath could be derive don this basis. Developed laser approach and methods were applied for the analysis of the excreted CO level in different diseases like bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia and hepatitis. Laser based close-to-real-time monitoring of the endogenous CO elimination with breath in the course of different dynamic tests was demonstrated to be informative in studies of blood oxygen transport and pH variations in tissues for different challenges tests in human physiology.

  13. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Simona M; Kiss, Rudolf; Hekkert, Sacco te Lintel; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J M; Risby, Terence H; Marczin, Nandor

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (> 30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (> 10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523

  14. Characterizations of particle size distribution of the droplets exhaled by sneeze.

    PubMed

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G; Huang, Q Y

    2013-11-01

    This work focuses on the size distribution of sneeze droplets exhaled immediately at mouth. Twenty healthy subjects participated in the experiment and 44 sneezes were measured by using a laser particle size analyser. Two types of distributions are observed: unimodal and bimodal. For each sneeze, the droplets exhaled at different time in the sneeze duration have the same distribution characteristics with good time stability. The volume-based size distributions of sneeze droplets can be represented by a lognormal distribution function, and the relationship between the distribution parameters and the physiological characteristics of the subjects are studied by using linear regression analysis. The geometric mean of the droplet size of all the subjects is 360.1 µm for unimodal distribution and 74.4 µm for bimodal distribution with geometric standard deviations of 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. For the two peaks of the bimodal distribution, the geometric mean (the geometric standard deviation) is 386.2 µm (1.8) for peak 1 and 72.0 µm (1.5) for peak 2. The influences of the measurement method, the limitations of the instrument, the evaporation effects of the droplets, the differences of biological dynamic mechanism and characteristics between sneeze and other respiratory activities are also discussed. PMID:24026469

  15. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Kiss, Rudolf; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J. M.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (>30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (>10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523

  16. Activity ratios of thorium daughters in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.; Sha, J.Y.; Essling, M.A.; Pedersen, J.C.; Slane, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized method of least squares has been used to analyze the /sup 228/Ac and /sup 212/Pb-/sup 212/Bi and daughter ..gamma..-ray spectra obtained in vivo from 133 former workers at a thorium refinery. In addition, the exhalation rate of /sup 220/Rn was determined for each subject and expressed as pCi of emanating /sup 224/Ra. This value was added to the /sup 212/Pb value determined from the ..gamma..-ray measurements to obtain the total /sup 224/Ra present, and the ratio of /sup 224/Ra to /sup 228/Ac was calculated. Values of the ratio ranged from 0.52 +- 0.32 to 2.1 +- 1.7, with a weighted mean of 0.92 +- 0.17. However, it appears that the ratio observed in a given case is characteristic for that case alone; the computed mean value may not be meaningful. The least squares fitting procedure and the overall calibration of the counting system were validated by measurements of /sup 224/Ra in the lungs of one subject postmortem, compared with results obtained from the same subject in vivo. 6 references, 5 figures.

  17. Soil radioactivity measurements and estimation of radon/thoron exhalation rate in soil samples from Kalpakkam residential complex.

    PubMed

    Bala Sundar, S; Chitra, N; Vijayalakshmi, I; Danalakshmi, B; Chandrasekaran, S; Jose, M T; Venkatraman, B

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compute the primordial radionuclides activity in soil samples and estimate the radon/thoron exhalation rates. A total of 25 locations were chosen for the study at Kalpakkam. Ambient radiation levels were monitored prior to collection of samples, which were subjected to gamma spectrometry. While (238)U concentration was found to be below detectable limit, the activities of (232)Th and (40)K were varying from 34.53 to 1093.11 Bq kg(-1) and 36.6 to 570.08 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were in the range of 83-1574 Bq kg(-1). There was no appreciable radon exhalation, and the thoron surface exhalation rate varied from 942 to 7720 Bq m(-2) h(-1). The annual effective dose was ranging from 0.05 to 0.81 mSv y(-1). Good correlation was observed between (232)Th content and thoron exhalation rate. The details of the study are presented in this article. PMID:25977353

  18. Study of Natural Radioactivity, Radon Exhalation Rate and Radiation Doses in Coal and Flyash Samples from Thermal Power Plants, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B. K.; Sapra, B. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    Coal is one of the most important source used for electrical power generation. Its combustion part known as fly ash is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products have significant amounts of radionuclide's including uranium, thorium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon and thoron respectively. Radiation hazard from airborne emissions of coal-fired power plants have been cited as possible causes of health in environmental. Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash. In the present study, samples of coal and flyash were collected from Rajghat Power Plant and Badarpur Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, India. Radon exhalation is important parameter for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. Solis State Nuclear Track Detector based sealed Can Technique (using LR-115 type II) has been used for measurement radon exhalation rate. Also accumulation chamber based Continuous Radon Monitor and Continuous Thoron Monitor have been used for radon masss exhalation and thoron surface exhalation rate respectively. Natural radioactivity has been measured using a low level NaI(Tl) detector based on gamma ray spectrometry.

  19. Radon exhalation rate and natural radionuclide content in building materials of high background areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bavarnegin, E; Fathabadi, N; Vahabi Moghaddam, M; Vasheghani Farahani, M; Moradi, M; Babakhni, A

    2013-03-01

    Radon exhalation rates from building materials used in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Ramsar were measured using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. Radon exhalation rates from these samples varied from below the lower detection limit up to 384 Bq.m(-2) h(-1). The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents were also measured using a high resolution HPGe gamma- ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bq kg(-1), 187 Bq kg(-1) and 1350 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The linear correlation coefficient between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration was 0.90. The result of this survey shows that radon exhalation rate and radium content in some local stones used as basements are extremely high and these samples are main sources of indoor radon emanation as well as external gamma radiation from uranium series. PMID:22280998

  20. Metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate and serum of patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Acampa, Olga; Goldoni, Matteo; Andreoli, Roberta; Milton, Donald; Sama, Susan R; Rosiello, Richard; de Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers in exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be useful in aiding diagnosis, defining specific phenotypes of disease, monitoring the disease and evaluating the effects of drugs. The aim of this study was the characterization of metallic elements in exhaled breath condensate and serum as novel biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility in exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using reference analytical techniques. C-Reactive protein and procalcitonin were assessed as previously validated diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers which have been associated with disease exacerbation, thus useful as a basis of comparison with metal levels. Exhaled breath condensate and serum were obtained in 28 patients at the beginning of an episode of disease exacerbation and when they recovered. Trace elements and toxic metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Serum biomarkers were measured by immunoassay. Exhaled manganese and magnesium levels were influenced by exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an increase in their concentrations--respectively by 20 and 50%--being observed at exacerbation in comparison with values obtained at recovery; serum elemental composition was not modified by exacerbation; serum levels of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin at exacerbation were higher than values at recovery. In outpatients who experienced a mild-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, manganese and magnesium levels in exhaled breath condensate are elevated at admission in comparison with values at recovery, whereas no other changes were observed in metallic elements at both the pulmonary and systemic level. PMID:21305131

  1. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:23192085

  2. Secondary electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry reveals tryptophan pathway metabolites in exhaled human breath.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Diego; Gaisl, Thomas; Bregy, Lukas; Martínez-Lozano Sinues, Pablo; Kohler, Malcolm; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-06-30

    Many studies and personalized medicine in general require frequent measurements and/or rapid results of biomarker levels. Here we show that 20 low volatility metabolites of the tryptophan pathway can be detected in exhaled human breath. This real-time and non-invasive method offers an attractive alternative to blood analysis. PMID:27273568

  3. Daily variation of radon gas and its short-lived progeny concentration near ground level and estimation of aerosol residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Mohery; A, M. Abdallah; A, Ali; S, S. Baz

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of radon (222Rn) gas and its short-lived progenies 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po were continuously monitored every four hours at the ground level in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed three times every week, starting from November 2014 to October 2015. A method of electrostatic precipitation of positively charged 218Po and 214Po by a positive voltage was applied for determining 222Rn gas concentration. The short-lived 222Rn progeny concentration was determined by using a filter holder connected with the alpha-spectrometric technique. The meteorological parameters (relative air humidity, air temperature, and wind speed) were determined during the measurements of 222Rn and its progeny concentrations. 222Rn gas as well as its short-lived progeny concentration display a daily and seasonal variation with high values in the night and early morning hours as compared to low values at noon and in the afternoon. The observed monthly atmospheric concentrations showed a seasonal trend with the highest values in the autumn/winter season and the lowest values in the spring/summer season. Moreover, and in parallel with alpha-spectrometric measurements, a single filter-holder was used to collect air samples. The deposited activities of 214Pb and the long-lived 222Rn daughter 210Pb on the filter were measured with the gamma spectrometric technique. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb by both techniques were found to be relatively equal largely. The highest mean seasonally activity concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn/winter season while the lowest mean were observed in the spring/summer season. The mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmospheric air could be estimated from the activity ratios of 210Pb/214Pb. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Grant No. 291/965/1434).

  4. A comparative study of the indoor radon level with the radon exhalation rate from soil in Alexandria city.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Zaher, Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of the radiological risk related to the inhalation of radon and radon its progeny is based mainly on the integrated measurement of radon in both indoor and outdoor environments. The exhalation of radon from the earth's crust and building materials forms the main source of radon in the indoor environment. This study has been undertaken for the purpose of health risk assessment. In this comparative study, the indoor radon level, radium content, radon exhalation rate and concentration of soil radon are measured using the Can Technique. Soil samples were collected simultaneously from different geological formations of the same area for laboratory measurement of the radon exhalation rate. The radon exhalation rate was measured in the laboratory using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The indoor radon concentrations in this study area were found to vary from 44±9 to 132±31 Bq m(-3) with an average of 72±29 Bq m(-3). The seasonal variations of the indoor radon reveal the maximum values in the winter and in summer in different dwellings of Alexandria city. The annual effective dose varies from 0.75 to 2.2 mSv with an average value of 1.34 mSv. The radon exhalation rate was found to vary in the ranges 8.31-233.70×10(-3) Bq kg(-1) h(-1), 0.48-15.37 Bq m(-2) h(-1) with an average 47.97×10(-3) Bq kg(-1) h(-1), (3.14 Bq m(-2) h(-1)). The radium content in soil varies from 3.14 to 39.60 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 11.55 Bq kg(-1). The significance of this study is discussed in details from the point of view of radiation protection. PMID:23070484

  5. Molecular and Microscopic Analysis of Bacteria and Viruses in Exhaled Breath Collected Using a Simple Impaction and Condensing Method

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses. Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m3 in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5–1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

  6. Radon progeny size distributions and enhanced deposition effects from high radon concentrations in an enclosed chamber.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Bobby E

    2004-01-01

    Prior work studying radon progeny in a small enclosed chamber found that at high (222)Rn concentrations an enhanced surface deposition was observed. Subsequent measurements for unfiltered air showed minimal charged particle mobility influence. Progeny particle size measurements reported here, performed at the US Department of Energy Environmental Measurement Laboratory (now with Home Security Department), using the EML graded screen array (GSA) system show in unfiltered air that the high (222)Rn levels causes a reduction in the attached (218)Po progeny airborne particulates and formation of additional normal sized unattached ( approximately 0.80 nm) and also even smaller (218)Po below 0.50 nm. At a (222)Rn level of 51 kBq m(-3), 73% of all (218)Po are of a mean particle diameter of about 0.40 +/- 0.02 nm. At this (222)Rn level, the ratio of (218)Po to (222)Rn airborne concentrations is reduced significantly from the concentration ratio at low (222)Rn levels. Similar reductions and size reformations were observed for the (214)Pb and (214)Bi/Po progeny. The particle size changes are further confirmed using the plateout rates and corresponding deposition velocities. The Crump and Seinfeld deposition theory provides the corresponding particle diffusion coefficients. With the diffusion coefficient to ultrafine clustered particle diameter correlation of Ramamurthi and Hopke, good agreement is obtained between EML GSA and deposition velocity data down to 0.40 nm. Strong evidence is presented that the progeny size reduction is due to, as a result of air ionization, the increased neutralization rate (primarily from electron scavenging of OH molecules) of the initially charged progeny. This is shown to increase with the (1/2) power of (222)Rn concentration and relative humidity as well as increased air change rate in the chamber. These results imply that at (222)Rn levels above 50 kBq m(-3), at relative humidity of 52%, a considerable reduction in lung dose could occur from

  7. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    PubMed

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children. PMID:24857428

  8. Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using High Resolution Mm-Wave Rotational Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tianle; Branco, Daniela; Thomas, Jessica; Medvedev, Ivan; Dolson, David; Nam, Hyun-Joo; O, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy enables chemical sensors that are both sensitive and highly specific, which is well suited for analysis of expired human breath. We have previously reported on detection of breath ethanol, methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde using THz sensors. This paper will outline our present efforts in this area, with specific focus on our ongoing quest to correlate levels of blood glucose with concentrations of a few breath chemicals known to be affected by elevated blood sugar levels. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed. Fosnight, A.M., B.L. Moran, and I.R. Medvedev, Chemical analysis of exhaled human breath using a terahertz spectroscopic approach. Applied Physics Letters, 2013. 103(13): p. 133703-5.

  9. An Overview of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Children with Asthma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Devika R; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-05-01

    Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease and is characterized by lung inflammation. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is thought to reflect the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation, and is an easy, non-invasive test that has held promise in providing additional objective data. However, not all studies have shown a clinical benefit in the use of FeNO to guide management of asthma in children. This review will describe the results of the most recent studies examining the use of FeNO in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in infants, preschool-aged children and in school-aged children. It will aid the clinician in providing a clinical context in which FeNO may be most useful in treating pediatric asthma. PMID:26757849

  10. Exhaled breath condensate: a promising source for biomarkers of lung disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Yeligar, Samantha M; Brown, Lou Ann S

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been increasingly studied as a noninvasive research method for sampling the alveolar and airway space and is recognized as a promising source of biomarkers of lung diseases. Substances measured in EBC include oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid derivatives, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and inflammatory cytokines. Although EBC has great potential as a source of biomarkers in many lung diseases, the low concentrations of compounds within the EBC present challenges in sample collection and analysis. Although EBC is viewed as a noninvasive method for sampling airway lining fluid (ALF), validation is necessary to confirm that EBC truly represents the ALF. Likewise, a dilution factor for the EBC is needed in order to compare across subjects and determine changes in the ALF. The aims of this paper are to address the characteristics of EBC; strategies to standardize EBC sample collection and review available analytical techniques for EBC analysis. PMID:23365513

  11. Real-time measurement of inhaled and exhaled cigarette smoke: Implications for dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Conor; Warren, Nigel; Biggs, Philip; McAughey, John

    2009-02-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke aerosol is a two-step process involving puffing followed by inhalation. Measured smoke deposition efficiencies in the lung (20-70%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150 -- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of a series of studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. The studies have been conducted to better understand smoke dosimetry and links to disease as part of a wider programme defining risk and potential harm reduction. In this study, the average CMD of inhaled smoke was 160 nm while the average CMD of exhaled smoke was 239 nm with an average growth factor of 1.5.

  12. An Overview of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Devika R.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Asthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease and is characterized by lung inflammation. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is thought to reflect the presence of eosinophilic airway inflammation, and is an easy, non-invasive test that has held promise in providing additional objective data. However, not all studies have shown a clinical benefit in the use of FeNO to guide management of asthma in children. This review will describe the results of the most recent studies examining the use of FeNO in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma in infants, pre-school-aged children and in school-aged children. It will aid the clinician in providing a clinical context in which FeNO may be most useful in treating pediatric asthma. PMID:26757849

  13. Effect of Inhaled β2-Agonist on Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Mostafa; Cowan, Jan; Gray, Andrew; Brockway, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The fractional exhaled nitric oxide measured at an expiratory flow of 50mL/s (FENO50) is a marker of airway inflammation, and high levels are associated with greater response to steroid treatment. In asthma, FENO50 increases with bronchodilation and decreases with bronchoconstriction, the latter potentially causing an underestimate of the degree of airway inflammation when asthma worsens. It is unknown whether the same effect occurs in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Likewise, it is not known whether changes in airway calibre in COPD patients alter flow-independent parameters describing pulmonary nitric oxide exchange, such as the maximal flux of nitric oxide (NO) from the proximal airway compartment (J’awNO) and the distal airway/alveolar concentration of NO (CANO). We recruited 24 patients with COPD and performed FENO analysis at multiple expiratory flows before and after treatment with inhaled β2-agonist bronchodilator therapy. For the 21 patients analysed, FENO50 rose from 17.1 (1.4) ppb (geometric mean (geometric SD)) at baseline, to 19.3 (1.3) ppb after bronchodilator therapy, an increase of 2.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.7–3.6; P = 0.005). There were non-significant changes in flow-independent NO parameters. The change in FENO50 correlated positively with the change in J’awNO (rs = 0.67, P < 0.001; rs = 0.62, P = 0.002 before and after correction for axial back-diffusion respectively) following bronchodilation. Inhaled bronchodilator therapy can increase exhaled nitric oxide measurements in COPD. The standardisation of inhaled bronchodilator therapy before FENO analysis in COPD patients should therefore be considered in both research and clinical settings. PMID:27258087

  14. The identification of hypoxia biomarkers from exhaled breath under normobaric conditions.

    PubMed

    Harshman, Sean W; Geier, Brian A; Fan, Maomian; Rinehardt, Sage; Watts, Brandy S; Drummond, Leslie A; Preti, George; Phillips, Jeffrey B; Ott, Darrin K; Grigsby, Claude C

    2015-12-01

    Pilots have reported experiencing in-flight hypoxic-like symptoms since the inception of high-altitude aviation. As a result, the need to monitor pilots, in-flight, for the onset of hypoxic conditions is of great interest to the aviation community. We propose that exhaled breath is an appropriate non-invasive medium for monitoring pilot hypoxic risk through volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis. To identify changes in the exhaled breath VOCs produced during periods of reduced O2 levels, volunteers were exposed to simulated flight profiles, i.e. sea level for 5 min, O2 levels found at elevated altitudes for 5 min or placebo and 5 min at 100% O2 recovery gas, using a modified flight mask interfaced with a reduced O2 breathing device. During the course of these test events, time series breath samples from the flight mask and pre/post bag samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven compounds (pentanal, 4-butyrolactone, 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3-methylheptane and 2-heptanone) were found to significantly change in response to hypoxic conditions. Additionally, the isoprene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, was found to increase following the overall exposure profile. This study establishes an experimental means for monitoring changes in VOCs in response to hypoxic conditions, a computational workflow for compound analysis via the Metabolite Differentiation and Discovery Lab and MatLab(©) software and identifies potential volatile organic compound biomarkers of hypoxia exposure. PMID:26505091

  15. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Exhaled-Breath Bioaerosol Collector for Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, James J.; Koutrakis, Petros; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Fabian, M. Patricia; Martins, Marco; Pantelic, Jovan; Milton, Donald K.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the aerosol mode for transmission of influenza is unknown. Understanding the role of aerosols is essential to developing public health interventions such as the use of surgical masks as a source control to prevent the release of infectious aerosols. Little information is available on the number and size of particles generated by infected persons, which is partly due to the limitations of conventional air samplers, which do not efficiently capture fine particles or maintain microorganism viability. We designed and built a new sampler, called the G-II, that collects exhaled breath particles that can be used in infectivity analyses. The G-II allows test subjects to perform various respiratory maneuvers (i.e. tidal breathing, coughing, and talking) and allows subjects to wear a mask or respirator during testing. A conventional slit impactor collects particles > 5.0 μm. Condensation of water vapor is used to grow remaining particles, including fine particles, to a size large enough to be efficiently collected by a 1.0 μm slit impactor and be deposited into a buffer-containing collector. We evaluated the G-II for fine particle collection efficiency with inert particle aerosols and evaluated infective virus collection using influenza A virus aerosols. Testing results showed greater than 85% collection efficiency for particles greater than 50nm and influenza virus collection comparable with a reference SKC BioSampler®. The new design will enable determination of exhaled infectious virus generation rate and evaluate control strategies such as wearing a surgical type mask to prevent the release of viruses from infected persons. PMID:23418400

  16. Noninvasive Measurement of Plasma Triglycerides and Free Fatty Acids from Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Timothy Do Chau; Oliver, Stacy R; Flores, Rebecca L; Ngo, Jerry; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K; Midyett, Jason; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R; Galassetti, Pietro Renato

    2012-01-01

    Background Although altered metabolism has long been known to affect human breath, generating clinically usable metabolic tests from exhaled compounds has proven challenging. If developed, a breath-based lipid test would greatly simplify management of diabetes and serious pathological conditions (e.g., obesity, familial hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease), in which systemic lipid levels are a critical risk factor for onset and development of future cardiovascular events. Methods We, therefore, induced controlled fluctuations of plasma lipids (insulin-induced lipid suppression or intravenous infusion of Intralipid) during 4-h in vivo experiments on 23 healthy volunteers (12 males/11 females, 28.0 ± 0.3 years) to find correlations between exhaled volatile organic compounds and plasma lipids. In each subject, plasma triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations were both directly measured and calculated via individualized prediction equations based on the multiple linear regression analysis of a cluster of 4 gases. In the lipid infusion protocol, we also generated common prediction equations using a maximum of 10 gases. Results This analysis yielded strong correlations between measured and predicted values during both lipid suppression (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.90 for FFA) and lipid infusion (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.94 for FFA) studies. In our most accurate common prediction model, measured and predicted TG and FFA values also displayed very strong statistical agreement (r = 0.86 and r = 0.81, respectively). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring plasma lipids through breath analysis. Optimization of this technology may ultimately lead to the development of portable breath analyzers for plasma lipids, replacing blood-based bioassays. PMID:22401327

  17. Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate of allergic asthma patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Zietkowski, Ziemowit; Skiepko, Roman; Tomasiak, Maria M; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a highly prevalent condition, whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Endothelins are proinflammatory, profibrotic, broncho- and vasoconstrictive peptides which play an important role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelin-1 levels in exhaled breath condensate following intensive exercise in asthmatic patients. Methods The study was conducted in a group of 19 asthmatic patients (11 with EIB, 8 without EIB) and 7 healthy volunteers. Changes induced by intensive exercise in the concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) during 24 hours after an exercise challenge test were determined. Moreover, the possible correlations of these measurements with the results of other tests commonly associated with asthma and with the changes of airway inflammation after exercise were observed. Results In asthmatic patients with EIB a statistically significant increase in the concentration of ET-1 in EBC collected between 10 minutes and 6 hours after an exercise test was observed. The concentration of ET-1 had returned to its initial level 24 hours after exercise. No effects of the exercise test on changes in the concentrations of ET-1 in EBC in either asthmatic patients without EIB or healthy volunteers were observed. A statistically significant correlation between the maximum increase in ET-1 concentrations in EBC after exercise and either baseline FENO and the increase in FENO or BHR to histamine 24 hours after exercise in the groups of asthmatics with EIB was revealed. Conclusion The release of ET-1 from bronchial epithelium through the influence of many inflammatory cells essential in asthma and interactions with other cytokines, may play an important role in increase of airway inflammation which was observed after postexercise bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. PMID:17973986

  18. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Exhaled-Breath Bioaerosol Collector for Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, James J; Koutrakis, Petros; Ferguson, Stephen T; Wolfson, Jack M; Fabian, M Patricia; Martins, Marco; Pantelic, Jovan; Milton, Donald K

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the aerosol mode for transmission of influenza is unknown. Understanding the role of aerosols is essential to developing public health interventions such as the use of surgical masks as a source control to prevent the release of infectious aerosols. Little information is available on the number and size of particles generated by infected persons, which is partly due to the limitations of conventional air samplers, which do not efficiently capture fine particles or maintain microorganism viability. We designed and built a new sampler, called the G-II, that collects exhaled breath particles that can be used in infectivity analyses. The G-II allows test subjects to perform various respiratory maneuvers (i.e. tidal breathing, coughing, and talking) and allows subjects to wear a mask or respirator during testing. A conventional slit impactor collects particles > 5.0 μm. Condensation of water vapor is used to grow remaining particles, including fine particles, to a size large enough to be efficiently collected by a 1.0 μm slit impactor and be deposited into a buffer-containing collector. We evaluated the G-II for fine particle collection efficiency with inert particle aerosols and evaluated infective virus collection using influenza A virus aerosols. Testing results showed greater than 85% collection efficiency for particles greater than 50nm and influenza virus collection comparable with a reference SKC BioSampler®. The new design will enable determination of exhaled infectious virus generation rate and evaluate control strategies such as wearing a surgical type mask to prevent the release of viruses from infected persons. PMID:23418400

  19. Progress in the Development of Volatile Exhaled Breath Signatures of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Lim, Sung; Jett, James; Choi, Humberto; Zhang, Qi; Beukemann, Mary; Seeley, Meredith; Martino, Ray; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Volatile organic compounds present in the exhaled breath have shown promise as biomarkers of lung cancer. Advances in colorimetric sensor array technology, breath collection methods, and clinical phenotyping may lead to the development of a more accurate breath biomarker. Objectives: Perform a discovery-level assessment of the accuracy of a colorimetric sensor array–based volatile breath biomarker. Methods: Subjects with biopsy-confirmed untreated lung cancer, and others at risk for developing lung cancer, performed tidal breathing into a breath collection instrument designed to expose a colorimetric sensor array to the alveolar portion of the breath. Random forest models were built from the sensor output of 70% of the study subjects and were tested against the remaining 30%. Models were developed to separate cancer and subgroups from control, and to characterize the cancer. Additional models were developed after matching the clinical phenotypes of cancer and control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: Ninety-seven subjects with lung cancer and 182 control subjects participated. The accuracies, reported as C-statistics, for models of cancer and subgroups versus control ranged from 0.794 to 0.861. The accuracy was improved by developing models for cancer and control groups selected through propensity matching for clinical variables. A model built using only subjects from the largest available clinical subgroup (49 subjects) had a C-statistic of 0.982. Models developed and tested to characterize cancer histology, and to compare early- with late-stage cancer, had C-statistics of 0.881–0.960. Conclusions: The colorimetric sensor array signature of exhaled breath volatile organic compounds was capable of distinguishing patients with lung cancer from clinically relevant control subjects in a discovery level trial. The incorporation of clinical phenotypes into the further development of this biomarker may optimize its accuracy. PMID:25965541

  20. Real time detection of exhaled human breath using quantum cascade laser based sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Liu, Kun; Risby, Terence H.; Solga, Steven; Schwartz, Tim

    2012-02-01

    The development and performance of a cw, TE-cooled DFB quantum cascade laser based sensor for quantitative measurements of ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations present in exhaled breath will be reported. Human breath contains ~ 500 different chemical species, usually at ultra low concentration levels, which can serve as biomarkers for the identification and monitoring of human diseases or wellness states. By monitoring NH3 concentration levels in exhaled breath a fast, non-invasive diagnostic method for treatment of patients with liver and kidney disorders, is feasible. The NH3 concentration measurements were performed with a 2f wavelength modulation quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique, which is suitable for real time breath measurements, due to the fast gas exchange inside a compact QEPAS gas cell. A Hamamatsu air-cooled high heat load (HHL) packaged CW DFB-QCL is operated at 17.5°C, targeting the optimum interference free NH3 absorption line at 967.35 cm-1 (λ~10.34 μm), with ~ 20 mW of optical power. The sensor architecture includes a reference cell, filled with a 2000 ppmv NH3 :N2 mixture at 130 Torr, which is used for absorption line-locking. A minimum detection limit (1σ) for the line locked NH3 sensor is ~ 6 ppbv (with a 1σ 1 sec time resolution of the control electronics). This NH3 sensor was installed in late 2010 and is being clinically tested at St. Luke's Hospital in Bethlehem, PA.

  1. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreases following oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Bikov, Andras; Pako, Judit; Montvai, David; Kovacs, Dorottya; Koller, Zsofia; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Horvath, Ildiko

    2015-12-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH is a widely measured non-invasive marker of airway acidity. However, some methodological aspects have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on EBC pH in attempt to better standardize its measurement. Seventeen healthy subjects (24  ±  2 years, 6 men, 11 women) participated in the study. EBC collection and capillary blood glucose measurements were performed before as well as 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after a standardized OGTT test. The rate of respiratory droplet dilution and pH were evaluated in EBC. Blood glucose significantly increased at 30 min and maintained elevation after 60 and 120 min following OGTT. Compared to baseline (7.99  ±  0.25) EBC pH significantly decreased immediately after OGTT (7.41  ±  0.47); this drop sustained over 30 (7.44  ±  0.72) and 60 min (7.62  ±  0.44) without a significant difference at 120 min (7.78  ±  0.26). No change was observed in the rate of respiratory droplet dilution. There was no relationship between blood glucose and EBC pH values. Sugar intake may significantly decrease EBC pH. This effect needs to be considered when performing EBC pH studies. Further experiments are also warranted to investigate the effect of diet on other exhaled biomarkers. PMID:26669903

  2. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    PubMed

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-12-01

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values. PMID:26582819

  3. Cancerous glucose metabolism in lung cancer-evidence from exhaled breath analysis.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Tali; Alkoby-Meshulam, Layah; Herbig, Jens; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Gai Mor, Naomi; Bar, Jair; Ilouze, Maya; Haick, Hossam; Peled, Nir

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cells prefer hyperglycolysis versus oxidative phosphorylation, even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon is used through the FDG-PET scans, and may affect the exhaled volatile signature. This study investigates the volatile signature in lung cancer (LC) before and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to determine if tumor cells' hyperglycolysis would affect the volatile signature. Blood glucose levels and exhaled breath samples were analyzed before the OGTT, and 90 min after, in both LC patients and controls. The volatile signature was measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Twenty-two LC patients (age 66.6  ±  12.7) with adenocarcinoma (n  =  14), squamous (n  =  6), small cell carcinoma (n  =  2), and twenty-one controls (age 54.4  ±  13.7; 10 non-smokers and 11 smokers) were included. All LC patients showed a hyperglycolytic state in their FDG-PET scans. Both baseline and post OGTT volatile signatures discriminate between the groups. The OGTT has a minimal effect in LC (a decrease in m/z 54 by 39%, p v  =  0.0499); whereas in the control group, five masses (m/z 64, 87,88, 142 and 161) changed by  -13%, -49%, -40% and  -29% and 46% respectively. To conclude, OGTT has a minimal effect on the VOC signature in LC patients, where a hyperglycolytic state already exists. In contrast, in the control group the OGTT has a profound effect in which induced hyperglycolysis significantly changed the VOC pattern. We hypothesized that a ceiling effect in cancerous patients is responsible for this discrepancy. PMID:27272440

  4. Exhaled nitric oxide and urinary EPX levels in infants: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective markers of early airway inflammation in infants are not established but are of great interest in a scientific setting. Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and urinary eosinophilic protein X (uEPX) are a two such interesting markers. Objective To investigate the feasibility of measuring FeNO and uEPX in infants and their mothers and to determine if any relations between these two variables and environmental factors can be seen in a small sample size. This was conducted as a pilot study for the ongoing Swedish Environmental Longitudinal Mother and child Asthma and allergy study (SELMA). Methods Consecutive infants between two and six months old and their mothers at children's health care centres were invited, and 110 mother-infant pairs participated. FeNO and uEPX were analysed in both mothers and infants. FeNO was analyzed in the mothers online by the use of the handheld Niox Mino device and in the infants offline from exhaled air sampled during tidal breathing. A 33-question multiple-choice questionnaire that dealt with symptoms of allergic disease, heredity, and housing characteristics was used. Results FeNO levels were reduced in infants with a history of upper respiratory symptoms during the previous two weeks (p < 0.002). There was a trend towards higher FeNO levels in infants with windowpane condensation in the home (p < 0.05). There was no association between uEPX in the infants and the other studied variables. Conclusion The use of uEPX as a marker of early inflammation was not supported. FeNO levels in infants were associated to windowpane condensation. Measuring FeNO by the present method may be an interesting way of evaluating early airway inflammation. In a major population study, however, the method is difficult to use, for practical reasons. PMID:21575173

  5. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Exchange Parameters Among 9-Year-Old Inner-City Children

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria José; Divjan, Adnan; Hoepner, Lori; Sheares, Beverley J.; Diaz, Diurka; Gauvey-Kern, Kevin; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objectives and Hypothesis To determine the feasibility of using a multiple flow offline fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) collection method in an inner-city cohort and determine this population’s alveolar and conducting airway contributions of NO. We hypothesized that the flow independent NO parameters would be associated differentially with wheeze and seroatopy. Methods As part of a birth cohort study, 9-year-old children (n = 102) of African-American and Dominican mothers living in low-income NYC neighborhoods had FeNO samples collected offline at constant flow rates of 50, 83, and 100 ml/sec. Seroatopy was defined as having measurable (≥0.35 IU/ml) specific IgE to any of the five inhalant indoor allergens tested. Current wheeze (last 12 months) was assessed by ISAAC questionnaire. Bronchial NO flux (JNO) and alveolar NO concentration (Calv) were estimated by the Pietropaoli and Hogman methods. Results Valid exhalation flow rates were achieved in 96% of the children. Children with seroatopy (53%) had significantly higher median JNO (522 pl/sec vs. 161 pl/sec, P < 0.001) when compared to non-seroatopic children; however, median Calv was not significantly different between these two groups (5.5 vs. 5.8, P= 0.644). Children with wheeze in the past year (21.6%) had significantly higher median Calv (8.4 ppb vs. 4.9 ppb, P < 0.001), but not JNO (295 pl/sec vs. 165 pl/sec, P = 0.241) when compared with children without wheeze. These associations remained stable after adjustment for known confounders/covariates. Conclusions The multiple flow method was easily implemented in this pediatric inner-city cohort. In this study population, alveolar concentration of NO may be a better indicator of current wheeze than single flow FeNO. PMID:20848585

  6. Radiological characterization of a uranium mine with no mining activity

    PubMed

    Lozano; Vera Tome F; Gomez Escobar V; Blanco Rodriguez P

    2000-07-01

    We report a radiological study of a uranium mine located in Extremadura, in the south-west of Spain, in which mining work had ceased. One interest in the work is that the results can be used as a reference for the future evaluation of the effects produced by the restoration program. The radiological parameters selected to estimate the impact of the inactive mine were: 222Rn in air and water, 222Rn exhalation, effective 226Ra in soils and sediments, and natural uranium and 226Ra in water. Chemical analyses of water samples and measurements of meteorological variables were also made. Average values of these radiological parameters are presented. We characterize the zone radiologically and estimate the influence of the mine on the basis of some of these parameters, while others are used to reflect the status of the installation, information which could be very useful in the near future when restoration is complete. PMID:10879882

  7. Zn/Cd ratios and cadmium isotope evidence for the classification of lead-zinc deposits

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hanjie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Zhang, Yuxu; Cloquet, Christophe; Fan, Haifeng; Fu, Shaohong

    2016-01-01

    Lead-zinc deposits are often difficult to classify because clear criteria are lacking. In recent years, new tools, such as Cd and Zn isotopes, have been used to better understand the ore-formation processes and to classify Pb-Zn deposits. Herein, we investigate Cd concentrations, Cd isotope systematics and Zn/Cd ratios in sphalerite from nine Pb-Zn deposits divided into high-temperature systems (e.g., porphyry), low-temperature systems (e.g., Mississippi Valley type [MVT]) and exhalative systems (e.g., sedimentary exhalative [SEDEX]). Our results showed little evidence of fractionation in the high-temperature systems. In the low-temperature systems, Cd concentrations were the highest, but were also highly variable, a result consistent with the higher fractionation of Cd at low temperatures. The δ114/110Cd values in low-temperature systems were enriched in heavier isotopes (mean of 0.32 ± 0.31‰). Exhalative systems had the lowest Cd concentrations, with a mean δ114/110Cd value of 0.12 ± 0.50‰. We thus conclude that different ore-formation systems result in different characteristic Cd concentrations and fraction levels and that low-temperature processes lead to the most significant fractionation of Cd. Therefore, Cd distribution and isotopic studies can support better understanding of the geochemistry of ore-formation processes and the classification of Pb-Zn deposits. PMID:27121538

  8. [A sigh increases motivation for difficult and monotonous tasks: The effect of one-time voluntary brief exhalation on relief and achievement needs].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kana; Yamamoto, Yumi; Sugamura, Genji

    2016-06-01

    We tested possible intrapersonal effects of a sigh as a psychological "resetter/rebooter." Fifty-eight undergraduates were randomly assigned to a sigh or a normal exhalation (control) group. We asked participants on each task to model the experimenter demonstrating how to exhale air into a small plastic bag for breathing manipulation under the pretext that we were interested in the exhaled gas in stressful situations. Results revealed that the sigh group did not experience more relief (as shown by prolonged reaction time) after exposure to threat stimuli, but showed more persistence on a highly-difficult puzzle task (p = .03, d = .62) and more willingness to continue working on a monotonous task (p < .10, d = .48), than the normal exhalation group. A sigh may have an adaptive function to motivate further work; although it may not induce relief--suggesting that a "sigh of refresh" is a voluntary but a "sigh of relief" is an involuntary response. PMID:27476263

  9. Estimating ground-water influx to a portion of the Rio Grande de Manati River basin in Puerto Rico through the measurement of 222Rn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellins, K.K.; Roman-Mas, Angel; Lee, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Water has become a critical commodity in the Caribbean Region. In spite of a relative abundance of rainfall even on the smaller islands, the region is faced with severe seasonal shortages as well as increasing water quality problems. The supply of thewater needs in the area will become even more critical as economic development accelerates and the population continues to increase. The development of the necessary infrastructure to supply the water needs of the next 30 years will require large capital investments. Perhaps even more important, it will require training of scientists and technicians in the investigation and management of the limited waterresources. The lack of trained personnel could be the most important factor in the solution of the water resources problems in the region. The principal objectives of this ' Third Caribbean Islands Water Resources Congress ', were to provide a focus for the transfer of technology on hydrology and water resources investigations in the region. The severe quality problems that affect water supplies in the U.S. Virgin Islands are the subject of two papers. The importance of a reliable data base on water use in small islands is considered in a paper on water use in St. Croix. Advanced techniques are discussed on how to measure groundwater contributions to runoff, use of geochemical techniques for interpretation of water quality characteristics, use of dye tracers in karst areas, simulation of small island 's aquifers, and use of borehole geophysical tools to estimate moisture. The contamination of groundwater resources is discussed in several papers focusing on monitoring, sludge management, and environmental assessment. (See W89-04666 thru W89-04682) (Lantz-PTT) 

  10. A follow-up study on indoor 222Rn, 220Rn their decay product concentrations in a mineralised zone of Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, B S; Singh, Parminder; Singh, Prabhjot; Saini, Komal; Singh, Surinder; Sahoo, B K; Sapra, B K

    2016-03-01

    A follow-up study was taken up in a mineralised zone situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, to investigate high values of radon concentrations reported in past studies as well to update the old radon data based on bare SSNTD technique. In the present investigation, the concentrations of indoor radon, thoron and their decay products have been measured using the newly developed radon/thoron discriminating diffusion chamber with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS), respectively. The measurements have been carried out in 75 dwellings of 14 different villages where the previous studies were carried out using bare SSNTD technique. It was observed that high values of earlier reported radon concentrations were mainly due to thoron interference in the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 type II) exposed in bare mode. Now, the average concentration values and the estimated annual inhalation dose in these villages have been found to be within the reference level as recommended by the ICRP. The annual average indoor radon and thoron concentrations observed in these dwellings have been found to vary from 44±12 to 157±73 Bq m(-3) and 44±11 to 240±125 Bq m(-3), respectively. The equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon and thoron decay products have been observed to be in the range of 10 to 63 and 1 to 5 Bq m(-3), respectively. PMID:26184660

  11. One year of real-time radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano and the effect of environmental parameters on 222Rn concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigolini, C.; Laiolo, M.; Coppola, D.; Piscopo, D.; Bertolino, S.

    2009-12-01

    Real-time radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano has been operative within the last two years. In this contribution we will discuss the recent one-year-long time series analyses in the light of environmental parameters. Two sites for real-time monitoring have been identified by means of a network of periodic radon surveys in order to locate the areas of more efficient response to seismic transients and/or volcanic degassing. Two real-time stations are positioned at Stromboli: one at the summit and located along a fracture zone where the gas flux is concentrated, and the second one at a lower altitude in a sector of diffuse degassing. The signals of the two time-series are essentially concordant but radon concentrations are considerably higher at the summit station. Raw data show that there is a negative correlation between radon emissions and seasonal temperature variations, whereas the correlation with atmospheric pressure is negative for the site of diffuse degassing and sligthly positive for the station lacated along the summit fracture zone. These data and the previously collected ones show that SW winds may substantially decrease radon concentrations at the summit station. Multivarite regression statistics on the radon signals in the light of the above enviromental parameters and tidal forces, may contribute to better idenfify the correlation between radon emissions and variations in volcanic activity. Fig. 1. Radon monitoring stations at Stromboli and the two major summit faults. Stars identify sites for real-time monitoring: LSC and PZZ. The diamond is the location of the automated Labronzo Station. Full dots are stations for periodic measurements using alpha track-etches detectors and E-PERM® electrets. Inset with the location of Stromboli and the major structures of the Aeolian arc.

  12. Evaluation and source attribution of freshwater contributions to Kinvarra Bay, Ireland, using (222)Rn, EC and stable isotopes as natural indicators.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael; Knoeller, Kay; Rocha, Carlos; Einsiedl, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Freshwater discharge into the coastal sea is of general interest for two reasons: (i) It acts as vehicle for the transport of contaminants or nutrients into the ocean, and (ii) it indicates the loss of significant volumes of freshwater that might be needed for irrigation or drinking water supply. Due to the large-scale and long-term nature of the related hydrological processes, locating and quantitatively assessing freshwater discharge into the sea require naturally occurring tracers that allow fast, inexpensive and straightforward detection. In several studies, the standard water parameters electrical conductivity (EC) and pH have proven their suitability in this regard. However, while distribution patterns of EC and pH in the coastal sea indicate freshwater discharge in general, a separation between discharging surface water and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is not possible with these alone. The naturally occurring radionuclide radon-222 has been shown to be useful in the quantification of SGD and its distinction from surface runoff. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the informative value of the three parameters-EC, pH and radon concentration-in detecting and quantifying SGD by carrying out a case study in a bay located in western Ireland. The results reveal that radon activity is the most sensitive parameter for detecting SGD. However, only the combined evaluation of radon, EC and pH allows a quantitative allocation of groundwater and surface water contributions to the overall freshwater discharge into the sea. This conclusion is independently supported by stable isotope data measured on selected samples. PMID:25666648

  13. {sup 222}Rn in water: A comparison of two sample collection methods and two sample transport methods, and the determination of temporal variation in North Carolina ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, J.H. III

    1994-12-31

    Objectives of this field experiment were: (1) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the radon concentrations of samples collected by EPA`s standard method, using a syringe, and an alternative, slow-flow method; (2) determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the measured radon concentrations of samples mailed vs samples not mailed; and (3) determine whether there was a temporal variation of water radon concentration over a 7-month period. The field experiment was conducted at 9 sites, 5 private wells, and 4 public wells, at various locations in North Carolina. Results showed that a syringe is not necessary for sample collection, there was generally no significant radon loss due to mailing samples, and there was statistically significant evidence of temporal variations in water radon concentrations.

  14. [Radon 222Rn in residential buildings of Swieradów Zdrój and Czerniawa Zdrój].

    PubMed

    Pachocki, K A; Gorzkowski, B; Rózycki, Z; Wilejczyk, E; Smoter, J

    2000-01-01

    Swieradrów Zdrój and Czerniawa Zdrój are located in Region Izera Block. A total of 789 radon passive dosimeters were distributed in 183 dwellings in these town Swieradów Zdrój and Czerniawa Zdrój to measure the indoor radon concentration in 1999. Three-five measurements were performed in each dwelling, one in the basement, and the others in the main bedroom, in the kitchen, in the bathroom, since these rooms are the most frequently occupied. In addition, the occupants of each dwelling were requested to answer a questionnaire in which a number of questions about the building, ventilation habits and other related aspects were formulated. A charcoal detectors (Pico-Rad system) were used in experiment. It is a passive short-term screening method of radon gas concentration measurements. The indoor radon level was found to range from 14.8 Bq/m3 to 5,723.9 Bq/m3. The arithmetic mean overall indoor concentration was 420.4 Bq/m3 and the geometric mean was 159.7 Bq/m3. The average concentration of indoor radon, which reflects the real risk for inhabitants, is 193.5 Bq/m3. The results hand a log-normal distribution. In Poland, an action level of 400 Bq/m3 was recommended for existing buildings and 200 Bq/m3 for newly built (after 1.01.1998) buildings. In about 23% rooms the level of Rn-222 were above the top limit of 400 Bq/m3. The highest average concentrations were present in a basement (mean 919.9 Bq/m3). A decrease of average activity were observed at the upper levels: at the ground floor (225.2 Bq/m3), at the first floor and at the higher floors (137.6 Bq/m3). The above results indicate that radon emission from the ground provides the main contribution to the radon concentration measured in dwellings indoors in Swieradów Zdrój and Czerniawa Zdrój. The effective dose to the population of the Swieradów Zdrój and Czerniawa Zdrój from indoor radon and its progeny can be derived from this data if we use an equilibrium factor of 0.4 between radon and its progeny and assuming an indoor occupation index of 0.8. Taking into account that a conversion coefficient of 1.1 mSv per mJ h m-3 is recommended in ICRP 65 for members of public, the measured average annual dose is then about 3.3 mSv per year. PMID:11138485

  15. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  16. Exhaled breath profiling using broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy in healthy children and children with asthma and cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    van Mastrigt, E; Reyes-Reyes, A; Brand, K; Bhattacharya, N; Urbach, H P; Stubbs, A P; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled breath analysis is a potential non-invasive tool for diagnosing and monitoring airway diseases. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrochemical sensor arrays are the main techniques to detect volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath. We developed a broadband quantum cascade laser spectroscopy technique for VOC detection and identification. The objective of this study was to assess the repeatability of exhaled breath profiling with broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy and to explore the clinical applicability by comparing exhaled breath samples from healthy children with those from children with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF). Healthy children and children with stable asthma or stable CF, aged 6-18 years, were included. Two to four exhaled breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed by quantum cascade laser spectroscopy to detect VOCs with an absorption profile in the wavenumber region between 832 and 1262.55 cm(-1). We included 35 healthy children, 39 children with asthma and 15 with CF. Exhaled breath VOC profiles showed poor repeatability (Spearman's rho  =  0.36 to 0.46) and agreement of the complete profiles. However, we were able to discriminate healthy children from children with stable asthma or stable CF and identified VOCs that were responsible for this discrimination. Broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy detected differences in VOC profiles in exhaled breath samples between healthy children and children with asthma or CF. The combination of a relatively easy and fast method and the possibility of molecule identification makes broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy attractive to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of volatiles in exhaled breath. PMID:27058305

  17. Detection and Quantification of Benzothiazoles in Exhaled Breath and Exhaled Breath Condensate by Real-Time Secondary Electrospray Ionization-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Diego; Bregy, Lukas; Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Gaisl, Thomas; Kohler, Malcolm; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-10-20

    2-Subtituted benzothiazoles are widely used industrial chemicals whose occurrence in environmental samples has been shown to be ubiquitous. However, knowledge about human exposure to these compounds and their excretion route is still scarce. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the detection of benzothiazole derivatives in exhaled breath. Real-time analysis of breath was carried out by means of secondary electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. This coupling allowed not only the detection of these compounds in breath with a sensitivity in the pptv range but also their robust identification by comparing tandem high-resolution mass spectra from breath and standards. For further confirmation, benzothiazoles were also determined in exhaled breath condensate samples by means of ultra high-performance liquid chromatography. This approach strengthened the identification as a result of excellent matches in retention times and also allowed quantification. An estimated total daily exhalation of ca. 20 μg day(-1) was calculated for the six benzothiazole derivatives found in breath. PMID:26390299

  18. A profile of volatile organic compounds in exhaled air as a potential non-invasive biomarker for liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Pijls, Kirsten E.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.; Dallinga, Jan W.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Koek, Ger H.; van Schooten, Frederik-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis may prevent progression and development of complications. Liver biopsy is the current standard, but is invasive and associated with morbidity. We aimed to identify exhaled volatiles within a heterogeneous group of chronic liver disease (CLD) patients that discriminates those with compensated cirrhosis (CIR) from those without cirrhosis, and compare this with serological markers. Breath samples were collected from 87 CLD and 34 CIR patients. Volatiles in exhaled air were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Discriminant Analysis was performed to identify the optimal panel of serological markers and VOCs for classifying our patients using a random training set of 27 CIR and 27 CLD patients. Two randomly selected independent internal validation sets and permutation test were used to validate the model. 5 serological markers were found to distinguish CIR and CLD patients with a sensitivity of 0.71 and specificity of 0.84. A set of 11 volatiles discriminated CIR from CLD patients with sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.87. Combining both did not further improve accuracy. A specific exhaled volatile profile can predict the presence of compensated cirrhosis among CLD patients with a higher accuracy than serological markers and can aid in reducing liver biopsies. PMID:26822454

  19. Randomized placebo controlled assessment of airway inflammation due to racemic albuterol and levalbuterol via exhaled nitric oxide testing

    PubMed Central

    Freiler, John F; Arora, Rajiv; Kelley, Thomas C; Hagan, Larry; Allan, Patrick F

    2006-01-01

    Study Objectives The S-stereoisomer found in racemic albuterol may have associated proinflammatory properties. We tested the hypothesis that airway inflammation as assessed by exhaled nitric oxide is no different in patients with COPD when using racemic albuterol relative to levalbuterol or placebo. Measurements Twelve mild to moderate COPD patients were assigned to five days each of nebulized racemic albuterol, levalbuterol, and saline placebo. Before and after each course of treatment, airway inflammation was assessed via exhaled nitric oxide breath testing. Secondary functional outcomes that were measured included spirometry, a functional assessment utilizing a six-minute walk, and symptoms score using the University of California, San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire. Results There was no statistically significant difference in pre and post FeNO levels within and between treatment groups (p = 0.121). There were also no significant differences within or between treatment groups for the secondary outcome measurements of FEV1 (p = 0.913), functional assessment utilizing a six-minute walk (p = 0.838) and the symptom scores using Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (p = 0.500). Conclusion We found no difference in mild to moderate COPD patients treated with racemic albuterol, levalbuterol or placebo for measurement of exhaled nitric oxide or the secondary outcomes that were measured. PMID:18044102

  20. Exhaled breath analysis in childhood rheumatic disorders--a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hendel, N; Akmatov, M K; Hamel, J; Vogelberg, C; Pessler, F

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO50) and deaerated exhaled breath condensate pH (dEBCpH) as non-invasive markers of subclinical airway inflammation in pediatric patients with rheumatologic disorders. We determined FENO50 and dEBCpH in a prospective study spanning at least 12 months, comprising 85 pediatric patients with rheumatologic disorders, including juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, n  =  63), chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO, n  =  6), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n  =  3), juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM, n  =  1) and other rheumatic disorders (n  =  12). dEBCpH was determined once in a group of children without evidence of rheumatologic or pulmonary disease (controls, n  =  90). Findings were correlated with results of pulmonary function tests. Atopic sensitization was assessed by RAST or skin prick test in 76 patients. Atopic sensitization was detected in 34% (26/76) of patients. Neither FENO50 nor dEBCpH correlated with disease activity, but intermediately (20-35 ppb) or highly elevated (>35 ppb) levels were observed at least once in 26 patients (31%), 19 of whom had atopic sensitization. Median dEBCpH did not differ between cases and controls (8.05 versus 8.02; p  =  0.48). Median dEBCpH decreased slightly over the study period (p  =  0.02), whereas FENO50 values did not change significantly (p  =  0.89). There were several patients with significantly abnormal dEBCpH values that could not be readily explained by diagnosis, higher disease activity, medications, or atopic sensitization. Thus, there were no consistent abnormalities in FENO50 or dEBCpH in this cohort of Caucasian patients with relatively stable rheumatologic disorders, but there were some patients with abnormal values of unknown significance. PMID:27093271

  1. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 9}, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9}, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 9} part. cm{sup −3} for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10{sup 10}, 5.2 × 10{sup 10} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number

  2. Measurement of offline exhaled nitric oxide in a study of community exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, J Q; Jansen, K; Mar, T F; Lumley, T; Kaufman, J; Trenga, C A; Sullivan, J; Liu, L-J S; Shapiro, G G; Larson, T V

    2003-01-01

    As part of a large panel study in Seattle, Washington, we measured levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in children's homes and fixed-site particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 micro m or less (PM(2.5)) outside and inside the homes as well as personal PM(2.5) during winter and spring sessions of 2000-2001. Nineteen subjects 6-13 years of age participated; 9 of the 19 were on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy. Exhaled breath measurements were collected offline into a Mylar balloon for up to 10 consecutive days. Mean eNO values were 19.1 (SD +/- 11.4) ppb in winter sessions and 12.5 +/- 6.6 ppb in spring sessions. Fixed-site PM(2.5) mean concentrations were 10.1 +/- 5.7 microg/m(3) outside homes and 13.3 +/- 1.4 inside homes; the personal PM(2.5) mean was 13.4 +/- 3.2 microg/m(3). We used a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept and an interaction term for medications to test for within-subject-within-session associations between eNO and various PM(2.5) values. We found a 10 microg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) from the outdoor, indoor, personal, and central-site measurements that was associated with increases in eNO in all subjects at lag day zero. The effect was 4.3 ppb [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-7.29] with the outdoor monitor, 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.02-7.4) for the indoor monitor, 4.5 ppb (95% CI, 1.02-7.9) with the personal monitor, and 3.8 ppb (95% CI, 1.2-6.4) for the central monitors. The interaction term for medication category (ICS users vs. nonusers) was significant in all analyses. These findings suggest that eNO can be used as an assessment tool in epidemiologic studies of health effects of air pollution. PMID:14527842

  3. Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-11-01

    The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to β - α determined by the isoscaling (α (β) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

  4. Determining Urea Levels in Exhaled Breath Condensate with Minimal Preparation Steps and Classic LC–MS

    PubMed Central

    Pitiranggon, Masha; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Xu, Dongqun; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a relatively easy, non-invasive method for measuring biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the airways. However, the levels of these biomarkers in EBC are influenced, not only by their levels in lung lining fluid but also by the volume of water vapor that also condenses during EBC collection. For this reason, the use of a biomarker of dilution has been recommended. Urea has been proposed and utilized as a promising dilution biomarker due to its even distribution throughout the body and relatively low volatility. Current EBC urea analytical methods either are not sensitive enough, necessitating large volumes of EBC, or are labor intensive, requiring a derivatization step or other pretreatment. We report here a straightforward and reliable LC–MS approach that we developed that does not require derivatization or large sample volume (∼36 µL). An Acclaim mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was selected because it can produce good peak symmetry and efficiently separate urea from other polar and nonpolar compounds. To achieve a high recovery rate, a slow and incomplete evaporation method was used followed by a solvent-phase exchange. Among EBC samples collected from 28 children, urea levels were found to be highly variable, with a relative standard deviation of 234%, suggesting high variability in dilution of the lung lining fluid component of EBC. The limit of detection was found to be 0.036 µg/mL. PMID:24190872

  5. Determining urea levels in exhaled breath condensate with minimal preparation steps and classic LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Pitiranggon, Masha; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Kinney, Patrick L; Xu, Dongqun; Chillrud, Steven N; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-10-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a relatively easy, non-invasive method for measuring biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the airways. However, the levels of these biomarkers in EBC are influenced, not only by their levels in lung lining fluid but also by the volume of water vapor that also condenses during EBC collection. For this reason, the use of a biomarker of dilution has been recommended. Urea has been proposed and utilized as a promising dilution biomarker due to its even distribution throughout the body and relatively low volatility. Current EBC urea analytical methods either are not sensitive enough, necessitating large volumes of EBC, or are labor intensive, requiring a derivatization step or other pretreatment. We report here a straightforward and reliable LC-MS approach that we developed that does not require derivatization or large sample volume (∼36 µL). An Acclaim mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was selected because it can produce good peak symmetry and efficiently separate urea from other polar and nonpolar compounds. To achieve a high recovery rate, a slow and incomplete evaporation method was used followed by a solvent-phase exchange. Among EBC samples collected from 28 children, urea levels were found to be highly variable, with a relative standard deviation of 234%, suggesting high variability in dilution of the lung lining fluid component of EBC. The limit of detection was found to be 0.036 µg/mL. PMID:24190872

  6. Exhaled breath condensate for lung cancer protein analysis: a review of methods and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sarah A; Haefliger, Simon; Harris, Benjamin; Pavlakis, Nick; Clarke, Stephen J; Molloy, Mark P; Howell, Viive M

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and is considered one of the most aggressive human cancers, with a 5 year overall survival of 10-15%. Early diagnosis of lung cancer is ideal; however, it is still uncertain as to what technique will prove successful in the systematic screening of high-risk populations, with the strongest evidence currently supporting low dose computed tomography (LDCT). Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has recently been proposed as an alternative low risk and non-invasive screening method to investigate early-stage neoplastic processes in the airways. However, there still remains a relative paucity of lung cancer research involving EBC, particularly in the measurement of lung proteins that are centrally linked to pathogenesis. Considering the ease and safety associated with EBC collection, and advances in the area of mass spectrometry based profiling, this technology has potential for use in screening for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. This review will examine proteomics as a method of detecting markers of neoplasia in patient EBC with a particular emphasis on LC, as well as discussing methodological challenges involving in proteomic analysis of EBC specimens. PMID:27380020

  7. Multiplexed immunoglobulin E sensitization in relation to exhaled nitric oxide in a population sample of children.

    PubMed

    Yao, T-C; Tsai, H-J; Tu, Y-L; Chang, S-W; Hua, M-C; Liao, S-L; Tsai, M-H; Chiu, C-Y; Lai, S-H; Yeh, K-W; Huang, J-L

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) profile for 40 allergens using a novel microarray technique (BioIC) and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in a population sample of 1321 children. Significant positive associations were found between FeNO and sensitization to mites (P < 0.001), animals (P = 0.001), cockroaches (P < 0.001), and foods (P = 0.042), and furthermore, between FeNO and the number of sensitizations (all P < 0.05) or the sum of specific IgE (all P ≤ 0.01) against the aforementioned allergen categories. Specifically, sensitization to the following allergens was significantly related to higher FeNO: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farina, Blomia tropicalis, cat, German cockroach, Oriental cockroach, codfish, crab, shrimp, and cheese (all P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, IgE sensitization to mites, pets, cockroaches, seafood, and cheese, respectively, is significantly associated with elevated FeNO levels in a dose-dependent fashion in children. Our results provide new evidence that sensitization to certain food allergens may contribute to prompt inflammation in the airways. PMID:24576320

  8. Inhaled today, not gone tomorrow: pharmacokinetics and environmental exposure of volatiles in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, J

    2011-09-01

    The chemical analysis of exhaled breath gas to assess state of health or identify disease biomarkers has gained growing interest in recent years, with advances in new technologies providing scientists and physicians with a powerful analytical arsenal with which to tackle pertinent issues. The application of these methods for pharmacokinetic studies, however, has received less attention despite its enormous potential in this field. For instance, breath gas analysis may be employed to characterize uptake and distribution within the body of exogenous volatile compounds, either from a pharmaceutical point of view, or in relation to environmental inhalation exposure. Both of these topics can benefit greatly from utilizing breath gas complementarily or as a surrogate to blood as an analytical medium, since breath sampling is non-invasive, inexhaustible, and is achievable with a frequency far exceeding that which is feasible for blood. However, because of the efficiency with which certain exogenous compounds are reflected in breath, this can also often be a significant source of confounding variables that require consideration in routine breath gas analyses. This paper provides an overview of the possibilities of breath gas analysis for pharmacokinetics and environmental exposure investigations and discusses the presence of exogenous compounds in standard breath analyses and their repercussions in terms of erroneous data interpretation. PMID:21654021

  9. Analysis of exhaled breath for diagnosing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, M; Tisch, U; Jeries, R; Amal, H; Hakim, M; Ronen, O; Marshak, T; Zimmerman, D; Israel, O; Amiga, E; Doweck, I; Haick, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) are wide-spread cancers that often lead to disfigurement and loss of important functions such as speech and ingestion. To date, HNSCC has no adequate method for early detection and screening. Methods: Exhaled breath samples were collected from 87 volunteers; 62 well-defined breath samples from 22 HNSCC patients (larynx and pharynx), 21 patients with benign tumours (larynx and pharynx) and 19 healthy controls were analysed in a dual approach: (i) chemical analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and (ii) breath-print analysis using an array of nanomaterial-based sensors, combined with a statistical algorithm. Results: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry identified ethanol, 2-propenenitrile and undecane as potential markers for HNSCC and/or benign tumours of the head and neck. The sensor-array-based breath-prints could clearly distinguish HNSCC both from benign tumours and from healthy states. Within the HNSCC group, patients could be classified according to tumour site and stage. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a breath test for a specific, clinically interesting application: distinguishing HNSCC from tumour-free or benign tumour states, as well as for staging and locating HNSCC. The sensor array used here could form the basis for the development of an urgently needed non-invasive, cost-effective, fast and reliable point-of-care diagnostic/screening tool for HNSCC. PMID:24983369

  10. Decreased exhaled nitric oxide in sickle cell disease: relationship with chronic lung involvement.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Reda E; Qureshi, Mohammed A; Abrams, Judith; Swerdlow, Paul

    2003-03-01

    A deficiency in airway nitric oxide (NO) could contribute to pulmonary vaso-occlusion in sickle cell disease (SCD). We measured the fractional expired concentration of NO (FE(NO)) by chemiluminescence during a slow vital capacity maneuver against a positive pressure of 16 cm H(2)O at an expiratory flow rate of 50 mL/sec in 44 stable ambulatory adults with SCD and 30 healthy controls. A history of acute chest syndrome was present in 29 patients, and 22 complained of dyspnea. Mean +/- SD FE(NO) was significantly reduced in the SCD group compared with controls (14.8 +/- 8.4 vs. 24.9 +/- 13.5 ppb, P < 0.001). SCD patients with dyspnea had lower FE(NO) than those without dyspnea (10.1 +/- 5.7 vs. 19.6 +/- 8 ppb, P < 0.001) and those with a history of ACS had lower values than those no episodes of ACS (13.0 +/- 8.3 vs. 18.4 +/- 7.6 ppb, P < 0.05). There was a weak correlation between FE(NO) and percent-predicted DLCO (r = 0.4, P = 0.02) among the SCD patients. We conclude that exhaled NO is reduced in adults with SCD, and this may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute chest syndrome and chronic sickle cell lung disease. PMID:12605389

  11. Biomarkers of exposure to metal dust in exhaled breath condensate: methodology optimization.

    PubMed

    Félix, P M; Franco, C; Barreiros, M A; Batista, B; Bernardes, S; Garcia, S M; Almeida, A B; Almeida, S M; Wolterbeek, H Th; Pinheiro, T

    2013-01-01

    In occupational assessments where workers are exposed to metal dust, the liquid condensate of exhaled breath (EBC) may provide unique indication of pulmonary exposure. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate the quality of EBC to biological monitoring of human exposure. A pilot study was performed in a group of metal dust-exposed workers and a group of nonexposed individuals working in offices. Only metal dust-exposed workers were followed along the working week to determine the best time of collection. Metal analyses were performed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analytical methodology was tested using an EBC sample pool for several occupationally exposed metals: potassium, chromium, manganese, copper, zinc, strontium, cadmium, antimony, and lead. Metal contents in EBC of exposed workers were higher than controls at the beginning of the shift and remained augmented throughout the working week. The results obtained support the establishment of EBC as an indicator of pulmonary exposure to metals. PMID:23428056

  12. Combined atmospheric oxidant capacity and increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Li, Huichu; Chen, Renjie; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Tse, Lap Ah; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide and ozone are two interrelated oxidative pollutants in the atmosphere. Few studies have evaluated the health effects of combined oxidant capacity (O x ). We investigated the short-term effects of O x on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker for airway inflammation, in a group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Real-time concentrations of O x were obtained by calculating directly the sum of nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Linear mixed-effect models were applied to explore the acute effects of O x on FeNO levels. Short-term exposure to Ox was significantly associated with elevated FeNO. This effect was strongest in the first 24 h after exposure, and was robust to the adjustment of PM2.5. A 10 μg m‑3 increase in 24 h average concentrations of O x was associated with 4.28% (95% confidence interval: 1.19%, 7.37%) increase in FeNO. The effect estimates were statistically significant only among males, elders, and those with body mass index ≥24 kg m‑2, a comorbidity, higher educational attainment, or moderate airflow limitation. This analysis demonstrated an independent effect of O x on respiratory inflammation, and suggested that a single metric O x might serve as a preferable indicator of atmospheric oxidative capacity in further air pollution epidemiological studies.

  13. Effects of the exposure to indoor cooking-generated particles on nitric oxide exhaled by women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, L.; Fuoco, F. C.; Marini, S.; Buonanno, G.

    2015-02-01

    In this study short-term respiratory effects due to the exposure to cooking-generated aerosols were assessed through a marker of airway inflammation (exhaled Nitric Oxide, eNO). The exposure of 43 non-atopic, non-smoking women in terms of particle number and surface area concentration was monitored during their normal cooking activities through hand-held aerosol monitors. Women using gas (n = 23) and electric (n = 20) stoves were considered in the survey. Surface area particle doses deposited in the alveolar region of the lungs (mm2) received by each woman were measured as well as their levels of eNO concentration. Associations between woman exposure to cooking-generated aerosol and short-term changes of eNO were found. In particular, women using electric stoves reported a statistically significant eNO reduction during the cooking sessions, whereas an increase in eNO was measured in women using gas stoves. The results support the potential link between short-term exposures to cooking-generated particles and women's respiratory inflammation responses.

  14. Salivary enzymes and exhaled air affect Streptococcus salivarius growth and physiological state in complemented artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Roger, P; Harn-Arsa, S; Delettre, J; Béal, C

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the phenomena governing the establishment of the oral bacterium Streptococcus salivarius in the mouth, the effect of some environmental factors has been studied in complemented artificial saliva, under oral pH and temperature conditions. Three salivary enzymes at physiological concentrations were tested: peroxidase, lysozyme and amylase, as well as injection of exhaled air. Injection of air containing 5% CO2 and 16% O2 induced a deleterious effect on S. salivarius K12, mainly by increasing redox potential. Addition of lysozyme slightly affected the physiological state of S. salivarius by altering membrane integrity. In contrast, peroxidase was not detrimental as it made it possible to decrease the redox potential. The addition of amylase reduced the specific growth rate of S. salivarius by formation of a complex with amylase and mucins, but led to high final biomass, as a result of enzymatic degradation of some nutrients. Finally, this work demonstrated that salivary enzymes had a slight impact on S. salivarius behaviour. It can thus be concluded that this bacterium was well adapted to in-mouth conditions, as it was able to resist certain salivary enzymes, even if tolerance to expired air was affected, as a result of an increased redox potential. PMID:21892611

  15. A Mini Review of Dolphin Carbohydrate Metabolism and Suggestions for Future Research Using Exhaled Air

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Sam H.

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, I explored some aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Their physiological picture resembled what had been described for hyperthyroid diabetics. Dolphins have elevated thyroid hormone turnover, and fasting dolphins maintain a relatively high level of plasma glucose. After dolphins ingest glucose, plasma levels remain high for many hours. Interestingly, plasma glucose must exceed 300 mg/dL (about twice as high as the human threshold) before glucose appears in urine. Due to their diabetes-like states, trainability, and unique natural respiratory anatomy and physiology, dolphins may offer useful clues to metabolites in the breath that may be used to non-invasively monitor diabetes in humans. Dolphins take very rapid and deep breaths that are four or five times as deep as humans and other terrestrial mammals, making them ideal for physiological assessment using non-invasive exhaled air. Avenues for successfully identifying breath-based markers for metabolic disease and physiology in dolphins can be done with both modern technology and the evolutionarily advantageous canine nose. This review summarizes aspects of dolphin metabolism previously learned and offers new directions for diabetes research that may benefit both dolphin and human health. PMID:24379802

  16. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J. F. M.; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M.

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring FENO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 1∶10-9) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO®, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). FENO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  17. Pollen count and exhaled nitric oxide levels in a seasonal allergic rhinitis patient.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Toshihiro; Mochizuki, Eisuke; Asada, Kazuhiro; Suda, Takafumi

    2014-09-01

    The subject was a 52-year-old man with Japanese cedar pollinosis, which developed between February and May. He had no history of asthma and was an ex-smoker. He underwent fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements twice a week from 2010 to 2012. The pollen counts in 2010 were the lowest during the last decade, and the FeNO level was less than 30 ppb for the whole year. In contrast, the mean pollen count in 2011 was very high and the patient's FeNO level rose to more than 100 ppb. The mean pollen count in 2012 was comparable with that of 2010; however, high counts were detected in April and May, and the FeNO level rose to 70 ppb during the latter stages of the pollen season. These results indicate that pollen counts should be taken into consideration during the interpretation of FeNO data in asthma or allergic rhinitis. PMID:25473586

  18. Malondialdehyde in Exhaled Breath Condensate as a Marker of Oxidative Stress in Different Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bartoli, M. L.; Novelli, F.; Costa, F.; Malagrinò, L.; Melosini, L.; Bacci, E.; Cianchetti, S.; Dente, F. L.; Di Franco, A.; Vagaggini, B.; Paggiaro, P. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection is a noninvasive method to investigate pulmonary oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdehyde (MDA). Subjects and Methods. We measured MDA levels in EBC in a large number of patients (N = 194) with respiratory diseases: asthma (N = 64), bronchiectasis (BE, N = 19), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, N = 73), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, N = 38). Fourteen healthy nonsmoking subjects were included as controls. Results. Excluding IPF subjects, MDA levels were significantly higher in all disease groups than in control group. MDA was significantly higher in COPD than asthmatic and BE subjects. Among asthmatics, corticosteroids-treated subjects had lower MDA levels than untreated subjects. COPD subjects showed an inverse correlation between MDA concentrations and FEV1% (rho:  −0.24, P < .05). Conclusions. EBC-MDA is increased in subjects with chronic airway disorders, particularly in COPD, and it is related to FEV1 reduction. PMID:21772668

  19. Effect of Nanoparticles Exposure on Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO) in Workers Exposed to Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh; Li, Wan-Fen; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Ho, Jiune-Jye; Wu, Trong-Neng; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement is a useful diagnostic test of airway inflammation. However, there have been few studies of FENO in workers exposed to nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nanoparticle (NP) exposure on FENO and to assess whether the FENO is increased in workers exposed to nanomaterials (NM). In this study, both exposed workers and non-exposed controls were recruited from NM handling plants in Taiwan. A total of 437 subjects (exposed group = 241, non-exposed group = 196) completed the FENO and spirometric measurements from 2009–2011. The authors used a control-banding (CB) matrix to categorize the risk level of each participant. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, this study found a significant association between risk level 2 of NP exposure and FENO. Furthermore, asthma, allergic rhinitis, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and NF-κB were also significantly associated with FENO. When the multivariate logistic regression model was adjusted for confounders, nano-TiO2 in all of the NM exposed categories had a significantly increased risk in FENO > 35 ppb. This study found associations between the risk level of NP exposure and FENO (particularly noteworthy for Nano-TiO2). Monitoring FENO in the lung could open up a window into the role nitric oxide (NO) may play in pathogenesis. PMID:24413755

  20. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurements in the diagnoses of asthma in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Godinho Netto, Antonio Carlos Maneira; dos Reis, Túlio Gonçalves; Matheus, Cássia Franco; Aarestrup, Beatriz Julião Vieira; Aarestrup, Fernando Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements in the diagnosis of asthma in elderly patients. Methods The clinical symptoms of 202 elderly patients were assessed with the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood test, which had been modified for the elderly patients, and the diagnostic routine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which was based on the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Of the 202 patients assessed, 43 were subjected to pulmonary function evaluations (spirometry) and FeNO measurements. Results Of the 202 elderly patients, 34 had asthma (23 definite and eleven probable), 20 met COPD criteria, 13 presented with an overlap of asthma and COPD, and 135 did not fit the criteria for obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the 43 elderly patients who were subjected to FeNO measurements, ten showed altered results (23.2%) and 33 had normal results (76.7%). The average value of FeNO in patients with definite and probable asthma undergoing this procedure was 29.2 parts per billion whereas that in nonasthmatic patients was 17.5 parts per billion (P=0.0002). Conclusion We show a clear relationship between FeNO levels and asthma symptoms and previous asthma diagnoses in elderly patients. PMID:27274212

  1. Domestic airborne black carbon and exhaled nitric oxide in children in NYC

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, Alexandra G.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Mellins, Robert B.; Acosta, Luis M.; Miller, Rachel L.; Quinn, James W.; Yan, Beizhan; Divjan, Adnan; Olmedo, Omar E.; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Kinney, Patrick L.; Perera, Frederica P.; Jacobson, Judith S.; Goldstein, Inge F.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Differential exposure to combustion by-products and allergens may partially explain the marked disparity in asthma prevalence (3%–18%) among New York City neighborhoods. Subclinical changes in airway inflammation can be measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). FeNO could be used to test independent effects of these environmental exposures on airway inflammation. Seven and eight year-old children from neighborhoods with lower (range 3–9%, n=119) and higher (range 11–18%, n=121) asthma prevalence participated in an asthma case-control study. During home visits, FeNO was measured, and samples of bed dust (allergens) and air (black carbon) were collected. Neighborhood built-environment characteristics were assessed for the 500m surrounding participants’ homes. Airborne black carbon concentrations in homes correlated with neighborhood asthma prevalence (P<0.001) and neighborhood densities of truck routes (P<0.001) and buildings burning residual oil (P<0.001). FeNO concentrations were higher among asthmatics with compared to asthmatics without frequent wheeze (≥4 times/year) (P=0.002). FeNO concentrations correlated with domestic black carbon among children without seroatopy (P=0.012) and with dust mite allergen among children with seroatopy (P=0.020). The association between airborne black carbon in homes and both neighborhood asthma prevalence and FeNO suggest that further public health interventions on truck emissions standards and residual oil use are warranted. PMID:22377682

  2. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  3. Hydrogen sulphide in exhaled breath: a potential biomarker for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS.

    PubMed

    Banik, Gourab Dutta; De, Anulekha; Som, Suman; Jana, Subhra; Daschakraborty, Sunil B; Chaudhuri, Sujit; Pradhan, Manik

    2016-06-01

    There is a pressing need to develop a novel early-detection strategy for the precise evolution of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. The current method based on a hydrogen breath test (HBT) for the detection of SIBO is highly controversial. HBT has many limitations and drawbacks. It often fails to indentify SIBO when IBS individuals have 'non-hydrogen-producing' colonic bacteria. Here, we show that hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in exhaled breath is distinctly altered for diarrhea-predominant IBS individuals with positive and negative SIBO by the activity of intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria. Subsequently, by analyzing the excretion kinetics of breath H2S, we found a missing link between breath H2S and SIBO when HBT often fails to diagnose SIBO. Moreover, breath H2S can track the precise evolution of SIBO, even after the eradication of bacterial overgrowth. Our findings suggest that the changes in H2S in the bacterial environment may contribute to the pathogenesis of SIBO and the breath H2S as a potential biomarker for non-invasive, rapid and precise assessment of SIBO without the endoscopy-based microbial culture of jejunal aspirates, and thus may open new perspectives into the pathophysiology of SIBO in IBS subjects. PMID:27163246

  4. Assessment of the vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in a mineralized uranium area in south-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco Rodríguez, P; Vera Tomé, F; Lozano, J C

    2014-01-01

    Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used to determine the activity concentration of (238)U, (234)U, (230)Th, (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (210)Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were sampled from areas with different levels of influence from the installation and hence had different levels of contamination. The vertical profiles of the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. To determine the origin of these natural radionuclides the Enrichment Factor was used. Also, study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same radioactive series allowed us to assess the different types of behaviors of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for the radionuclide members of the (238)U series were different at each sampling point, depending on the level of influence of the installation. However, the profiles of each point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the (238)U series ((238)U, (234)U, (230)Th, and (226)Ra). Moreover, a major imbalance was observed between (210)Pb and (226)Ra in the surface layer, due to (222)Rn exhalation and the subsequent surface deposition of (210)Pb. PMID:24182407

  5. Exhaled carbon monoxide and its associations with smoking, indoor household air pollution and chronic respiratory diseases among 512 000 Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiuli; Li, Liming; Smith, Margaret; Guo, Yu; Whitlock, Gary; Bian, Zheng; Kurmi, Om; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Lv, Silu; Pang, Zhigang; Chen, Chunxing; Chen, Naying; Xiong, Youping; Peto, Richard; Chen, and Zhengming

    2013-01-01

    Background Exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) level is positively associated with tobacco smoking and exposure to smoke from biomass/coal burning. Relatively little is known about its determinants in China despite the population having a high prevalence of smoking and use of biomass/coal. Methods The China Kadoorie Biobank includes 512 000 participants aged 30-79 years recruited from 10 diverse regions. We used linear regression and logistic regression methods to assess the associations of COex level with smoking, exposures to indoor household air pollution and prevalent chronic respiratory conditions among never smokers, both overall and by seasons, regions and smoking status. Results The overall COex level (ppm) was much higher in current smokers than in never smokers (men: 11.5 vs 3.7; women: 9.3 vs 3.2). Among current smokers, it was higher among those who smoked more and inhaled more deeply. Among never smokers, mean COex was positively associated with levels of exposures to passive smoking and to biomass/coal burning, especially in rural areas and during winter. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of air flow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio <0.7) for never smokers with COex at 7–14 and ≥14 ppm, compared with those having COex <7, were 1.38 (1.31–1.45) and 1.65 (1.52–1.80), respectively (Ptrend <0.001). Prevalence of other self-reported chronic respiratory conditions was also higher among people with elevated COex (P <0.05). Conclusion In adult Chinese, COex can be used as a biomarker for assessing current smoking and overall exposure to indoor household air pollution in combination with questionnaires. PMID:24057999

  6. Increased alveolar nitric oxide concentration and high levels of leukotriene B4 and 8‐isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate in patients with asbestosis

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Hannele; Oksa, Panu; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Sepponen, Anna; Nieminen, Riina; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Saarelainen, Seppo; Järvenpää, Ritva; Uitti, Jukka; Moilanen, Eeva

    2007-01-01

    Background Inhaled asbestos fibres can cause inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs called asbestosis. However, there are no non‐invasive means to assess and follow the severity of the inflammation. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measured at multiple exhalation flow rates can be used to assess the alveolar NO concentration and bronchial NO flux, which reflect inflammation in the lung parenchyma and airways, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exhaled NO or markers in exhaled breath condensate could be used to assess inflammation in asbestosis. Methods Exhaled NO and inflammatory markers (leukotriene B4 and 8‐isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate were measured in 15 non‐smoking patients with asbestosis and in 15 healthy controls. Exhaled NO concentrations were measured at four constant exhalation flow rates (50, 100, 200 and 300 ml/s) and alveolar NO concentration and bronchial NO flux were calculated according to the linear model of pulmonary NO dynamics. Results The mean (SE) alveolar NO concentration was significantly higher in patients with asbestosis than in controls (3.2 (0.4) vs 2.0 (0.2) ppb, p = 0.008). There was no difference in bronchial NO flux (0.9 (0.1) vs 0.9 (0.1) nl/s, p = 0.93) or NO concentration measured at ATS standard flow rate of 50 ml/s (20.0 (2.0) vs 19.7 (1.8) ppb, p = 0.89). Patients with asbestosis had increased levels of leukotriene B4 (39.5 (6.0) vs 15.4 (2.9) pg/ml, p = 0.002) and 8‐isoprostane (33.5 (9.6) vs 11.9 (2.8) pg/ml, p = 0.048) in exhaled breath condensate and raised serum levels of C‐reactive protein (2.3 (0.3) vs 1.1 (0.2) μg/ml, p = 0.003), interleukin‐6 (3.5 (0.5) vs 1.7 (0.4) pg/ml, p = 0.007) and myeloperoxidase (356 (48) vs 240 (20) ng/ml, p = 0.034) compared with healthy controls. Conclusions Patients with asbestosis have an increased alveolar NO concentration and high levels of leukotriene B4 and 8‐isoprostane in

  7. Physiological variability in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath and released from faeces due to nutrition and somatic growth in a standardized caprine animal model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sina; Trefz, Phillip; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-06-01

    Physiological effects may change volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and may therefore act as confounding factors in the definition of VOCs as disease biomarkers. To evaluate the extent of physiological background variability, this study assessed the effects of feed composition and somatic growth on VOC patterns in a standardized large animal model. Fifteen clinically healthy goats were followed during their first year of life. VOCs present in the headspace over faeces, exhaled breath and ambient air inside the stable were repeatedly assessed in parallel with the concentrations of glucose, protein, and albumin in venous blood. VOCs were collected and analysed using solid-phase or needle-trap microextraction and gas chromatograpy together with mass spectroscopy. The concentrations of VOCs in exhaled breath and above faeces varied significantly with increasing age of the animals. The largest variations in volatiles detected in the headspace over faeces occurred with the change from milk feeding to plant-based diet. VOCs above faeces and in exhaled breath correlated significantly with blood components. Among VOCs exhaled, the strongest correlations were found between exhaled nonanal concentrations and blood concentrations of glucose and albumin. Results stress the importance of a profound knowledge of the physiological backgrounds of VOC composition before defining reliable and accurate marker sets for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25971714

  8. Exhaled nitric oxide as a marker of lung involvement in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Malerba, M; Ragnoli, B; Buffoli, L; Radaeli, A; Ricci, C; Lanzarotto, F; Lanzini, A

    2011-01-01

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease associated with a variety of systemic manifestations, including large and small airway involvement. The latter is most often a subclinical one, and requires expensive and invasive diagnostic approaches. Nitric oxide (NO) can be detected non-invasively in the exhaled air (eNO) and be considered as a surrogate marker of airway inflammation. eNO tested at multiple expiratory flows can be used to distinguish the alveolar concentration of NO (CalvNO) from the total amount of fractional eNO (FeNO). The aim of our study is to compare FeNO and concentration of alveolar nitric oxide (CalvNO) levels and to assess their relationship with pulmonary involvement in Crohn's patients differing in clinical stage and therapeutic regimens versus a group of healthy subjects. Thirty Crohn's patients not showing clinical evidence of pulmonary diseases and 21 non-smoking, non-atopic healthy controls were enrolled. FeNO (14.9±10.2 ppb vs 10.1±6.3 ppb, p=0.049) and CalvNO (4.4±2.2 ppb vs 2.6±1.9; p=0.006) values were found to be significantly higher in Crohn's patients than in healthy controls. Both FeNO and CalvNO correlated positively with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. In conclusion, our results for FeNO and CalvNO confirm the presence of subclinical pulmonary involvement in Crohn's disease. eNO measurement may be of clinical value in the follow-up of Crohn's patients. PMID:22230422

  9. Adaptive tolerance in mice upon subchronic exposure to chloroform: Increased exhalation and target tissue regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Sathanandam S. . E-mail: sanand@rx.uga.edu; Philip, Binu K.; Palkar, Prajakta S.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-06-15

    The aims of the present study were to characterize the subchronic toxicity of chloroform by measuring tissue injury, repair, and distribution of chloroform and to assess the reasons for the development of tolerance to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Male Swiss Webster (SW) mice were given three dose levels of chloroform (150, 225, and 300 mg/kg/day) by gavage in aqueous vehicle for 30 days. Liver and kidney injury were measured by plasma ALT and BUN, respectively, and by histopathology. Tissue regeneration was assessed by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into hepato- and nephro-nuclear DNA and by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining. In addition, GSH and CYP2E1 in liver and kidney were assessed at selected time points. The levels of chloroform were measured in blood, liver, and kidney during the dosing regimen (1, 7, 14, and 30 days). Kidney injury was evident after 1 day with all three doses and sustained until 7 days followed by complete recovery. Mild to moderate liver injury was observed from 1 to 14 days with all three dose levels followed by gradual decrease. Significantly higher regenerative response was evident in liver and kidney at 7 days, but the response was robust in kidney, preventing progression of injury beyond first week of exposure. While the kidney regeneration reached basal levels by 21 days, moderate liver regeneration with two higher doses sustained through the end of the dosing regimen and 3 days after that. Following repeated exposure for 7, 14, and 30 days, the blood and tissue levels of chloroform were substantially lower with all three dose levels compared to the levels observed with single exposure. Increased exhalation of {sup 14}C-chloroform after repeated exposures explains the decreased chloroform levels in circulation and tissues. These results suggest that toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (tissue regeneration) contribute to the tolerance observed in SW mice to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Neither bioactivation nor

  10. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    PubMed Central

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Poli, Diana; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)–DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)–DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI). PMID:17047732

  11. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide among cement factory workers: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tungu, Alexander Mtemi; Bråtveit, Magne; Mamuya, Simon D; Moen, Bente E

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that dust exposure causes airway inflammation among cement factory workers. However, there is limited information on the mechanisms of this effect. We explored any associations between total dust exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) as a marker of airway eosinophilic inflammation among cement production workers in Tanzania. We also examined possible differences in FENO concentration between workers in different parts of the production line. Methodology We examined 127 cement workers and 28 controls from a mineral water factory. An electrochemistry-based NIOX MINO device was used to examine FENO concentration. Personal total dust was collected from the breathing zone of the study participants using 37 mm cellulose acetate filters placed in three-piece plastic cassettes. Interviews on workers’ background information were conducted in the Swahili language. Results We found equal concentrations of FENO among exposed workers and controls (geometric mean (GM)=16 ppb). The GM for total dust among the exposed workers and controls was 5.0 and 0.6 mg/m3, respectively. The FENO concentrations did not differ between the exposed workers with high (GM≥5 mg/m3) and low (GM<5 mg/m3) total dust exposure. There was no significant difference in FENO concentration between workers in the two main stages of the cement production process. Conclusions We did not find any difference in FENO concentration between dust-exposed cement workers and controls, and there were similar FENO concentrations among workers in the two main stages of cement production. PMID:23243102

  12. Coarse Fraction Particle Matter and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Non-Asthmatic Children.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Boman, Peter; Björ, Bodil; Olin, Anna-Carin; Forsberg, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Coarse particle matter, PMcoarse, is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term changes in PMcoarse and sub-clininal airway inflammation in children. Healthy children aged 11 years from two northern Swedish elementary schools underwent fraction of exhaled nitrogen oxide (FENO) measurements to determine levels of airway inflammation twice weekly during the study period from 11 April-6 June 2011. Daily exposure to PMcoarse, PM2.5, NO₂, NOx, NO and O₃ and birch pollen was estimated. Multiple linear regression was used. Personal covariates were included as fixed effects and subjects were included as a random effect. In total, 95 children participated in the study, and in all 493 FENO measurements were made. The mean level of PMcoarse was 16.1 μg/m³ (range 4.1-42.3), and that of O₃ was 75.0 μg/m³ (range: 51.3-106.3). That of NO₂ was 17.0 μg/m³ (range: 4.7-31.3), NOx was 82.1 μg/m³ (range: 13.3-165.3), and NO was 65 μg/m³ (range: 8.7-138.4) during the study period. In multi-pollutant models an interquartile range increase in 24 h PMcoarse was associated with increases in FENO by between 6.9 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.0-14) and 7.3 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.4-14.9). PMcoarse was associated with an increase in FENO, indicating sub-clinical airway inflammation in healthy children. PMID:27338437

  13. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide: comparison between portable devices and correlation with sputum eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Yune, Sehyo; Lee, Jin Young; Choi, Dong Chull; Lee, Byung Jae

    2015-07-01

    This study was performed to compare the 2 different portable devices measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and to see the correlation between FeNO and induced sputum eosinophil count (ISE). Forty consecutive subjects clinically suspected to have asthma underwent FeNO measurement by NIOX-MINO® and NObreath® concurrently. All also had induced sputum analysis, methacholine provocation test or bronchodilator response test, and spin prick test. Agreement between the 2 devices was evaluated. The correlation between FeNO and ISE was assessed, as well as the cut-off level of FeNO to identify ISE ≥3%. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between FeNO levels measured by NIOX-MINO® (FeNO(NIOX-MINO)) and NObreath® (FeNO(NObreath)) was 0.972 with 95% confidence interval of 0.948-0.985. The 95% limits of agreement were -28.9 to 19.9 ppb. The correlation coefficient between ISE and FeNO(NIOX-MINO) was 0.733 (P<0.001), and 0.751 between ISE and FeNO(NObreath) (P<0.001). The ROC curve found that the FeNO(NIOXMINO) of 37.5 ppb and the FeNO(NObreath) of 36.5 ppb identified ISE ≥3% with 90% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, atopy, and the presence of asthma did not affect the FeNO level and its correlation with ISE. The NIOX-MINO ® and NObreath® agree with each other to a high degree. Both devices showed close correlation with ISE with similar cut-off value in identifying ISE ≥3%. PMID:25749783

  14. Particle Size Concentration Distribution and Influences on Exhaled Breath Particles in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Wang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Chun-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Humans produce exhaled breath particles (EBPs) during various breath activities, such as normal breathing, coughing, talking, and sneezing. Airborne transmission risk exists when EBPs have attached pathogens. Until recently, few investigations had evaluated the size and concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients with different ventilation mode settings. This study thus broke new ground by not only evaluating the size concentration distributions of EBPs in mechanically ventilated patients, but also investigating the relationship between EBP level and positive expiratory end airway pressure (PEEP), tidal volume, and pneumonia. This investigation recruited mechanically ventilated patients, with and without pneumonia, aged 20 years old and above, from the respiratory intensive care unit of a medical center. Concentration distributions of EBPs from mechanically ventilated patients were analyzed with an optical particle analyzer. This study finds that EBP concentrations from mechanically ventilated patients during normal breathing were in the range 0.47–2,554.04 particles/breath (0.001–4.644 particles/mL). EBP concentrations did not differ significantly between the volume control and pressure control modes of the ventilation settings in the mechanically ventilated patients. The patient EBPs were sized below 5 µm, and 80% of them ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 µm. The EBPs concentrations in patients with high PEEP (> 5 cmH2O) clearly exceeded those in patients with low PEEP (≤ 5 cmH2O). Additionally, a significant negative association existed between pneumonia duration and EBPs concentration. However, tidal volume was not related to EBPs concentration. PMID:24475230

  15. Increase of exhaled nitric oxide in children exposed to low levels of ambient ozone.

    PubMed

    Nickmilder, Marc; de Burbure, Claire; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Sylviane, Carbonnelle; Dumont, Xavier; Xavier, Dumont; Bernard, Alfred; Alfred, Bernard; Derouane, Alain; Alain, Derouane

    2007-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce lung function impairment and airways inflammation during episodes of photochemical smog. The aim of the present study was to assess the inflammatory effect of ambient O3 in healthy children using nitric oxide in exhaled air (eNO) as a noninvasive test. The study was performed on 6 groups of children (n = 11-15), aged 6.5 to 15 yr, who attended summer camps in rural areas of the south of Belgium in 2002. Ambient O3 concentrations continuously monitored in the camps ranged from 48 to 221 microg/m3 (1-h maximal concentration). Children remained outdoors during the experimental days, doing various recreational activities but no sports. Lung function tests (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]) and eNO were measured twice in each child in the morning and in the evening. While lung function tests did not show any consistent pattern of decrease at these O3 levels, a highly significant increase in eNO was found in all subjects from an ambient 1-h O3 level of 167 microg/m3. A multivariate analysis did not reveal any influence of age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of the children. The threshold for this O3-induced increase in eNO estimated benchmark dose analysis was 135 microg/m3 for 1-h exposure and 110 microg/m3 for 8-h exposure. These observations suggest that ambient ozone produces early inflammatory changes in the airways of children at levels slightly below current air quality standards. PMID:17365589

  16. Coarse Fraction Particle Matter and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Non-Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Boman, Peter; Björ, Bodil; Olin, Anna-Carin; Forsberg, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Coarse particle matter, PMcoarse, is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term changes in PMcoarse and sub-clininal airway inflammation in children. Healthy children aged 11 years from two northern Swedish elementary schools underwent fraction of exhaled nitrogen oxide (FENO) measurements to determine levels of airway inflammation twice weekly during the study period from 11 April–6 June 2011. Daily exposure to PMcoarse, PM2.5, NO2, NOx, NO and O3 and birch pollen was estimated. Multiple linear regression was used. Personal covariates were included as fixed effects and subjects were included as a random effect. In total, 95 children participated in the study, and in all 493 FENO measurements were made. The mean level of PMcoarse was 16.1 μg/m3 (range 4.1–42.3), and that of O3 was 75.0 μg/m3 (range: 51.3–106.3). That of NO2 was 17.0 μg/m3 (range: 4.7–31.3), NOx was 82.1 μg/m3 (range: 13.3–165.3), and NO was 65 μg/m3 (range: 8.7–138.4) during the study period. In multi-pollutant models an interquartile range increase in 24 h PMcoarse was associated with increases in FENO by between 6.9 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.0–14) and 7.3 ppb (95% confidence interval 0.4–14.9). PMcoarse was associated with an increase in FENO, indicating sub-clinical airway inflammation in healthy children. PMID:27338437

  17. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5±0.4×10(9), 5.1±0.1×10(9), and 3.1±0.6×10(9) part. cm(-3) for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8×10(10), 5.2×10(10) and 2.3×10(10) particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2ppb, 2.7ppb and 2.8ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. PMID:24732441

  18. Fine Particulate Matter Constituents, Nitric Oxide Synthase DNA Methylation and Exhaled Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Qiao, Liping; Li, Huichu; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yunhui; Xu, Wenxi; Wang, Cuicui; Wang, Hongli; Zhao, Zhuohui; Xu, Xiaohui; Hu, Hui; Kan, Haidong

    2015-10-01

    It remains unknown how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) constituents affect differently the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, a biomarker of airway inflammation) and the DNA methylation of its encoding gene (NOS2A). We aimed to investigate the short-term effects of PM2.5 constituents on NOS2A methylation and FeNO. We designed a longitudinal study among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with six repeated health measurements in Shanghai, China. We applied linear mixed-effect models to evaluate the associations. We observed that the inverse association between PM2.5 and methylation at position 1 was limited within 24 h, and the positive association between PM2.5 and FeNO was the strongest at lag 1 day. Organic carbon, element carbon, NO3(-) and NH4(+) were robustly and significantly associated with decreased methylation and elevated FeNO. An interquartile range increase in total PM2.5 and the four constituents was associated with decreases of 1.19, 1.63, 1.62, 1.17, and 1.14 in percent methylation of NOS2A, respectively, and increases of 13.30%,16.93%, 8.97%, 18.26%, and 11.42% in FeNO, respectively. Our results indicated that organic carbon, element carbon, NO3(-) and NH4(+) might be mainly responsible for the effects of PM2.5 on the decreased NOS2A DNA methylation and elevated FeNO in COPD patients. PMID:26372312

  19. Emergency department treatment of adults with acute asthma exacerbations: effect on exhaled nitric oxide levels.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rodenas, Mario; Sinert, Richard; Joks, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide levels (eNO) from asthmatic patients is a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation in both adults and children and has been used as an outpatient measure of asthma control. We examined eNO in acute asthma exacerbations and how it is affected by treatment in the emergency department (ED) setting. Both eNO and peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate were measured at arrival and before discharge for adult asthmatic subjects (n = 28) treated for acute exacerbations in the ED at Kings County Hospital Center during spring and fall pollen seasons. Total serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE), peripheral blood leukocyte numbers, and tobacco smoking history were determined. Routine ED treatment included oral prednisone at 60 mg and inhalation of nebulized albuterol and ipratropium. Both PEF (p = 0.0005) and eNO (p < 0.0001) increased after treatment of subjects. Initial eNO was associated with age (p = 0.0004), absolute eosinophil count (p = 0.003), Asthma Control Test (p = 0.004), and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (p = 0.04). Change in pre- versus posttreatment eNO (ΔeNO) was associated with change in PEF (ΔPEF; p < 0.0001). Initial PEF was associated with oxygen saturation (p < 0.0001). ΔPEF was associated with serum IgE levels. ED visit duration was associated with initial PEF (p = 0.0004), ΔeNO (p = 0.004), and number of albuterol treatments (p = 0.001). These associations remained significant in multivariate models that controlled for demographic factors, asthma control, smoking, and measures of inflammation and ventilation. eNO levels increase after ED treatment of acute asthma exacerbations in adults. Improved ventilation may allow for more accurate measurement of NO produced in inflamed airways. PMID:23394510

  20. The compositional space of exhaled breath condensate and its link to the human breath volatilome.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Franco; Janicka, Monika; Zygler, Agata; Forcisi, Sara; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Kot, Jacek; Gebefügi, István; Namiesnik, Jacek; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Breath analysis is commonly understood to target gaseous or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the characterization of different pathologies. Targeted analysis is most effective if a working hypothesis can be based on a plethora of data. The recently published volatilome builds an optimal basis for organizing powerful target sets. However, the origin and pathways of biosynthesis of many VOCs are not known, which complicates the formulation of useful hypotheses. To find the missing link between VOCs and their origin, it is necessary to analyze their precursor fluids themselves. In order to provide condensation nuclei for the generation of future hypotheses, we provide the compositional space over 23 samples of the unperturbed human exhaled breath condensate (EBC) metabolome. We propose a way to connect the compositional spaces of both VOCs and EBC so as to gain insight into the most probable form of VOC precursors. In a way analogous to tandem MS it is possible to create a mass difference network over compositional data by linking compositions with mass differences that are designed to mimic biochemical reactions. We propose to use mass difference enrichment analysis (MDEA) in order to mine probable relations between VOCs and their precursor fluids. We have found 2691 EBC compositions and linked them to 235 breath VOC compositions that correspond to 848 individual compounds. We found that VOCs are likely to be found as hexose conjugates or as amino acid conjugates with Glutamine or Asparagine playing a major role. Furthermore, we found that dicarboxylic acid mass differences may be more indicative for oxidative stress than oxygenation-hydrogenation sequences. PMID:25944811

  1. Importance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis of bronchiectasis accompanied with bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng-Jia; Liao, Huai; Huang, Xin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement is a simple, rapid, highly reproducible, and noninvasive method of airway inflammation assessment. Therefore, FeNO is extensively used for the diagnosis and management of asthma. The feasibility of using FeNO as an alternative to conventional pulmonary function test to differentiate patients with bronchiectasis (BE) and bronchial asthma from those with BE only remains unclear. Methods From February 2013 to February 2015, 99 patients diagnosed with BE through high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were subjected to FeNO measurement, bronchial challenge test (BCT), or bronchodilator test. Bronchial hyperreactivity and/or reversible airway obstruction was used to define asthma. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained to elucidate the clinical functions of FeNO in the diagnosis of asthmatic patients with BE, and the optimal operating point was also determined. Results Of 99 patients with BE, 20 patients presented asthma, and 12 of these patients received regular treatment, which were given with budesonide (200 µg, bid) for 12 weeks to evaluate changes in the concentration and assess the role of FeNO in the treatment. The area under the ROC curve was estimated as 0.832 for FeNO. Results also revealed a cut off value of >22.5 part per billion (ppb) FeNO for differentiating asthmatic from non-asthmatic (sensitivity, 90.0%; specificity, 62.5%) patients with BE. FeNO and forced expiratory volume for 1 second significantly improved after the treatment. Conclusions Clinical FeNO measurement is a simple, noninvasive, and rapid method used to differentiate asthmatic from nonasthmatic patients with BE. This technique exhibits potential for asthma management. PMID:27162676

  2. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. PMID:26079672

  3. Features of severe asthma in school-age children: Atopy and increased exhaled nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Teague, W. Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with severe asthma have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). The differentiating features of severe asthma in children are poorly defined. Objective To identify features of severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma in school-age children using noninvasive assessments of lung function, atopy, and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 75 children (median age, 10 years) with asthma underwent baseline characterization including spirometry and lung volume testing, methacholine bronchoprovocation, allergy evaluation, and offline measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). Twenty-eight were followed longitudinally over 6 months. Participants were assigned to the severe asthma subgroup if they required high-dose ICS plus 2 or more minor criteria. Results Children with severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma had more symptoms, greater airway obstruction, more gas trapping, and increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. Subjects with severe asthma also had higher concentrations of FENO and significantly greater sensitization to aeroallergens. With long-term study, both the reduction in FEV1 and increase in FENO persisted in the severe versus mild-to-moderate group. Furthermore, despite adjustments in ICS doses, the frequency of exacerbations was significantly higher in subjects with severe (83%) versus mild-to-moderate asthma (43%). Conclusion Severe asthma in childhood is characterized by poor symptom control despite high-dose ICS treatment and can be differentiated from mild-to-moderate asthma by measurement of lung function and FENO. Clinical implications Clinicians should suspect severe asthma in children with poor response to ICS, airway obstruction, and high FENO. PMID:17157650

  4. Assessment of nanoparticles and metal exposure of airport workers using exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Marie-Desvergne, Caroline; Dubosson, Muriel; Touri, Léa; Zimmermann, Eric; Gaude-Môme, Marcelline; Leclerc, Lara; Durand, Catherine; Klerlein, Michel; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle; Chanez, Pascal; Mossuz, Véronique Chamel

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft engine exhaust increases the number concentration of nanoparticles (NP) in the surrounding environment. Health concerns related to NP raise the question of the exposure and health monitoring of airport workers. No biological monitoring study on this profession has been reported to date. The aim was to evaluate the NP and metal exposure of airport workers using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a non-invasive biological matrix representative of the respiratory tract. EBC was collected from 458 French airport workers working either on the apron or in the offices. NP exposure was characterized using particle number concentration (PNC) and size distribution. EBC particles were analyzed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy coupled to x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Multi-elemental analysis was performed for aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) EBC contents. Apron workers were exposed to higher PNC than administrative workers (p  <  0.001). Workers were exposed to very low particle sizes, the apron group being exposed to even smaller NP than the administrative group (p  <  0.001). The particulate content of EBC was brought out by DLS and confirmed with SEM-EDS, although no difference was found between the two study groups. Cd concentrations were higher in the apron workers (p  <  0.001), but still remained very low and close to the detection limit. Our study reported the particulate and metal content of airport workers airways. EBC is a potential useful tool for the non-invasive monitoring of workers exposed to NP and metals. PMID:27409350

  5. Children’s Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in an Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Whyatt, Robin M.; Miller, Rachel L.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Chen, Qixuan; Calafat, Antonia M.; Divjan, Adnan; Rosa, Maria J.; Zhang, Hanjie; Perera, Frederica P.; Goldstein, Inge F.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Phthalates are used widely in consumer products. Exposure to several phthalates has been associated with respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function. Associations between children’s phthalate exposures and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a biomarker of airway inflammation, have not been examined. Objectives: We hypothesized that urinary concentrations of four phthalate metabolites would be positively associated with FeNO and that these associations would be stronger among children with seroatopy or wheeze. Methods: In an urban ongoing birth cohort, 244 children had phthalate metabolites determined in urine collected on the same day as FeNO measurement. Repeated sampling gathered 313 observations between ages 4.9 and 9.1 years. Seroatopy was assessed by specific IgE. Wheeze in the past year was assessed by validated questionnaire. Regression models used generalized estimating equations. Measurements and Main Results: Log-unit increases in urinary concentrations of metabolites of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) were associated with a 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5–13.1%) and 8.7% (95% CI, 1.9–16.0%) increase in FeNO, respectively, adjusting for other phthalate metabolites and potential covariates/confounders. There was no association between concentrations of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate or di-n-butyl phthalate and FeNO. There was no significant interaction by seroatopy. The BBzP metabolite association was significantly stronger among children who wheeze (P = 0.016). Conclusions: Independent associations between exposures to DEP and BBzP and FeNO in a cohort of inner-city children were observed. These results suggest that these two ubiquitous phthalates, previously shown to have substantial contributions from inhalation, are positively associated with airway inflammation in children. PMID:22923660

  6. Microbial content of household dust associated with exhaled NO in asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Elisabet; Reponen, Tiina; Vesper, Stephen; Levin, Linda; Lockey, James; Ryan, Patrick; Bernstein, David I.; Villareal, Manuel; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Schaffer, Chris; LeMasters, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is increasingly used as a non-invasive measure of airway inflammation. Despite this, little information exists regarding the potential effects of indoor microbial components on eNO. We determined the influence of microbial contaminants in house dust and other indoor environmental characteristics on eNO levels in seven-year-olds with and without a physician- diagnosis of asthma. The study included 158 children recruited from a birth cohort study, and 32 were physician-diagnosed as asthmatic. The relationship between eNO levels and exposures to home dust streptomycetes, endotoxin, and molds was investigated. Streptomycetes and endotoxin were analyzed both as loads and concentrations in separate models. Dog, cat, and dust mite allergens also were evaluated. In the multivariate exposure models high streptomycetes loads and concentrations were significantly associated with a decrease in eNO levels in asthmatic (p <0.001) but not in healthy children. The presence of dog allergen, however, was associated with increased levels of eNO (p = 0.001). Dust endotoxin was not significant. The relationship between eNO and indoor exposure to common outdoor molds was u-shaped. In non-asthmatic children, none of the exposure variables were significantly associated with eNO levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating a significant association between microbial components in the indoor environment and eNO levels in asthmatic children. This study demonstrates the importance of simultaneously assessing multiple home exposures of asthmatic children to better understand opposing effects. Common components of the indoor Streptomyces community may beneficially influence airway inflammation. PMID:23807177

  7. The Influence of Living Near Roadways on Spirometry and Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Elementary Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert; Wheeler, Amanda; Mahmud, Mamun; Frescura, Anna Maria; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Nethery, Elizabeth; Liu, Ling

    2008-01-01

    Background Living near major roadways has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms, but little is known about how this relates to airway inflammation. Objective We assessed the effects of living near local residential roadways based on objective indicators of ventilatory function and airway inflammation. Methods We estimated ambient air pollution, resolved to the level of the child’s neighborhood, using a land-use regression model for children 9–11 years of age. We also summed the length of roadways found within a 200-m radius of each child’s neighborhood. We had measurements of both air pollution exposure and spirometry for 2,328 children, and also had measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) for 1,613 of these children. Results Each kilometer of local roadway within a 200-m radius of the home was associated with a 6.8% increase in eNO (p = 0.045). Each kilometer of any type of roadway (local, major, highway) was also associated with an increase in eNO of 10.1% (p = 0.002). Each microgram per cubic meter increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 3.9% increase in eNO (p = 0.058) and 0.70% decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) expressed as a percentage of predicted (p = 0.39). Associations between roadway density and both forced expired volume in 1 sec and FVC were negative but not statistically significant at p < 0.05. Conclusion Traffic from local neighborhood roadways may cause airway inflammation as indicated by eNO. This may be a more sensitive indicator of adverse air pollution effects than traditional measures of ventilatory function. PMID:18941589

  8. Eicosanoids in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Primary Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ciebiada, Maciej; Górski, Paweł; Antczak, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Although eicosanoids are involved in lung carcinogenesis they were poorly investigated in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) in patients with primary lung cancer. In this study 17 patients with diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer, 10 healthy smokers and 12 healthy nonsmokers were included. The levels of cys-LTs, 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2 were measured before any treatment in the EBC of all patients and in BALf of patients with lung cancer by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. 8-isoprostane, LTB4, cys-LTs and PGE2 were detectable in the EBC and BALf. There were no significant differences between healthy smokers and nonsmokers in concentrations of all measured mediators. Compared with both healthy controls, patients with diagnosed lung cancer displayed higher concentrations of cys-LTs (p < 0.05) and LTB4 (p < 0.05) in EBC. In patients with lung cancer, the mean concentrations of all measured mediators were significantly higher in BALf compared with EBC and there was a significant, positive correlation between concentration of cys-LTs, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane in BALf and their concentrations in the EBC (r = 0.64, p < 0.05, r = 0.59, p < 0.05, r = 0.53, p < 0.05 respectively). Since cys-LT, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane concentrations in EBC from patients with lung cancer reflect their concentrations in BALf, they may serve as a possible non-invasive method to monitor the disease and to assess the effectiveness of therapy. PMID:22674413

  9. Ambient and Microenvironmental Particles and Exhaled Nitric Oxide Before and After a Group Bus Trip

    PubMed Central

    Adar, Sara Dubowsky; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Gold, Diane R.; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.; Suh, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Airborne particles have been linked to pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Because these effects may be particularly great for traffic-related particles, we examined associations between particle exposures and exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in a study of 44 senior citizens, which involved repeated trips aboard a diesel bus. Methods Samples of FENO collected before and after the trips were regressed against microenvironmental and ambient particle concentrations using mixed models controlling for subject, day, trip, vitamins, collection device, mold, pollen, room air nitric oxide, apparent temperature, and time to analysis. Although ambient concentrations were collected at a fixed location, continuous group-level personal samples characterized microenvironmental exposures throughout facility and trip periods. Results In pre-trip samples, both microenvironmental and ambient exposures to fine particles were positively associated with FENO. For example, an interquartile increase of 4 μg/m3 in the daily microenvironmental PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 13% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2–24%) increase in FENO. After the trips, however, FENO concentrations were associated pre-dominantly with microenvironmental exposures, with significant associations for concentrations measured throughout the whole day. Associations with exposures during the trip also were strong and statistically significant with a 24% (95% CI, 15–34%) increase in FENO predicted per interquartile increase of 9 μg/m3 in PM2.5. Although pre-trip findings were generally robust, our post-trip findings were sensitive to several influential days. Conclusions Fine particle exposures resulted in increased levels of FENO in elderly adults, suggestive of increased airway inflammation. These associations were best assessed by microenvironmental exposure measurements during periods of high personal particle exposures. PMID:17450216

  10. Measurement of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide as a Marker of Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomi, Erkanda; Rothstein, Robin D.; Ehrlich, Adam C.; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Definitive diagnosis of IBD requires endoscopic and pathologic confirmation. These tools are also used to classify disease activity. Our aim was to determine if the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be utilized to screen for IBD and assess for disease activity. Methods We matched weighted IBD cases and controls from the 2009–2010 NHANES dataset. All subjects underwent measurement of FeNO using standardized techniques. We assessed for potential confounders for FeNO measurement including age, height, and asthma. For IBD subjects, we used the presence of diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss as a proxy for IBD activity. Laboratory parameters examined to estimate disease activity included anemia (≤ 10 g/dl), iron deficiency (ferritin ≤ 20 ng/ml), hypoalbuminemia (≤ 3.2 g/dl), and CRP (≥ 1.1 mg/dl). Results The weighted sample represented 199,414,901 subjects. The weighted prevalence of IBD was 2,084,895 (1.0%). IBD subjects had nearly the same FeNO level as those without IBD (17.0 ± 16.2 vs. 16.7 ± 14.5 ppb). The odds of a FeNO > 25 ppb was half (OR=0.501; 95% CI 0.497–0.504) for subjects with IBD compared to those without IBD after controlling for confounders. The AUROC curve for FeNO was 0.47 (0.35–0.59). FeNO levels were not higher in patients with laboratory values suggestive of active disease. FeNO levels were higher in IBD patients with diarrhea, rectal urgency, and fatigue but were lower in those with unintentional weight loss. Conclusion Measurement of FeNO does not appear to be useful to screen for IBD or assess disease activity. PMID:27398403

  11. Diagnostic value and influencing factors of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in suspected asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yubo; Li, Li; Han, Rui; Lei, Wenhui; Li, Zhongyan; Li, Kunlin; Kang, Jun; Chen, Hengyi; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the critical value and possible influencing factors of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in suspected asthma patients. Methods: 923 suspected asthmatics consecutively referred to our hospital during December 2012 to July 2014 were selected. All cases were carried out FeNO measurement at first; next, spirometry, bronchoprovocation tests or bronchodilation tests were used to confirm or exclude asthma. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to determine the best cut-off value of FeNO for asthma diagnosis. Results: In bronchoprovocation test, 125 cases were diagnosed as asthma, other 283 were non-asthmatics. FeNO levels of asthmatics were significantly higher than non-asthmatics (median, 64.8 ppb vs. 27.9 ppb, P < 0.01). In this group of patients, 64 ppb was the best cut-off value of FeNO to identify asthma with sensitivity of 52.0% and specificity of 94.35%. In bronchodilation test, 185 patients were diagnosed as asthma, other 330 were non-asthmatics. FeNO levels of asthmatics were significantly higher than non-asthmatics (median, 60.6 ppb vs. 29.05 ppb, P < 0.01). In bronchodilation test patients, 41 ppb was the best cut-off value of FeNO to identify asthma with sensitivity of 72.43% and specificity of 74.85%. Influencing factors analysis showed that sex was an independent factor affecting patients’ FeNO level. Conclusion: FeNO was an effective auxiliary diagnosis method for bronchial asthma. 64 ppb and 41 ppb was the best cut-off value of FeNO to identify asthma in bronchoprovocation test or bronchodilation test, respectively. Sex was an independent factor affecting patients’ FeNO level. PMID:26191266

  12. Exhaled NO Among Inner-city Children in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Divjan, Adnan; Mellins, Robert B.; Canfield, Stephen M.; Rosa, Maria Jose; Chew, Ginger L.; Rundle, Andrew; Goldstein, Inge F.; Jacobson, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) has been proposed as a biomarker of airway inflammation for cohort studies of asthma. Objectives To assess the association between FeNO and asthma symptoms among seven-year old children living in an inner-city community. To test the association between ETS exposure (previous and current) and FENO among these children. Methods As part of a longitudinal study of asthma, children recruited in Head Start centers at age 4 years had offline FeNO and lung function testing at age 7 years. Children with allergen specific IgE (≥0.35 IU/ml) at age 7 were considered seroatopic. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at ages 4 and 7 was assessed by questionnaire. Results Of 144 participating children, 89 had complete questionnaire data and achieved valid FeNO and lung function tests. Children with reported wheeze in the previous 12 months (n=19) had higher FeNO than those without wheeze (n=70) (geometric means 17.0 vs. 11.0ppb, p=0.005). FeNO remained significantly associated with wheeze (p=0.031), after adjusting for seroatopy and FEV1 in multivariable regression. FeNO at age 7 was positively associated with domestic ETS exposure at age 4 (29%)(β=0.36, p=0.015) but inversely associated with ETS exposure at age 7 (16%) (β= −0.74, p<0.001). Conclusions Given its association with current wheeze, independent of seroatopy and lung function, FeNO provides a relevant outcome measure for studies in inner-city communities. While compelling, the positive association between ETS exposure at age 4 and a marker of airway inflammation at age 7 should be confirmed in a larger study. PMID:20936992

  13. Determination of known exhalation valve damage using a negative pressure user seal check method on full facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Lisa J; McKay, Roy T; Freeman, Andrew

    2003-04-01

    A negative pressure user seal check (NPUSC) method was evaluated for its ability to adequately detect known exhalation valve leakage into a respirator. Three valves with different types of damage were included. Twenty-six test subjects, wearing full facepiece respirators, were asked to perform a NPUSC. Their responses as to whether they passed or failed the user seal check were compared to fit testing results from two quantitative fit test methods: ambient aerosol and controlled negative pressure. In addition, equipment developed at the University of Cincinnati was used to measure in-mask pressures that are generated during the performance of NPUSCs. This technique was employed to assess the ability of respirator wearers to properly conduct user seal checks. The data were analyzed to determine if the user seal check procedure is an effective method for detecting known exhalation valve damage. All test subjects reported passing the user seal check with the undamaged valve. With the warped valve installed, 95 percent of test subjects reported passing the user seal check. With the slit valve installed, 73 percent of test subjects reported passing. With the dirty valve installed, 65 percent reported passing. All fit factors, measured with the damaged valves, were below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration-recognized pass/fail criteria except one fit test with the respirator equipped with the slit valve. Results from the in-mask pressure measurements confirmed whether or not the subject properly conducted a user seal check, but did not detect respirator leakage. In conclusion, the performance of a NPUSC rarely helped to identify damaged exhalation valves. These results support the need for respirator inspection prior to donning with periodic fit testing and the performance of user seal checks as necessary components of an adequate respiratory protection program. PMID:12637234

  14. pH in exhaled breath condensate and nasal lavage as a biomarker of air pollution-related inflammation in street traffic-controllers and office-workers

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Thamires Marques; Kazama, Cristiane Mayumi; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Macchione, Mariangela; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Bueno-Garcia, Maria Lucia; Zanetta, Dirce Maria; de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To utilize low-cost and simple methods to assess airway and lung inflammation biomarkers related to air pollution. METHODS: A total of 87 male, non-smoking, healthy subjects working as street traffic-controllers or office-workers were examined to determine carbon monoxide in exhaled breath and to measure the pH in nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate. Air pollution exposure was measured by particulate matter concentration, and data were obtained from fixed monitoring stations (8-h work intervals per day, during the 5 consecutive days prior to the study). RESULTS: Exhaled carbon monoxide was two-fold greater in traffic-controllers than in office-workers. The mean pH values were 8.12 in exhaled breath condensate and 7.99 in nasal lavage fluid in office-workers; these values were lower in traffic-controllers (7.80 and 7.30, respectively). Both groups presented similar cytokines concentrations in both substrates, however, IL-1β and IL-8 were elevated in nasal lavage fluid compared with exhaled breath condensate. The particulate matter concentration was greater at the workplace of traffic-controllers compared with that of office-workers. CONCLUSION: The pH values of nasal lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate are important, robust, easy to measure and reproducible biomarkers that can be used to monitor occupational exposure to air pollution. Additionally, traffic-controllers are at an increased risk of airway and lung inflammation during their occupational activities compared with office-workers. PMID:24473505

  15. Application of support vector machine method for the analysis of absorption spectra of exhaled air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of all volunteers were measured, the classification methods of the scans of the absorption spectra were applied, the sensitivity/specificity of the classification results were determined. It were obtained a result of nosological in pairs classification for all investigated volunteers, indices of sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Association among fraction of exhaled nitrous oxide, bronchodilator response and inhaled corticosteroid type

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan W; Downey, Kim; Snow, Nadia; Dell, Sharon; Smith, W Gary

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fraction of exhaled nitrous oxide (FeNO) is a known marker of airway inflammation and a topic of recent investigation for asthma control in children. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship among FeNO and bronchodilator response measured by spirometry and types of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). METHODS: A one-year review of children tested with spirometry and FeNO in a regional pediatric asthma centre was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 183 children were included (mean [± SD] age 12.8±2.8 years). Fluticasone was used most commonly (n=66 [36.1%]), followed by ciclesonide (n=50 [27.3%]). Most children (n=73 [39.9%]) had moderate persistent asthma. Increased FeNO was associated with percent change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after bronchodilator adjusted for allergic rhinitis, parental smoking and ICS type (B=0.08 [95% CI 0.04 to 0.12]; P<0.001). Similarly, FeNO was associated with percent change in forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of the pulmonary volume (FEF25–75) after bronchodilator adjusted for parental smoking and ICS type (B=0.13 [95% CI 0.01 to 0.24]; P=0.03). FeNO accounted for only 16% and 9% of the variability in FEV1 and FEF25–75, respectively. Mean-adjusted FeNO was lowest in fluticasone users compared with no ICS (mean difference 18.6 parts per billion [ppb] [95% CI 1.0 to 36.2]) and there was no difference in adjusted FeNO level between ciclesonide and no ICS (5.9 ppb [95% CI −9.0 to 20.8]). CONCLUSION: FeNO levels correlated with bronchodilator response in a regional pediatric asthma centre. However, FeNO accounted for only 16% and 9% of the variability in FEV1 and FEF25–75, respectively. Mean adjusted FeNO varied according to ICS type, suggesting a difference in relative efficacy between ICS beyond their dose equivalents. PMID:25874734

  17. Methodological implications in pH standardization of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, F; Berresheim, H; Beine, A; Sucker, K; Brüning, T; Bünger, J

    2015-09-01

    The variable amount of dissolved carbon dioxide is one of the main confounding factors of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH measurements. There have been many attempts at identifying the optimal approach to displace CO2 as a way to gain reproducible and valid pH values in EBC samples. The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation of pH and pCO2 in untreated, neat EBC samples and, after deaeration, to reevaluate the standardization of CO2 as a means to obtain valid pH values. A further aim was to evaluate the impact of deaeration on the acid-base balance in EBC samples. EBC was collected from seven female and 31 male subjects. The pH and pCO2 values immediately determined in untreated, neat EBC samples were strongly correlated (rp = -0.723, p <  0.0001). This correlation was not observed after deaeration with argon (rs = 0.264, p = 0.109). Based on a regression function for the pH/pCO2 relationship, the calculated pH at a pCO2 of 5.33 kPa was 6.07 (IQR 5.99, 6.20). No significant difference was observed between the pH measured in neat EBC samples and those calculated after deaeration with regression function and measured neat pCO2. Our data suggest that pCO2 is the most important confounder of pH measurement in EBC samples and, when adjusting for pCO2, the acid-base balance of EBC samples is not significantly influenced by the process of deaeration. Furthermore, measurement with a blood-gas analyzer and standardization of pH for pCO2 allows sensitive assaying of EBC samples. Therefore, this method provides a basis for detection of even small changes in airway pH due to inhalative exposure or respiratory disease. PMID:25972098

  18. Sampling and analyzing alveolar exhaled breath condensate in mechanically ventilated patients: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Rosanna; Corradi, Massimo; Goldoni, Matteo; Cancelliere, Laura; Pulvirenti, Simone; Fazzini, Ugo; Capuzzi, Fabio; Longhini, Federico; Mutti, Antonio; Della Corte, Francesco; Navalesi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies in spontaneously breathing subjects indicate the possibility of obtaining the alveolar fraction of exhaled breath condensate (aEBC). In critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, in whom microbial colonization of the upper airways is constant, collection of aEBC could considerably add to the ability of monitoring alveolar inflammation. We designed this study to test the feasibility of collecting aEBC in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients through a dedicated apparatus, i.e. a CO2 valve combined with a condenser placed in the expiratory limb of the ventilator circuit. We also aimed to assess the adequacy of the samples obtained by measuring different markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. We enrolled 40 mechanically ventilated patients, 20 with and 20 without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Measurements of respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and hemodynamics were obtained with a standard ventilator circuit after 30 min of aEBC collection and after inserting the dedicated collecting apparatus. Data showed that intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure, peak and plateau pressure, static compliance and airway resistance (Raw) were similar before and after adding the collecting apparatus in both ARDS and controls. Similarly, gas exchange and hemodynamic variables did not change and 30 min collection provided a median aEBC volume of 2.100 and 2.300 ml for ARDS and controls, respectively. aEBC pH showed a trend toward a slight reduction in the ARDS group of patients, as opposed to controls (7.83 (7.62-8.03) versus 7.98 (7.87-8.12), respectively, p  =  0.055)). H2O2 was higher in patients with ARDS, compared to controls (0.09 (0.06-0.12) μM versus 0.03 (0.01-0.09) μM, p  =  0.043), while no difference was found in proteins content, 8-isoprostane, 4-hydroxy-2-nonhenal. In conclusion, we demonstrate, in patients receiving controlled mechanical ventilation, that aEBC collection is feasible without

  19. Environmental Conditions Affect Exhalation of H3N2 Seasonal and Variant Influenza Viruses and Respiratory Droplet Transmission in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, Kortney M.; Belser, Jessica A.; Veguilla, Vic; Zeng, Hui; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Maines, Taronna R.

    2015-01-01

    The seasonality of influenza virus infections in temperate climates and the role of environmental conditions like temperature and humidity in the transmission of influenza virus through the air are not well understood. Using ferrets housed at four different environmental conditions, we evaluated the respiratory droplet transmission of two influenza viruses (a seasonal H3N2 virus and an H3N2 variant virus, the etiologic virus of a swine to human summertime infection) and concurrently characterized the aerosol shedding profiles of infected animals. Comparisons were made among the different temperature and humidity conditions and between the two viruses to determine if the H3N2 variant virus exhibited enhanced capabilities that may have contributed to the infections occurring in the summer. We report here that although increased levels of H3N2 variant virus were found in ferret nasal wash and exhaled aerosol samples compared to the seasonal H3N2 virus, enhanced respiratory droplet transmission was not observed under any of the environmental settings. However, overall environmental conditions were shown to modulate the frequency of influenza virus transmission through the air. Transmission occurred most frequently at 23°C/30%RH, while the levels of infectious virus in aerosols exhaled by infected ferrets agree with these results. Improving our understanding of how environmental conditions affect influenza virus infectivity and transmission may reveal ways to better protect the public against influenza virus infections. PMID:25969995

  20. Relationships between adult asthma and oxidative stress markers and pH in exhaled breath condensate: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aldakheel, F M; Thomas, P S; Bourke, J E; Matheson, M C; Dharmage, S C; Lowe, A J

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress has a recognized role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Recently, interest has increased in the assessment of pH and airway oxidative stress markers. Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and quantification of biomarkers in breath samples can potentially indicate lung disease activity and help in the study of airway inflammation, and asthma severity. Levels of oxidative stress markers in the EBC have been systematically evaluated in children with asthma; however, there is no such systematic review conducted for adult asthma. A systematic review of oxidative stress markers measured in EBC of adult asthma was conducted, and studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. Sixteen papers met the inclusion criteria. Concentrations of exhaled hydrogen ions, nitric oxide products, hydrogen peroxide and 8-isoprostanes were generally elevated and related to lower lung function tests in adults with asthma compared to healthy subjects. Assessment of EBC markers may be a noninvasive approach to evaluate airway inflammation, exacerbations, and disease severity of asthma, and to monitor the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment regimens. Longitudinal studies, using standardized analytical techniques for EBC collection, are required to establish reference values for the interpretation of EBC markers in the context of asthma. PMID:26896172

  1. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mastalerz, L.; Sanak, M.; Kumik, J.; Gawlewicz-Mroczka, A.; Celejewska-Wójcik, N.; Ćmiel, A.; Szczeklik, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC) levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2) or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs). At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE) which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs) remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity. PMID:22291720

  2. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  3. Detection of Multiple Sclerosis from Exhaled Breath Using Bilayers of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A cross-reactive array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and single wall carbon nanotube bilayers was designed for the detection of volatile organic compounds (tentatively, hexanal and 5-methyl-undecane) that identify the presence of disease in the exhaled breath of patients with multiple sclerosis. The sensors showed excellent discrimination between hexanal, 5-methyl-undecane, and other confounding volatile organic compounds. Results obtained from a clinical study consisting of 51 volunteers showed that the sensors could discriminate between multiple sclerosis and healthy states from exhaled breath samples with 85.3% sensitivity, 70.6% specificity, and 80.4% accuracy. These results open new frontiers in the development of a fast, noninvasive, and inexpensive medical diagnostic tool for the detection and identification of multiple sclerosis. The results could serve also as a launching pad for the discrimination between different subphases or stages of multiple sclerosis as well as for the identification of multiple sclerosis patients who would respond well to immunotherapy. PMID:22860162

  4. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  5. Effects of immersion in cool water on lung-exhaled nitric oxide at rest and during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendergast, D. R.; Krasney, J. A.; DeRoberts, D.; Farhi, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Lung nitric oxide (NO) has been postulated to relax airway and vascular smooth muscle at rest and during exercise. As a cold environment is a common cause of respiratory distress, lung exhaled NO was measured during skin and core body cooling at rest and during a progressive cycle exercise. Ten healthy male subjects were immersed in water at a water temperature (Tw) which was thermal neutral (35 degrees C) at 30 degrees C Tw, at which only skin temperature is decreased; and at 20 degrees C Tw, at which the core temperature is decreased (0.05 degrees C). At rest, V(O), and V(E) increased while exhaled NO concentration [NO] and the rate of expiration of NO (V(NO)) decreased with decreased Tw. V(O2) and ventilation (V(E)) increased with workload (W) and the values at all Tw were not different, whereas, [NO] decreased with W and the values during exercise were progressively less at all Ws as Tw declined. These results indicate that lung NO output is reduced in a graded fashion during body cooling at rest and during exercise. This suggests that lower lung NO may contribute to airway obstruction in cold environments and NO may contribute to regulation of lung heat and water exchange.

  6. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  7. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  8. Impact of food intake on in vivo VOC concentrations in exhaled breath assessed in a caprine animal model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Physiological processes within the body may change emitted volatile organic compound (VOC) composition, and may therefore cause confounding biological background variability in breath gas analyses. To evaluate the effect of food intake on VOC concentration patterns in exhaled breath, this study assessed the variability of VOC concentrations due to food intake in a standardized caprine animal model. VOCs in (i) alveolar breath gas samples of nine clinically healthy goats and (ii) room air samples were collected and pre-concentrated before morning feeding and repeatedly after (+60 min, +150 min, +240 min) using needle trap microextraction (NTME). Analysis of VOCs was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Only VOCs with significantly higher concentrations in breath gas samples compared to room air samples were taken into consideration. Six VOCs that belonged to the chemical classes of hydrocarbons and alcohols were identified presenting significantly different concentrations before and after feeding. Selected hydrocarbons showed a concentration pattern that was characterized by an initial increase 60 min after food intake, and a subsequent gradual decrease. Results emphasize consideration of physiological effects on exhaled VOC concentrations due to food intake with respect to standardized protocols of sample collection and critical evaluation of results. PMID:26670078

  9. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  10. A NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA BY EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY-PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the potential of exhaled breath analysis by Column Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) as a non invasive and sensitive approach to evaluate mesenteric ischemia in pigs.

    Domestic pigs (n=3) were anesthetized with Guaifenesin/ Fentanyl/ Ketamine/ Xylazine...

  11. In-phase dynamics of the exhalation sequence in Popocatépetl volcano and slow-slip events in Cocos-North American plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Sosa, Eliceo; Hernandez-Martinez, Eliseo

    2011-02-01

    It has long been considered that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is related to subduction along the Middle America trench. Within this view, it is expected that the tectonic dynamics of the Cocos plate can be reflected, to some extent, in the Popocatépetl's volcanic activity This work uses detrended fluctuation analysis, a method borrowed from statistical mechanics, to quantify the fractality and autocorrelations in the exhalation sequence of the Popocatepetl. It is found that the autocorrelations exhibit cyclic, non-periodic, dynamics with dominant periods of the order of 0.85 to 1.25 years. Interestingly, it is shown that the occurrence of slow-slip events in Southern (Guerrero and Oaxaca) Mexico coincides with peaks of the autocorrelation cycle of the exhalation sequence. The result suggests the use of the volcano exhalation sequence as a proxy of aseismic events in the Cocos-North American plate boundary. That is, by monitoring the autocorrelation dynamics of the exhalation sequence in the Popocatepetl, one could be able to suspect the occurrence of a slow-slip event in Southern Mexico.

  12. Storage conditions for stability of offline measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide after collection for epidemiologic research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The measurement of fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) is valuable for the assessment of airway inflammation. Offline measurement of FeNO has been used in some epidemiologic studies. However, the time course of the changes in FeNO after collection has not been fully clarified. In this study, the effects of storage conditions on the stability of FeNO measurement in exhaled air after collection for epidemiologic research were examined. Methods Exhaled air samples were collected from 48 healthy adults (mean age 43.4 ± 12.1 years) in Mylar bags. FeNO levels in the bags were measured immediately after collection. The bags were then stored at 4°C or room temperature to measure FeNO levels repeatedly for up to 168 hours. Results In the bags stored at room temperature after collection, FeNO levels were stable for 9 hours, but increased starting at 24 hours. FeNO levels remained stable for a long time at 4°C, and they were 99.7% ± 7.7% and 101.3% ± 15.0% relative to the baseline values at 24 and 96 hours, respectively. When the samples were stored at 4°C, FeNO levels gradually decreased with time among the subjects with FeNO ≥ 51 ppb immediately after collection, although there were almost no changes among the other subjects. FeNO levels among current smokers increased even at 4°C, although the values among ex-smokers decreased gradually, and those among nonsmokers remained stable. The rate of increase was significantly higher among current smokers than among nonsmokers and ex-smokers from 9 hours after collection onwards. Conclusions Storage at 4°C could prolong the stability of FeNO levels after collection. This result suggests that valid measurements can be performed within several days if the samples are stored at 4°C. However, the time course of the changes in FeNO levels differed in relation to initial FeNO values and cigarette smoking. PMID:23116255

  13. The Idaho cobalt belt, northwestern United States — A metamorphosed Proterozoic exhalative ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nold, J. L.

    1990-07-01

    In the Idaho cobalt belt, originally exhalative, stratiform mineralization within the Proterozoic Yellow-jacket Formation has become increasingly coarse-grained and remobilized toward the northwest in the direction of increasing regional metamorphic grade. The Idaho cobalt belt is located about 40 km west of Salmon, Idaho in the northwestern United States. The most important deposit in the district is the Blackbird mine which produced copper-cobalt ore sporadically from the early 1900's until about 1960. The Iron Creek deposit at the southeast end of the belt has undergone greenschist fades, biotite zone metamorphism; zones of disseminated, veinlet and massive sulfides lie more or less parallel to bedding of quartzites and phyllites. The main ore minerals are chalcopyrite and cobaltiferous pyrite. Toward the northwest at the Blackpine mine, remobilization has concentrated most of the mineralization into relatively thin concordant and discordant veins containing chalcopyrite, pyrite and arsenopyrite. The cobalt is reported to occur within arsenopyrite. Further northwest at the Blackbird mine where the Yellowjacket formation has been metamorphosed to the lower amphibolite facies, zones of disseminated and coarse-grained vein ores lie approximately along the same stratigraphic zone. Chalcopyrite, cobaltite, arsenopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite are the dominant ore minerals. Up to 0.22 oz. Au/ton was present in some of the ore. In addition, tourmaline-bearing sedimentary rocks (tourmalinites) are associated with some of the Blackbird ores. The Salmon Canyon deposit at the northwest end of the belt has undergone upper amphibolite facies, sillimanite zone metamorphism. In these garnet-sillimanite gneisses, chalcopyrite is found as coarse blebs and cobaltite as large porphyroblastic crystals. Gold occurs in amounts up to 0.02 oz. Au/ton. Elsewhere in the world the two most similar districts are the cobalt-bearing portion of the Zambian-Zairian Copperbelt of central Africa

  14. CFD modeling and image analysis of exhaled aerosols due to a growing bronchial tumor: Towards non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of respiratory obstructive diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 μm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol.

  15. CFD modeling and image analysis of exhaled aerosols due to a growing bronchial tumor: Towards non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of respiratory obstructive diseases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treatmore » the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 μm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol.« less

  16. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-02-06

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure vari-ations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagran-gian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respira-tions of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug de-livery protocol.

  17. Sensitive method for quantification of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) in end-exhaled air by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Beckmann, Gwendolyn; Anzion, Rob B M; Ragas, Ad M J; Russel, Frans G M; Scheepers, Paul T J

    2014-06-17

    Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylpentasiloxane (D5) are used as ingredients for personal care products (PCPs). Because of the use of these PCPs, consumers are exposed daily to D4 and D5. A sensitive analytical method was developed for analysis of D4 and D5 in end-exhaled air by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS), to determine the internal dose for consumer exposure assessment. Fifteen consumers provided end-exhaled air samples that were collected using Bio-VOC breath samplers and subsequently transferred to automatic thermal desorption (ATD) tubes. Prior to use, the ATD tubes were conditioned for a minimum of 4 h at 350 °C. The TD unit and auto sampler were coupled to a GC-MS using electron ionization. Calibration was performed using 0-10 ng/μL solutions of D4/D5 and (13)C-labeled D4/D5 as internal standards. The ions monitored were m/z 281 for D4, 355 for D5, 285 for (13)C-labeled D4, and 360 for (13)C-labeled D5. The addition of internal standard reduced the coefficient of variation from 30.8% to 9.5% for D4 and from 37.8% to 12.5% for D5. The limit of quantification was 2.1 ng/L end-exhaled air for D4 and 1.4 ng/L end-exhaled air for D5. With this method, cyclic siloxanes (D4 and D5) can be quantified in end-exhaled air at concentrations as low as background levels observed in the general population. PMID:24833048

  18. CFD Modeling and Image Analysis of Exhaled Aerosols due to a Growing Bronchial Tumor: towards Non-Invasive Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory Obstructive Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol. PMID:25767612

  19. CFD modeling and image analysis of exhaled aerosols due to a growing bronchial tumor: towards non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of respiratory obstructive diseases.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jinxiang; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua A; Corley, Richard A; Kabilan, Senthil; Wang, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of tumorigenesis are generally performed with CT, PET, or biopsy. Such methods are accurate, but have the limitations of high cost and posing additional health risks to patients. In this study, we introduce an alternative computer aided diagnostic tool that can locate malignant sites caused by tumorigenesis in a non-invasive and low-cost way. Our hypothesis is that exhaled aerosol distribution is unique to lung structure and is sensitive to airway structure variations. With appropriate approaches, it is possible to locate the disease site, determine the disease severity, and subsequently formulate a targeted drug delivery plan to treat the disease. This study numerically evaluated the feasibility of the proposed breath test in an image-based lung model with varying pathological stages of a bronchial squamous tumor. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to model respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 20 L/min were simulated, with the distributions of exhaled aerosols recorded on a filter at the mouth exit. Aerosol patterns were quantified with multiple analytical techniques such as concentration disparity, spatial scanning and fractal analysis. We demonstrated that a growing bronchial tumor induced notable variations in both the airflow and exhaled aerosol distribution. These variations became more apparent with increasing tumor severity. The exhaled aerosols exhibited distinctive pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, and multifractal spectrum. Results of this study show that morphometric measures of the exhaled aerosol pattern can be used to detect and monitor the pathological states of respiratory diseases in the upper airway. The proposed breath test also has the potential to locate the site of the disease, which is critical in developing a personalized, site-specific drug delivery protocol. PMID:25767612

  20. Mesoporous WO3 Nanofibers with Protein-Templated Nanoscale Catalysts for Detection of Trace Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Joon; Choi, Seon-Jin; Jang, Ji-Soo; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Hakim, Meggie; Tuller, Harry L; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-06-28

    Highly selective detection, rapid response (<20 s), and superior sensitivity (Rair/Rgas> 50) against specific target gases, particularly at the 1 ppm level, still remain considerable challenges in gas sensor applications. We propose a rational design and facile synthesis concept for achieving exceptionally sensitive and selective detection of trace target biomarkers in exhaled human breath using a protein nanocage templating route for sensitizing electrospun nanofibers (NFs). The mesoporous WO3 NFs, functionalized with well-dispersed nanoscale Pt, Pd, and Rh catalytic nanoparticles (NPs), exhibit excellent sensing performance, even at parts per billion level concentrations of gases in a humid atmosphere. Functionalized WO3 NFs with nanoscale catalysts are demonstrated to show great promise for the reliable diagnosis of diseases. PMID:27166639

  1. A compact laser-based spectrometer for detection of C2H2 in exhaled breath and HCN in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, D.; Neerincx, A. H.; Mandon, J.; Zhang, J.; Boerkamp, M.; Mink, J.; Cristescu, S. M.; Hekkert, S. te Lintel; Harren, F. J. M.

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development of a compact prototype near-infrared DBR laser-based spectrometer employing off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy. The spectrometer is capable of simultaneous detection of acetylene (C2H2) and CO2 at 1,529.2 nm as well as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) at 1,533.5 nm. The detection limits of 8 ppbv for C2H2 and 80 ppbv for HCN are achieved for the acquisition time of 1 s. The setup has been tested for online measurements of C2H2 in exhaled breath of a smoking subject and HCN resulting from the metabolism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria in vitro. Further improvements of the performance of the spectrometer are discussed.

  2. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Visualization of exhaled hydrogen sulphide on test paper with an ultrasensitive and time-gated luminescent probe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Shijiang; Wang, Jianping; Han, Guangmei; Yang, Linlin; Liu, Bianhua; Guan, Guijian; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-08-01

    Luminescent chemosensors for hydrogen sulphide (H2S) are of great interest because of the close association of H2S with our health. However, current probes for H2S detection have problems such as low sensitivity/selectivity, poor aqueous-solubility or interference from background fluorescence. This study reports an ultrasensitive and time-gated "switch on" probe for detection of H2S, and its application in test paper for visualization of exhaled H2S. The complex probe is synthesized with a luminescent Tb(3+) centre and three ligands of azido (-N3) substituted pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, giving the probe high hydrophilicity and relatively fast reaction dynamics with H2S because there are three -N3 groups in each molecule. The introduced -N3 group as a strong electron-withdrawing moiety effectively changes the energy level of ligand via intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and thus breaks the energy transferring from ligand to lanthanide ion, resulting in quenching of Tb(3+) luminescence. On addition of H2S, the -N3 group can be reduced to an amine group to break the process of ICT, and the luminescence of Tb(3+) is recovered at a nanomolar sensitivity level. With a long lifetime of luminescence of Tb(3+) centre (1.9 ms), use of a time-gated technique effectively eliminates the background fluorescence by delaying fluorescence collection for 0.1 ms. The test paper imprinted by the complex probe ink can visualize clearly the trace H2S gas exhaled by mice. PMID:27291706

  4. Investigation of the climatic extremes influence on the humane adaptive capacity by mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled breath condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabokon, Anna; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Starodubtceva, Nataliia; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene; Varfolomeev, Sergey

    Global climate change, which causes abnormal fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, has adverse effects on human health. Particularly people suffer with cardiovascular and respiratory system disease. Our research was concentrated on the changes in the regulation and adaptation systems of human organism related to hyperthermia and polluted air influence. Healthy individuals with the age from 22 to 45 years were isolated during 30 days in the ground based experimental facility located at Institute of medico-biological problems RAS (Moscow, Russia). In the ground based facility artificially climatic conditions of August, 2010 in Moscow were created. Exhaled breath condensate was collected before and after isolation by R-Tube collector, freeze dried, treated by trypsin and analyzed by nanoflow LC-MS/MS with a 7-Tesla LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Bremen, Germany). Database search was performed using Mascot Server 2.2 software (Matrix Science, London, UK). Investigation of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from participants of the 30 days isolation with hyper thermic and polluted air climate conditions was performed. After isolation reduction of the protein number was observed. Loss endothelial C receptor precursor - the main physiological anticoagulant - correlate with the clinical data of physicians to increase the propensity to thrombosis. Also COP9 signalosome protein, positive regulator of ubiquitin was identified in all EBC samples before isolation and was not detected for more than a half of donors after isolation. This phenomena may be due to violation of ubiquitin protection system of the cells from harmful proteins. During isolation the air was cleared from microdisperse particles.

  5. Luminol/H2O2 chemiluminescence detector for the analysis of nitric oxide in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J K; Bollinger, M J; Birks, J W

    1999-11-15

    A new instrument for the detection of nitric oxide has been developed and applied to the analysis of exhaled breath. The instrument is based on conversion of NO to NO2, using the oxidant chromium trioxide, followed by detection of chemiluminescence in the reaction of NO2 with an alkaline luminol/H2O2 solution. The presence of H2O2 is found to enhance the sensitivity of NO2 detection by a factor of approximately 20. A bundle of porous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes is used to bring the gaseous sample into contact with the luminol solution. Chemiluminescence occurring within the translucent hollow fibers is detected using a miniature photomultiplier tube. The limit of detection for NO is 0.3 ppbv for S/N = 3, and the 1/e response time is 2 s. A large interference resulting from the 4-6% CO2 concentration in exhaled breath is removed by use of an ascarite scrubber in the air stream. Breath measurements of NO were made using a sampling technique developed by Sensor Medics (Yorba Linda, CA) with simultaneous detection using the luminol/H2O2 and NO + O3 chemiluminescence techniques. The two instruments were found to be in excellent agreement. Nitric oxide levels were in the range 6.0-22.0 ppbv for healthy individuals and 40.0-80.0 ppbv for individuals with asthma or a respiratory infection. This new detector offers the advantages of compact size, low cost, and a simple configuration compared to NO detectors based on NO + O3 chemiluminescence. PMID:10575964

  6. Cytokine profiling in exhaled breath condensate after exercise challenge in asthmatic children with post-exercise symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Majak, Paweł; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Bojo, Magdalena; Brzozowska, Agnieszka; Koczkowska, Magdalena; Sielski, Piotr; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Stelmach, Rafał; Janas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Markers of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) correlate with lung function impairment, airway remodeling and different aspects of the disease such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Aim of the study was to determine the cytokine profile in EBC of children with asthma after an exercise treadmill challenge in order to obtain clinically useful information about mechanisms of EIB; also, to assess correlations between cytokine concentrations in EBC and clinical characteristics of the patients. Material and methods The study population consisted of 25 randomly selected children, aged 8 to 19 years, with asthma and EIB symptoms despite the use of control medications. Patients on the day of the study visit underwent fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement (FeNO) and baseline spirometry, performed an exercise treadmill challenge (ETC), and EBC samples were obtained at the end of the ETC. Results In asthmatic children with positive ETC, monocyte hemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-16 adjusted to pre-EBC forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were significantly higher compared to children with negative ETC (p = 0.022 and p = 0.017 respectively). After adjustment to pre-EBC FEV1 other cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, MIG, TNF-α) were not related to post-exercise changes in FEV1. Conclusions We observed a specific inflammatory profile in the airways of asthmatic children with bronchoconstriction induced by exercise. The concentration of cytokines in EBC depended on the post-exercise decrease in FEV1, which was measured by the area under the curve (AUC). MCP-1 and IL-16, adjusted to pre-EBC FEV1, were significantly higher in children with a positive exercise challenge compared to those with a negative one. PMID:27478459

  7. Deterrence and arrest ratios.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephanie E; Piquero, Alex R

    2006-02-01

    In the limited research on the origins of sanction threat perceptions, researchers have focused on either the effects of actively engaging in crime or the effects of formal sanctioning but rarely on both (i.e., the arrest ratio or the number of arrests relative to the number of crimes committed). This article extends this line of research by using a sample of Colorado inmates and measures arrest ratios and sanction perceptions for eight different crime types. Analyses reveal that the offenders report both significant experiential and arrest ratio effects. Theoretical and policy implications, limitations, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:16397123

  8. Abiotic methane flux from the Chimaera seep and Tekirova ophiolites (Turkey): Understanding gas exhalation from low temperature serpentinization and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etiope, Giuseppe; Schoell, Martin; Hosgörmez, Hakan

    2011-10-01

    The emission of abiotic methane (CH 4) into the atmosphere from low temperature serpentinization in ophiolitic rocks is documented to date only in four countries, the Philippines, Oman, New Zealand, and Turkey. Serpentinization produces large amounts of hydrogen (H 2) which in theory may react with CO 2 or CO to form hydrocarbons (Fischer-Tropsch Type synthesis, FTT). Similar mechanisms have been invoked to explain the CH 4 detected on Mars, so that understanding flux and exhalation modality of ophiolitic gas on Earth may contribute to decipher the potential degassing on Mars. This work reports the first direct measurements of gas (CH 4, CO 2) flux ever done on onshore ophiolites with present-day serpentinization. We investigated the Tekirova ophiolites at Çirali, in Turkey, hosting the Chimaera seep, a system of gas vents issuing from fractures in a 5000 m 2 wide ophiolite outcrop. At this site at least 150-190 t of CH 4 is annually released into the atmosphere. The molecular and isotopic compositions of C 1-C 5 alkanes, CO 2, and N 2 combined with source rock maturity data and thermogenic gas formation modelling suggested a dominant abiotic component (~ 80-90%) mixed with thermogenic gas. Abiotic H 2-rich gas is likely formed at temperatures below 50 °C, suggested by the low deuterium/hydrogen isotopic ratio of H 2 (δD H2: - 720‰), consistent with the low geothermal gradient of the area. Abiotic gas synthesis must be very fast and effective in continuously producing an amount of gas equivalent to the long-lasting (> 2 millennia) emission of > 100 t CH 4 yr - 1 , otherwise pressurised gas accumulation must exist. Over the same ophiolitic formation, 3 km away from Chimaera, we detected an invisible microseepage of abiotic CH 4 with fluxes from 0.07 to 1 g m - 2 d - 1 . On Mars similar fluxes could be able to sustain the CH 4 plume apparently recognised in the Northern Summer 2003 (10 4 or 10 5 t yr - 1 ) over the wide olivine bedrock and outcrops of hydrated

  9. Simplifying Likelihood Ratios

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Likelihood ratios are one of the best measures of diagnostic accuracy, although they are seldom used, because interpreting them requires a calculator to convert back and forth between “probability” and “odds” of disease. This article describes a simpler method of interpreting likelihood ratios, one that avoids calculators, nomograms, and conversions to “odds” of disease. Several examples illustrate how the clinician can use this method to refine diagnostic decisions at the bedside.

  10. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  11. Low forced expiratory flow rates and forceful exhalation as a cause for arterial gas embolism during submarine escape training: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hartge, Francis J; Bennett, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old male U.S. Navy submariner suffered an arterial gas embolism during pressurized submarine escape training. Routine pretraining medical screening revealed no history of asthma, pneumothorax or recent respiratory infection. Pulmonary function testing and posterioranterior/lateral chest X-ray were normal. He forcefully exhaled at the start of his ascent and developed neurological abnormalities including lightheadedness with lower extremity weakness and paresthesias after surfacing. He fully recovered after a U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6. This case represents the first report of an arterial gas embolism since the U.S. Navy resumed pressurized submarine escape training utilizing the Submarine Escape and Immersion Equipment suit. We discuss possible contributing factors and propose that his AGE was caused by pulmonary barotrauma due to a combination of low forced expiratory flow rates and an overly forceful exhalation during his ascent. PMID:26591983

  12. Applications of tunable diode laser spectroscopy for the detection of exhaled endogenous gases: CO, NH3, CH4, N20, and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Stepanov, Eugene V.

    1996-04-01

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is proposed for content measurements of trace gases like CO, carbon-dioxide, NH3, CH4, NO, NO2 in human and animal's exhalation. High sensitivity and wide dynamic range of the method ensure fast detection of these gases at ppb level and within the accuracy better than 10%. One-expiration sample is enough to reach these parameters. There is no need for any preliminary preparations of tested samples. Some pairs of the gases, for instance, CO and carbon-dioxide, NH3 and carbon- dioxide, or CO and nitrous oxide, can be measured simultaneously by one laser providing complex studies. The high sensitive gas analysis could provide necessary background to the noninvasive diagnostics in a wide variety of medical problems. Perspectives of the TDLS methods in application to medicine diagnostics are demonstrated by the first results of exhalation tests.

  13. Detection of small trace molecules in human and animal exhalation by tunable diode lasers for applications in biochemistry and medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Galagan, Marina E.

    1995-02-01

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is proposed for content measurements of trace gases like CO, CO2, NH3, CH4, NO, NO2 in human and animal exhalation. High sensitivity and wide dynamic range of the method ensure fast detection of these gases at ppb level and within the accuracy better than 10%. One-expiration sample is enough to reach these parameters. There is no need for any preliminary preparations of tested samples. Some pairs of the gases, for instance, CO and CO2, NH3 and CO2 and CO and N2O, can be measured simultaneously by one laser providing complex studies. The high sensitive gas analysis could provide necessary background to the noninvasive diagnostics in a wide variety of medical problems. Perspectives of the TDLS methods in application to medicine diagnostics are demonstrated by the first results of exhalation tests.

  14. Near-IR laser-based spectrophotometer for comparative analysis of isotope content of CO{sub 2} in exhale air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, E V; Glushko, A N; Kasoev, S G; Koval', A V; Lapshin, D A

    2011-12-31

    We present a laser spectrophotometer aimed at high-accuracy comparative analysis of content of {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} isotope modifications in the exhale air samples and based on a tunable near-IR diode laser (2.05 {mu}m). The two-channel optical scheme of the spectrophotometer and the special digital system for its control are described. An algorithm of spectral data processing aimed at determining the difference in the isotope composition of gas mixtures is proposed. A few spectral regions (near 4880 cm{sup -1}) are determined to be optimal for analysis of relative content of {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} in the exhale air. The use of the proposed spectrophotometer scheme and the developed algorithm makes the results of the analysis less susceptible to the influence of the interference in optical elements, to the absorption in the open atmosphere, to the slow drift of the laser pulse envelope, and to the offset of optical channels. The sensitivity of the comparative analysis of the isotope content of CO{sub 2} in exhale air samples, achieved using the proposed scheme, is estimated to be nearly 0.1 Per-Mille-Sign .

  15. Leukotriene-B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate and lung function after thirty minutes of breathing technically dried compressed air.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Birger; Struck, Niclas; Mutzbauer, Till S; Schotte, Ulrich; Langfeldt, Norbert; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies it had been shown that leukotriene-B4 [LTB4] concentrations in the exhaled breath mirror the inflammatory activity of the airways if the respiratory tract has been exposed to occupational hazards. In diving the respiratory tract is exposed to cold and dry air and the nasopharynx, as the site of breathing-gas warming and humidification, is bypassed. The aim of the present study was to obtain LTB4-concentrations in the exhaled breath and spirometric data of 17 healthy subjects before and after thirty minutes of technically dried air breathing at normobar ambient pressure. The exhaled breath was collected non-invasively, via a permanently cooled expiration tube. The condensate was measured by a standard enzyme immunoassay for LTB4. Lung function values (FVC, FEV1, MEF 25, MEF 50) were simultaneously obtained by spirometry. The measured pre- and post-exposure LTB4- concentrations as well as the lung function values were in the normal range. The present data gave no evidence for any inflammatory activity in the subjects' airways after thirty minutes breathing technically dried air. PMID:12608592

  16. Comparison of the Levels of Infectious Virus in Respirable Aerosols Exhaled by Ferrets Infected with Influenza Viruses Exhibiting Diverse Transmissibility Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, Kortney M.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a major public health burden to communities around the world by causing respiratory infections that can be highly contagious and spread rapidly through the population. Despite extensive research on influenza viruses, the modes of transmission occurring most often among humans are not entirely clear. Contributing to this knowledge gap is the lack of an understanding of the levels of infectious virus present in respirable aerosols exhaled from infected hosts. Here, we used the ferret model to evaluate aerosol shedding patterns and measure the amount of infectious virus present in exhaled respirable aerosols. By comparing these parameters among a panel of human and avian influenza viruses exhibiting diverse respiratory droplet transmission efficiencies, we are able to report that ferrets infected by highly transmissible influenza viruses exhale a greater number of aerosol particles and more infectious virus within respirable aerosols than ferrets infected by influenza viruses that do not readily transmit. Our findings improve our understanding of the ferret transmission model and provide support for the potential for influenza virus aerosol transmission. PMID:23658443

  17. Simulation of four-dimensional CT images from deformable registration between inhale and exhale breath-hold CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David; Boldea, Vlad; Miguet, Serge; Ginestet, Chantal

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: We propose to simulate an artificial four-dimensional (4-D) CT image of the thorax during breathing. It is performed by deformable registration of two CT scans acquired at inhale and exhale breath-hold. Materials and methods: Breath-hold images were acquired with the ABC (Active Breathing Coordinator) system. Dense deformable registrations were performed. The method was a minimization of the sum of squared differences (SSD) using an approximated second-order gradient. Gaussian and linear-elastic vector field regularizations were compared. A new preprocessing step, called a priori lung density modification (APLDM), was proposed to take into account lung density changes due to inspiration. It consisted of modulating the lung densities in one image according to the densities in the other, in order to make them comparable. Simulated 4-D images were then built by vector field interpolation and image resampling of the two initial CT images. A variation in the lung density was taken into account to generate intermediate artificial CT images. The Jacobian of the deformation was used to compute voxel values in Hounsfield units. The accuracy of the deformable registration was assessed by the spatial correspondence of anatomic landmarks located by experts. Results: APLDM produced statistically significantly better results than the reference method (registration without APLDM preprocessing). The mean (and standard deviation) of distances between automatically found landmark positions and landmarks set by experts were 2.7(1.1) mm with APLDM, and 6.3(3.8) mm without. Interexpert variability was 2.3(1.2) mm. The differences between Gaussian and linear elastic regularizations were not statistically significant. In the second experiment using 4-D images, the mean difference between automatic and manual landmark positions for intermediate CT images was 2.6(2.0) mm. Conclusion: The generation of 4-D CT images by deformable registration of inhale and exhale CT images is

  18. Long-Term Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy Normalizes High Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ai-Ping; Aboussouan, Loutfi S.; Minai, Omar A.; Paschke, Kelly; Laskowski, Daniel; Dweik, Raed A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Upper airway inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and may be linked to cardiovascular consequences. We prospectively examined fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a surrogate marker of upper airway inflammation using a portable nitric oxide analyzer (NIOX MINO). Design: In consecutive adult nonsmokers with suspected OSA, FENO was measured immediately before and after polysomnographic studies, and within 1-3 months following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Measurement and Results: FENO levels were increased in the 75 patients with OSA compared to the 29 controls, both before sleep (13.4 ± 6.5 ppb vs. 6.5 ± 3.5; p < 0.001) and after sleep (19.0 ± 7.7 ppb vs. 6.9 ± 3.7; p < 0.001). Furthermore, in patients with OSA, FENO levels were significantly higher post-sleep than pre-sleep (19.0 ± 7.7 ppb vs. 13.4 ± 6.5; p < 0.001), while there was no significant overnight change in patients without OSA. The rise in FENO correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), nadir oxygen saturation (r = 0.54, p < 0.001), and arousal index (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). Thirty-seven of these patients underwent CPAP titration and treatment. Successful titration was associated with a lower overnight increase in FENO (7.2 ± 3.3 vs. 11.0 ± 4.3, p = 0.02). FENO levels declined after 1-3 months of CPAP therapy (11.7 ± 4.4 ppb, p < 0.001). Conclusions: FENO levels are elevated in OSA, correlate with severity, and decrease after positive pressure therapy. This study supports the role of upper airway inflammation in OSA pathogenesis and a possible role for FENO in monitoring CPAP therapy. Citation: Chua AP; Aboussouan LS; Minai OA; Paschke K; Laskowski D; Dweik RA. Long-term continuous positive airway pressure therapy normalizes high exhaled nitric oxide levels in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):529-535. PMID:23772184

  19. A Recipe for Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Many learners still struggled to appreciate, and understand the difference between, the concepts of fractions and ratio. This is not just a UK phenomenon, which is demonstrated here by the use of a resource developed by the Wisconsin Centre for Education, in association with the Freudenthal Institute of the University of Utrecht, with a group of…

  20. Laser-based human breath analysis: D/H isotope ratio increase following heavy water intake.

    PubMed

    Bartlome, Richard; Sigrist, Markus W

    2009-04-01

    Following the ing