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Sample records for 22q11 shprintzen-digeorge critical

  1. Noonan like appearance and familial deletion of the 22q11 Shprintzen-DiGeorge critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Piussan, C.; Mathieu, M.; Boudailliez, B.

    1994-09-01

    Shprintzen velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and reported cases of autosomal dominant DiGeorge sequence (DGS) both belong to a heterogeneous developmental field defect due to the familial segregation of a 22q11 deletion. Two sisters present with mental retardation, dysmorphia and multiple congenital anomalies. The eldest has a Noonan-like appearance; short stature, short webbed neck, low posterior hairline, widely spaced nipples, hemivertebrae, speech disability and mild hypoparathyroidism. Her younger sister has prominent eyes, floppy ears, pulmonary valvular stenosis, hypoplastic right kidney, left multicystic kidney, hypoparathyroidism and renal failure causing death at age 3. Their retarded mother has a typical Shprintzen phenotype and no hypoparathyroidism. A deletion of the critical DiGeorge-Shprintzen conotruncal malformation region was found by FISH in the mother and her Noonan-like daughter. In the mother`s family exist 3 cleft palates, an imperforate anus, a stillbirth and one infant died at age 3 months because of heart malformation. To our knowledge, another case of Noonan-like appearance in a DG patient affected with monosomy 22q11 has been reported in 1992 by Wilson et al. Whether resulting from the hemizygosity of a gene or from the deletion of contiguous genes, the wide DGS-VCFS spectrum encompasses quite variable phenotypes, discordant for palatal and conotruncal defects as well as for hypoparathyroidism, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital anomalies. Physical mapping of both the large 22q11 region commonly lost and the smallest deletion sufficient to produce DGS has been done and may account for the broadening spectrum, the variable expression and the frequently delayed diagnosis of this syndrome.

  2. 22q11 deletion syndrome: current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Delil, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11 is characterized by the presence of chromosome-specific low-copy repeats or segmental duplications. This region of the chromosome is very unstable and susceptible to mutations. The misalignment of low-copy repeats during nonallelic homologous recombination leads to the deletion of the 22q11.2 region, which results in 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). The 22q11.2 deletion is associated with a wide variety of phenotypes. The term 22q11DS is an umbrella term that is used to encompass all 22q11.2 deletion-associated phenotypes. The haploinsufficiency of genes located at 22q11.2 affects the early morphogenesis of the pharyngeal arches, heart, skeleton, and brain. TBX1 is the most important gene for 22q11DS. This syndrome can ultimately affect many organs or systems; therefore, it has a very wide phenotypic spectrum. An increasing amount of information is available related to the pathogenesis, clinical phenotypes, and management of this syndrome in recent years. This review summarizes the current clinical and genetic status related to 22q11DS. PMID:26056486

  3. Central 22q11.2 deletions.

    PubMed

    Rump, Patrick; de Leeuw, Nicole; van Essen, Anthonie J; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien C; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Swinkels, Mariëlle E M; Oostdijk, Wilma; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; Reardon, Willie; de Munnik, Sonja; Ruiter, Mariken; Frumkin, Ayala; Lev, Dorit; Evers, Christina; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M

    2014-11-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes. Most patients have a deletion resulting from a recombination of low copy repeat blocks LCR22-A and LCR22-D. Loss of the TBX1 gene is considered the most important cause of the phenotype. A limited number of patients with smaller, overlapping deletions distal to the TBX1 locus have been described in the literature. In these patients, the CRKL gene is deleted. Haploinsufficiency of this gene has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. To distinguish these deletions (comprising the LCR22-B to LCR22-D region) from the more distal 22q11.2 deletions (located beyond LCR22-D), we propose the term "central 22q11.2 deletions". In the present study we report on 27 new patients with such a deletion. Together with information on previously published cases, we review the clinical findings of 52 patients. The prevalence of congenital heart anomalies and the frequency of de novo deletions in patients with a central deletion are substantially lower than in patients with a common or distal 22q11.2 deletion. Renal and urinary tract malformations, developmental delays, cognitive impairments and behavioral problems seem to be equally frequent as in patients with a common deletion. None of the patients had a cleft palate. Patients with a deletion that also encompassed the MAPK1 gene, located just distal to LCR22-D, have a different and more severe phenotype, characterized by a higher prevalence of congenital heart anomalies, growth restriction and microcephaly. Our results further elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome spectrum. PMID:25123976

  4. Diminished dosage of 22q11 genes disrupts neurogenesis and cortical development in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meechan, Daniel W.; Tucker, Eric S.; Maynard, Thomas M.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The 22q11 deletion (or DiGeorge) syndrome (22q11DS), the result of a 1.5- to 3-megabase hemizygous deletion on human chromosome 22, results in dramatically increased susceptibility for “diseases of cortical connectivity” thought to arise during development, including schizophrenia and autism. We show that diminished dosage of the genes deleted in the 1.5-megabase 22q11 minimal critical deleted region in a mouse model of 22q11DS specifically compromises neurogenesis and subsequent differentiation in the cerebral cortex. Proliferation of basal, but not apical, progenitors is disrupted, and subsequently, the frequency of layer 2/3, but not layer 5/6, projection neurons is altered. This change is paralleled by aberrant distribution of parvalbumin-labeled interneurons in upper and lower cortical layers. Deletion of Tbx1 or Prodh (22q11 genes independently associated with 22q11DS phenotypes) does not similarly disrupt basal progenitors. However, expression analysis implicates additional 22q11 genes that are selectively expressed in cortical precursors. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage disrupts cortical neurogenesis and interneuron migration. Such developmental disruption may alter cortical circuitry and establish vulnerability for developmental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. PMID:19805316

  5. Minimum prevalence of chromosome 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.I.; Cross, I.E.; Burn, J.

    1994-09-01

    Submicroscopic deletions from within chromosome 22q11 are associated with DiGeorge (DGS), velocardiofacial (VCFS) and conotruncal anomaly syndromes and isolated congenital heart defects. In 1993 our pediatric cardiologists clinically referred all children in whom a chromosome 22q11 deletion was suspected for fluorescent in situ hybridization studies using probes from the DGS critical region. 10 affected individuals have been identified to date from the children born in 1993 in the Northern Region served exclusively by our center. A further case, the subsequent pregnancy in one of these families was affected and terminated on the basis of a major heart malformation. In the years 1988-92, for which we have complete ascertainment, there were 1009 heart defects among 191,700 births (mean 202 per annum). Thus we estimate that chromosome 22q11 deletions were the cause of at least 5% of congenital heart disease. As not all children with chromosome 22q11 deletions have a heart defect, this gives an estimated minimum prevalence of 1/4000 live births.

  6. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Marino, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Swillen, Ann; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Zackai, Elaine H; Emanuel, Beverly S; Vermeesch, Joris R; Morrow, Bernice E; Scambler, Peter J; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common chromosomal microdeletion disorder, estimated to result mainly from de novo non-homologous meiotic recombination events occurring in approximately 1 in every 1,000 fetuses. The first description in the English language of the constellation of findings now known to be due to this chromosomal difference was made in the 1960s in children with DiGeorge syndrome, who presented with the clinical triad of immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism and congenital heart disease. The syndrome is now known to have a heterogeneous presentation that includes multiple additional congenital anomalies and later-onset conditions, such as palatal, gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities, autoimmune disease, variable cognitive delays, behavioural phenotypes and psychiatric illness - all far extending the original description of DiGeorge syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach involving paediatrics, general medicine, surgery, psychiatry, psychology, interventional therapies (physical, occupational, speech, language and behavioural) and genetic counselling. Although common, lack of recognition of the condition and/or lack of familiarity with genetic testing methods, together with the wide variability of clinical presentation, delays diagnosis. Early diagnosis, preferably prenatally or neonatally, could improve outcomes, thus stressing the importance of universal screening. Equally important, 22q11.2DS has become a model for understanding rare and frequent congenital anomalies, medical conditions, psychiatric and developmental disorders, and may provide a platform to better understand these disorders while affording opportunities for translational strategies across the lifespan for both patients with 22q11.2DS and those with these associated features in the general population. PMID:27189754

  7. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Marino, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Swillen, Ann; Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Scambler, Peter J.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common chromosomal microdeletion disorder, estimated to result mainly from de novo non-homologous meiotic recombination events occurring in approximately 1 in every 1,000 fetuses. The first description in the English language of the constellation of findings now known to be due to this chromosomal difference was made in the 1960s in children with DiGeorge syndrome, who presented with the clinical triad of immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism and congenital heart disease. The syndrome is now known to have a heterogeneous presentation that includes multiple additional congenital anomalies and later-onset conditions, such as palatal, gastrointestinal and renal abnormalities, autoimmune disease, variable cognitive delays, behavioural phenotypes and psychiatric illness — all far extending the original description of DiGeorge syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach involving paediatrics, general medicine, surgery, psychiatry, psychology, interventional therapies (physical, occupational, speech, language and behavioural) and genetic counselling. Although common, lack of recognition of the condition and/or lack of familiarity with genetic testing methods, together with the wide variability of clinical presentation, delays diagnosis. Early diagnosis, preferably prenatally or neonatally, could improve outcomes, thus stressing the importance of universal screening. Equally important, 22q11.2DS has become a model for understanding rare and frequent congenital anomalies, medical conditions, psychiatric and developmental disorders, and may provide a platform to better understand these disorders while affording opportunities for translational strategies across the lifespan for both patients with 22q11.2DS and those with these associated features in the general population. PMID:27189754

  8. Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (which is also known by several ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: 22q11.2 duplication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions 22q11.2 duplication 22q11.2 duplication Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description 22q11.2 duplication is a condition caused by an extra ...

  10. Chromosome 22q11 deletion presenting as the Potter sequence.

    PubMed

    Devriendt, K; Moerman, P; Van Schoubroeck, D; Vandenberghe, K; Fryns, J P

    1997-05-01

    A female fetus with the Potter sequence, caused by unilateral renal agenesis and contralateral multicystic renal dysplasia, was found to have a submicroscopic deletion in chromosome 22q11. The only associated anomaly was agenesis of the uterus and oviducts (Von Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster anomaly). The deletion was inherited from the father, who presented the typical velocardiofacial syndrome phenotype, but no urological anomalies. This observation further extends the clinical spectrum associated with a deletion in 22q11. PMID:9152843

  11. Neuroanatomical Phenotypes in a Mouse Model of the 22q11.2 Microdeletion

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, J.P.; Steadman, P.E.; Genç, C.; Provenzano, F; Kushner, S.A.; Henkelman, R.M.; Karayiorgou, M.; Gogos, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent deletions at the 22q11.2 locus have been established as a strong genetic risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunction. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletions have a range of well-defined volumetric abnormalities in a number of critical brain structures. A mouse model of the 22q11.2 deletion (Df(16)A+/−) has previously been utilized to characterize disease-associated abnormalities on synaptic, cellular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. We performed a high-resolution MRI analysis of mutant mice compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Our analysis revealed a striking similarity in the specific volumetric changes of Df(16)A+/− mice compared with human 22q11.2 deletion carriers, including in cortico-cerebellar, cortico-striatal, and cortico-limbic circuits. In addition, higher resolution compared with neuroimaging in human subjects allowed detection of previously unknown subtle local differences. The cerebellar findings in Df(16)A+/− mice are particularly instructive as they are localized to specific areas within both the deep cerebellar nuclei and the cerebellar cortex. Our study indicates that the Df(16)A+/− mouse model recapitulates most of the hallmark neuroanatomical changes observed in 22q11.2 deletion carriers. Our findings will help guide the design and interpretation of additional complementary studies and thereby advance our understanding of the abnormal brain development underlying the emergence of 22q11.2 deletion-associated psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. PMID:23999526

  12. Severe laryngeal stenosis in newly born twins with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Clive, B; Corsten, G; Penney, L S; Van den Hof, M; El-Naggar, W

    2016-05-18

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is common and presents with a range of clinical features from cardiac malformations to hypocalcemia. Laryngeal anomalies are not a common feature of this syndrome. We describe newly born twins who presented with unexpected severe birth depression secondary to severe type IV glottic webs requiring extensive resuscitation and emergency tracheostomy. They were diagnosed postnatally to have deletion of 22q11.2. The successful resuscitation of these infants at birth was only possible because they were born in a tertiary care hospital. This report shows the critical nature of prenatal diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:27197926

  13. Association of tetralogy of Fallot with a distinct region of del22q11.2.

    PubMed

    Kessler-Icekson, Gania; Birk, Einat; Weintraub, Ari Y; Barhum, Yael; Kotlyar, Violetta; Schlesinger, Hadassa; Rockah, Rivka; Vidne, Bernardo A; Frisch, Amos

    2002-02-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) appear in greater frequency among relatives of patients and in individuals with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) or velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). A majority of these patients and part of the apparently nonsyndromic CHD patients with conotruncal defects manifest hemizygous deletions within chromosome 22q11.2 (del22q11). We tested myocardial tissues of 31 CHD patients, 21 with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and 10 with a double-chamber right ventricle (DCRV). DNA isolated from tissues removed at corrective surgery was analyzed for homo- or heterozygosity of nine polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers along the 22q11.2 region. DNA from the blood of 45 healthy individuals represented the general population. Ten of the 21 TOF patients (48%) showed homozygosity for three or more consecutive markers, indicating deletions of various sizes. No such indication was found for DCRV patients. Heterozygosity for markers D22S1648, D22S941, and D22S944 was lower in the TOF group than in normal controls, defining a minimal critical region (MCR) for the deletion. Our findings support an association between TOF and hemizygosity in 22q11.2, suggesting a distinct region, between markers D22S1638 and COMT, that may harbor TOF susceptibility genes. PMID:11840485

  14. Mapping Cortical Thickness in Children with 22q11.2 Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Bearden, Carrie E.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Dutton, Rebecca A.; Tran, Helen; Zimmermann, Lara; Sun, Daqiang; Geaga, Jennifer A.; Simon, Tony J.; Glahn, David C.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome, 22q11.2DS) involves cardiac and craniofacial anomalies, marked deficits in visuospatial cognition, and elevated rates of psychosis. Although the mechanism is unknown, characteristic brain alterations may predispose to development of psychosis and cognitive deficits in 22q11DS. We applied cortical pattern matching and new methods for measuring cortical thickness in millimeters to structural magnetic resonance images of 21 children with confirmed 22q11.2 deletions and 13 demographically matched healthy comparison subjects. Thickness was mapped at 65 536 homologous points, based on 3-dimensional distance from the cortical gray-white matter interface to the external gray-cerebrospinal fluid boundary. A pattern of regionally specific cortical thinning was observed in superior parietal cortices and right parietooccipital cortex, regions critical for visuospatial processing, and bilaterally in the most inferior portion of the inferior frontal gyrus (pars orbitalis), a key area for language development. Several of the 30 genes encoded in the deleted segment are highly expressed in the developing brain and known to affect early neuronal migration. These brain maps reveal how haploinsufficiency for such genes can affect cortical development and suggest a possible underlying pathophysiology of the neurobehavioral phenotype. PMID:17056649

  15. Microdeletions of chromosomal region 22q11 in patients with congenital conotruncal cardiac defects.

    PubMed Central

    Goldmuntz, E; Driscoll, D; Budarf, M L; Zackai, E H; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Biegel, J A; Emanuel, B S

    1993-01-01

    Congenital conotruncal cardiac defects occur with increased frequency in patients with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). Previous studies have shown that the majority of patients with DGS or velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) have a microdeletion within chromosomal region 22q11. We hypothesised that patients with conotruncal defects who were not diagnosed with DGS or VCFS would also have 22q11 deletions. Seventeen non-syndromic patients with one of three types of conotruncal defects most commonly seen in DGS or VCFS were evaluated for a 22q11 deletion. DNA probes from within the DiGeorge critical region were used. Heterozygosity at a locus was assessed using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Copy number was determined by dosage analysis using Southern blot analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridisation of metaphase spreads. Five of 17 patients were shown to have a 22q11 deletion when evaluated by dosage analysis. This study shows a genetic contribution to the development of some conotruncal cardiac malformations and alters knowledge regarding the risk of heritability of these defects in certain cases. Images PMID:7901419

  16. Mapping cortical thickness in children with 22q11.2 deletions.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Carrie E; van Erp, Theo G M; Dutton, Rebecca A; Tran, Helen; Zimmermann, Lara; Sun, Daqiang; Geaga, Jennifer A; Simon, Tony J; Glahn, David C; Cannon, Tyrone D; Emanuel, Beverly S; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2007-08-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome, 22q11.2DS) involves cardiac and craniofacial anomalies, marked deficits in visuospatial cognition, and elevated rates of psychosis. Although the mechanism is unknown, characteristic brain alterations may predispose to development of psychosis and cognitive deficits in 22q11DS. We applied cortical pattern matching and new methods for measuring cortical thickness in millimeters to structural magnetic resonance images of 21 children with confirmed 22q11.2 deletions and 13 demographically matched healthy comparison subjects. Thickness was mapped at 65 536 homologous points, based on 3-dimensional distance from the cortical gray-white matter interface to the external gray-cerebrospinal fluid boundary. A pattern of regionally specific cortical thinning was observed in superior parietal cortices and right parietooccipital cortex, regions critical for visuospatial processing, and bilaterally in the most inferior portion of the inferior frontal gyrus (pars orbitalis), a key area for language development. Several of the 30 genes encoded in the deleted segment are highly expressed in the developing brain and known to affect early neuronal migration. These brain maps reveal how haploinsufficiency for such genes can affect cortical development and suggest a possible underlying pathophysiology of the neurobehavioral phenotype. PMID:17056649

  17. Genetic Counseling for the 22q11.2 Deletion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine H.

    2008-01-01

    Because of advances in palliative medical care, children with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are surviving into adulthood. An increase in reproductive fitness will likely follow necessitating enhanced access to genetic counseling for these patients and their families. Primary care physicians/obstetric practitioners are in a unique position to…

  18. Developmental trajectories in 22q11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Swillen, Ann; McDonald-McGinn, Donna

    2015-06-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), a neurogenetic condition, is the most common microdeletion syndrome affecting 1 in 2,000-4,000 live births and involving haploinsufficiency of ∼50 genes resulting in a multisystem disorder. Phenotypic expression is highly variable and ranges from severe life-threatening conditions to only a few associated features. Most common medical problems include: congenital heart disease, in particular conotruncal anomalies; palatal abnormalities, most frequently velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI); immunodeficiency; hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism; genitourinary anomalies; severe feeding/gastrointestinal differences; and subtle dysmorphic facial features. The neurocognitive profile is also highly variable, both between individuals and during the course of development. From infancy onward, motor delays (often with hypotonia) and speech/language deficits are commonly observed. During the preschool and primary school ages, learning difficulties are very common. The majority of patients with 22q11.2DS have an intellectual level that falls in the borderline range (IQ 70-84), and about one-third have mild to moderate intellectual disability. More severe levels of intellectual disability are uncommon in children and adolescents but are more frequent in adults. Individuals with 22q11.2DS are at an increased risk for developing several psychiatric disorders including attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), anxiety and mood disorders, and psychotic disorders and schizophrenia. In this review, we will focus on the developmental phenotypic transitions regarding cognitive development in 22q11.2DS from early preschool to adulthood, and on the changing behavioral/psychiatric phenotype across age, on a background of frequently complex medical conditions. PMID:25989227

  19. Dysregulation of DGCR6 and DGCR6L: psychopathological outcomes in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, D; Bernal, A J; Schoch, K; Howard, T D; Ip, E H; Hooper, S R; Keshavan, M S; Jirtle, R L; Shashi, V

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. It is typified by highly variable symptoms, which might be explained by epigenetic regulation of genes in the interval. Using computational algorithms, our laboratory previously predicted that DiGeorge critical region 6 (DGCR6), which lies within the deletion interval, is imprinted in humans. Expression and epigenetic regulation of this gene have not, however, been examined in 22q11DS subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if the expression levels of DGCR6 and its duplicate copy DGCR6L in 22q11DS subjects are associated with the parent-of-origin of the deletion and childhood psychopathologies. Our investigation showed no evidence of parent-of-origin-related differences in expression of both DGCR6 and DGCR6L. However, we found that the variability in DGCR6 expression was significantly greater in 22q11DS children than in age and gender-matched control individuals. Children with 22q11DS who had anxiety disorders had significantly lower DGCR6 expression, especially in subjects with the deletion on the maternal chromosome, despite the lack of imprinting. Our findings indicate that epigenetic mechanisms other than imprinting contribute to the dysregulation of these genes and the associated childhood psychopathologies observed in individuals with 22q11DS. Further studies are now needed to test the usefulness of DGCR6 and DGCR6L expression and alterations in the epigenome at these loci in predicting childhood anxiety and associated adult-onset pathologies in 22q11DS subjects. PMID:22832905

  20. Divergent Patterns of Social Cognition Performance in Autism and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Kathryn L.; Melville, Jessica L.; Rich, Dominique; Strutt, Paul A.; Cooper, Gavin; Loughland, Carmel M.; Schall, Ulrich; Campbell, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with developmental disorders frequently report a range of social cognition deficits including difficulties identifying facial displays of emotion. This study examined the specificity of face emotion processing deficits in adolescents with either autism or 22q11DS compared to typically developing (TD) controls. Two tasks (face emotion…

  1. Epilepsy and Other Neuropsychiatric Manifestations in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Hee; Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Beom-Hee; Kim, Hyo-Won; Lee, Hyun-Jeoung; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Lee, Yun-Jeong; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome. Epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations of this genetic syndrome are not uncommon, but they are also not well-understood. We sought to identify the characteristics of epilepsy and other associated NP manifestations in patients with 22q11.2DS. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 145 child and adolescent patients (72 males and 73 females) with genetically diagnosed 22q11.2DS. The clinical data included seizures, growth chart, psychological reports, development characteristics, school performance, other clinical manifestations, and laboratory findings. Results Of the 145 patients with 22q11.2DS, 22 (15.2%) had epileptic seizures, 15 (10.3%) had developmental delay, and 5 (3.4%) had a psychiatric illness. Twelve patients with epilepsy were classified as genetic epilepsy whereas the remaining were classified as structural, including three with malformations of cortical development. Patients with epilepsy were more likely to display developmental delay (odds ratio=3.98; 95% confidence interval=1.5-10.5; p=0.005), and developmental delay was more common in patients with structural epilepsy than in those with genetic epilepsy. Conclusions Patients with 22q11.2DS have a high risk of epilepsy, which in these cases is closely related to other NP manifestations. This implies that this specific genetic locus is critically linked to neurodevelopment and epileptogenesis. PMID:26754781

  2. 22q11 chromosome abnormalities and the cleft service.

    PubMed

    Nugent, N; McGillivary, A; Earley, M J

    2010-04-01

    Deletion of chromosome 22q11 gives rise to a spectrum of anomalies, including cleft palate. These are grouped together as the DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome. Patients with this chromosomal abnormality account for a small, but noteworthy proportion of patients attending our cleft service. They frequently have other significant comorbidities consistent with their diagnosis. Over a ten-year period, 16 patients within our cleft service have been diagnosed, using chromosome analysis, as having deletions at 22q11. All had either a cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal incompetence, for which they underwent repair of the cleft palate or pharyngoplasty. Several have required secondary palate surgery following initial palate surgery. Poor quality of speech was the indication for secondary procedures in the majority of cases. Fourteen of the 16 have other comorbidities, ranging from congenital heart disease to ocular abnormalities. In addition, 15 of the 16 have developmental delays and/or learning difficulties. Other specialties, such as ENT, cardiology, genetics and ophthalmology have been involved in the care of all these patients. Although comprising only a small proportion of patients attending a cleft team, the diagnosis of this chromosomal abnormality is significant, as these patients may require substantial input of resources and the expertise of several specialties. Early recognition of features of this entity and diagnosis can aid more efficient intervention. PMID:19249264

  3. Candidate Genes and the Behavioral Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Sarah E.; Howley, Sarah; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2008-01-01

    There is an overwhelming evidence that children and adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a characteristic behavioral phenotype. In particular, there is a growing body of evidence that indicates an unequivocal association between 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia, especially in adulthood. Deletion of 22q11.2 is the third highest risk…

  4. Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ling M.; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with…

  5. Modeling a model: Mouse genetics, 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, and disorders of cortical circuit development.

    PubMed

    Meechan, Daniel W; Maynard, Thomas M; Tucker, Eric S; Fernandez, Alejandra; Karpinski, Beverly A; Rothblat, Lawrence A; LaMantia, Anthony-S

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the developmental etiology of autistic spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia remains a major challenge for establishing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to these common, difficult-to-treat diseases that compromise neural circuits in the cerebral cortex. One aspect of this challenge is the breadth and overlap of ASD, ADHD, and SCZ deficits; another is the complexity of mutations associated with each, and a third is the difficulty of analyzing disrupted development in at-risk or affected human fetuses. The identification of distinct genetic syndromes that include behavioral deficits similar to those in ASD, ADHC and SCZ provides a critical starting point for meeting this challenge. We summarize clinical and behavioral impairments in children and adults with one such genetic syndrome, the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, routinely called 22q11DS, caused by micro-deletions of between 1.5 and 3.0 MB on human chromosome 22. Among many syndromic features, including cardiovascular and craniofacial anomalies, 22q11DS patients have a high incidence of brain structural, functional, and behavioral deficits that reflect cerebral cortical dysfunction and fall within the spectrum that defines ASD, ADHD, and SCZ. We show that developmental pathogenesis underlying this apparent genetic "model" syndrome in patients can be defined and analyzed mechanistically using genomically accurate mouse models of the deletion that causes 22q11DS. We conclude that "modeling a model", in this case 22q11DS as a model for idiopathic ASD, ADHD and SCZ, as well as other behavioral disorders like anxiety frequently seen in 22q11DS patients, in genetically engineered mice provides a foundation for understanding the causes and improving diagnosis and therapy for these disorders of cortical circuit development. PMID:25866365

  6. Modeling a model: Mouse genetics, 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, and disorders of cortical circuit development

    PubMed Central

    Meechan, Daniel W.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fernandez, Alejandra; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Rothblat, Lawrence A.; LaMantia, Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the developmental etiology of autistic spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia remains a major challenge for establishing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to these common, difficult-to-treat diseases that compromise neural circuits in the cerebral cortex. One aspect of this challenge is the breadth and overlap of ASD, ADHD, and SCZ deficits; another is the complexity of mutations associated with each, and a third is the difficulty of analyzing disrupted development in at-risk or affected human fetuses. The identification of distinct genetic syndromes that include behavioral deficits similar to those in ASD, ADHC and SCZ provides a critical starting point for meeting this challenge. We summarize clinical and behavioral impairments in children and adults with one such genetic syndrome, the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, routinely called 22q11DS, caused by micro-deletions of between 1.5 and 3.0 MB on human chromosome 22. Among many syndromic features, including cardiovascular and craniofacial anomalies, 22q11DS patients have a high incidence of brain structural, functional, and behavioral deficits that reflect cerebral cortical dysfunction and fall within the spectrum that defines ASD, ADHD, and SCZ. We show that developmental pathogenesis underlying this apparent genetic “model” syndrome in patients can be defined and analyzed mechanistically using genomically accurate mouse models of the deletion that causes 22q11DS. We conclude that “modeling a model”, in this case 22q11DS as a model for idiopathic ASD, ADHD and SCZ, as well as other behavioral disorders like anxiety frequently seen in 22q11DS patients, in genetically engineered mice provides a foundation for understanding the causes and improving diagnosis and therapy for these disorders of cortical circuit development. PMID:25866365

  7. Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karpinski, Beverly A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fralish, Matthew S.; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E.; Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia – debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward – within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS. PMID:24357327

  8. Disrupted anatomic networks in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J Eric; Yi, James; Calkins, Monica E; Ruparel, Kosha; Roalf, David R; Cassidy, Amy; Souders, Margaret C; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Gur, Ruben C; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Raquel E

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an uncommon genetic disorder with an increased risk of psychosis. Although the neural substrates of psychosis and schizophrenia are not well understood, aberrations in cortical networks represent intriguing potential mechanisms. Investigations of anatomic networks within 22q11DS are sparse. We investigated group differences in anatomic network structure in 48 individuals with 22q11DS and 370 typically developing controls by analyzing covariance patterns in cortical thickness among 68 regions of interest using graph theoretical models. Subjects with 22q11DS had less robust geographic organization relative to the control group, particularly in the occipital and parietal lobes. Multiple global graph theoretical statistics were decreased in 22q11DS. These results are consistent with prior studies demonstrating decreased connectivity in 22q11DS using other neuroimaging methodologies. PMID:27622139

  9. Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Exhibit Impaired Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ling M; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. We examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with 22q11.2DS (n = 47) and typically developing controls (n = 49) ages 6–15 years saw images within a grid and after a delay, then indicated the positions of the images in the correct temporal order. Children with 22q11.2DS made more spatial and temporal errors than controls. Females with 22q11.2DS made more spatial and temporal errors than males. These results extend findings of impaired spatiotemporal processing into the memory domain in 22q11.2DS by documenting their influence on working memory performance. PMID:24679349

  10. Molecular definition of 22q11 deletions in 151 velo-cardio-facial syndrome patients.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, C; Sirotkin, H; Pandita, R; Goldberg, R; McKie, J; Wadey, R; Patanjali, S R; Weissman, S M; Anyane-Yeboa, K; Warburton, D; Scambler, P; Shprintzen, R; Kucherlapati, R; Morrow, B E

    1997-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a relatively common developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies and conotruncal heart defects. Many VCFS patients have hemizygous deletions for a part of 22q11, suggesting that haploinsufficiency in this region is responsible for its etiology. Because most cases of VCFS are sporadic, portions of 22q11 may be prone to rearrangement. To understand the molecular basis for chromosomal deletions, we defined the extent of the deletion, by genotyping 151 VCFS patients and performing haplotype analysis on 105, using 15 consecutive polymorphic markers in 22q11. We found that 83% had a deletion and >90% of these had a similar approximately 3 Mb deletion, suggesting that sequences flanking the common breakpoints are susceptible to rearrangement. We found no correlation between the presence or size of the deletion and the phenotype. To further define the chromosomal breakpoints among the VCFS patients, we developed somatic hybrid cell lines from a set of VCFS patients. An 11-kb resolution physical map of a 1,080-kb region that includes deletion breakpoints was constructed, incorporating genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated by the hybridization selection method. The ordered markers were used to examine the two separated copies of chromosome 22 in the somatic hybrid cell lines. In some cases, we were able to map the chromosome breakpoints within a single cosmid. A 480-kb critical region for VCFS has been delineated, including the genes for GSCL, CTP, CLTD, HIRA, and TMVCF, as well as a number of novel ordered ESTs. PMID:9326327

  11. Upper limb malformations in chromosome 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Shalev, S.A.; Dar, H.; Barel, H.; Borochowitz, Z.

    1996-03-29

    We read with interest the report of Cormier-Daire et al. in a recent issue of the journal, describing upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. We observed a family with this group of rare clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. The proposita was examined in our clinic when she was 4 years old. She was mildly mentally retarded. Clinical evaluation showed normal growth, long thin nose with squared tip, nasal speech, and abundant scalp hair and no cardiac anomalies. The girl was accompanied by her mother. Facial similarities were noted between the two. The mother reported to be treated with oral calcium due to hypoparathyroidism, diagnosed several years ago. Clinical evaluation showed wide flat face, short stature, mild mental retardation, slight hypertelorism, peculiar nose similar to her daughter`s, and nasal speech. No cardiac anomalies were found. Recently, a brother was born. Clinical examination documented large ventriculo-septal defect, retrognathia, narrow palpebral fissures, and long thin nose with squared tip. 1 ref.

  12. 22q11 Deletion Syndrome: A Genetic Subtype of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Anne S.; Chow, Eva W.C.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is likely to be caused by several susceptibility genes and may have environmental factors that interact with susceptibility genes and/or nongenetic causes. Recent evidence supports the likelihood that 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS) represents an identifiable genetic subtype of schizophrenia. 22qDS is an under-recognized genetic syndrome associated with microdeletions on chromosome 22 and a variable expression that often includes mild congenital dysmorphic features, hypernasal speech, and learning difficulties. Initial evidence indicates that a minority of patients with schizophrenia (~2%) may have 22qDS and that prevalence may be somewhat higher in subpopulations with developmental delay. This paper proposes clinical criteria (including facial features, learning disabilities, hypernasal speech, congenital heart defects and other congenital anomalies) to aid in identifying patients with schizophrenia who may have this subtype and outlines features that may increase the index of suspicion for this syndrome. Although no specific causal gene or genes have yet been identified in the deletion region, 22qDS may represent a more homogeneous subtype of schizophrenia. This subtype may serve as a model for neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia that could aid in delineating etiologic and pathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:10509171

  13. Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome and DiGeorge sequence with meningomyelocele and deletions of the 22q11 region

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, R.E.; Pillers, D.M.; Merkens, M.; Magenis, R.E.; Zonana, J.; Driscoll, D.A.; Emanuel, B.S.

    1994-10-01

    Approximately 5% of children with neural tube defects (NTDs) have a congenital heart defect and/or cleft lip and palate. The cause of isolated meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, or cleft lip and palate has been largely thought to be multifactorial. However, chromosomal, teratogenic, and single gene causes of combinations of NTDs with congenital heart defects and/or cleft lip and palate have been reported. We report on 3 patients with meningomyelocele, congenital heart defects, and 22q11 deletions. Two of the children had the clinical diagnosis of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS); both have bifid uvula. The third child had DiGeorge sequence (DGS). The association of NTDs with 22q11 deletion has not been reported previously. An accurate diagnosis of the 22q11 deletion is critical as this micro-deletion and its associated clinical problems is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait due to the inheritance of the deletion-bearing chromosome. We recommend that all children with NTDs and congenital heart defects, with or without cleft palate, have cytogenetic and molecular studies performed to detect 22q11 deletions. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Nasal dimple as part of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Gripp, K.W.; Reed, L.A.; Emanuel, B.S. |

    1997-03-31

    The phenotype of the 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is quite variable. We describe 2 patients with a 22q11.2 deletion and a dimpled nasal tip, which, we suggest can be the extreme of the broad or bulbous nose commonly found in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and should not be confused with the more severe nasal abnormalities seen in frontonasal dysplasia. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Caregiver and adult patient perspectives on the importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help justify widespread use of new and expensive genetic technologies. Methods We conducted a survey of caregivers on the value of a genetic/aetiologic diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common microdeletion syndrome in ID. We also surveyed the opinion of a high-functioning subset of adults with 22q11.2DS themselves. We used standard quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the responses. Results In total, 73 of 118 surveys were returned (61.9%). There was convergence of quantitative and qualitative results, and consistency between adult patient and caregiver responses. A definitive molecular diagnosis of 22q11.2DS was a critical event with diverse positive repercussions, even if occurring later in life. Frequently cited benefits included greater understanding and certainty, newfound sense of purpose and a platform for advocacy, and increased opportunities to optimise medical, social and educational needs. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise the impact of a diagnosis of this representative microdeletion syndrome on adult patients and their families. The results both validate and expand on the theoretical benefits proposed by clinicians and researchers. The use of genome-wide microarray technologies will provide an increasing number of molecular diagnoses. The importance of a diagnosis of 22q11.2DS demonstrated here therefore has implications for changing attitudes about molecular genetic diagnosis that could benefit individuals with ID of currently unknown cause and their families. PMID:22142442

  16. Default mode network connectivity and reciprocal social behavior in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Matthew J.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Chow, Carolyn; Congdon, Eliza; Jalbrzikowski, Maria

    2014-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic mutation associated with disorders of cortical connectivity and social dysfunction. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the resting brain in 22q11DS and its relationship with social behavior. A seed-based analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was used to investigate FC associated with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in (26) youth with 22qDS and (51) demographically matched controls. Subsequently, the relationship between PCC connectivity and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores was examined in 22q11DS participants. Relative to 22q11DS participants, controls showed significantly stronger FC between the PCC and other default mode network (DMN) nodes, including the precuneus, precentral gyrus and left frontal pole. 22q11DS patients did not show age-associated FC changes observed in typically developing controls. Increased connectivity between PCC, medial prefrontal regions and the anterior cingulate cortex, was associated with lower SRS scores (i.e. improved social competence) in 22q11DS. DMN integrity may play a key role in social information processing. We observed disrupted DMN connectivity in 22q11DS, paralleling reports from idiopathic autism and schizophrenia. Increased strength of long-range DMN connectivity was associated with improved social functioning in 22q11DS. These findings support a ‘developmental-disconnection’ hypothesis of symptom development in this disorder. PMID:23912681

  17. 22q11.2 Deletions in Patients with Conotruncal Defects: Data from 1610 Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Peyvandi, Shabnam; Lupo, Philip J; Garbarini, Jennifer; Woyciechowski, Stacy; Edman, Sharon; Emanuel, Beverly S; Mitchell, Laura; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies including conotruncal cardiac defects. Identifying the patient with a 22q11.2 deletion (22q11del) can be challenging because many extracardiac features become apparent later in life. We sought to better define the cardiac phenotype associated with a 22q11del to help direct genetic testing. Methods 1,610 patients with conotruncal defects were sequentially tested for a 22q11del. Counts and frequencies for primary lesions and cardiac features were tabulated for those with and without a 22q11del. Logistic regression models investigated cardiac features that predicted deletion status in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Results Deletion frequency varied by primary anatomic phenotype. Regardless of the cardiac diagnosis, a concurrent aortic arch anomaly (AAA) was strongly associated with deletion status (OR 5.07, 95% CI: 3.66–7.04). In the TOF subset, the strongest predictor of deletion status was an AAA (OR 3.14, 95% CI: 1.87–5.27, p <0.001), followed by pulmonary valve atresia (OR 2.03, 95% CI: 1.02–4.02, p= 0.04). Among those with double outlet right ventricle and transposition of the great arteries, only those with an AAA had a 22q11del. However, five percent of patients with an isolated conoventricular ventricular septal defect and normal aortic arch anatomy had a 22q11del, while no one with an IAA-A had a 22q11del. Conclusion A subset of patients with conotruncal defects are at risk for a 22q11del. A concurrent AAA increases the risk regardless of the intracardiac anatomy. These findings help direct genetic screening for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in the cardiac patient. PMID:23604262

  18. Subtypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Associated with Behaviour and Neurofacial Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinderberry, Brooke; Brown, Scott; Hammond, Peter; Stevens, Angela F.; Schall, Ulrich; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Campbell, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) has a complex phenotype with more than 180 characteristics, including cardiac anomalies, cleft palate, intellectual disabilities, a typical facial morphology, and mental health problems. However, the variable phenotype makes it difficult to predict clinical outcome, such as the high prevalence of psychosis among…

  19. Mathematical Learning Disabilities in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Swillen, Ann; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) occur frequently in children with specific genetic disorders, like Turner syndrome, fragile X syndrome and neurofibromatosis. This review focuses on MLD in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). This syndrome is the most common known microdeletion syndrome with a prevalence of at…

  20. Cardiac Defects and Results of Cardiac Surgery in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carotti, Adriano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Piacentini, Gerardo; Saffirio, Claudia; Di Donato, Roberto M.; Marino, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Specific types and subtypes of cardiac defects have been described in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as well as in other genetic syndromes. The conotruncal heart defects occurring in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic…

  1. Association Between Early-Onset Parkinson Disease and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Chow, Eva W. C.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Lang, Anthony E.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Clinical case reports of parkinsonism co-occurring with hemizygous 22q11.2 deletions and the associated multisystem syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), suggest that 22q11.2 deletions may lead to increased risk of early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). The frequency of PD and its neuropathological presentation remain unknown in this common genetic condition. OBJECTIVE To evaluate a possible association between 22q11.2 deletions and PD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational study of the occurrence of PD in the world’s largest cohort of well-characterized adults with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS (n = 159 [6 with postmortem tissue]; age range, 18.1–68.6 years) was conducted in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Rare postmortem brain tissue from individuals with 22q11.2DS and a clinical history of PD was investigated for neurodegenerative changes and compared with that from individuals with no history of a movement disorder. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A clinical diagnosis of PD made by a neurologist and neuropathological features of PD. RESULTS Adults with 22q11.2DS had a significantly elevated occurrence of PD compared with standard population estimates (standardized morbidity ratio = 69.7; 95% CI, 19.0–178.5). All cases showed early onset and typical PD symptom pattern, treatment response, and course. All were negative for family history of PD and known pathogenic PD-related mutations. The common use of antipsychotics in patients with 22q11.2DS to manage associated psychiatric symptoms delayed diagnosis of PD by up to 10 years. Postmortem brain tissue revealed classic loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in all 3 postmortem 22q11.2DS-PD cases. Typical α-synuclein–positive Lewy bodies were present in the expected distribution in 2 cases but absent in another. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that 22q11.2 deletions represent a novel genetic risk factor for early-onset PD with variable neuropathological

  2. Movement Disorders and Other Motor Abnormalities in Adults With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Erik; Butcher, Nancy J; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse AMJ; Lang, Anthony E; Marras, Connie; Pondal, Margarita; Andrade, Danielle M; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Movement abnormalities are frequently reported in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), but knowledge in this area is scarce in the increasing adult population. We report on five individuals illustrative of movement disorders and other motor abnormalities in adults with 22q11.2DS. In addition to an increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, seizures, and early-onset Parkinson disease, the underlying brain dysfunction associated with 22q11.2DS may give rise to an increased vulnerability to multiple movement abnormalities, including those influenced by medications. Movement abnormalities may also be secondary to treatable endocrine diseases and congenital musculoskeletal abnormalities. We propose that movement abnormalities may be common in adults with 22q11.2DS and discuss the implications and challenges important to clinical practice. PMID:25684639

  3. [Genetic and clinical characteristics of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kozlova, Iu O; Zabnenkova, V V; Shilova, N V; Min'zhenkova, M E; Antonenko, V G; Kotlukova, N P; Simonova, L V; Kazanceva, I A; Levchenko, E G; Bombardirova, T D; Zolotukhina, T V; Poliakov, A V

    2014-05-01

    In a group of 140 patients with typical phenotype, the 22q11.2 microdeletion was detected in 43 patients (32%) using FISH and MLPA methods. There were no deletions of other chromosomal loci leading to phenotypes similar to the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Sequencing of the TBX1 gene did not detect any mutations, except for some common neutral polymorphisms. For the first time in the Russian Federation, the diagnostic efficiency of 22q11.2DS appeared to be 32%, as a result of the application of a combination of genetic approaches for a large group of patients with suspected 22q11.2DS. PMID:25715476

  4. Refining the 22q11.2 deletion breakpoints in DiGeorge syndrome by aCGH.

    PubMed

    Bittel, D C; Yu, S; Newkirk, H; Kibiryeva, N; Holt, A; Butler, M G; Cooley, L D

    2009-01-01

    Hemizygous deletions of the chromosome 22q11.2 region result in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome also referred to as DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial or Shprintzen syndromes. The phenotype is variable but commonly includes conotruncal cardiac defects, palatal abnormalities, learning and behavioral problems, immune deficiency, and facial anomalies. Four distinct highly homologous blocks of low copy number repeat sequences (LCRs) flank the deletion region. Mispairing of LCRs during meiosis with unequal meiotic exchange is assumed to cause the recurrent and consistent deletions. The proximal LCR is reportedly located at 22q11.2 from 17.037 to 17.083 Mb while the distal LCR is located from 19.835 to 19.880 Mb. Although the chromosome breakpoints are thought to localize to the LCRs, the positions of the breakpoints have been investigated in only a few individuals. Therefore, we used high resolution oligonucleotide-based 244K microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to resolve the breakpoints in a cohort of 20 subjects with known 22q11.2 deletions. We also investigated copy number variation (CNV) in the rest of the genome. The 22q11.2 breaks occurred on either side of the LCR in our subjects, although more commonly on the distal side of the reported proximal LCR. The proximal breakpoints in our subjects spanned the region from 17.036 to 17.398 Mb. This region includes the genes DGCR6 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region protein 6) and PRODH (proline dehydrogenase 1), along with three open reading frames that may encode proteins of unknown function. The distal breakpoints spanned the region from 19.788 to 20.122 Mb. This region includes the genes GGT2 (gamma-glutamyltransferase-like protein 2), HIC2 (hypermethylated in cancer 2), and multiple transcripts of unknown function. The genes in these two breakpoint regions are variably hemizygous depending on the location of the breakpoints. Our 20 subjects had 254 CNVs throughout the genome, 94 duplications and 160 deletions

  5. Alterations in midline cortical thickness and gyrification patterns mapped in children with 22q11.2 deletions.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Carrie E; van Erp, Theo G M; Dutton, Rebecca A; Lee, Agatha D; Simon, Tony J; Cannon, Tyrone D; Emanuel, Beverly S; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine H; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome) is a neurogenetic condition associated with visuospatial deficits, as well as elevated rates of attentional disturbance, mood disorder, and psychosis. Previously, we detected pronounced cortical thinning in superior parietal and right parieto-occipital cortices in patients with this syndrome, regions critical for visuospatial processing. Here we applied cortical pattern-matching algorithms to structural magnetic resonance images obtained from 21 children with confirmed 22q11.2 deletions (ages 8-17) and 13 demographically matched comparison subjects, in order to map cortical thickness across the medial hemispheric surfaces. In addition, cortical models were remeshed in frequency space to compute their surface complexity. Cortical maps revealed a pattern of localized thinning in the ventromedial occipital-temporal cortex, critical for visuospatial representation, and the anterior cingulate, a key area for attentional control. However, children with 22q11.2DS showed significantly increased gyral complexity bilaterally in occipital cortex. Regional gray matter volumes, particularly in medial frontal cortex, were strongly correlated with both verbal and nonverbal cognitive functions. These findings suggest that aberrant parieto-occipital brain development, as evidenced by both increased complexity and cortical thinning in these regions, may be a neural substrate for the deficits in visuospatial and numerical understanding characteristic of this syndrome. PMID:18483006

  6. Psychopathology and cognition in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Niarchou, Maria; Zammit, Stanley; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Thapar, Anita; Tierling, Hayley M.; Owen, Michael J.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been reported to have high rates of cognitive and psychiatric problems. Aims To establish the nature and prevalence of psychiatric disorder and neurocognitive impairment in children with 22q11.2DS and test whether risk of psychopathology is mediated by the children’s intellectual impairment. Method Neurocognition and psychopathology were assessed in 80 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age 10.2 years, s.d. = 2.1) and 39 sibling controls (mean age 10.9 years, s.d. = 2.0). Results More than half (54%) of children with 22q11.2DS met diagnostic criteria for one or more DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorder. These children had lower IQ (mean 76.8, s.d. = 13.0) than controls (mean 108.6, s.d. = 15.2) (P<0.001) and showed a range of neurocognitive impairments. Increased risk of psychopathology was not mediated by intellectual impairment. Conclusions 22q11.2DS is not related to a specific psychiatric phenotype in children. Moreover, the deletion has largely independent effects on IQ and risk of psychopathology, indicating that psychopathology in 22q11.2DS is not a non-specific consequence of generalised cognitive impairment. PMID:24115343

  7. Impaired multiple object tracking in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) occurs in approximately 1:4,000 live births with a complex and variable presentation that includes medical, socioemotional and psychological symptoms with intellectual impairment. Cognitive impairments in spatiotemporal and visuospatial attention have also been reported. However, maintenance of selective attention to dynamic and interacting objects has not been systematically investigated in children with 22q11.2DS. Methods We used a multiple object tracking task to assay capacity and resolution performance of children with 22q11.2DS aged 7 to 14 years versus age-matched typically developing (TD) peers. Results Children with 22q11.2DS but not TD children demonstrated impaired performance when task demands increased due to an increase in the number of targets presented, but not from an increase in object speed. Task performance in children with 22q11.2DS was also unrelated to intelligence or measures of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusions These findings suggest that children with 22q11.2DS may be particularly susceptible to dynamic crowding of objects with increasing cognitive demands related to monitoring multiple targets reflecting a reduced acuity in spatiotemporal cognitive representation. PMID:22958454

  8. Dopamine dysfunction in 22q11 deletion syndrome: possible cause of motor symptoms.

    PubMed

    Casarelli, Livia; Minnei, Maurizio; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Armando, Marco; Pontillo, Maria; Vicari, Stefano; Pasini, Augusto

    2016-10-01

    22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder, resulting from a hemizygous microdeletion on the long arm of chromosome 22. In 22q11DS, the phenotypic expression is highly variable. Approximately one-third of all individuals with 22q11DS develop schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder. Among the genes in the deleted region, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has a particular relevance for psychiatric disorders: lower COMT enzymatic activity decreases the clearance of dopamine (DA), yielding higher levels of catecholamines in the central nervous system. Deficits in myelinogenesis and dysfunctions in the DA system could justify the white matter abnormalities in motor/premotor circuits described in 22q11DS. The alterations in DA could determine the high incidence of psychiatric disorders and the presence of neurological soft signs in 22q11DS. Neurological soft signs are defined as non-normative performance on an examination of motor and sensory tasks without focal neurological deficits. COMT haploinsufficiency, DA dysfunction, and white matter abnormalities may contribute toward the presence of neurological soft signs in 22q11DS. PMID:27548835

  9. Cognitive phenotype and psychiatric disorder in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Asit B; Furniss, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, frequently includes intellectual disability (ID) together with high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. Candidate cognitive endophenotypes include problems with retrieval of contextual information from memory and in executive control and focussing of attention. 22q11DS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of psychiatric disorder. This paper reviews research on the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and the development of psychiatric disorders in 22q11DS. Aspects of cognitive function including verbal I.Q., visual memory, and executive function, are associated with mental health outcome in people with 22q11DS. This relationship may result from a common neurobiological basis for the cognitive difficulties and psychiatric disorders. Some of the cognitive difficulties experienced by people with 22q11DS, especially in attention, memory retrieval, and face processing, may, however, in themselves constitute risk factors for development of hallucinations and paranoid delusions. Future research into factors leading to psychiatric disorder in people with 22q11DS should include assessment of social and psychological factors including life events, symptoms associated with trauma, attachment, and self-esteem, which together with cognitive risk factors may mediate mental health outcome. PMID:26942704

  10. The internet is parents' main source of information about psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS)☆

    PubMed Central

    van den Bree, Marianne B.M.; Miller, Gregory; Mansell, Elizabeth; Thapar, Anita; Flinter, Frances; Owen, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    With advances in laboratory technology, an increasing number of potentially pathogenic CNVs is recognised. The phenotypic effects of some CNVs are well characterised, however, it remains unclear how much information reaches the parents of affected children and by what route. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (del22q11.2) is caused by the deletion of approximately 40 genes from the long arm of chromosome 22 and was first described in 1955 [1]. Our study reports the extent to which parents of an affected child are aware of the various manifestation of the condition and describes how they first learned about these potential problems. PMID:23707654

  11. Thrombocytopenia and Postpartum Hemorrhage in a Woman with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kathy; Nanda, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome, is associated with a wide spectrum of phenotypic features. It is known to be associated with severe macrothrombocytopenia. Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is rare cause of thrombocytopenia that can be a significant risk factor for life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage. We report a case of postpartum hemorrhage in a woman with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome causing severe macrothrombocytopenia. PMID:27366335

  12. Cognitive ability is associated with altered medial frontal cortical circuits in the LgDel mouse model of 22q11.2DS.

    PubMed

    Meechan, D W; Rutz, H L H; Fralish, M S; Maynard, T M; Rothblat, L A; LaMantia, A-S

    2015-05-01

    We established a relationship between cognitive deficits and cortical circuits in the LgDel model of 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS)-a genetic syndrome with one of the most significant risks for schizophrenia and autism. In the LgDel mouse, optimal acquisition, execution, and reversal of a visually guided discrimination task, comparable to executive function tasks in primates including humans, are compromised; however, there is significant individual variation in degree of impairment. The task relies critically on the integrity of circuits in medial anterior frontal cortical regions. Accordingly, we analyzed neuronal changes that reflect previously defined 22q11DS-related alterations of cortical development in the medial anterior frontal cortex of the behaviorally characterized LgDel mice. Interneuron placement, synapse distribution, and projection neuron frequency are altered in this region. The magnitude of one of these changes, layer 2/3 projection neuron frequency, is a robust predictor of behavioral performance: it is substantially and selectively lower in animals with the most significant behavioral deficits. These results parallel correlations of volume reduction and altered connectivity in comparable cortical regions with diminished executive function in 22q11DS patients. Apparently, 22q11 deletion alters behaviorally relevant circuits in a distinct cortical region that are essential for cognitive function. PMID:24217989

  13. Social Impairments in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS): Autism Spectrum Disorder or a Different Endophenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Deprey, Lesley; Brahmbhatt, Khyati; Harris, Susan; Simon, Tony J.

    2014-01-01

    High prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported in 22q11.2DS, although this has been based solely on parent report measures. This study describes the presence of ASD using a procedure more similar to that used in clinical practice by incorporating history (Social Communication Questionnaire) AND a standardized observation…

  14. Practical guidelines for managing adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Butcher, Nancy J.; Costain, Gregory; Andrade, Danielle M.; Boot, Erik; Chow, Eva W.C.; Chung, Brian; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Faghfoury, Hanna; Fishman, Leona; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; George, Susan; Lang, Anthony E.; Repetto, Gabriela; Shugar, Andrea; Silversides, Candice; Swillen, Ann; van Amelsvoort, Therese; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans, estimated to affect up to 1 in 2,000 live births. Major features of this multisystem condition include congenital anomalies, developmental delay, and an array of early- and later-onset medical and psychiatric disorders. Advances in pediatric care ensure a growing population of adults with 22q11.2DS. Informed by an international panel of multidisciplinary experts and a comprehensive review of the existing literature concerning adults, we present the first set of guidelines focused on managing the neuropsychiatric, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, psychosocial, genetic counseling, and other issues that are the focus of attention in adults with 22q11.2DS. We propose practical strategies for the recognition, evaluation, surveillance, and management of the associated morbidities. PMID:25569435

  15. A catalog of hemizygous variation in 127 22q11 deletion patients

    PubMed Central

    Hestand, Matthew S; Nowakowska, Beata A; Vergaelen, Elfi; Van Houdt, Jeroen; Dehaspe, Luc; Suhl, Joshua A; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Mortier, Geert; Zackai, Elaine; Swillen, Ann; Devriendt, Koenraad; Gur, Raquel E; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Warren, Stephen T; Emanuel, Beverly S; Vermeesch, Joris R

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most common microdeletion disorder, with wide phenotypic variability. To investigate variation within the non-deleted allele we performed targeted resequencing of the 22q11.2 region for 127 patients, identifying multiple deletion sizes, including two deletions with atypical breakpoints. We cataloged ~12,000 hemizygous variant positions, of which 84% were previously annotated. Within the coding regions 95 non-synonymous variants, three stop gains, and two frameshift insertions were identified, some of which we speculate could contribute to atypical phenotypes. We also catalog tolerability of 22q11 gene mutations based on related autosomal recessive disorders in man, embryonic lethality in mice, cross-species conservation and observations that some genes harbor more or less variants than expected. This extensive catalog of hemizygous variants will serve as a blueprint for future experiments to correlate 22q11DS variation with phenotype. PMID:27274857

  16. Two patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion presenting with childhood obesity and hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J K; Chandler, K E; Douzgou, S

    2016-08-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a clinically heterogeneous condition of intellectual disability, parathyroid and thyroid hypoplasia, palatal abnormalities, cardiac malformations and psychiatric symptoms. Hyperphagia and childhood obesity is widely reported in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) but there is only one previous report of this presentation in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We describe two further cases of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in which hyperphagia and childhood obesity were the presenting features. This may be a manifestation of obsessive behaviour secondary to some of the psychiatric features commonly seen in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Serious complications may result from hyperphagia and childhood obesity therefore early recognition and intervention is crucial. Due to the similar clinical presentation of these two patients to patients with PWS, it is suggested that the hyperphagia seen here should be managed in a similar way to how it is managed in PWS. PMID:27184501

  17. Ocular findings associated with chromosome 22q11.2 duplication.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Brian J; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Wootton, Georgia; Dawson, Lindsay; Zackai, Elaine; Binenbaum, Gil

    2016-06-01

    We describe the ocular features of the chromosome 22q11.2 duplication syndrome and provide ophthalmologic examination recommendations for affected patients. The medical records of 19 children with chromosome 22q11.2 duplication who had undergone complete ophthalmological examination, including dilated fundus examination and cycloplegic refraction, were studied retrospectively. Over half of the children with 22q11.2 duplication syndrome were found to have visually significant ocular abnormalities, including 6 with strabismus, 2 with moderately high astigmatism requiring glasses, 1 with unilateral congenital cataract requiring surgery, 1 with optic disk drusen, 1 with bilateral megalocornea with normal eye pressures, 1 with nystagmus that resolved spontaneously, and 1 with delayed visual maturation. Because of the high incidence of conditions that could affect visual development, we recommend that children with 22q11.2 duplication syndrome have a complete ophthalmological examination on diagnosis and regular vision screenings by their primary care physician thereafter. PMID:27108843

  18. Practical guidelines for managing adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Butcher, Nancy J; Costain, Gregory; Andrade, Danielle M; Boot, Erik; Chow, Eva W C; Chung, Brian; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Faghfoury, Hanna; Fishman, Leona; García-Miñaúr, Sixto; George, Susan; Lang, Anthony E; Repetto, Gabriela; Shugar, Andrea; Silversides, Candice; Swillen, Ann; van Amelsvoort, Therese; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-08-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans, estimated to affect up to 1 in 2,000 live births. Major features of this multisystem condition include congenital anomalies, developmental delay, and an array of early- and later-onset medical and psychiatric disorders. Advances in pediatric care ensure a growing population of adults with 22q11.2DS. Informed by an international panel of multidisciplinary experts and a comprehensive review of the existing literature concerning adults, we present the first set of guidelines focused on managing the neuropsychiatric, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, psychosocial, genetic counseling, and other issues that are the focus of attention in adults with 22q11.2DS. We propose practical strategies for the recognition, evaluation, surveillance, and management of the associated morbidities.Genet Med 17 8, 599-609. PMID:25569435

  19. Prevalence and Nature of Hearing Loss in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eynde, Charlotte; Swillen, Ann; Lambeens, Elien; Verhaert, Nicolas; Desloovere, Christian; Luts, Heleen; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Devriendt, Koenraad; Hens, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence, type, severity, and age-dependency of hearing loss in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Method: Extensive audiological measurements were conducted in 40 persons with proven 22q11.2 deletion (aged 6-36 years). Besides air and bone conduction thresholds in the frequency range between 0.125…

  20. The Neuropsychology of 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. A Neuropsychiatric Study of 100 Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niklasson, Lena; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to study the impact of ASD/ADHD on general intellectual ability and profile, executive functions and visuo-motor skills in children and adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). A secondary aim was to study if gender, age, heart disease, ASD, ADHD or ASD in combination with ADHD had an impact on general…

  1. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in African-American patients: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Veerapandiyan, Aravindhan; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Adam, Margaret P; Lyons, Michael J; Manning, Melanie; Coleman, Karlene; Kobrynski, Lisa; Taneja, Deeksha; Schoch, Kelly; Zimmerman, Holly H; Shashi, Vandana

    2011-09-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with numerous and variable clinical manifestations including conotruncal heart abnormalities, palatal anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, immune deficiency, and cognitive deficits. The clinical suspicion of this syndrome is often heightened by the presence of characteristic facial features. A previous report highlighted the under-diagnosis of this condition in African Americans, thought to be related to a paucity of typical facial features. We ascertained the largest cohort (n = 50) of African-American individuals with 22q11DS reported thus far, across five genetics centers in the United States and report on their facial and other phenotypic features. About 3/4 of our cohort has at least one dysmorphic facial feature. Auricular abnormalities, especially small ears, are the most common dysmorphic facial feature followed by nasal and ocular abnormalities. Skeletal findings are seen in about 2/3 of our cohort, higher than the typical frequency reported in 22q11DS. Cardiac anomalies, developmental delay, and palatal abnormalities are seen at a lower frequency in our cohort. Thus, it is evident that the features traditionally associated with 22q11DS are difficult to recognize in African-American individuals with this syndrome, due to both altered frequencies of major anomalies and a non-classic facial appearance. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is needed to recognize 22q11DS in African-American individuals. PMID:21834039

  2. Communication of Psychiatric Risk in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Schoch, Kelly; Shashi, Vandana; Callanan, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have an increased chance of developing a psychiatric disorder. While parents of children affected by 22q11.2DS typically receive counseling about risk for non-psychiatric health concerns, genetic counselors may be reluctant to discuss psychiatric risk. Further education of genetic counselors may be necessary to encourage discussion of psychiatric risk with these families. The goal of this project was to develop recommendations for genetic counselors to provide psychiatric risk information to families affected by 22q11.2DS. The recommendations were developed by synthesizing resources in the literature about risk communication. These recommendations were refined following an online focus group meeting with five health care professionals who were recruited for participation from 22q11.2DS clinics across the U.S.A. The focus group data revealed three themes related to discussion of psychiatric risk: 1) Stepwise approach, 2) Discussing treatment options and reducing risks, and 3) Addressing stigma. These recommendations may be used as a foundation for a future clinical protocol to encourage discussion about the risk for psychiatric illness at an earlier point in the diagnostic process for 22q11.2DS and to provide improved information, support and resources to affected families. PMID:26578232

  3. Recurrence risk figures for isolated tetralogy of Fallot after screening for 22q11 microdeletion.

    PubMed Central

    Digilio, M C; Marino, B; Giannotti, A; Toscano, A; Dallapiccola, B

    1997-01-01

    Isolated tetralogy of Fallot (TF) has a multifactorial mode of inheritance in most cases, and recurrence risk rates of 2.5-3% have been attributed to first degree relatives of an affected child. In a subgroup of patients with a strong family history, the transmission of a monogenic trait has been suspected. Microdeletion 22q11 (del(22q11)) can cause TF in the setting of DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes, and has also been related to familial conotruncal cardiac defects. Empirical risk figures in families after exclusion of del(22q11) have never been calculated. We have investigated the overall occurrence of congenital heart defect (CHD) in relatives of 102 patients with isolated non-syndromic TF previously screened for del(22q11). Our results show that the frequency of CHD is 3% in sibs, 0.5% in parents, 0.3% in grandparents, 0.2% in uncles or aunts, and 0.6% in first cousins. The recurrence risk rate for sibs in our series is the same as that previously estimated, indicating that after exclusion of patients with del(22q11) genetic counselling to patients with isolated TF should not be modified. A high concordance rate among our affected sibs has been documented. Gene(s) different from those located on chromosome 22q11 must be involved in causing familial aggregation of non-syndromic TF in these cases. Images PMID:9132487

  4. Disrupted fornix integrity in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yi; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Cabaral, Margarita; Amaral, David G.; Buonocore, Michael H.; Harvey, Danielle; Kalish, Kristopher; Carmichael, Owen; Schumann, Cynthia M.; Lee, Aaron; Dougherty, Robert F.; Perry, Lee M.; Wandell, Brian A.; Simon, Tony J.

    2015-01-01

    The fornix is the primary subcortical output fiber system of the hippocampal formation. In children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), hippocampal volume reduction has been commonly reported, but few studies as yet have evaluated the integrity of the fornix. Therefore, we investigated the fornix of 45 school-aged children with 22q11.2DS and 38 matched typically developing (TD) children. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to reconstruct the body of fornix in each child's brain native space. Compared with children, significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher radial diffusivity (RD) was observed bilaterally in the body of the fornix in children with 22q11.2DS. Irregularities were especially prominent in the posterior aspect of the fornix where it emerges from the hippocampus. Smaller volumes of hippocampal formations were also found in the 22q11.2DS group. The reduced hippocampal volumes were correlated with fornix lower FA and higher RD in the right hemisphere. Our findings provide neuroanatomical evidence of disrupted hippocampal connectivity in children with 22q11.2DS, which may help to further understand the biological basis for spatial impairments, affective regulation, and other factors related to the ultra-high risk for schizophrenia in this population. PMID:25748884

  5. Eye Gaze During Face Processing in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Ottet, Marie-Christine; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Zesiger, Pascal; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Eliez, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic syndrome with high risk for the development of psychiatric disorder. There is interest in identifying reliable markers for measuring and monitoring socio-emotional impairments in 22q11DS during development. The current study investigated eye gaze as a potential marker during a…

  6. Maladaptive Conflict Monitoring as Evidence for Executive Dysfunction in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bish, Joel P.; Ferrante, Samantha M.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine; Simon, Tony J.

    2005-01-01

    Using an adaptation of the Attentional Networks Test, we investigated aspects of executive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2), a common but not well understood disorder that produces non-verbal cognitive deficits and a marked incidence of psychopathology. The data revealed that children with DS22q11.2…

  7. The use of two different MLPA kits in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evers, L J M; Engelen, J J M; Houben, L M H; Curfs, L M G; van Amelsvoort, T A M J

    2016-04-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is one of the most common recurrent copy-number variant disorder, caused by a microdeletion in chromosome band 22q11.2 and occurring with a population prevalence of 1 in 2000. Until today there has been no evidence that the size of the deletion has an influence on the clinical phenotype. Most studies report that 22q11DS is associated with mild or borderline intellectual disability. There are a limited number of reports on 22q11DS subjects with moderate or severe intellectual disability. In this study we describe 63 adult patients with 22q11DS, including 22q11DS patients functioning at a moderate to severe intellectual disabled level. Deletion size was established with an experimental Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) mixture (P324) in addition to the commonly used MLPA kit (P250). We compared deletion size with intellectual functioning and presence of psychotic symptoms during life. The use of the experimental MLPA kit gives extra information on deletion size, only when combined with the common MLPA kit. We were able to detect eleven atypical deletions and in two cases the deletion size was shorter than all other "typical ones". We conclude that the use of the experimental kit P324 gives extra information about the deletion size, but only when used together with the standard P250 kit. We did not found any relation of deletion size with intelligence or presence of psychosis. PMID:26921528

  8. Subthreshold Psychotic Symptoms in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sunny X.; Yi, James J.; Moore, Tyler M.; Calkins, Monica E.; Kohler, Christian G.; Whinna, Daneen A.; Souders, Margaret C.; Zackai, Elaine H.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Bilker, Warren B.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) confers 25% risk for psychosis and is an invaluable window for understanding the neurobiological substrate of psychosis risk. The Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) is well validated in non-deleted populations for detecting clinical risk but has been only recently applied to 22q11DS. We assessed the largest 22q11DS cohort to date and report on SIPS implementation and symptoms elicited. Method The SIPS, including its 19 subscales, was administered to 157 individuals with 22q11DS aged 8 to 25. Youth and caregiver interviews were conducted and rated separately, then compared for agreement. Implementation of the SIPS in 22q11DS was challenging due to the prevalence of developmental delay and comorbid conditions. However, by explaining questions and eliciting examples, we were able to help youths and caregivers understand and respond appropriately. Consensus ratings were formulated and analyzed with item-wise and factor analysis. Results Subthreshold symptoms were common, with 85% of individuals endorsing one or more. The most commonly rated items were ideational richness (47%) and trouble with focus and attention (44%). Factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution with positive, negative, and disorganized components. Youth-caregiver comparisons suggested that youths report greater symptoms of perceptual abnormalities, suspiciousness, trouble with emotional expression, and bizarre thinking. Caregivers reported more impaired tolerance to normal stress, poor hygiene, and inattention. Conclusion The SIPS was adapted for 22q11DS through comprehensive and semi-structured administration methods, yielding a high prevalence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms. The significance and predictive validity of these symptoms require future longitudinal analysis. PMID:25151422

  9. Are 22q11.2 distal deletions associated with math difficulties?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Raquel Santos; Vianna, Gabrielle; Oliveira, Lívia de Fátima Silva; Costa, Annelise Julio; Pinheiro-Chagas, Pedro; Sturzenecker, Rosane; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; de Aguiar, Marcos José Burle; Haase, Vitor Geraldi

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 6% of school-aged children have math difficulties (MD). A neurogenetic etiology has been suggested due to the presence of MD in some genetic syndromes such as 22q11.2DS. However, the contribution of 22q11.2DS to the MD phenotype has not yet been investigated. This is the first population-based study measuring the frequency of 22q11.2DS among school children with MD. Children (1,564) were identified in the schools through a screening test for language and math. Of these children, 152 (82 with MD and 70 controls) were selected for intelligence, general neuropsychological, and math cognitive assessments and for 22q11.2 microdeletion screening using MLPA. One child in the MD group had a 22q11.2 deletion spanning the LCR22-4 to LCR22-5 interval. This child was an 11-year-old girl with subtle anomalies, normal intelligence, MD attributable to number sense deficit, and difficulties in social interactions. Only 19 patients have been reported with this deletion. Upon reviewing these reports, we were able to characterize a new syndrome, 22q11.2 DS (LCR22-4 to LCR22-5), characterized by prematurity; pre- and postnatal growth restriction; apparent hypotelorism, short/upslanting palpebral fissures; hypoplastic nasal alae; pointed chin and nose; posteriorly rotated ears; congenital heart defects; skeletal abnormalities; developmental delay, particularly compromising the speech; learning disability (including MD, in one child); intellectual disability; and behavioral problems. These results suggest that 22q11.2 DS (LCR22-4 to LCR22-5) may be one of the genetic causes of MD. PMID:24989330

  10. 22q11 deletion syndrome: a review of the neuropsychiatric features and their neurobiological basis

    PubMed Central

    Squarcione, Chiara; Torti, Maria Chiara; Di Fabio, Fabio; Biondi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by an autosomal dominant microdeletion of chromosome 22 at the long arm (q) 11.2 band. The 22q11DS is among the most clinically variable syndromes, with more than 180 features related with the deletion, and is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, accounting for up to 1%–2% of schizophrenia cases. In recent years, several genes located on chromosome 22q11 have been linked to schizophrenia, including those encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase and proline dehydrogenase, and the interaction between these and other candidate genes in the deleted region is an important area of research. It has been suggested that haploinsufficiency of some genes within the 22q11.2 region may contribute to the characteristic psychiatric phenotype and cognitive functioning of schizophrenia. Moreover, an extensive literature on neuroimaging shows reductions of the volumes of both gray and white matter, and these findings suggest that this reduction may be predictive of increased risk of prodromal psychotic symptoms in 22q11DS patients. Experimental and standardized cognitive assessments alongside neuroimaging may be important to identify one or more endophenotypes of schizophrenia, as well as a predictive prodrome that can be preventively treated during childhood and adolescence. In this review, we summarize recent data about the 22q11DS, in particular those addressing the neuropsychiatric and cognitive phenotypes associated with the deletion, underlining the recent advances in the studies about the genetic architecture of the syndrome. PMID:24353423

  11. Rare copy number variants and congenital heart defects in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarski, Elisabeth E.; Xie, Michael; Taylor, Deanne; Sheridan, Molly B.; Guo, Tingwei; Racedo, Silvia E.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Chow, Eva W. C.; Vorstman, Jacob; Swillen, Ann; Devriendt, Koen; Breckpot, Jeroen; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Simon, Tony J.; Roberts, Amy E.; Piotrowicz, Małgorzata; Bearden, Carrie E.; Eliez, Stephan; Gothelf, Doron; Coleman, Karlene; Kates, Wendy R.; Devoto, Marcella; Zackai, Elaine; Heine-Suñer, Damian; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Bassett, Anne S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2016-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS; MIM #192430; 188400) is the most common microdeletion syndrome. The phenotypic presentation of 22q11DS is highly variable; approximately 60–75 % of 22q11DS patients have been reported to have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or aortic arch defect. The etiology of the cardiac phenotypic variability is not currently known for the majority of patients. We hypothesized that rare copy number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region may modify the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Rare CNV analysis was performed using Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 data from 946 22q11DS subjects with CHDs (n = 607) or with normal cardiac anatomy (n = 339). Although there was no significant difference in the overall burden of rare CNVs, an overabundance of CNVs affecting cardiac-related genes was detected in 22q11DS individuals with CHDs. When the rare CNVs were examined with regard to gene interactions, specific cardiac networks, such as Wnt signaling, appear to be overrepresented in 22q11DS CHD cases but not 22q11DS controls with a normal heart. Collectively, these data suggest that CNVs outside the 22q11.2 region may contain genes that modify risk for CHDs in some 22q11DS patients. PMID:26742502

  12. Rare copy number variants and congenital heart defects in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mlynarski, Elisabeth E; Xie, Michael; Taylor, Deanne; Sheridan, Molly B; Guo, Tingwei; Racedo, Silvia E; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Chow, Eva W C; Vorstman, Jacob; Swillen, Ann; Devriendt, Koen; Breckpot, Jeroen; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Simon, Tony J; Roberts, Amy E; Piotrowicz, Małgorzata; Bearden, Carrie E; Eliez, Stephan; Gothelf, Doron; Coleman, Karlene; Kates, Wendy R; Devoto, Marcella; Zackai, Elaine; Heine-Suñer, Damian; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Bassett, Anne S; Morrow, Bernice E; Emanuel, Beverly S

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS; MIM #192430; 188400) is the most common microdeletion syndrome. The phenotypic presentation of 22q11DS is highly variable; approximately 60-75 % of 22q11DS patients have been reported to have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or aortic arch defect. The etiology of the cardiac phenotypic variability is not currently known for the majority of patients. We hypothesized that rare copy number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region may modify the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Rare CNV analysis was performed using Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 data from 946 22q11DS subjects with CHDs (n = 607) or with normal cardiac anatomy (n = 339). Although there was no significant difference in the overall burden of rare CNVs, an overabundance of CNVs affecting cardiac-related genes was detected in 22q11DS individuals with CHDs. When the rare CNVs were examined with regard to gene interactions, specific cardiac networks, such as Wnt signaling, appear to be overrepresented in 22q11DS CHD cases but not 22q11DS controls with a normal heart. Collectively, these data suggest that CNVs outside the 22q11.2 region may contain genes that modify risk for CHDs in some 22q11DS patients. PMID:26742502

  13. Multitasking Abilities in Adolescents With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From an Experimental Ecological Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan; Birr, Julie; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with cognitive and functional impairments and increased risk for schizophrenia. We characterized multitasking abilities of adolescents with 22q11.2DS using an experimental naturalistic setting and examined whether multitasking impairments were associated with real-world functioning and negative symptoms. Thirty-nine adolescents (19 with 22q11.2DS and 20 controls) underwent the Multitasking Evaluation for Adolescents. Real-world functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed in participants with 22q11.2DS. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS performed poorly in the multitasking evaluation. Our data also suggest that multitasking abilities are related to adaptive functioning in the practical domain and negative symptoms. This study shows that adolescents with 22q11.2DS are characterized by multitasking impairments, which may be relevant for several aspects of the clinical phenotype. PMID:26914469

  14. Incidental Radiologic Findings in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, J.E.; Yi, J.J.; Roalf, D.R.; Loevner, L.A.; Ruparel, K.; Whinna, D.; Souders, M.C.; McDonald-McGinn, D.M.; Yodh, E.; Vandekar, S.; Zackai, E.H.; Gur, R.C.; Emanuel, B.S.; Gur, R.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a common genetic microdeletion syndrome that results in cognitive delays and an increased risk of several psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. The current study investigates the prevalence of incidental neuroradiologic findings within this population and their relationships with psychiatric conditions. Materials and Methods Brain MR imaging from 58 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome was reviewed by board-certified radiologists by using standard clinical procedures. Intracranial incidental findings were classified into 8 categories and compared with a large typically developing cohort. Results The rate of incidental findings was significantly higher (P < .0001) in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome compared with typically developing individuals, driven by a high prevalence of cavum septum pellucidum (19.0%) and white matter abnormalities (10.3%). Both of these findings were associated with psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Conclusions Cavum septum pellucidum and white matter hyperintensities are significantly more prevalent in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and may represent biomarkers for psychosis. PMID:24948496

  15. Opitz GBBB syndrome and the 22q11.2 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Lacassie, Y.; Arriaza, M.I.

    1996-03-29

    Recently, McDonald-McGinn et al. reported the presence of a deletion 22q11.2 in a family with autosomal dominant inheritance and in a sporadic case with the Opitz GBBB syndrome. The presence of a vascular ring in these patients prompted them to look for this deletion, since this anomaly may be associated with the 22q11.2 deletion. They reviewed the Opitz GBBB syndrome and the 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome, finding considerable overlap of manifestations. They proposed that, in some patients, the Opitz GBBB syndrome may be due to a 22q11.2 deletion. We recently examined a newborn boy referred because of MCA. The cardinal findings in this patient (hypertelorism, hypospadias with descended testicles, characteristic nose and truncus arteriosus type I) were suggestive of the Opitz GBBB syndrome and of the velocardiofacial syndrome. The chromosomes were apparently normal (46,XY), but the FISH study showed a 22q11.2 deletion. The patient developed hypocalcemia with very low level of PTH and heart failure requiring surgery. His immunological status was normal except that CD4 cells were mildly low and natural killer cells were increased in number. The family history was noncontributory, but the full evaluation of the family is pending. The mother at first glance presents apparent hypertelorism. 3 refs.

  16. Neuroimaging correlates of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: implications for schizophrenia research.

    PubMed

    Boot, E; van Amelsvoort, T A M J

    2012-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common known recurrent copy-number variant disorder. It is also the most common known genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. The greater homogeneity of subjects with schizophrenia in 22q11DS compared with schizophrenia in the wider non-deleted population may help to identify much needed information on neuroanatomical substrates, and neurochemical and neurofunctional mechanisms that may modulate the risk for schizophrenia. Identification of the underlying pathophysiology creates opportunities for developing genotype-specific, biology-based and targeted treatments to prevent, delay or minimize the severity of schizophrenia in both 22q11DS and the wider non-deleted population. This article reviews neuroimaging studies that focused on brain structure and function in this high-risk population, with particular attention to schizophrenia research. We also discuss the evidence on the role of candidate genes within the 22q11.2 region, with particular reference to catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH). PMID:23279171

  17. EFFECTS OF COMT GENOTYPE ON BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMATOLOGY IN THE 22q11.2 DELETION SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Bearden, Carrie E.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Lynch, David R.; Monterossso, John R.; Sokol, Set; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Saitta, Sulagna C.; Harris, Stacy E.; Moss, Edward; Wang, Paul P.; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Simon, Tony J.

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome) is associated with elevated rates of psychosis, and is also characterized by severe attentional difficulties and executive dysfunction. Behavioral manifestations of this syndrome could result from haploinsufficiency of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, located within the 22q11 region. The goal of the present study was to examine COMT genotype in relation to behavioral symptomatology in this syndrome. Val158/108Met was genotyped in 38 patients (16 Met/-, 22 Val/-) with confirmed 22q11.2 deletions who had received the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as part of a comprehensive evaluation. Results indicated that the Val genotype was associated with significantly greater internalizing and externalizing behavioral symptomatology in children with 22q11.2 deletions. Val allele status was associated with a greater-than-four-fold increase in risk for clinically significant behavior problems in children with this syndrome. These data are consistent with previous findings of increased psychopathology associated with the Val genotype in normal individuals and suggest that a functional genetic polymorphism in the 22q11 region may influence behavior in individuals with COMT haploinsufficiency. PMID:15846854

  18. GABA(B) receptor subunit 1 binds to proteins affected in 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zunner, Dagmar; Deschermeier, Christina; Kornau, Hans-Christian

    2010-03-01

    GABA(B) receptors mediate slow inhibitory effects of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They function as heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors composed of the seven-transmembrane domain proteins GABA(B1) and GABA(B2), which are linked through a coiled-coil interaction. The ligand-binding subunit GABA(B1) is at first retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and is transported to the cell surface only upon assembly with GABA(B2). Here, we report that GABA(B1), via the coiled-coil domain, can also bind to soluble proteins of unknown function, that are affected in 22q11 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome and are therefore referred to as DiGeorge critical region 6 (DGCR6). In transfected neurons the GABA(B1)-DGCR6 association resulted in a redistribution of both proteins into intracellular clusters. Furthermore, the C-terminus of GABA(B2) interfered with the novel interaction, consistent with heterodimer formation overriding transient DGCR6-binding to GABA(B1). Thus, sequential coiled-coil interactions may direct GABA(B1) into functional receptors. PMID:20036641

  19. A patient with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Eryılmaz, Sema Kabataş; Baş, Firdevs; Satan, Ali; Darendeliler, Feyza; Bundak, Rüveyde; Günöz, Hülya; Saka, Nurçin

    2009-01-01

    22q11 deletion is one of the most frequently encountered genetic syndromes. The phenotypic spectrum shows a wide variability. We report a boy who presented at age 11.9 years with seizures due to hypocalcemia as a result of hypoparathyroidism. FISH analysis revealed a heterozygote deletion at 22q11.2. Positive findings for the syndrome were delayed speech development due to velofacial dysfunction, recurrent croup attacks in early childhood due to latent hypocalcemia and mild dysmorphic features. The findings of this patient indicate that 22q11 deletion syndrome may present with a wide spectrum of clinical findings and that this diagnosis needs to be considered even in patients of older ages presenting with hypocalcemia. PMID:21274400

  20. Early onset intellectual disability in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco; Muzio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, or DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome, is one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. This syndrome is commonly caused by a microdelection from chromosome 22 at band q11.2. Although this genetic disorder may reflect several clinical abnormalities and different degrees of organ commitment, the clinical features that have driven the greatest amount of attention are behavioral and developmental features, because individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have a 30-fold risk of developing schizophrenia. There are differing opinions about the cognitive development, and commonly a cognitive decline rather than an early onset intellectual disability has been observed. We report a case of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with both early assessment of mild intellectual disabilities and tetralogy of Fallot as the only physic manifestation. PMID:26358864

  1. Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Zinnamon, Fhatarah A.; Taylor, Ruth R.; Ivins, Sarah; Scambler, Peter J.; Forge, Andrew; Tucker, Abigail S.; Linden, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear), including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM. PMID:24244619

  2. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion in a boy with Opitz (G/BBB) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Fryburg, J.S.; Lin, K.Y.; Golden, W.L.

    1996-03-29

    This report is on a 14-month-old boy with manifestations of Opitz (G/BBB) syndrome in whom a 22q11.2 deletion was found. Deletion analysis was requested because of some findings in this patient reminiscent of velocardiofacial (VCF) syndrome. The extent of aspiration and of respiratory symptoms in this child is not usually seen in VCF syndrome. Opitz syndrome maps to at least two loci, one on Xp, the other on 22q11.2. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Acute Dystonia in a Patient with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Maillis, Antonis; Maltezou, Maria; Tsiori, Sofia; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.

    2015-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (di George syndrome) is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders. The clinical features of the syndrome are distinct facial appearance, velopharyngeal insufficiency, conotruncal heart disease, parathyroid and immune dysfunction; however, little is known about possible neurodegenerative diseases. We describe the case of an 18-year old patient suffering from 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Since adolescence, he presented with behavioral disorders, recommended treatment with 2 mg aloperidin and he presented cervical dystonia and emergence of torticollis and trunk dystonia. Antipsychotic medications either accelerate or reveal dystonic symptoms. PMID:26605035

  4. Altered white matter microstructure is associated with social cognition and psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Villalon-Reina, Julio E.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Senturk, Damla; Chow, Carolyn; Thompson, Paul M.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2014-01-01

    22q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a highly penetrant genetic mutation associated with a significantly increased risk for psychosis. Aberrant neurodevelopment may lead to inappropriate neural circuit formation and cerebral dysconnectivity in 22q11DS, which may contribute to symptom development. Here we examined: (1) differences between 22q11DS participants and typically developing controls in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures within white matter tracts; (2) whether there is an altered age-related trajectory of white matter pathways in 22q11DS; and (3) relationships between DTI measures, social cognition task performance, and positive symptoms of psychosis in 22q11DS and typically developing controls. Sixty-four direction diffusion weighted imaging data were acquired on 65 participants (36 22q11DS, 29 controls). We examined differences between 22q11DS vs. controls in measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), using both a voxel-based and region of interest approach. Social cognition domains assessed were: Theory of Mind and emotion recognition. Positive symptoms were assessed using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. Compared to typically developing controls, 22q11DS participants showed significantly lower AD and RD in multiple white matter tracts, with effects of greatest magnitude for AD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Additionally, 22q11DS participants failed to show typical age-associated changes in FA and RD in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Higher AD in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO) and left uncinate fasciculus was associated with better social cognition in 22q11DS and controls. In contrast, greater severity of positive symptoms was associated with lower AD in bilateral regions of the IFO in 22q11DS. White matter microstructure in tracts relevant to social cognition is disrupted in 22q11DS, and may contribute to psychosis risk. PMID

  5. Analysis of 22q11.2 deletions by FISH in a series of velocardiofacial syndrome patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnan, J.B.; Golabi, M.; Lebo, R.V.

    1994-09-01

    Deletions in chromosome 22 band q11.2 have been associated with velocardiofacial (VCF or Shprintzen) syndrome and the DiGeorge anomaly. A study of VCF patients evaluated at the UCSF Medical Center was undertaken to correlate disease phenotype with presence or absence of a deletion. Patients referred for this study had at least two of the following: dysmorphic facial features, frequent ear infections or hearing loss, palate abnormalities, thymic hypoplasia, hypocalcemia, congenital heart defect, hypotonia, and growth or language delay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the DiGeorge critical region probe N25 was used to classify patients according to the presence or absence of a deletion in 22q11.2, and the results were compared to clinical characteristics. We have completed studies on 58 patients with features of VCF. Twenty-one patients (36%) were found to have a deletion in 22q11.2 by FISH. A retrospective study of archived slides from 14 patients originally studied only by prometaphase GTG banding found six patients had a deletion detected by FISH; of these, only two had a microscopically visible chromosome deletion. Our study of 11 sets of parents of children with the deletion found two clinically affected mothers with the deletion, including one with three of three children clinically affected. A few patients who did not fit the classical VCF description had a 22q11.2 deletion detected by FISH. These included one patient with both cleft lip and palate, and another with developmental delay and typical facial features but no cardiac or palate abnormalities. Both patients with the DiGeorge anomaly as part of VCF had the deletion. On the other hand, a number of patients diagnosed clinically with classical VCF did not have a detectable deletion. This raises the question whether they represent a subset of patients with a defect of 22q11.2 not detected by the N25 probe, or whether they represent a phenocopy of VCF.

  6. Core Neuropsychological Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, C.; Shearer, J.; Habel, A.; Kane, F.; Tsakanikos, E.; Kravariti, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) confers high risk for intellectual disability and neuropsychological/academic impairment, although a minority of patients show average intelligence. Intellectual heterogeneity and the high prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses in earlier studies may have obscured the prototypical neuropsychological…

  7. Domain Specific Attentional Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bish, Joel P.; Chiodo, Renee; Mattei, Victoria; Simon, Tony J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the defining cognitive characteristics of the chromosome 22q deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2) is visuospatial processing impairments. The purpose of this study was to investigate and extend the specific attentional profile of children with this disorder using both an object-based attention task and an inhibition of return task. A group of…

  8. Functional outcomes of adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Chow, Eva W.C.; Costain, Gregory; Karas, Dominique; Ho, Andrew; Bassett, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a common multisystem genomic disorder with congenital and later-onset manifestations, including congenital heart disease, intellectual disability, and psychiatric illness, that may affect long-term functioning. There are limited data on adult functioning in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Methods We used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to assess functioning in 100 adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n = 46 male; mean age = 28.8 (standard deviation = 9.7) years) where intellect ranged from average to borderline (n = 57) to mild intellectual disability (n = 43). Results More than 75% of the subjects scored in the functional deficit range. Although personal, vocational, and financial demographics confirmed widespread functional impairment, daily living skills and employment were relative strengths. Intelligence quotient was a significant predictor (P < 0.001) of overall and domain-specific adaptive functioning skills. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of overall adaptive functioning, daily living skills, and socialization scores. Notably, congenital heart disease, history of mood/anxiety disorders, sex, and age were not significant predictors of functioning. Conclusion Despite functional impairment in adulthood that is primarily mediated by cognitive and psychiatric phenotypes, relative strengths in activities of daily living and employment have important implications for services and long-term planning. These results may help to inform expectations about outcomes for patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:22744446

  9. Mapping Cortical Morphology in Youth with Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Bansal, Ravi; Fremont, Wanda; Antshel, Kevin M.; Hao, Xuejun; Higgins, Anne Marie; Liu, Jun; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS; 22q11.2 deletion syndrome) represents one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Insofar as up to 30% of individuals with this genetic disorder develop schizophrenia, VCFS constitutes a unique, etiologically homogeneous model for understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Method:…

  10. [Analysis of microdeletions in 22q11 in Colombian patients with congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Salazar, Marleny; Villalba, Guiovanny; Mateus, Heidi; Villegas, Victoria; Fonseca, Dora; Núñez, Federico; Caicedo, Víctor; Pachón, Sonia; Bernal, Jaime E

    2011-12-01

    Cardiac defects are the most frequent congenital malformations, with an incidence estimated between 4 and 12 per 1000 newborns. Their etiology is multifactorial and might be attributed to genetic predispositions and environmental factors. Since 1990 these types of pathologies have been associated with 22q11 microdeletion. In this study, the frequency of microdeletion 22q11 was determined in 61 patients with non-syndromic congenital heart disease. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and TUPLE1 and STR D10S2198 genes were amplified by multiplex PCR and visualized in agarose gels. Gene content was quantified by densitometry. Three patients were found with microdeletion 22q11, representing a 4.9% frequency. This microdeletion was associated with two cases of Tetralogy of Fallot and a third case with atrial septal defect (ASD). In conclusion, the frequency for microdeletion 22q11 in the population analyzed was 4.9%. The cases that presented Teratology of Fallot had a frequency for this microdeletion of 7.4% and for ASD of 11.1%. PMID:22523843

  11. Microsatellite DNA markers detects 95% of chromosome 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, D.; Cormier-Daire, V.; Munnich, A.; Lyonnet, S.

    1997-01-20

    Cono-truncal cardiac malformations account for some 50% of congenital heart defects in newborn infants. Recently, hemizygosity for chromosome 22q11.2 was reported in patients with the DiGeorge/Velo-cardio-facial syndromes (DGS/VCFS) and causally related disorders. We have explored the potential use of microsatellite DNA markers for rapid detection of 22q11 deletions in 19 newborn infants referred for cono-truncal heart malformations with associated DGS/VCFS anomalies. A failure of parental inheritance was documented in 84.2% of cases (16/19). PCR-based genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers located within the commonly deleted region allowed us either to confirm or reject a 22q11 microdeletion in 94.3% of cases (18/19) within 24 hours. This test is now currently performed in the infants referred to us for a cono-truncal heart malformation as a first intention screening for 22q11 microdeletion. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Platybasia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Is Not Correlated with Speech Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2014-01-01

    Background An abnormally obtuse cranial base angle, also known as platybasia, is a common finding in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Platybasia increases the depth of the velopharynx and is therefore postulated to contribute to velopharyngeal dysfunction. Our objective was to determine the clinical significance of platybasia in 22q11DS by exploring the relationship between cranial base angles and speech resonance. Methods In this retrospective chart review at a tertiary hospital, 24 children (age, 4.0-13.1 years) with 22q11.2DS underwent speech assessments and lateral cephalograms, which allowed for the measurement of the cranial base angles. Results One patient (4%) had hyponasal resonance, 8 (33%) had normal resonance, 10 (42%) had hypernasal resonance on vowels only, and 5 (21%) had hypernasal resonance on both vowels and consonants. The mean cranial base angle was 136.5° (standard deviation, 5.3°; range, 122.3-144.8°). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant relationship between the resonance ratings and cranial base angles (P=0.242). Cranial base angles and speech ratings were not correlated (Spearman correlation=0.321, P=0.126). The group with hypernasal resonance had a significantly more obtuse mean cranial base angle (138° vs. 134°, P=0.049) but did not have a greater prevalence of platybasia (73% vs. 56%, P=0.412). Conclusions In this retrospective chart review of patients with 22q11DS, cranial base angles were not correlated with speech resonance. The clinical significance of platybasia remains unknown. PMID:25075355

  13. Velopharyngeal Anatomy in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Three-Dimensional Cephalometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruotolo, Rachel A.; Veitia, Nestor A.; Corbin, Aaron; McDonough, Joseph; Solot, Cynthia B.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine H.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Cnaan, Avital; LaRossa, Don; Arens, Raanan; Kirschner, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most common genetic cause of velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising method for noninvasive, three-dimensional (3D) assessment of velopharyngeal (VP) anatomy. The purpose of this study was to assess VP structure in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome by using 3D MRI analysis. Design This was a retrospective analysis of magnetic resonance images obtained in patients with VPD associated with a 22q11.2 deletion compared with a normal control group. Setting This study was conducted at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, a pediatric tertiary care center. Patients, Participants The study group consisted of 5 children between the ages of 2.9 and 7.9 years, with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. All had VPD confirmed by nasendoscopy or videofluoroscopy. The control population consisted of 123 unaffected patients who underwent MRI for reasons other than VP assessment. Interventions Axial and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images with 3-mm slice thickness were obtained from the orbit to the larynx in all patients by using a 1.5T Siemens Visions system. Outcome Measures Linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of VP structures were obtained from the magnetic resonance images with VIDA image- processing software. Results The study group demonstrated greater anterior and posterior cranial base and atlanto-dental angles. They also demonstrated greater pharyngeal cavity volume and width and lesser tonsillar and adenoid volumes. Conclusion Patients with a 22q11.2 deletion demonstrate significant alterations in VP anatomy that may contribute to VPD. PMID:16854203

  14. Visual scanpath abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: is this a face specific deficit?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Kathryn; Rich, Dominique; Loughland, Carmel Maree; Schall, Ulrich; Campbell, Linda Elisabet

    2011-09-30

    People with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have deficits in face emotion recognition. However, it is not known whether this is a deficit specific to faces, or represents maladaptive information processing strategies to complex stimuli in general. This study examined the specificity of face emotion processing deficits in 22q11DS by exploring recognition accuracy and visual scanpath performance to a Faces task compared to a Weather Scene task. Seventeen adolescents with 22q11DS (11=females, age=17.4) and 18 healthy controls (11=females, age=17.7) participated in the study. People with 22q11DS displayed an overall impoverished scanning strategy to face and weather stimuli alike, resulting in poorer accuracy across all stimuli for the 22q11DS participants compared to controls. While the control subjects altered their information processing in response to faces, a similar change was not present in the 22q11DS group indicating different visual scanpath strategies to identify category within each of the tasks, of which faces appear to represent a particularly difficult subcategory. To conclude, while this study indicates that people with 22q11DS have a general visual processing deficit, the lack of strategic change between tasks suggest that the 22q11DS group did not adapt to the change in stimuli content as well as the controls, indicative of cognitive inflexibility rather than a face specific deficit. PMID:21831452

  15. Mitochondrial Citrate Transporter-dependent Metabolic Signature in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Eleonora; Tassone, Flora; Wong, Sarah; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J; Song, Gyu; Giulivi, Cecilia

    2015-09-18

    The congenital disorder 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), characterized by a hemizygous deletion of 1.5-3 Mb on chromosome 22 at locus 11.2, is the most common microdeletion disorder (estimated prevalence of 1 in 4000) and the second risk factor for schizophrenia. Nine of ∼30 genes involved in 22qDS have the potential of disrupting mitochondrial metabolism (COMT, UFD1L, DGCR8, MRPL40, PRODH, SLC25A1, TXNRD2, T10, and ZDHHC8). Deficits in bioenergetics during early postnatal brain development could set the basis for a disrupted neuronal metabolism or synaptic signaling, partly explaining the higher incidence in developmental and behavioral deficits in these individuals. Here, we investigated whether mitochondrial outcomes and metabolites from 22qDS children segregated with the altered dosage of one or several of these mitochondrial genes contributing to 22qDS etiology and/or morbidity. Plasma metabolomics, lymphocytic mitochondrial outcomes, and epigenetics (histone H3 Lys-4 trimethylation and 5-methylcytosine) were evaluated in samples from 11 22qDS children and 13 age- and sex-matched neurotypically developing controls. Metabolite differences between 22qDS children and controls reflected a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis (higher lactate/pyruvate ratios) accompanied by an increase in reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (increased concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, cholesterol, and fatty acids). Altered metabolism in 22qDS reflected a critical role for the haploinsufficiency of the mitochondrial citrate transporter SLC25A1, further enhanced by HIF-1α, MYC, and metabolite controls. This comprehensive profiling served to clarify the biochemistry of this disease underlying its broad, complex phenotype. PMID:26221035

  16. An Fgf8 Mouse Mutant Phenocopies Human 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah U.; Fotheringham, Lori K.; Brewer, Judson A.; Muglia, Louis J.; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Capecchi, Mario R.; Moon, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Deletion of chromosome 22q11, the most common microdeletion detected in humans, is associated with a life-threatening array of birth defects. Although 90% of affected individuals share the same three megabase deletion, their phenotype is highly variable and includes craniofacial and cardiovascular anomalies, hypoplasia or aplasia of the thymus with associated deficiency of T cells, hypocalcemia with hypoplasia or aplasia of the parathyroids, and a variety of central nervous system abnormalities. Because ablation of neural crest in chicks produces many features of the deletion 22q11 syndrome, it has been proposed that haploinsufficiency in this region impacts neural crest function during cardiac and pharyngeal arch development. Few factors required for migration, survival, proliferation and subsequent differentiation of pharyngeal arch neural crest and mesoderm-derived mesenchyme into their respective cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and glandular derivatives have been identified. However, the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and pharyngeal endoderm function is becoming increasingly clear. Fibroblast growth factor 8 is a signaling molecule expressed in the ectoderm and endoderm of the developing pharyngeal arches and known to play an important role in survival and patterning of first arch tissues. We demonstrate a dosage-sensitive requirement for FGF8 during development of pharyngeal arch, pharyngeal pouch and neural crest-derived tissues. We show that FGF8 deficient embryos have lethal malformations of the cardiac outflow tract, great vessels and heart due, at least in part, to failure to form the fourth pharyngeal arch arteries, altered expression of Fgf10 in the pharyngeal mesenchyme, and abnormal apoptosis in pharyngeal and cardiac neural crest. The Fgf8 mutants described herein display the complete array of cardiovascular, glandular and craniofacial phenotypes seen in human deletion 22q11 syndromes. This represents the first single gene

  17. Early-onset Parkinson's Disease Associated with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oki, Mitsuaki; Hori, Shin-ichiro; Asayama, Shinya; Wate, Reika; Kaneko, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 43-year-old man with a 4-year history of resting tremor and akinesia. His resting tremor and rigidity were more prominent on the left side. He also presented retropulsion. His symptoms responded to the administration of levodopa. The patient also had a cleft lip and palate, cavum vergae, and hypoparathyroidism. A chromosome analysis disclosed a hemizygous deletion in 22q11.2, and he was diagnosed with early-onset Parkinson's disease associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the patient lacked autonomic nerve dysfunction, and his cardiac uptake of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine was normal, indicating an underlying pathological mechanism that differed to that of sporadic Parkinson's disease. PMID:26831029

  18. Prenatal diagnosis by FISH of a 22q11 deletion in two families.

    PubMed Central

    Portnoï, M F; Joyé, N; Gonzales, M; Demczuk, S; Fermont, L; Gaillard, G; Bercau, G; Morlier, G; Taillemite, J L

    1998-01-01

    We report on prenatal diagnosis by FISH of a sporadic 22q11 deletion associated with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) in two fetuses after an obstetric ultrasonographic examination detected cardiac anomalies, an interrupted aortic arch in case 1 and tetralogy of Fallot in case 2. The parents decided to terminate the pregnancies. At necropsy, fetal examination showed characteristic facial dysmorphism associated with congenital malformations, confirming full DGS in both fetuses. In addition to the 22q11 deletion, trisomy X was found in the second fetus and a reciprocal balanced translocation t(11;22) (q23;q11) was found in the clinically normal father of case 1. These findings highlight the importance of performing traditional cytogenetic analysis and FISH in pregnancies with a high risk of having a deletion. Images PMID:9507401

  19. [Microdeletion 22q11: apropos of case of schizophrenia in an adolescent].

    PubMed

    Pinquier, C; Héron, D; de Carvalho, W; Lazar, G; Mazet, P; Cohen, D

    2001-01-01

    Deletion of chromosome 22q11 concerns nearly 1/5.000 births, and is the most frequent interstitial microdeletion. The deletion generates various phenotypes which were initially regarded as distinct syndromes. 1) Di George syndrome was described in 1962 by immunologists, and associates thymic and parathyroid hypoplasia, cardiac malformation, and dysmorphic face; the prognosis is severe, as Di George syndrome is a life-threatening condition. 2) The velocardiofacial syndrome was described in 1978 by stomatologists, and associates palate abnormalities, cardiac malformations, dysmorphic faces, and learning disabilities. 3) The Takao syndrome was described in the late seventies by cardiologists as a clinical condition associating cardiac abnormalities and dysmorphic faces. During the nineties, a common molecular etiology was identified, and a new name proposed: CATCH 22, an acronyme for Cardiac abnormalities, Abnormal face, Thymic hypoplasia, Cleft palate, Hypocalcemia, deleted chromosome 22. Furthermore, new phenotypes have been recently recognized, most of them belonging to the psychiatric spectrum. Descriptive studies of large samples of children with 22q11 deletion, conducted, both in the United States and european countries, have shown the following pattern of associated symptoms:--abnormal face (100%), which expression varies with age, and can be discrete;--cardiac abnormalities (84%), including cardiac malformations of conotroncal types;--mouth abnormalities (49%), including cleft palate (14%), and velar dysfunction (20%);--urinary tract abnormalities (36%), including ureteric reflux, lung dysplasia;--transitory hypocalcemia (60%) mostly during infancy, and due to transitory hypoparathyroid dysfunction;--seizures (21%), which are usually a consequence of hypocalcemia;--immunodeficiency (1%), which worsens the prognosis. Deletion of chromosome 22q11 has been also associated with various psychiatric phenotypes, which can be classified into two groups, developmental

  20. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: Frequency and textent of 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Goldberg, R.; Jurecic, V.

    1995-07-03

    Velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) or Shprintzen syndrome is associated with deletions in a region of chromosome 22q11.2 also deleted in DiGeorge anomaly and some forms of congenital heart disease. Due to the variability of phenotype, the evaluation of the incidence of deletions has been hampered by uncertainty of diagnosis. In this study, 54 patients were diagnosed with VCFS by a single group of clinicians using homogeneous clinical criteria independent of the deletion status. Cell lines of these patients were established and the deletion status evaluated for three loci within the commonly deleted region at 22q11.2 using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In 81% of the patients all three loci were hemizygous. In one patient we observed a smaller interstitial deletion than that defined by the three loci. The phenotype of this patient was not different from that observed in patients with larger deletions. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Altered Brain Structure-Function Relationships Underlie Executive Dysfunction in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Rachel K; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Montojo, Caroline A; Patel, Arati; Kushan, Leila; Chow, Carolyn C; Vesagas, Therese; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-12-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder associated with elevated rates of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders and impaired executive function (EF). Disrupted brain structure-function relationships may underlie EF deficits in 22q11DS. We administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to assess real-world EF in patients with 22q11DS and matched controls (n = 86; age 6-17 years), along with cognitive measures that tap behavioral regulation and metacognition aspects of EF. Using FreeSurfer's whole-brain vertex cortical thickness pipeline, we investigated brain structure-EF relationships in patients with 22q11DS and controls. Behaviorally, patients with 22q11DS were impaired on multiple EF measures. Right orbitofrontal cortical thickness showed a differential relationship between real-world EF in patients with 22q11DS and controls. We also observed a group difference in the relationship between behavioral regulation and metacognition measures with thickness of ventral and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, respectively. Our findings suggest that executive dysfunction characteristic of 22q11DS is underscored by altered prefrontal cortical structure. PMID:27606315

  2. Large-scale functional network reorganization in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome revealed by modularity analysis.

    PubMed

    Scariati, Elisa; Schaer, Marie; Karahanoglu, Isik; Schneider, Maude; Richiardi, Jonas; Debbané, Martin; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Eliez, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with cognitive impairments and a 41% risk of developing schizophrenia. While several studies performed on patients with 22q11DS showed the presence of abnormal functional connectivity in this syndrome, how these alterations affect large-scale network organization is still unknown. Here we performed a network modularity analysis on whole-brain functional connectomes derived from the resting-state fMRI of 40 patients with 22q11DS and 41 healthy control participants, aged between 9 and 30 years old. We then split the sample at 18 years old to obtain two age subgroups and repeated the modularity analyses. We found alterations of modular communities affecting the visuo-spatial network and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in both age groups. These results corroborate previous structural and functional studies in 22q11DS that showed early impairment of visuo-spatial processing regions. Furthermore, as ACC has been linked to the development of psychotic symptoms in 22q11DS, the early impairment of its functional connectivity provide further support that ACC alterations may provide potential biomarkers for an increased risk of schizophrenia. Finally, we found an abnormal modularity partition of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) only in adults with 22q11DS, suggesting the presence of an abnormal development of functional network communities during adolescence in 22q11DS. PMID:27371790

  3. The 22Q11.2 Deletion in Children: High Rate of Autistic Disorders and Early Onset of Psychotic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; Morcus, Monique E. J.; Duijff, Sasja N.; Klaassen, Petra W. J.; Heineman-de, Josien A.; Beemer, Frits A.; Swaab, Hanna; Kahn, Rene S.; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine psychopathology and influence of intelligence level on psychiatric symptoms in children with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Method: Sixty patients, ages 9 through 18 years, were evaluated. Assessments followed standard protocols, including structured and semistructured interviews of parents, videotaped psychiatric…

  4. Neuropsychological profile of Italian children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with and without intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Stefano; Mantovan, Manuela; Addona, Francesca; Costanzo, Floriana; Verucci, Lorena; Menghini, Deny

    2012-03-01

    As individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) show a wide range of IQs, intellectual heterogeneity could mask the neuropsychological profile of the syndrome. This study was designed to identify specific neuropsychological features of children and adolescents with 22q11DS by taking into account the possible source of variability deriving from intellectual disability (ID). First, we compared several neuropsychological domains involving linguistic, visual-motor/visual-perceptual and memory abilities in 34 children and adolescents with 22q11DS and 83 mental age-matched typically developing (TD) participants. Then, we selected participants with 22q11DS according to whether or not they had ID and compared their neuropsychological profiles with those of chronological age-matched TD controls. Although language and several aspects of memory have been found impaired only in children with 22q11DS with ID, deficits in visual-spatial abilities and visual-object short-term memory persist in participants without ID and might be considered a characteristic of 22q11DS, not just related to the presence of ID. On the basis of our findings, children and adolescents with 22q11DS cannot be considered as a single group with a homogeneous neuropsychological profile and must be studied in relation to their global intellectual abilities. PMID:21870177

  5. Social Skills and Associated Psychopathology in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shashi, V.; Veerapandiyan, A.; Schoch, K.; Kwapil, T.; Keshavan, M.; Ip, E.; Hooper, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although distinctive neuropsychological impairments have been delineated in children with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), social skills and social cognition remain less well-characterised. Objective: To examine social skills and social cognition and their relationship with neuropsychological function/behaviour and…

  6. A Longitudinal Examination of the Psychoeducational, Neurocognitive, and Psychiatric Functioning in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental…

  7. Behavioral and Psychiatric Phenotypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kerri L; Antshel, Kevin M; Fremont, Wanda P; Kates, Wendy R

    2015-10-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a chromosomal microdeletion that affects approximately 40 to 50 genes and affects various organs and systems throughout the body. Detection is typically achieved by fluorescence in situ hybridization after diagnosis of one of the major features of the deletion or via chromosomal microarray or noninvasive prenatal testing. The physical phenotype can include congenital heart defects, palatal and pharyngeal anomalies, hypocalcemia/hypoparathyroidism, skeletal abnormalities, and cranial/brain anomalies, although prevalence rates of all these features are variable. Cognitive function is impaired to some degree in most individuals, with prevalence rates of greater than 90% for motor/speech delays and learning disabilities. Attention, executive function, working memory, visual-spatial abilities, motor skills, and social cognition/social skills are affected. The deletion is also associated with an increased risk for behavioral disorders and psychiatric illness. The early onset of psychiatric symptoms common to 22q11.2DS disrupts the development and quality of life of individuals with the syndrome and is also a potential risk factor for later development of a psychotic disorder. This review discusses prevalence, phenotypic features, and management of psychiatric disorders commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS, including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and schizophrenia/psychotic disorders. Guidelines for the clinical assessment and management of psychiatric disorders in youth with this syndrome are provided, as are treatment guidelines for the use of psychiatric medications. PMID:26372046

  8. Clinical Features of 78 Adults With 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Anne S.; Chow, Eva W.C.; Husted, Janice; Weksberg, Rosanna; Caluseriu, Oana; Webb, Gary D.; Gatzoulis, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome with multisystem expression. Phenotypic features vary with age, ascertainment, and assessment. We systematically assessed 78 adults (36 M, 42 F; mean age 31.5, SD 10.5 years) with a 22q11.2 deletion ascertained through an adult congenital cardiac clinic (n = 35), psychiatric-related sources (n = 39), or as affected parents of subjects (n = 4). We recorded the lifetime prevalence of features requiring attention, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) not overlapping zero. Subtle learning difficulties, hypernasality and facial gestalt were not included. We investigated ascertainment effects using non-overlapping subgroups ascertained with tetralogy of Fallot (n = 31) or schizophrenia (n = 31). Forty-three features met inclusion criteria and were present in 5% or more patients, including several of later onset (e.g., hypothyroidism, cholelithiasis). Number of features per patient (median 9, range 3–22) correlated with hospitalizations (P=0.0002) and, when congenital features were excluded, with age (P=0.02). Adjusting for ascertainment, 25.8% (95% CI, 9.5–42.1%) of patients had cardiac anomalies and 22.6% (95% CI, 7.0–38.2%) had schizophrenia. Ascertainment subgroups were otherwise similar in median number and prevalence of features. Non-characteristic features are common in 22q11DS. Adjusting for ascertainment effects is important. Many treatable conditions may be anticipated and features may accumulate over time. The results have implications for clinical assessment and management, genetic counseling and research into pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:16208694

  9. SNP Microarray in FISH Negative Clinically Suspected 22q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manish; Kalsi, Amanpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the role of SNP microarray in 101 cases of clinically suspected FISH negative (noninformative/normal) 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. SNP microarray was carried out using 300 K HumanCytoSNP-12 BeadChip array or CytoScan 750 K array. SNP microarray identified 8 cases of 22q11.2 microdeletions and/or microduplications in addition to cases of chromosomal abnormalities and other pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs. Clinically suspected specific deletions (22q11.2) were detectable in approximately 8% of cases by SNP microarray, mostly from FISH noninformative cases. This study also identified several LOH/AOH loci with known and well-defined UPD (uniparental disomy) disorders. In conclusion, this study suggests more strict clinical criteria for FISH analysis. However, if clinical criteria are few or doubtful, in particular newborn/neonate in intensive care, SNP microarray should be the first screening test to be ordered. FISH is ideal test for detecting mosaicism, screening family members, and prenatal diagnosis in proven families. PMID:27051557

  10. SNP Microarray in FISH Negative Clinically Suspected 22q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Halder, Ashutosh; Jain, Manish; Kalsi, Amanpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the role of SNP microarray in 101 cases of clinically suspected FISH negative (noninformative/normal) 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. SNP microarray was carried out using 300 K HumanCytoSNP-12 BeadChip array or CytoScan 750 K array. SNP microarray identified 8 cases of 22q11.2 microdeletions and/or microduplications in addition to cases of chromosomal abnormalities and other pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs. Clinically suspected specific deletions (22q11.2) were detectable in approximately 8% of cases by SNP microarray, mostly from FISH noninformative cases. This study also identified several LOH/AOH loci with known and well-defined UPD (uniparental disomy) disorders. In conclusion, this study suggests more strict clinical criteria for FISH analysis. However, if clinical criteria are few or doubtful, in particular newborn/neonate in intensive care, SNP microarray should be the first screening test to be ordered. FISH is ideal test for detecting mosaicism, screening family members, and prenatal diagnosis in proven families. PMID:27051557

  11. An affected core drives network integration deficits of the structural connectome in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Váša, František; Griffa, Alessandra; Scariati, Elisa; Schaer, Marie; Urben, Sébastien; Eliez, Stephan; Hagmann, Patric

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disease known to lead to cerebral structural alterations, which we study using the framework of the macroscopic white-matter connectome. We create weighted connectomes of 44 patients with 22q11DS and 44 healthy controls using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and perform a weighted graph theoretical analysis. After confirming global network integration deficits in 22q11DS (previously identified using binary connectomes), we identify the spatial distribution of regions responsible for global deficits. Next, we further characterize the dysconnectivity of the deficient regions in terms of sub-network properties, and investigate their relevance with respect to clinical profiles. We define the subset of regions with decreased nodal integration (evaluated using the closeness centrality measure) as the affected core (A-core) of the 22q11DS structural connectome. A-core regions are broadly bilaterally symmetric and consist of numerous network hubs - chiefly parietal and frontal cortical, as well as subcortical regions. Using a simulated lesion approach, we demonstrate that these core regions and their connections are particularly important to efficient network communication. Moreover, these regions are generally densely connected, but less so in 22q11DS. These specific disturbances are associated to a rerouting of shortest network paths that circumvent the A-core in 22q11DS, "de-centralizing" the network. Finally, the efficiency and mean connectivity strength of an orbito-frontal/cingulate circuit, included in the affected regions, correlate negatively with the extent of negative symptoms in 22q11DS patients, revealing the clinical relevance of present findings. The identified A-core overlaps numerous regions previously identified as affected in 22q11DS as well as in schizophrenia, which approximately 30-40% of 22q11DS patients develop. PMID:26870660

  12. An affected core drives network integration deficits of the structural connectome in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Váša, František; Griffa, Alessandra; Scariati, Elisa; Schaer, Marie; Urben, Sébastien; Eliez, Stephan; Hagmann, Patric

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disease known to lead to cerebral structural alterations, which we study using the framework of the macroscopic white-matter connectome. We create weighted connectomes of 44 patients with 22q11DS and 44 healthy controls using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and perform a weighted graph theoretical analysis. After confirming global network integration deficits in 22q11DS (previously identified using binary connectomes), we identify the spatial distribution of regions responsible for global deficits. Next, we further characterize the dysconnectivity of the deficient regions in terms of sub-network properties, and investigate their relevance with respect to clinical profiles. We define the subset of regions with decreased nodal integration (evaluated using the closeness centrality measure) as the affected core (A-core) of the 22q11DS structural connectome. A-core regions are broadly bilaterally symmetric and consist of numerous network hubs — chiefly parietal and frontal cortical, as well as subcortical regions. Using a simulated lesion approach, we demonstrate that these core regions and their connections are particularly important to efficient network communication. Moreover, these regions are generally densely connected, but less so in 22q11DS. These specific disturbances are associated to a rerouting of shortest network paths that circumvent the A-core in 22q11DS, “de-centralizing” the network. Finally, the efficiency and mean connectivity strength of an orbito-frontal/cingulate circuit, included in the affected regions, correlate negatively with the extent of negative symptoms in 22q11DS patients, revealing the clinical relevance of present findings. The identified A-core overlaps numerous regions previously identified as affected in 22q11DS as well as in schizophrenia, which approximately 30–40% of 22q11DS patients develop. PMID:26870660

  13. Reproductive Health Issues for Adults with a Common Genomic Disorder: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chrystal; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Silversides, Candice K; Chow, Eva W C; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-10-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Survival to reproductive age and beyond is now the norm. Several manifestations of this syndrome, such as congenital cardiac disease and neuropsychiatric disorders, may increase risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in the general population. However, there are limited data on reproductive health in 22q11.2DS. We performed a retrospective chart review for 158 adults with 22q11.2DS (75 male, 83 female; mean age 34.3 years) and extracted key variables relevant to pregnancy and reproductive health. We present four illustrative cases as brief vignettes. There were 25 adults (21 > age 35 years; 21 female) with a history of one or more pregnancies. Outcomes for women with 22q11.2DS, compared with expectations for the general population, showed a significantly elevated prevalence of small for gestational age liveborn offspring (p < 0.001), associated mainly with infants with 22q11.2DS. Stillbirths also showed elevated prevalence (p < 0.05). Not all observed adverse events appeared to be attributable to transmission of the 22q11.2 deletion. Recurring issues relevant to reproductive health in 22q11.2DS included the potential impact of maternal morbidities, inadequate social support, unsafe sexual practices, and delayed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS and/or lack of genetic counseling. These preliminary results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and long term follow-up that could help facilitate genetic counseling for men and women with 22q11.2DS. We propose initial recommendations for pre-conception management, educational strategies, prenatal planning, and preparation for possible high-risk pregnancy and/or delivery. PMID:25579115

  14. Significant Evidence of Linkage for a Gene Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer and Multiple Primary Cancers on 22q11

    PubMed Central

    Teerlink, Craig; Nelson, Quentin; Burt, Randall; Cannon-Albright, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The genetic basis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not completely specified. Part of the difficulty in mapping predisposition genes for CRC may be because of phenotypic heterogeneity. Using data from a population genealogy of Utah record linked to a statewide cancer registry, we identified a subset of CRC cases that exhibited familial clustering in excess of that expected for all CRC cases in general, which may represent a genetically homogeneous subset of CRC. Methods: Using a new familial aggregation method referred to as the subset genealogic index of familiality (subsetGIF), combined with detailed information from a statewide tumor registry, we identified a subset of CRC cases that exhibited excess familial clustering above that expected for CRC: CRC cases who had at least one other primary tumor at a different site. A genome-wide linkage analysis was performed on a set of high-risk CRC pedigrees that included multiple CRC cases with additional primaries to identify evidence for predisposition loci. Results: A total of 13 high-risk CRC pedigrees with multiple CRC cases with other primary cancers were identified. Linkage analysis identified one pedigree with a significant linkage signal at 22q11 (LOD (logarithm (base 10) of odds)=3.39). Conclusions: A predisposition gene or variant for CRC that also predisposes to other primary cancers likely resides on chromosome 22q11. The ability to use statewide population genealogy and tumor registry data was critical to identify an informative subset of CRC cases that is possibly more genetically homogeneous than CRC in general, and may have improved statistical power for predisposition locus identification in this study. PMID:24572700

  15. Parental Communication and Experiences and Knowledge of Adolescent Siblings of Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okashah, Rebecca; Schoch, Kelly; Hooper, Stephen R; Shashi, Vandana; Callanan, Nancy

    2015-10-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion in humans. There have been few studies assessing the impact of this condition on the family and no previous studies conducted on unaffected siblings of children with 22q11DS. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency, method, and content of information being communicated by parents to unaffected siblings about the condition and to assess unaffected siblings' knowledge of 22q11DS and perceptions of the impact of the condition on their affected sibling and themselves. Families were recruited from several 22q11DS educational and support organizations and asked to complete a single anonymous online survey. Families were eligible to participate if they had one child with 22q11DS and at least one unaffected child between the ages of 12 and 17. Survey questions were developed based on previous literature and authors' expertise with individuals with 22q11DS. Responses to quantitative and qualitative questions were analyzed to calculate frequencies and proportions and to extract themes, respectively. A total of 25 families (defined as a unit of at least one parent, one affected child, and at least one unaffected child) participated in the study. Parents shared genetic information less often as compared to behavioral and medical information. Siblings of children with 22q11DS had both positive and negative experiences in having a brother or sister with this condition. Genetic counselors can use the results of this study to develop anticipatory guidance for parents of children with 22q11DS in talking with their unaffected children about the condition. PMID:25540895

  16. Frontonasal malformation with tetralogy of Fallot associated with a submicroscopic deletion of 22q11

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; Payne, R.M.

    1997-03-31

    We report on a 14-month-old girl with bifid nasal tip and tetralogy of Fallot. Several similar patients have been described with CNS or eye abnormalities. Chromosome analysis with FISH, using Oncor DiGeorge probes, confirmed a submicroscopic deletion of 22q11. Many patients with Shprintzen (velo-cardio-facial) syndrome have a similar deletion with conotruncal cardiac defects and an abnormal nasal shape, suggesting that a gene in this area, possibly affecting neural crest cells, influences facial and other midline development. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Potential Role of Cortisol in Social and Memory Impairments in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Daniel; Bursch, Megan; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2016-09-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by physiological and psychological symptoms. This study investigated the role of cortisol on the social and cognitive impairments in children with 22q11.2. A total of 11 children with 22q11.2 were assessed for baseline cortisol levels and received broad neuropsychological testing. Results were compared with 11 controls. Children with 22q11.2 had significantly higher cortisol levels. A significant negative correlation was observed between the general memory and attention/concentration indices of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, 2nd edition and cortisol concentrations in the control population. These data provide evidence of a possible causal mechanism that underlies social impairments in stress disorders. PMID:27617156

  18. The clinical presentation of attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joanna; Thapar, Anita; Owen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children with 22q11.2DS, it remains unclear whether its clinical presentation is similar to that in children with idiopathic ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the ADHD phenotype in children with and without 22q11.2DS by examining ADHD symptom scores, patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, IQ and gender distribution. Methods: Forty‐four children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD (mean age = 9.6), 600 clinic children (mean age = 10.8) and 77 children with ADHD from a population cohort (mean age = 10.8) participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using parent‐report research diagnostic instruments. Results: There was a higher proportion of females in the 22q11.2DS ADHD sample in relation to the clinical sample (χ2 = 18.2, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS group showed a higher rate of ADHD inattentive subtype (χ2 = 114.76, P < 0.001), and fewer hyperactive‐impulsive symptoms compared to the clinical group (z = 8.43, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS ADHD group parents reported fewer oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms (z = 6.33, P < 0.001) and a higher rate of generalized anxiety disorder (χ2 = 4.56, P = 0.03) in relation to the clinical group. Two percent of the 22q11.2 DS ADHD sample had received ADHD treatment. The results were similar when the 22q11.2 ADHD group was compared to the population cohort ADHD group. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of ADHD and patterns of co‐morbidity in 22q11.2DS is different from that in idiopathic ADHD. This could lead to clinical under‐recognition of ADHD in this group. Examining psychopathology in 22q11.2DS can provide insights into the genetic origins of psychiatric problems with implications beyond the 22q11.2DS population. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley

  19. Histone Modifier Genes Alter Conotruncal Heart Phenotypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingwei; Chung, Jonathan H.; Wang, Tao; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hawuła, Wanda; Coleman, Karlene; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S.; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2015-01-01

    We performed whole exome sequence (WES) to identify genetic modifiers on 184 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), of whom 89 case subjects had severe congenital heart disease (CHD) and 95 control subjects had normal hearts. Three genes including JMJD1C (jumonji domain containing 1C), RREB1 (Ras responsive element binding protein 1), and SEC24C (SEC24 family member C) had rare (MAF < 0.001) predicted deleterious single-nucleotide variations (rdSNVs) in seven case subjects and no control subjects (p = 0.005; Fisher exact and permutation tests). Because JMJD1C and RREB1 are involved in chromatin modification, we investigated other histone modification genes. Eighteen case subjects (20%) had rdSNVs in four genes (JMJD1C, RREB1, MINA, KDM7A) all involved in demethylation of histones (H3K9, H3K27). Overall, rdSNVs were enriched in histone modifier genes that activate transcription (Fisher exact p = 0.0004, permutations, p = 0.0003, OR = 5.16); however, rdSNVs in control subjects were not enriched. This implicates histone modification genes as influencing risk for CHD in presence of the deletion. PMID:26608785

  20. Cognitive, Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion syndrome has become an important model for understanding the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental conditions, particularly schizophrenia which develops in about 20–25% of individuals with a chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion. From the initial discovery of the syndrome, associated developmental delays made it clear that changes in brain development were a key part of the expression. Once patients were followed through childhood into adult years, further neurobehavioural phenotypes became apparent, including a changing cognitive profile, anxiety disorders and seizure diathesis. The variability of expression is as wide as for the myriad physical features associated with the syndrome, with the addition of evolving phenotype over the developmental trajectory. Notably, variability appears unrelated to length of the associated deletion. Several mouse models of the deletion have been engineered and are beginning to reveal potential molecular mechanisms for the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes observable in animals. Both animal and human studies hold great promise for further discoveries relevant to neurodevelopment and associated cognitive, behavioural and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21573985

  1. A case report of 22q11 deletion syndrome confirmed by array-CGH method

    PubMed Central

    Sedghi, Maryam; Nouri, Narges; Abdali, Hossein; Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Nouri, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is caused by a submicroscopic deletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 and affects approximately 1 in 4000 persons, making it the second most prevalent genetic syndrome after Down syndrome and the most common genetic syndrome associated with cleft palate. Most of the 22q11.2 deletion cases are new occurrences or sporadic; however, in about 10 % of families, the deletion is inherited and other family members are affected or at risk for passing this deletion to their children. This report describes a 1.5 years-old male child with clinical signs of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) presented with heart defect, soft cleft palate, developmental delay, acrocephaly, seizure, MRI abnormalities and descriptive facial feature, such as hypertelorism. Array-CGH test was done to confirm the diagnosis; the result revealed a 2.6 Mbp deletion in 22q11.2 chromosome that containing TBX1 and COMT genes. Our data suggest that haploinsufficiency of TBX1 gene is probably a major contributor to some of the syndrome characteristic signs, such as heart defect. Because of developmental delay and dysmorphic facial feature were observed in the index's mother and relatives, inherited autosomal dominant form of VCF is probable, and MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) test should be performed for parents to estimate the recurrent risk in next pregnancy. PMID:23267387

  2. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  3. Developmental changes in multivariate neuroanatomical patterns that predict risk for psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gothelf, Doron; Hoeft, Fumiko; Ueno, Takefumi; Sugiura, Lisa; Lee, Agatha D; Thompson, Paul; Reiss, Allan L

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of the current prospective study was to examine developmental patterns of voxel-by-voxel gray and white matter volumes (GMV, WMV, respectively) that would predict psychosis in adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common known genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. We performed a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry analysis using structural T1 MRI scans from 19 individuals with 22q11.2DS and 18 typically developing individuals. In 22q11.2DS, univariate analysis showed that greater reduction in left dorsal prefrontal cortical (dPFC) GMV over time predicted greater psychotic symptoms at Time2. This dPFC region also showed significantly reduced volumes in 22q11.2DS compared to typically developing individuals at Time1 and 2, greater reduction over time in 22q11.2DS COMT(Met) compared to COMT(Val), and greater reduction in those with greater decline in verbal IQ over time. Leave-one-out Multivariate pattern analysis results (MVPA) on the other hand, showed that patterns of GM and WM morphometric changes over time in regions including but not limited to the dPFC predicted risk for psychotic symptoms (94.7-100% accuracy) significantly better than using univariate analysis (63.1%). Additional predictive brain regions included medial PFC and dorsal cingulum. This longitudinal prospective study shows novel evidence of morphometric spatial patterns predicting the development of psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2DS, and further elucidates the abnormal maturational processes in 22q11.2DS. The use of neuroimaging using MVPA may hold promise to predict outcome in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20817203

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in TBX1 in individuals with and without 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heike, Carrie L.; Starr, Jacqueline R.; Rieder, Mark J.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Edwards, Karen L.; Stanaway, Ian; Crawford, Dana C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a wide range of clinical features. TBX1 has been proposed as a candidate gene for some of the features in this condition. Polymorphisms in the non-deleted TBX1, which may affect the function of the sole TBX1 gene in individuals with the 22q11.2DS, may be a key to understanding the phenotypic variability among individuals with a shared deletion. Comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery by resequencing candidate genes can identify genetic variants that influence a given phenotype. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the sequence variability in TBX1 by identifying all common SNPs in this gene. METHODS We resequenced TBX1 in 29 children with a documented 22q11.2 deletion and 95 non-deleted, healthy individuals. We estimated allele frequencies, performed tagSNP selection, and inferred haplotypes. We also compared SNP frequencies between 22q11.2DS and control samples. RESULTS We identified 355 biallelic markers among the 190 chromosomes resequenced in the control panel. The vast majority of the markers identified were SNPs (n=331), and the remainder indels (n=24). We did not identify SNPs or indels in the cis- regulatory element (FOX–binding site) upstream of TBX1. In children with 22q11.2DS we detected 187 biallelic markers, six of which were indels. Four of the seven coding SNPs identified in the controls were identified in children with 22q11.2DS. CONCLUSIONS This comprehensive SNP discovery data can be used to select SNPs to genotype for future association studies assessing the role of TBX1 and phenotypic variability in individuals with 22q11.2DS. PMID:19645056

  5. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Laboratory Diagnosis and TBX1 and FGF8 Mutation Screening

    PubMed Central

    Sgardioli, Ilária C.; Vieira, Társis P.; Simioni, Milena; Monteiro, Fabíola P.; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L.

    2015-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is one of the recognized forms of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) and has an incidence of 1 of 4,000 to 1 of 6,000 births. Nevertheless, the 22q11 deletion is not found in several patients with a 22q11.2 DS phenotype. In this situation, other chromosomal aberrations and/or mutations in the T-box 1 transcription factor C (TBX1) gene have been detected in some patients. A similar phenotype to that of the 22q11.2 DS has been reported in animal models with mutations in fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) gene. To date, FGF8 mutations have not been investigated in humans. We tested a strategy to perform laboratory testing to reduce costs in the investigation of patients presenting with the 22q11.2 DS phenotype. A total of 109 individuals with clinical suspicion were investigated using GTG-banding karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A conclusive diagnosis was achieved in 33 of 109 (30.2%) cases. In addition, mutations in the coding regions of TBX1 and FGF8 genes were investigated in selected cases where 22q11.2 deletion had been excluded, and no pathogenic mutations were detected in both genes. This study presents a strategy for molecular genetic characterization of patients presenting with the 22q11.2 DS using different laboratory techniques. This strategy could be useful in different countries, according to local resources. Also, to our knowledge, this is the first investigation of FGF8 gene in humans with this clinical suspicion.

  6. Mother-Child Interaction as a Window to a Unique Social Phenotype in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Omri; Feldman, Ruth; Burg-Malki, Merav; Keren, Miri; Geva, Ronny; Diesendruck, Gil; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-01-01

    Mother-child interactions in 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Williams syndrome (WS) were coded for maternal sensitivity/intrusiveness, child's expression of affect, levels of engagement, and dyadic reciprocity. WS children were found to express more positive emotions towards their mothers compared to 22q11.2DS children and those with…

  7. Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Are Impaired at Explicit, but Not Implicit, Discrimination of Local Forms Embedded in Global Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giersch, Anne; Glaser, Bronwyn; Pasca, Catherine; Chabloz, Mélanie; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are impaired at exploring visual information in space; however, not much is known about visual form discrimination in the syndrome. Thirty-five individuals with 22q11.2DS and 41 controls completed a form discrimination task with global forms made up of local elements. Affected individuals…

  8. Relationship between Reaction Time, Fine Motor Control, and Visual-Spatial Perception on Vigilance and Visual-Motor Tasks in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Sarah A.; Prasad, Sarah E.; Pender, Niall P.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2012-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability and specific neurocognitive deficits, particularly in visual-motor and attentional abilities. Currently there is evidence that the visual-motor profile of 22q11DS is not entirely mediated by intellectual disability and…

  9. A Comparative Study of Cognition and Brain Anatomy between Two Neurodevelopmental Disorders: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda E.; Stevens, Angela; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Azuma, Rayna; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with intellectual disability, poor social interaction and a high prevalence of psychosis. However, to date there have been no studies comparing cognition and neuroanatomical characteristics of 22q11DS with other syndromes to investigate if the cognitive strengths and difficulties and…

  10. Association of the Family Environment with Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this paediatric population. Method: Guardians of children with 22q11DS…

  11. Performance on the Modified Card Sorting Test and Its Relation to Psychopathology in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockers, K.; Ousley, O.; Sutton, T.; Schoenberg, E.; Coleman, K.; Walker, E.; Cubells, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common genetic disorder highly associated with intellectual disabilities, may develop schizophrenia, likely preceded by a mild to moderate cognitive decline. Methods: We examined adolescents and young adults with 22q11DS for the presence of executive…

  12. A longitudinal examination of the psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric functioning in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Curtiss, Kathleen; Schoch, Kelly; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Allen, Andrew; Shashi, Vandana

    2013-05-01

    The present study sought to examine the longitudinal psychoeducational, neurocognitive, and psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a population with a high incidence of major psychiatric illnesses appearing in late adolescence/early adulthood. Little is known of the developmental changes that occur in the early teen years, prior to the age of highest psychosis risk. Data were collected from 71 participants (42 subjects with 22q11DS and 29 control subjects) at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), approximately 3.5 years later. The 22q11DS group was significantly lower functioning than controls on IQ, neurocognition, and academic achievement at both T1 and T2. Children with 22q11DS also showed significantly greater social-behavioral difficulties and psychiatric symptoms, and were more likely to meet criteria for psychiatric disorders at both time points. In evaluating change over time from T1 to T2, the 22q11DS group did not show significant changes in psychoeducational or psychiatric outcomes relative to the controls, however, lack of expected age-related gains in attention regulation were noted. Within the 22q11DS group, an increase in the Attenuated Prodrome for Schizophrenia (number of psychiatric symptoms) was noted from T1 to T2 and four children with 22q11DS met criteria for Psychosis for the first time. Predictors at T1 that uncovered psychopathology symptoms at T2 included full-scale IQ, externalizing symptoms, and problem social behaviors. Overall, younger adolescent and preadolescent children with 22q11DS in this study exhibited slowed growth in attention regulation, with an increase in subclinical symptoms of schizophrenia, suggestive of increasing impairments in domains that are relevant to the high risk of Schizophrenia. Early predictors of later psychopathology included both cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. These findings begin to elucidate the trajectory of changes in psychopathology in

  13. De novo direct duplication of chromosome segment 22q11.2-q13.1

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Atsuko; Lin, Ming S.

    1996-03-29

    Lindsay et al. [1995] reported a case of de novo duplication of the segment 22q11-q12. Molecular cytogenetics studies showed that the segment includes the regions responsible for the {open_quotes}cat eye,{close_quotes} DiGeorge, and velo-cardio-facial syndrome, and extends distal to the breakpoint cluster region. The phenotype was milder than that of complete trisomy 22 and der(22)t(11;22) (q23;q11) syndrome and was similar in type and severity to that of {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES). They suggested that trisomy of gene(s) responsible for the CES might have a predominant phenotypic effect over other genes present in the region duplicated in their patient. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Congenital Heart Disease as a Warning Sign for the Diagnosis of the 22q11.2 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Marcília S.; Jacob, Cristina M. A.; Kulikowski, Leslie D.; Pastorino, Antonio C.; Dutra, Roberta L.; Miura, Nana; Jatene, Marcelo B.; Pegler, Stephanie P.; Kim, Chong A.; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Background To alert for the diagnosis of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Objective To describe the main CHDs, as well as phenotypic, metabolic and immunological findings in a series of 60 patients diagnosed with 22q11.2DS. Methods The study included 60 patients with 22q11.2DS evaluated between 2007 and 2013 (M:F=1.3, age range 14 days to 20 years and 3 months) at a pediatric reference center for primary immunodeficiencies. The diagnosis was established by detection of the 22q11.2 microdeletion using FISH (n = 18) and/or MLPA (n = 42), in association with clinical and laboratory information. Associated CHDs, progression of phenotypic facial features, hypocalcemia and immunological changes were analyzed. Results CHDs were detected in 77% of the patients and the most frequent type was tetralogy of Fallot (38.3%). Surgical correction of CHD was performed in 34 patients. Craniofacial dysmorphisms were detected in 41 patients: elongated face (60%) and/or elongated nose (53.3%), narrow palpebral fissure (50%), dysplastic, overfolded ears (48.3%), thin lips (41.6%), elongated fingers (38.3%) and short stature (36.6%). Hypocalcemia was detected in 64.2% and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in 25.9%. Decrease in total lymphocytes, CD4 and CD8 counts were present in 40%, 53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Hypogammaglobulinemia was detected in one patient and decreased concentrations of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in two other patients. Conclusion Suspicion for 22q11.2DS should be raised in all patients with CHD associated with hypocalcemia and/or facial dysmorphisms, considering that many of these changes may evolve with age. The 22q11.2 microdeletion should be confirmed by molecular testing in all patients. PMID:25317860

  15. Molecular Definition of the 22q11 Deletions in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Bernice; Goldberg, Rosalie; Carlson, Christine; Gupta, Ruchira Das; Sirotkin, Howard; Collins, John; Dunham, Ian; O'Donnell, Hilary; Scambler, Peter; Shprintzen, Robert; Kucherlapati, Raju

    1995-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a common genetic disorder among individuals with cleft palate and is associated with hemizygous deletions in human chromosome 22q11. Toward the molecular definition of the deletions, we constructed a physical map of 22q11 in the form of overlapping YACs. The physical map covers >9 cM of genetic distance, estimated to span 5 Mb of DNA, and contains a total of 64 markers. Eleven highly polymorphic short tandem-repeat polymorphic (STRP) markers were placed on the physical map, and 10 of these were unambiguously ordered. The 11 polymorphic markers were used to type the DNA from a total of 61 VCFS patients and 49 unaffected relatives. Comparison of levels of heterozygosity of these markers in VCFS patients and their unaffected relatives revealed that four of these markers are commonly hemizygous among VCFS patients. To confirm these results and to define further the breakpoints in VCFS patients, 15 VCFS individuals and their unaffected parents were genotyped for the 11 STRP markers. Haplotypes generated from this study revealed that 82% of the patients have deletions that can be defined by the STRP markers. The results revealed that all patients who have a deletion share a common proximal breakpoint, while there are two distinct distal breakpoints. Markers D22S941 and D22S944 appear to be consistently hemizygous in patients with deletions. Both of these markers are located on a single nonchimeric YAC that is 400 kb long. The results also show that the parental origin of the deleted chromosome does not have any effect on the phenotypic manifestation ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:7762562

  16. Novel Susceptibility Locus at 22q11 for Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wessman, Maija; Forsblom, Carol; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Söderlund, Jenny; Ilonen, Jorma; Sallinen, Riitta; Hiekkalinna, Tero; Parkkonen, Maija; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Tarnow, Lise; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects about 30% of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and contributes to serious morbidity and mortality. So far only the 3q21–q25 region has repeatedly been indicated as a susceptibility region for DN. The aim of this study was to search for new DN susceptibility loci in Finnish, Danish and French T1D families. Methods and Results We performed a genome-wide linkage study using 384 microsatellite markers. A total of 175 T1D families were studied, of which 94 originated from Finland, 46 from Denmark and 35 from France. The whole sample set consisted of 556 individuals including 42 sib-pairs concordant and 84 sib-pairs discordant for DN. Two-point and multi-point non-parametric linkage analyses were performed using the Analyze package and the MERLIN software. A novel DN locus on 22q11 was identified in the joint analysis of the Finnish, Danish and French families by genome-wide multipoint non-parametric linkage analysis using the Kong and Cox linear model (NPLpairs LOD score 3.58). Nominal or suggestive evidence of linkage to this locus was also detected when the three populations were analyzed separately. Suggestive evidence of linkage was found to six additional loci in the Finnish and French sample sets. Conclusions This study identified a novel DN locus at chromosome 22q11 with significant evidence of linkage to DN. Our results suggest that this locus may be of importance in European populations. In addition, this study supports previously indicated DN loci on 3q21–q25 and 19q13. PMID:21909410

  17. Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de la Morena, M. Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Dozmorov, Igor M.; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R.; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M. Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3 Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal controls (n=22). Eighteen microRNAs had a statistically significant differential expression (p<0.05), with miR-185 expressed at 0.4× normal levels. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cohort exhibited microRNA expression hyper-variability and group dysregulation. Selected microRNAs distinguished patients with cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, and/or low circulating T cell counts. In summary, microRNA profiling of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome/DiGeorge patients revealed a signature microRNA expression pattern distinct from normal controls with clinical relevance. PMID:23454892

  18. A candidate gene approach to identify modifiers of the palatal phenotype in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Widdershoven, Josine C.C.; Bowser, Mark; Sheridan, Molly B.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Solot, Cynthia B.; Kirschner, Richard E.; Beemer, Frits A.; Morrow, Bernice E.; Devoto, Marcella; Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Palatal anomalies are one of the identifying features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) affecting about one third of patients. To identify genetic variants that increase the risk of cleft or palatal anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients, we performed a candidate gene association study in 101 patients with 22q11.2DS genotyped with the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0. Methods Patients from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, USA and Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Utrecht, The Netherlands were stratified based on palatal phenotype (overt cleft, submucosal cleft, bifid uvula). SNPs in 21 candidate genes for cleft palate were analyzed for genotype-phenotype association. In addition, TBX1 sequencing was carried out. Quality control and association analyses were conducted using the software package PLINK. Results Genotype and phenotype data of 101 unrelated patients (63 non-cleft subjects (62.4%), 38 cleft subjects (37.6%)) were analyzed. A Total of 39 SNPs on 10 genes demonstrated a p-value ≤0.05 prior to correction. The most significant SNPs were found on FGF10. However none of the SNPs remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions Although these results are promising, analysis of additional samples will be required to confirm that variants in these regions influence risk for cleft palate or palatal anomalies in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:23121717

  19. Understanding the Role of Tbx1 as a Candidate Gene for 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Li, Xiao; Amendt, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by a commonly occurring microdeletion on chromosome 22. Clinical findings include cardiac malformations, thymic and parathyroid hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphisms, and dental defects. These phenotypes are due mainly to abnormal development of the pharyngeal apparatus. Targeted deletion studies in mice and analysis of naturally occurring mutations in humans have implicated Tbx1 as a candidate gene for 22q11.2DS. Tbx1 belongs to an evolutionarily conserved T-box family of transcription factors, whose expression is precisely regulated during embryogenesis, and it appears to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of various progenitor cells during organogenesis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of Tbx1 during development of the heart, thymus and parathyroid glands, as well as during formation of the palate, teeth, and other craniofacial features. PMID:23996541

  20. Deletions at 22q11.2 in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a combined analysis of genome-wide association data

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Kin Y; Sheerin, Una; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Salaka, Afnan; Chester, Lucy; Escott-Price, Valentina; Mantripragada, Kiran; Doherty, Karen M; Noyce, Alastair J; Mencacci, Niccolo E; Lubbe, Steven J; Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Barker, Roger A; van Dijk, Karin D; Berendse, Henk W; Heutink, Peter; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Cormier, Florence; Lesage, Suzanne; Brice, Alexis; Brockmann, Kathrin; Schulte, Claudia; Gasser, Thomas; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Morrison, Karen E; Clarke, Carl E; Sawcer, Stephen; Warner, Tom T; Lees, Andrew J; Morris, Huw R; Nalls, Mike A; Singleton, Andrew B; Hardy, John; Abramov, Andrey Y; Plagnol, Vincent; Williams, Nigel M; Wood, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Parkinson's disease has been reported in a small number of patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. In this study, we screened a series of large, independent Parkinson's disease case-control studies for deletions at 22q11.2. Methods We used data on deletions spanning the 22q11.2 locus from four independent case-control Parkinson's disease studies (UK Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2, Dutch Parkinson's Disease Genetics Consortium, US National Institute on Aging, and International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium studies), which were independent of the original reports of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We did case-control association analysis to compare the proportion of 22q11.2 deletions found, using the Fisher's exact test for the independent case-control studies and the Mantel-Haenszel test for the meta-analyses. We retrieved clinical details of patients with Parkinson's disease who had 22q11.2 deletions from the medical records of these patients. Findings We included array-based copy number variation data from 9387 patients with Parkinson's disease and 13 863 controls. Eight patients with Parkinson's disease and none of the controls had 22q11.2 deletions (p=0·00082). In the 8451 patients for whom age at onset data were available, deletions at 22q11.2 were associated with Parkinson's disease age at onset (Mann-Whitney U test p=0·001). Age at onset of Parkinson's disease was lower in patients carrying a 22q11.2 deletion (median 37 years, 95% CI 32·0–55·5; mean 42·1 years [SD 11·9]) than in those who did not carry a deletion (median 61 years, 95% CI 60·5–61·0; mean 60·3 years [SD 12·8]). A 22q11.2 deletion was present in more patients with early-onset (p<0·0001) and late-onset Parkinson's disease (p=0·016) than in controls, and in more patients with early-onset than late-onset Parkinson's disease (p=0·005). Interpretation Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of 22q11.2 deletions in

  1. Genetic Dosage Compensation in a Family with Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alkalay, Avishai A.; Guo, Tingwei; Montagna, Cristina; Digilio, M. Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Morrow, Bernice

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies of a male child carrying the 22q11.2 deletion common in patients with velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome revealed an unexpected rearrangement of the 22q11.2 region in his normal appearing mother. The mother carries a 3 Mb deletion on one copy and a reciprocal, similar sized duplication on the other copy of chromosome 22q11.2 as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and array comparative genome hybridization analysis. The most parsimonious mechanism for the rearrangement is a mitotic non-allelic homologous recombination event in a cell in the early embryo soon after fertilization. The normal phenotype of the mother can be explained by the theory of genetic dosage compensation. This is the second documented case of such an event for this or any genomic disorder. This finding helps to reinforce this phenomenon in a human model, and has significant implications for genetic counseling of future children. PMID:21337693

  2. Evaluation of Potential Modifiers of the Cardiac Phenotype in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Driscoll, Deborah A.; Emanuel, Beverly S.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Mei, Minghua; Zackai, Elaine; Mitchell, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The phenotype associated with deletion of the 22q11.2 chromosomal region is highly variable, yet little is known about the source of this variability. Cardiovascular anomalies, including tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic arch type B, perimembranous ventricular septal defects, and aortic arch anomalies, occur in approximately 75% of individuals with a 22q11.2 deletion. METHODS Data from 343 subjects enrolled in a study of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome were used to evaluate potential modifiers of the cardiac phenotype in this disorder. Subjects with and without cardiac malformations, and subjects with and without aortic arch anomalies were compared with respect to sex and race. In addition, in the subset of subjects from whom a DNA sample was available, genotypes for variants of four genes that are involved in the folate-homocysteine metabolic pathway and that have been implicated as risk factors for other birth defects were compared. Five variants in four genes were genotyped by heteroduplex or restriction digest assays. The chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate the association between the cardiac phenotype and each potential modifier. RESULTS The cardiac phenotype observed in individuals with a 22q11.2 deletion was not significantly associated with either sex or race. The genetic variants that were evaluated also did not appear to be associated with the cardiovascular phenotype. CONCLUSIONS Variation in the cardiac phenotype observed between individuals with a 22q11.2 deletion does not appear to be related to sex, race, or five sequence variants in four folate-related genes that are located outside of the 22q11.2 region. PMID:18770859

  3. Identification of familial and de novo microduplications of 22q11.21–q11.23 distal to the 22q11.21 microdeletion syndrome region

    PubMed Central

    Coppinger, Justine; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine; Shane, Kate; Atkin, Joan F.; Asamoah, Alexander; Leland, Robert; Weaver, David D.; Lansky-Shafer, Susan; Schmidt, Karen; Feldman, Heidi; Cohen, William; Phalin, Judy; Powell, Berkley; Ballif, Blake C.; Theisen, Aaron; Geiger, Elizabeth; Haldeman-Englert, Chad; Shaikh, Tamim H.; Saitta, Sulagna; Bejjani, Bassem A.; Shaffer, Lisa G.

    2009-01-01

    Deletions of the 22q11.2 region distal to the 22q11.21 microdeletion syndrome region have recently been described in individuals with mental retardation and congenital anomalies. Because these deletions are mediated by low-copy repeats (LCRs), located distal to the 22q11.21 DiGeorge/velocardiofacial microdeletion region, duplications are predicted to occur with a frequency equal to the deletion. However, few microduplications of this region have been reported. We report the identification of 18 individuals with microduplications of 22q11.21–q11.23. The duplication boundaries for all individuals are within LCRs distal to the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial microdeletion region. Clinical records for nine subjects reveal shared characteristics, but also several examples of contradicting clinical features (e.g. macrocephaly versus microcephaly and upslanting versus downslanting palpebral fissures). Of 12 cases for whom parental DNA samples were available for testing, one is de novo and 11 inherited the microduplication from a parent, three of whom reportedly have learning problems or developmental delay. The variable phenotypes and preponderance of familial cases obfuscate the clinical relevance of the molecular data and emphasize the need for careful parental assessments and clinical correlations. PMID:19193630

  4. Confirmation that the conotruncal anomaly face syndrome is associated with a deletion within 22q11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Rumiko; Takao, Atsuyoshi; Kimura, Misa; Kondo, Chisato; Ando, Masahiko; Momma, Kazuo; Imamura, Shin-ichiro; Joh-o, Kunitaka; Ikeda, Kazuo; Nishibatake, Makoto

    1994-11-15

    The so-called {open_quotes}conotruncal anomaly face syndrome{close_quotes} (CTAFS) is characterized by a peculiar facial appearance associated with congenital heart disease (CHD), especially cardiac outflow tract defects such as tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), double outlet ring ventricle (DORV), and truncus arteriosus (TAC). CTAFS and the DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) have many similar phenotypic characteristics, suggesting that they share a common cause. In many cases DGA is known to be associated with monosomy for a region of chromosome 22q11.2. Fifty CTAFS patients and 10 DGA patients, 11 parents couples and 10 mothers of CTAFS patients, and 3 parents couples and 2 mothers of DGA patients were examined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using the N25 (D22S75) DGCR probe (Oncor). Monosomy for a region of 22q11.2 was found in 42 CTAFS, 9 DGA, 4 mothers, and 1 father who had CTAF without CHD. The remaining 8 CTAFS patients, 1 DGA patient and 1 mother who had questionable CTAF without CHD, showed no such chromosome abnormality. For the control, 60 patients who had CHD without CTAF or other know malformation syndromes were examined and had no deletion of 22q11.2. Therefore, we conclude that CTAFS is a part of the CATCH 22 syndrome; cardiac defects, abnormal faces, thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia (CATCH) resulting from 22q11.2 deletions. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Overlapping Numerical Cognition Impairments in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion or Turner Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, T. J.; Takarae, Y.; DeBoer, T.; McDonald-McGinn, D. M.; Zackai, E. H.; Ross, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor…

  6. SDF1-CXCR4 signaling: A new player involved in DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Duband, Jean-Loup; Escot, Sophie; Fournier-Thibault, Claire

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as velocardiofacial syndrome, is a congenital disease causing numerous structural and behavioral disorders, including cardiac outflow tract anomalies, craniofacial dysmorphogenesis, parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia, and mental disorders. It results from a unique chromosomal microdeletion on the 22q11.2 region in which the transcriptional activator TBX1 is decisive for the occurrence of the disease. During embryogenesis, Tbx1 is required for patterning of pharyngeal region giving rise to structures of the face, neck and chest. Genetic and developmental studies demonstrated that the severity and variability of the syndrome are determined by Tbx1 targets involved in pharyngeal neural crest cell migration and survival. Recently, we demonstrated that the chemokine Sdf1/Cxcl12 and its receptor Cxcr4 are genetically downstream of Tbx1 during pharyngeal development and that reduction of CXCR4 signaling results in defects which recapitulate the major morphological anomalies of 22q11DS, supporting the possibility of a pivotal role for the SDF1/CXCR4 axis in its etiology. PMID:27500073

  7. The Neural Correlates of Non-Spatial Working Memory in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Krauss, Beth R.; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Colgan, Deirdre; Antshel, Kevin M.; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a neurogenetic disorder that is associated with both learning disabilities and a consistent neuropsychological phenotype, including deficits in executive function, visuospatial perception, and working memory. Anatomic imaging studies have identified significant…

  8. Whole-Genome Sequencing Suggests Schizophrenia Risk Mechanisms in Humans with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Merico, Daniele; Zarrei, Mehdi; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Alipanahi, Babak; Gazzellone, Matthew J.; Butcher, Nancy J.; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Chow, Eva W. C.; Andrade, Danielle M.; Frey, Brendan J.; Marshall, Christian R.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletions impart a high but incomplete risk for schizophrenia. Possible mechanisms include genome-wide effects of DGCR8 haploinsufficiency. In a proof-of-principle study to assess the power of this model, we used high-quality, whole-genome sequencing of nine individuals with 22q11.2 deletions and extreme phenotypes (schizophrenia, or no psychotic disorder at age >50 years). The schizophrenia group had a greater burden of rare, damaging variants impacting protein-coding neurofunctional genes, including genes involved in neuron projection (nominal P = 0.02, joint burden of three variant types). Variants in the intact 22q11.2 region were not major contributors. Restricting to genes affected by a DGCR8 mechanism tended to amplify between-group differences. Damaging variants in highly conserved long intergenic noncoding RNA genes also were enriched in the schizophrenia group (nominal P = 0.04). The findings support the 22q11.2 deletion model as a threshold-lowering first hit for schizophrenia risk. If applied to a larger and thus better-powered cohort, this appears to be a promising approach to identify genome-wide rare variants in coding and noncoding sequence that perturb gene networks relevant to idiopathic schizophrenia. Similarly designed studies exploiting genetic models may prove useful to help delineate the genetic architecture of other complex phenotypes. PMID:26384369

  9. Whole-Genome Sequencing Suggests Schizophrenia Risk Mechanisms in Humans with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Merico, Daniele; Zarrei, Mehdi; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Alipanahi, Babak; Gazzellone, Matthew J; Butcher, Nancy J; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Chow, Eva W C; Andrade, Danielle M; Frey, Brendan J; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Bassett, Anne S

    2015-11-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletions impart a high but incomplete risk for schizophrenia. Possible mechanisms include genome-wide effects of DGCR8 haploinsufficiency. In a proof-of-principle study to assess the power of this model, we used high-quality, whole-genome sequencing of nine individuals with 22q11.2 deletions and extreme phenotypes (schizophrenia, or no psychotic disorder at age >50 years). The schizophrenia group had a greater burden of rare, damaging variants impacting protein-coding neurofunctional genes, including genes involved in neuron projection (nominal P = 0.02, joint burden of three variant types). Variants in the intact 22q11.2 region were not major contributors. Restricting to genes affected by a DGCR8 mechanism tended to amplify between-group differences. Damaging variants in highly conserved long intergenic noncoding RNA genes also were enriched in the schizophrenia group (nominal P = 0.04). The findings support the 22q11.2 deletion model as a threshold-lowering first hit for schizophrenia risk. If applied to a larger and thus better-powered cohort, this appears to be a promising approach to identify genome-wide rare variants in coding and noncoding sequence that perturb gene networks relevant to idiopathic schizophrenia. Similarly designed studies exploiting genetic models may prove useful to help delineate the genetic architecture of other complex phenotypes. PMID:26384369

  10. Discussing the psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: an exploration of clinical practice among medical geneticists

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Emily; Inglis, Angela; Friedman, Jan; Austin, Jehannine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the frequency with which medical geneticists discuss the psychiatric manifestations of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) with families in relation to the frequency with which they discuss the other manifestations of the syndrome and to explore relationships between discussion of these features and stigma toward psychiatric disorders. Methods We surveyed medical geneticists in the United States and Canada regarding the frequency with which they discuss various features of 22q11DS with families in the context of four clinical scenarios in which only the age of the patient at diagnosis differed. Respondents also completed a 20-item validated psychometric measure of stigma towards psychiatric disorders. Results 308/546 medical geneticists completed the survey (56% response rate). Psychiatric disorders were discussed significantly less often than other features of 22q11DS (p<0.0001), but psychiatric disorders were discussed significantly more often when the patient was ≥ 13 years old (p<0.0001), than when the patient was younger. Geneticists who discussed psychiatric disorders the least had significantly higher levels of stigma towards psychiatric disorders (p=0.007). Conclusion Psychiatric risks are less often discussed with families during childhood. Education for physicians to help reduce stigma towards psychiatric disorders (which may impede discussion of psychiatric disorders) may warrant exploration in this population. PMID:23579435

  11. Memory in Intellectually Matched Groups of Young Participants with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Those with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravariti, Eugenia; Jacobson, Clare; Morris, Robin; Frangou, Sophia; Murray, Robin M.; Tsakanikos, Elias; Habel, Alex; Shearer, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia have genetic and neuropsychological similarities, but are likely to differ in memory profile. Confirming differences in memory function between the two disorders, and identifying their genetic determinants, can help to define genetic subtypes in both syndromes, identify genetic risk factors…

  12. A defect in early myogenesis causes Otitis media in two mouse models of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Linden, Jennifer F.; Baldini, Antonio; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2015-01-01

    Otitis media (OM), the inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common disease and cause for surgery in infants worldwide. Chronic Otitis media with effusion (OME) often leads to conductive hearing loss and is a common feature of a number of craniofacial syndromes, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS). OM is more common in children because the more horizontal position of the Eustachian tube (ET) in infants limits or delays clearance of middle ear effusions. Some mouse models with OM have shown alterations in the morphology and angle of the ET. Here, we present a novel mechanism in which OM is caused not by a defect in the ET itself but in the muscles that control its function. Our results show that in two mouse models of 22q11.2DS (Df1/+ and Tbx1+/−) presenting with bi- or unilateral OME, the fourth pharyngeal arch-derived levator veli palatini muscles were hypoplastic, which was associated with an earlier altered pattern of MyoD expression. Importantly, in mice with unilateral OME, the side with the inflammation was associated with significantly smaller muscles than the contralateral unaffected ear. Functional tests examining ET patency confirmed a reduced clearing ability in the heterozygous mice. Our findings are also of clinical relevance as targeting hypoplastic muscles might present a novel preventative measure for reducing the high rates of OM in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:25452432

  13. Secondary Immunologic Consequences in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DiGeorge Syndrome/Velocardiofacial Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Zemble, R.; Prak, E. Luning; McDonald, K.; McDonald-McGinn, D.; Zackai, E.; Sullivan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that patients with Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion (Ch22q11.2D) have an increased prevalence of atopic and autoimmune disease and this has been without explanation. We hypothesized that the increase in atopy was due to homeostatic proliferation of T cells leading to a Th2 skew. We performed intracellular cytokine staining to define Th1/Th2 phenotypes in toddlers (early homeostatic proliferation) and adults (post homeostatic proliferation) with this syndrome. To attempt to understand the predisposition to autoimmunity we performed immunophenotyping analyses to define Th17 cells and B cell subsets. Adult Ch22q11.2D patients had a higher percentage of IL-4+CD4+ T cells than controls. Th17 cells were no different in patients and controls. In addition, adult Ch22q11.2D syndrome patients had significantly lower switched memory B cells, suggesting a dysregulated B cell compartment. These studies demonstrate that the decrement in T cell production has secondary consequences in the immune system, which could mold the patients’ clinical picture. PMID:20472505

  14. Facial emotion perception by intensity in children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leleu, Arnaud; Saucourt, Guillaume; Rigard, Caroline; Chesnoy, Gabrielle; Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Rossi, Massimiliano; Edery, Patrick; Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Difficulties in the recognition of emotions in expressive faces have been reported in people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). However, while low-intensity expressive faces are frequent in everyday life, nothing is known about their ability to perceive facial emotions depending on the intensity of expression. Through a visual matching task, children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS as well as gender- and age-matched healthy participants were asked to categorise the emotion of a target face among six possible expressions. Static pictures of morphs between neutrality and expressions were used to parametrically manipulate the intensity of the target face. In comparison to healthy controls, results showed higher perception thresholds (i.e. a more intense expression is needed to perceive the emotion) and lower accuracy for the most expressive faces indicating reduced categorisation abilities in the 22q11.2DS group. The number of intrusions (i.e. each time an emotion is perceived as another one) and a more gradual perception performance indicated smooth boundaries between emotional categories. Correlational analyses with neuropsychological and clinical measures suggested that reduced visual skills may be associated with impaired categorisation of facial emotions. Overall, the present study indicates greater difficulties for children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS to perceive an emotion in low-intensity expressive faces. This disability is subtended by emotional categories that are not sharply organised. It also suggests that these difficulties may be associated with impaired visual cognition, a hallmark of the cognitive deficits observed in the syndrome. These data yield promising tracks for future experimental and clinical investigations. PMID:26149605

  15. Increased Levels of Interferon-Inducible Protein 10 (IP-10) in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aresvik, D M; Lima, K; Øverland, T; Mollnes, T E; Abrahamsen, T G

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS), also known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a genetic disorder with an estimated incidence of 1:4000 births. These patients may suffer from affection of many organ systems with cardiac malformations, thymic hypoplasia or aplasia, hypoparathyroidism, palate anomalies and psychiatric disorders being the most frequent. The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increased in older patients. The aim of the present study was to examine a cytokine profile in patients with 22q11.2 DS by measuring a broad spectrum of serum cytokines. Patients with a proven deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 (n = 55) and healthy individuals (n = 54) recruited from an age- and sex-comparable group were included in the study. Serum levels of 27 cytokines, including chemokines and growth factors, were analysed using multiplex technology. Interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) was also measured by ELISA to confirm the multiplex results. The 22q11.2 DS patients had distinctly and significantly raised levels of pro-inflammatory and angiostatic chemokine IP-10 (P < 0.001) compared to controls. The patients with congenital heart defects (n = 31) had significantly (P = 0.018) raised serum levels of IP-10 compared to patients born without heart defects (n = 24). The other cytokines investigated were either not detectable or did not differ between patients and controls. PMID:26708691

  16. Decreased DGCR8 Expression and miRNA Dysregulation in Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sellier, Chantal; Hwang, Vicki J.; Dandekar, Ravi; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas; Ander, Bradley P.; Sharp, Frank R.; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J.; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Deletion of the 1.5–3 Mb region of chromosome 22 at locus 11.2 gives rise to the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial Syndromes. It is the most common micro-deletion disorder in humans and one of the most common multiple malformation syndromes. The syndrome is characterized by a broad phenotype, whose characterization has expanded considerably within the last decade and includes many associated findings such as craniofacial anomalies (40%), conotruncal defects of the heart (CHD; 70–80%), hypocalcemia (20–60%), and a range of neurocognitive anomalies with high risk of schizophrenia, all with a broad phenotypic variability. These phenotypic features are believed to be the result of a change in the copy number or dosage of the genes located in the deleted region. Despite this relatively clear genetic etiology, very little is known about which genes modulate phenotypic variations in humans or if they are due to combinatorial effects of reduced dosage of multiple genes acting in concert. Here, we report on decreased expression levels of genes within the deletion region of chromosome 22, including DGCR8, in peripheral leukocytes derived from individuals with 22q11DS compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found dysregulated miRNA expression in individuals with 22q11DS, including miR-150, miR-194 and miR-185. We postulate this to be related to DGCR8 haploinsufficiency as DGCR8 regulates miRNA biogenesis. Importantly we demonstrate that the level of some miRNAs correlates with brain measures, CHD and thyroid abnormalities, suggesting that the dysregulated miRNAs may contribute to these phenotypes and/or represent relevant blood biomarkers of the disease in individuals with 22q11DS. PMID:25084529

  17. Social cognition in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome: relevance to psychosis?

    PubMed

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Carter, Chelsea; Senturk, Damla; Chow, Carolyn; Hopkins, Jessica M; Green, Michael F; Galván, Adriana; Cannon, Tyrone D; Bearden, Carrie E

    2012-12-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) represents one of the largest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Approximately 30% of individuals with 22qDS develop psychotic illness in adolescence or young adulthood. Given that deficits in social cognition are increasingly viewed as a central aspect of idiopathic schizophrenia, we sought to investigate abilities in this domain as a predictor of psychotic symptoms in 22qDS participants. We assessed multiple domains of social and non-social cognition in 22qDS youth to: 1) characterize performance across these domains in 22qDS, and identify whether 22qDS participants fail to show expected patterns of age-related improvements on these tasks; and 2) determine whether social cognition better predicts positive and negative symptoms than does non-social cognition. Task domains assessed were: emotion recognition and differentiation, Theory of Mind (ToM), verbal knowledge, visuospatial skills, working memory, and processing speed. Positive and negative symptoms were measured using scores obtained from the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS). 22qDS participants (N=31, mean age: 15.9) showed the largest impairment, relative to healthy controls (N=31, mean age: 15.6), on measures of ToM and processing speed. In contrast to controls, 22qDS participants did not show age-related improvements on measures of working memory and verbal knowledge. Notably, ToM performance was the best predictor of positive symptoms in 22qDS, accounting for 39% of the variance in symptom severity. Processing speed emerged as the best predictor of negative symptoms, accounting for 37% of the variance in symptoms. Given that ToM was a robust predictor of positive symptoms in our sample, these findings suggest that social cognition may be a valuable intermediate trait for predicting the development of psychosis. PMID:23122739

  18. Social Cognition in 22q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome: Relevance to Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Carter, Chelsea; Senturk, Damla; Chow, Carolyn; Hopkins, Jessica M.; Green, Michael F.; Galván, Adriana; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) represents one of the largest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Approximately 30% of individuals with 22qDS develop psychotic illness in adolescence or young adulthood. Given that deficits in social cognition are increasingly viewed as a central aspect of idiopathic schizophrenia, we sought to investigate abilities in this domain as a predictor of psychotic symptoms in 22qDS participants. We assessed multiple domains of social and non-social cognition in 22qDS youth to: 1) characterize performance across these domains in 22qDS, and identify whether 22qDS participants fail to show expected patterns of age-related improvements on these tasks; and 2) determine whether social cognition better predicts positive and negative symptoms than does non-social cognition. Task domains assessed were: emotion recognition and differentiation, Theory of Mind (ToM), verbal knowledge, abstract reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. Positive and negative symptoms were measured using scores obtained from the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS). 22qDS participants (N=31, mean age: 15.9) showed the largest impairment, relative to healthy controls (N=31, mean age: 15.6), on measures of ToM and processing speed. In contrast to controls, 22qDS participants did not show age-related improvements on measures of working memory and verbal knowledge. Notably, ToM performance was the best predictor of positive symptoms in 22qDS, accounting for 39% of the variance in symptom severity. Processing speed emerged as the best predictor of negative symptoms, accounting for 37% of the variance in symptoms. Given that ToM was a robust predictor of positive symptoms in our sample, these findings suggest that social cognition may be a valuable intermediate trait for predicting the development of psychosis. PMID:23122739

  19. Accuracy in identification of patients with 22q11.2 deletion by likely care providers using facial photographs.

    PubMed

    Becker, Devra B; Pilgram, Thomas; Marty-Grames, Lynn; Govier, Daniel P; Marsh, Jeffrey L; Kane, Alex A

    2004-11-01

    Numerous facial characteristics are associated with velocardiofacial syndrome. Care providers may use these facial characteristics to identify patients who may benefit from fluorescence in situ hybridization genetic testing to determine the presence of the 22q11.2 deletion. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that experienced care providers were able to correctly diagnose the 22q11.2 deletion on the basis of studying frontal facial photographs. After approval was obtained from the human studies committee, patients who had undergone fluorescence in situ hybridization genetics testing for the presence of a 22q11.2 deletion were asked to submit two frontal photographs: one at infancy and one beyond the second birthday. These photographs were randomized, made anonymous, and then placed on a secure Web site. Specialists in the fields of plastic surgery, otolaryngology, genetics, and speech pathology were asked to evaluate their experience and confidence levels in diagnosing a 22q11.2 deletion and were then asked to rate the photographs by likelihood of deletion using a five-point Likert scale. Thirty-two specialists (10 surgeons, nine geneticists, and 13 speech pathologists) participated in the study. On the basis of clear responses, respondents predicted the presence (sensitivity) and absence (specificity) of the 22q11.2 deletion at chance levels. Of the remaining responses, 20 to 25 percent were unsure and 20 to 25 percent were clearly wrong. When an unsure response was treated as a weak positive, the results favored sensitivity slightly, with a sensitivity of 70 percent and a specificity of 50 percent. Sensitivity improved somewhat with experience, as measured by the number of patients seen per year. The prediction of the presence or absence of the 22q11.2 deletion at chance levels suggests that the ability to diagnose on the basis of appearance alone is not a sufficient diagnostic tool. Although the ability does increase with experience, it is of

  20. Behavioral abnormalities are common and severe in patients with distal 22q11.2 microdeletions and microduplications

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Valerie; McRae, Anne; Dineen, Richard; Saulsberry, Alexandria; Hoganson, George; Schrift, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We describe six individuals with microdeletions and microduplications in the distal 22q11.2 region detected by microarray. Five of the abnormalities have breakpoints in the low-copy repeats (LCR) in this region and one patient has an atypical rearrangement. Two of the six patients with abnormalities in the region between LCR22 D–E have hearing loss, which has previously been reported only once in association with these abnormalities. We especially note the behavioral/neuropsychiatric problems, including the severity and early onset, in patients with distal 22q11.2 rearrangements. Our patients add to the genotype–phenotype correlations which are still being generated for these chromosomal anomalies. PMID:26247050

  1. Social Cognition Dysfunction in Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome): Relationship with Executive Functioning and Social Competence/Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, L. E.; McCabe, K. L.; Melville, J. L.; Strutt, P. A.; Schall, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social difficulties are often noted among people with intellectual disabilities. Children and adults with 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of executive and social-cognitive skills compared with typically developing young people. However, the relationship…

  2. Intellectual Functioning in Relation to Autism and ADHD Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidding, E.; Swaab, H.; Sonneville, L. M. J.; Engeland, H.; Sijmens-Morcus, M. E. J.; Klaassen, P. W. J.; Duijff, S. N.; Vorstman, J. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome) is associated with an increased risk of various disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between intellectual functioning and severity of ASD and ADHD…

  3. Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Social-Behavioral Functioning of Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Implications for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shashi, Vandana; Wray, Emily; Schoch, Kelly; Curtiss, Kathleen; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome exhibit high rates of social-behavioral problems, particularly in the internalizing domain, indicating an area in need of intervention. The current investigation was designed to obtain information regarding parent and teacher ratings of the social-emotional behavior of children with 22q11DS. Using the Child…

  4. Social Cognitive Training in Adolescents with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Feasibility and Preliminary Effects of the Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shashi, V.; Harrell, W.; Eack, S.; Sanders, C.; McConkie-Rosell, A.; Keshavan, M. S.; Bonner, M. J.; Schoch, K.; Hooper, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have deficits in social cognition and social skills that contribute to poor adaptive functioning. These deficits may be of relevance to the later occurrence of serious psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. Yet, there are no evidence-based interventions to improve…

  5. Tetralogy of Fallot associated with deletion in the DiGeorge region of chromosome 22 (22q11)

    SciTech Connect

    D`Angelo, J.A.; Pillers, D.M.; Jett, P.L.

    1994-09-01

    Cardiac conotruncal defects, such as Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), are associated with DiGeorge syndrome which has been mapped to the q11 region of chromosome 22 and includes abnormalities of neural crest and branchial arch development. Patients with conotruncal defects and velo-cardio-facial syndrome may have defects in the 22q11 region but not show the complete DiGeorge phenotype consisting of cardiac, thymus, and parathyroid abnormalities. We report two neonates with TOF and small deletions in the DiGeorge region of chromosome 22 (46,XX,del(22)(q11.21q11.23) and 46,XY,del(22)(q11.2q11.2)) using both high-resolution cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The first patient is a female with TOF and a family history of congenital heart disease. The mother has pulmonic stenosis and a right-sided aortic arch, one brother has TOF, and a second brother has a large VSD. The patient had intrauterine growth retardation and had thrombocytopenia due to maternal IgG platelet-directed autoantibody. Lymphocyte populations, both T and B cells, were reduced in number but responded normally to stimulation. The findings were not attributed to a DiGeorge phenotype. Although she had transient neonatal hypocalcemia, her parathyroid hormone level was normal. The patient was not dysmorphic in the newborn period but her mother had features consistent with velo-cardio-facial syndrome. The second patient was a male with TOF who was not dysmorphic and had no other significant clinical findings and no family history of heart disease. Lymphocyte testing did not reveal a specific immunodeficiency. No significant postnatal hypocalcemia was noted. These cases illustrate that there is a wide spectrum of clinical features associated with defects of the 22q11 region. We recommend karyotype analysis, including FISH probes specific to the DiGeorge region, in any patient with conotruncal cardiac defects.

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome after Operative Intervention for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, David Jeffrey; Goudy, Steven L.; Chinnadurai, Sivakumar; Wootten, Christopher Todd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is often warranted. In this patient population, VPI is characterized by poor palatal elevation and muscular hypotonia with an intact palate. We hypothesize that 22q11.2 deletion patients are at greater risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after surgical correction of VPI, due, in part, to their functional hypotonia, large velopharyngeal gap size, and the need to surgically obstruct the velopharynx. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome treated at a tertiary pediatric hospital between the years of 2002 and 2012. The incidence of VPI, need for surgery, post-operative polysomnogram, post-operative VPI assessment, and OSA treatments were evaluated. Results: Forty-three patients (18 males, 25 females, ages 1–14 years) fitting the inclusion criteria were identified. Twenty-eight patients were evaluated by speech pathology due to hypernasality. Twenty-one patients had insufficient velopharyngeal function and required surgery. Fifteen underwent pharyngeal flap surgery, three underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty, two underwent Furlow palatoplasty, and one underwent combined sphincter pharyngoplasty with Furlow palatoplasty. Of these, eight had post-operative snoring. Six of these underwent polysomnography (five underwent pharyngeal flap surgeries and one underwent sphincter pharyngoplasty). Four patients were found to have OSA based on the results of the polysomnography (average apnea/hypopnea index of 4.9 events/h, median = 5.1, SD = 2.1). Two required continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) due to moderate OSA. Conclusion: Surgery is often necessary to correct VPI in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Monitoring for OSA should be considered after surgical correction of VPI due to a high occurrence in this population. Furthermore, families should be counseled of the risk of OSA after surgery and the

  7. A deletion and a duplication in distal 22q11.2 deletion syndrome region. Clinical implications and review

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Luis; Nevado, Julián; Santos, Fernando; Heine-Suñer, Damià; Martinez-Glez, Victor; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Palomo, Rebeca; Delicado, Alicia; Pajares, Isidora López; Palomares, María; García-Guereta, Luis; Valverde, Eva; Hawkins, Federico; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals affected with DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes present with both phenotypic diversity and variable expressivity. The most frequent clinical features include conotruncal congenital heart defects, velopharyngeal insufficiency, hypocalcemia and a characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism. The etiology in most patients is a 3 Mb recurrent deletion in region 22q11.2. However, cases of infrequent deletions and duplications with different sizes and locations have also been reported, generally with a milder, slightly different phenotype for duplications but with no clear genotype-phenotype correlation to date. Methods We present a 7 month-old male patient with surgically corrected ASD and multiple VSDs, and dysmorphic facial features not clearly suggestive of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and a newborn male infant with cleft lip and palate and upslanting palpebral fissures. Karyotype, FISH, MLPA, microsatellite markers segregation studies and SNP genotyping by array-CGH were performed in both patients and parents. Results Karyotype and FISH with probe N25 were normal for both patients. MLPA analysis detected a partial de novo 1.1 Mb deletion in one patient and a novel partial familial 0.4 Mb duplication in the other. Both of these alterations were located at a distal position within the commonly deleted region in 22q11.2. These rearrangements were confirmed and accurately characterized by microsatellite marker segregation studies and SNP array genotyping. Conclusion The phenotypic diversity found for deletions and duplications supports a lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in the vicinity of the LCRC-LCRD interval of the 22q11.2 chromosomal region, whereas the high presence of duplications in normal individuals supports their role as polymorphisms. We suggest that any hypothetical correlation between the clinical phenotype and the size and location of these alterations may be masked by other genetic and/or epigenetic modifying factors. PMID

  8. Comparing the neural bases of self-referential processing in typically developing and 22q11.2 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Lagioia, Annalaura; Salomon, Roy; d'Argembeau, Arnaud; Eliez, Stephan

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of self-reflective processing during adolescence is relevant, as this period is characterized by deep reorganization of the self-concept. It may be the case that an atypical development of brain regions underlying self-reflective processing increases the risk for psychological disorders and impaired social functioning. In this study, we investigated the neural bases of self- and other-related processing in typically developing adolescents and youths with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a rare neurogenetic condition associated with difficulties in social interactions and increased risk for schizophrenia. The fMRI paradigm consisted in judging if a series of adjectives applied to the participant himself/herself (self), to his/her best friend or to a fictional character (Harry Potter). In control adolescents, we observed that self- and other-related processing elicited strong activation in cortical midline structures (CMS) when contrasted with a semantic baseline condition. 22q11DS exhibited hypoactivation in the CMS and the striatum during the processing of self-related information when compared to the control group. Finally, the hypoactivation in the anterior cingulate cortex was associated with the severity of prodromal positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The findings are discussed in a developmental framework and in light of their implication for the development of schizophrenia in this at-risk population. PMID:22483077

  9. The Identification of Microdeletion and Reciprocal Microduplication in 22q11.2 Using High-Resolution CMA Technology

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Ana Julia Cunha; Pinto, Irene Plaza; Cunha, Damiana Mirian da Cruz e; Ribeiro, Cristiano Luiz; da Silva, Claudio Carlos; da Cruz, Aparecido Divino; Minasi, Lysa Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    The chromosome 22q11.2 region has long been implicated in genomic diseases. Some genomic regions exhibit numerous low copy repeats with high identity in which they provide increased genomic instability and mediate deletions and duplications in many disorders. DiGeorge Syndrome is the most common deletion syndrome and reciprocal duplications could be occurring in half of the frequency of microdeletions. We described five patients with phenotypic variability that carries deletions or reciprocal duplications at 22q11.2 detected by Chromosomal Microarray Analysis. The CytoScan HD technology was used to detect changes in the genome copy number variation of patients who had clinical indication to global developmental delay and a normal karyotype. We observed in our study three microdeletions and two microduplications in 22q11.2 region with variable intervals containing known genes and unstudied transcripts as well as the LCRs that are often flanking and within this genomic rearrangement. The identification of these variants is of particular interest because it may provide insight into genes or genomic regions that are crucial for specific phenotypic manifestations and are useful to assist in the quest for understanding the mechanisms subjacent to genomic deletions and duplications. PMID:27123452

  10. Regional brain abnormalities in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: association with cognitive abilities and behavioral symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Carrie E; van Erp, Theo G M; Monterosso, John R; Simon, Tony J; Glahn, David C; Saleh, Peter A; Hill, Nicole M; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine; Emanuel, Beverly S; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2004-06-01

    Children with 22q11.2 microdeletions (Velocardiofacial Syndrome; VCFS) have previously been shown to exhibit learning deficits and elevated rates of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to assess regional brain abnormalities in children with 22q11DS, and to determine the relationship of these measures to neurocognitive and behavioral function. Thirteen children with confirmed deletions and 9 demographically matched comparison subjects were assessed with a neurocognitive battery, behavioral measures, and high-resolution MRI. Twenty-two qllDS children showed a nonsignificant 4.3% global decrease in total brain volume as compared to healthy controls,with differential reduction in white matter, and significantly increased sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in temporal and posterior brain regions. In 22q11 DS subjects, but not controls, bilateral temporal gray and white matter volumes were significant predictors of overall cognitive performance. Further, reduced temporal gray matter was associated with elevated Thought Problems score on the CBCL. Results indicate that global alterations in brain volume are common in children with 22q deletions, particularly those with low IQ and/or behavioral disturbance. Although preliminary,these findings suggest a possible underlying pathophysiology of the cognitive deficits seen in this syndrome,and provide insight into complex gene-brain-behavior relationships. PMID:15788257

  11. The hippocampi of children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have localized anterior alterations that predict severity of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Julia A.; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi; Kalish, Kristopher; Lee, Aaron; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Schumann, Cynthia M.; Carmichael, Owen T.; Simon, Tony J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have an elevated risk for schizophrenia, which increases with history of childhood anxiety. Altered hippocampal morphology is a common neuroanatomical feature of 22q11.2DS and idiopathic schizophrenia. Relating hippocampal structure in children with 22q11.2DS to anxiety and impaired cognitive ability could lead to hippocampus-based characterization of psychosis-proneness in this at-risk population. Methods We measured hippocampal volume using a semiautomated approach on MRIs collected from typically developing children and children with 22q11.2DS. We then analyzed hippocampal morphology with Localized Components Analysis. We tested the modulating roles of diagnostic group, hippocampal volume, sex and age on local hippocampal shape components. Lastly, volume and shape components were tested as covariates of IQ and anxiety. Results We included 48 typically developing children and 69 children with 22q11.2DS in our study. Hippocampal volume was reduced bilaterally in children with 22q11.2DS, and these children showed greater variation in the shape of the anterior hippocampus than typically developing children. Children with 22q11.2DS had greater inward deformation of the anterior hippocampus than typically developing children. Greater inward deformation of the anterior hippocampus was associated with greater severity of anxiety, specifically fear of physical injury, within the 22q11.2DS group. Limitations Shape alterations are not specific to hippocampal subfields. Conclusion Alterations in the structure of the anterior hippocampus likely affect function and may impact limbic circuitry. We suggest these alterations potentially contribute to anxiety symptoms in individuals with 22q11.2DS through modulatory pathways. Altered hippocampal morphology may be uniquely linked to anxiety risk factors for schizophrenia, which could be a powerful neuroanatomical marker of schizophrenia risk and hence protection

  12. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with heart disease and del22q11 syndrome: a review of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry.

    PubMed

    Prodhan, P; Gossett, J M; Rycus, P T; Gupta, P

    2015-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate outcomes among children with del22q11 (DiGeorge) syndrome supported on ECMO for heart disease. The ELSO registry database was queried to include all children <18 years undergoing heart surgery for either common atrio-ventricular canal, tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus or transposition of the great vessels and interrupted aortic arch and requiring ECMO, from 1998-2011. The outcomes evaluated included mortality, ECMO duration and length of hospital stay in patients with del22q11 syndrome and with no del22q11 syndrome. Eighty-eight ECMO runs occurred in children with del22q11 syndrome while 2694 ECMO runs occurred in children without del22q11 syndrome. For patients with heart defects receiving ECMO, del22q11 syndrome did not confer a significant mortality risk or an increased risk of infectious complications before or while on ECMO support. Neither the duration of ECMO nor mechanical ventilation prior to ECMO deployment were prolonged in patients with del22q11 syndrome compared to the controls. PMID:25795680

  13. Association of the family environment with behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allen, T. M.; Hersh, J.; Schoch, K.; Curtiss, K.; Hooper, S. R.; Shashi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at risk for social-behavioural and neurocognitive sequelae throughout development. The current study examined the impact of family environmental characteristics on social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in this pediatric population. Method Guardians of children with 22q11DS were recruited through two medical genetics clinics. Con senting guardians were asked to complete several questionnaires regarding their child's social, emotional and behavioural functioning, as well as family social environment and parenting styles. Children with 22q11DS were asked to undergo a cognitive assessment, including IQ and achievement testing, and measures of attention, executive function and memory. Results Modest associations were found between aspects of the family social environment and parenting styles with social-behavioural and cognitive/academic outcomes. Regression models indicated that physical punishment, socioeconomic status, parental control and family organisation significantly predicted social-behavioural and cognitive outcomes in children with 22q11DS. Conclusion Characteristics of the family social environment and parenting approaches appear to be associated with functional outcomes of children with 22q11DS. Understanding the impact of environmental variables on developmental outcomes can be useful in determining more effective targets for intervention. This will be important in order to improve the quality of life of individuals affected by 22q11DS. PMID:23742203

  14. Structural abnormalities in cortical volume, thickness, and surface area in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome: Relationship with psychotic symptoms☆

    PubMed Central

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Jonas, Rachel; Senturk, Damla; Patel, Arati; Chow, Carolyn; Green, Michael F.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) represents one of the largest known genetic risk factors for psychosis, yet the neurobiological mechanisms underlying symptom development are not well understood. Here we conducted a cross-sectional study of 22q11DS to decompose cortical volume into its constituent parts, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), which are believed to have distinct neurodevelopmental origins. Methods High-resolution T1-weighted scans were collected on 65 participants (31 22q11DS, 34 demographically comparable typically developing controls, 10–25 years old). Measures of cortical volume, CT, and SA were extracted from regions of interest using the FreeSurfer image analysis suite. Group differences and age-related trajectories in these structures, as well as their association with psychotic symptomatology, were assessed. Results Relative to controls, 22q11DS participants showed bilateral volumetric reductions in the inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate, superior parietal cortex, and cuneus, which were driven by decreased SA in these regions. 22q11DS participants also had increased volumes, driven by increased CT, in bilateral insula regions. 22q11DS youth had increased CT in frontal regions, particularly middle frontal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. A pattern of age-associated cortical thinning was observed in typically developing controls in brain regions associated with visual and sensory information-processing (i.e., left pericalcarine cortex and fusiform gyrus, right lingual and postcentral cortices). However, this relationship was disrupted in 22q11DS participants. Finally, correlational analyses revealed that increased CT in right medial orbitofrontal cortex was associated with increased positive symptom severity in 22q11DS. Conclusion Differential disruptions of CT and SA in distinct cortical regions in 22q11DS may indicate abnormalities in distinct developmental neural processes. Further

  15. Prospective Control Abilities during Visuo-Manual Tracking in Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether children with a 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) are able to use prospective control, 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) were asked to perform a visuo-manual…

  16. Idiopathic thromobocytopenic purpura in two mothers of children with DiGeorge sequence: A new component manifestation of deletion 22q11?

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.; Philip, N.; Michel, G.

    1997-04-14

    The phenotypic spectrum caused by the microdeletion of chromosome 22q11 region is known to be variable. Nearly all patients with DiGeorge sequence (DGS) and approximately 60% of patients with velocardiofacial syndrome exhibit the deletion. Recent papers have reported various congenital defects in patients with 22q11 deletions. Conversely, some patients have minimal clinical expression. Ten to 25% of parents of patients with DGS exhibit the deletion and are nearly asymptomatic. Two female patients carrying a 22q11 microdeletion and presenting with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura are reported. Both had children with typical manifestations of DGS. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A French multicenter study of over 700 patients with 22q11 deletions diagnosed using FISH or aCGH.

    PubMed

    Poirsier, Céline; Besseau-Ayasse, Justine; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Toutain, Jérôme; Missirian, Chantal; Le Caignec, Cédric; Bazin, Anne; de Blois, Marie Christine; Kuentz, Paul; Catty, Marie; Choiset, Agnès; Plessis, Ghislaine; Basinko, Audrey; Letard, Pascaline; Flori, Elisabeth; Jimenez, Mélanie; Valduga, Mylène; Landais, Emilie; Lallaoui, Hakima; Cartault, François; Lespinasse, James; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Callier, Patrick; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Portnoi, Marie-France; Busa, Tiffany; Receveur, Aline; Amblard, Florence; Yardin, Catherine; Harbuz, Radu; Prieur, Fabienne; Le Meur, Nathalie; Pipiras, Eva; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Vialard, François; Doco-Fenzy, Martine

    2016-06-01

    Although 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most recurrent human microdeletion syndrome associated with a highly variable phenotype, little is known about the condition's true incidence and the phenotype at diagnosis. We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of postnatally diagnosed patients recruited by members of the Association des Cytogénéticiens de Langue Française (the French-Speaking Cytogeneticists Association). Clinical and cytogenetic data on 749 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2013 were collected by 31 French cytogenetics laboratories. The most frequent reasons for referral of postnatally diagnosed cases were a congenital heart defect (CHD, 48.6%), facial dysmorphism (49.7%) and developmental delay (40.7%). Since 2007 (the year in which array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was introduced for the routine screening of patients with intellectual disability), almost all cases have been diagnosed using FISH (96.1%). Only 15 cases (all with an atypical phenotype) were diagnosed with aCGH; the deletion size ranged from 745 to 2904 kb. The deletion was inherited in 15.0% of cases and was of maternal origin in 85.5% of the latter. This is the largest yet documented cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS (the most commonly diagnosed microdeletion) from the same population. French cytogenetics laboratories diagnosed at least 108 affected patients (including fetuses) per year from among a national population of ∼66 million. As observed for prenatal diagnoses, CHDs were the most frequently detected malformation in postnatal diagnoses. The most common CHD in postnatal diagnoses was an isolated septal defect. PMID:26508576

  18. Microduplication 22q11.2: a description of the clinical, developmental and behavioral characteristics during childhood.

    PubMed

    Van Campenhout, S; Devriendt, K; Breckpot, J; Frijns, J-P; Peeters, H; Van Buggenhout, G; Van Esch, H; Maes, B; Swillen, A

    2012-01-01

    Microduplication 22q11.2 is a recently discovered genomic disorder. So far, targeted research on the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of individuals with this microduplication is limited. Therefore, 11 Flemish children (3-13 years old) with a microduplication 22q 1.2 were investigated in order to describe their clinical, developmental and behavioral characteristics. We measured their general intelligence, visual-motor capacities, attention, behavioral problems and characteristics of autism. In addition, there was an interview with the parents on developmental history and we reviewed available information from other specialists. The results show that the cognitive and behavioral phenotype of the children with microduplication 22q.11.2 is very wide and heterogeneous. Some of the children have a cognitively nearly normal development whereas others are more severely affected. All children had some degree of developmental delay and some of them have an intellectual disability. The most common clinical features include congenital malformations such as heart defects and cleft lip, feeding problems, hearing impairment and facial dysmorphism. The most common non-medical problems are learning difficulties, motor impairment, attention deficits, social problems and behavioral problems. There is no correlation between the size of the duplication and the phenotype. PMID:22876571

  19. Brain and Behavior in Children with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Volumetric and Voxel-Based Morphometry MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda E.; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Stevens, Angela; Azuma, Rayna; Catani, Marco; Ng, Virginia; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; Chitnis, Xavier; Cutter, William; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2006-01-01

    In people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome [or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)], a single interstitial deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 causes a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits ranging from global learning difficulties to specific cognitive deficits. People with 22qDS are also at high risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  20. White Matter Microstructural Abnormalities of the Cingulum Bundle in Youth with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Associations with Medication, Neuropsychological Function, and Prodromal Symptoms of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Kates, Wendy R.; Olszewski, Amy K.; Gnirke, Matthew H.; Kikinis, Zora; Nelson, Joshua; Antshel, Kevin M.; Fremont, Wanda; Radoeva, Petya D.; Middleton, Frank A.; Shenton, Martha E.; Coman, Ioana L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is regarded as an etiologically homogenous model for understanding neuroanatomic disruptions associated with a high risk for schizophrenia. This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to analyze white matter microstructure in individuals with 22q11.2DS. We focused on the cingulum bundle (CB), previously shown to be disrupted in patients with schizophrenia and associated with symptoms of psychosis. Methods White matter microstructure was assessed in the anterior, superior, and posterior CB using the tractography algorithm in DTIStudio. Neuropsychological function, presence of prodromal symptoms of psychosis, and medication history were assessed in all participants. Results Relative to controls, young adults with 22q11.2DS showed alterations in most DTI metrics of the CB. Alterations were associated with positive prodromal symptoms of psychosis. However, when individuals with 22q11.2DS were divided by usage of antipsychotics / mood stabilizers, the medicated and non-medicated groups differed significantly in axial diffusivity of the anterior CB and in fractional anisotropy of the superior CB. DTI metrics did not differ between the medicated group and the control group. Conclusions Results suggest that the microstructure of the CB is altered in individuals with 22q11.2DS, and that those alterations may underlie positive prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Our findings further provide preliminary evidence that antipsychotic / mood stabilizer usage may have a reparative effect on white matter microstructure in prodromal 22q11.2DS, independent of the potential effects of psychosis. Future studies of white matter pathology in individuals with 22q11.2DS should test for potential effects of medication on white matter microstructure. PMID:25066496

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of Peripheral Blood in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Reveals Functional Pathways Related to Psychosis and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Lazaro, Maria T.; Gao, Fuying; Huang, Alden; Chow, Carolyn; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    Background 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) represents one of the greatest known genetic risk factors for the development of psychotic illness, and is also associated with high rates of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in childhood. We performed integrated genomic analyses of 22q11DS to identify genes and pathways related to specific phenotypes. Methods We used a high-resolution aCGH array to precisely characterize deletion breakpoints. Using peripheral blood, we examined differential expression (DE) and networks of co-expressed genes related to phenotypic variation within 22q11DS patients. Whole-genome transcriptional profiling was performed using Illumina Human HT-12 microarrays. Data mining techniques were used to validate our results against independent samples of both peripheral blood and brain tissue from idiopathic psychosis and ASD cases. Results Eighty-five percent of 22q11DS individuals (N = 39) carried the typical 3 Mb deletion, with significant variability in deletion characteristics in the remainder of the sample (N = 7). DE analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified expression changes related to psychotic symptoms in patients, including a module of co-expressed genes which was associated with psychosis in 22q11DS and involved in pathways associated with transcriptional regulation. This module was enriched for brain-expressed genes, was not related to antipsychotic medication use, and significantly overlapped with transcriptional changes in idiopathic schizophrenia. In 22q11DS-ASD, both DE and WGCNA analyses implicated dysregulation of immune response pathways. The ASD-associated module showed significant overlap with genes previously associated with idiopathic ASD. Conclusion These findings further support the use of peripheral tissue in the study of major mutational models of diseases affecting the brain, and point towards specific pathways dysregulated in 22q11DS carriers with psychosis and ASD. PMID:26201030

  2. Pachygyria, seizures, hypotonia, and growth retardation in a patient with an atypical 1.33Mb inherited microduplication at 22q11.23.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiazhen; Zhao, Lijuan; Chen, Chen; Peng, Ying; Xia, Yan; Tang, Guizhi; Bai, Ting; Zhang, Yanghui; Ma, Ruiyu; Guo, Ruolan; Mei, Libin; Liang, Desheng; Cao, Qinying; Wu, Lingqian

    2015-09-10

    22q11.2 microduplication syndrome was recently described as a new disorder with variable clinical features that ranged from normal to mental retardation and with congenital defects. According to published reports, majority of patients with 22q11.2 duplications inherit these from unaffected parents rather than by de novo mutations, which is different from most microduplication/microdeletion syndromes. In this study, we report a patient that carried a paternally inherited atypical 1.33Mb duplication at 22q11.23. The proband (or proposita) presented with hypotonia, feeding difficulties, intractable epilepsy, hearing disability, and pachygyria. A pachygyria phenotype had not been previously reported to be associated with a 22q11 microduplication syndrome. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses based on standard G-banding, SNP array, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed for the proband and her parents. An atypical 1.33Mb duplication at 22q11.23 was detected in both the proband and her father. Thus, our findings verify the pathogenicity and diverse phenotypes of 22q11.2 microduplication and expand its phenotypic spectrum. PMID:26099517

  3. Breakpoint Associated with a novel 2.3 Mb deletion in the VCFS region of 22q11 and the role of Alu (SINE) in recurring microdeletions

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Raihan K; Zhang, Yang; Siu, Victoria Mok; Fan, Yao-Shan; O'Reilly, Richard L; Rao, Jay; Singh, Shiva M

    2006-01-01

    Background Chromosome 22q11.2 region is highly susceptible to rearrangement, specifically deletions that give rise to a variety of genomic disorders including velocardiofacial or DiGeorge syndrome. Individuals with this 22q11 microdeletion syndrome are at a greatly increased risk to develop schizophrenia. Methods Genotype analysis was carried out on the DNA from a patient with the 22q11 microdeletion using genetic markers and custom primer sets to define the deletion. Bioinformatic analysis was performed for molecular characterization of the deletion breakpoint sequences in this patient. Results This 22q11 deletion patient was established to have a novel 2.3 Mb deletion with a proximal breakpoint located between genetic markers RH48663 and RH48348 and a distal breakpoint between markers D22S1138 and SHGC-145314. Molecular characterization of the sequences at the breakpoints revealed a 270 bp shared sequence of the breakpoint regions (SSBR) common to both ends that share >90% sequence similarity to each other and also to short interspersed nuclear elements/Alu elements. Conclusion This Alu sequence like SSBR is commonly in the proximity of all known deletion breakpoints of 22q11 region and also in the low copy repeat regions (LCRs). This sequence may represent a preferred sequence in the breakpoint regions or LCRs for intra-chromosomal homologous recombination mechanisms resulting in common 22q11 deletion. PMID:16512914

  4. De novo tandem duplication of chromosome segement 22q11-q12: Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Shaffer, L.G.; Carrozzo, R.

    1995-04-10

    We report on a case of duplication of the segment 22q11-q12 due to a de novo duplication. Molecular cytogenetics studies demonstrated this to be a tandem duplication, flanked proximally by the marker D22Z4, a centromeric alpha satellite DNA repeat, and distally by D22S260, an anonymous DNA marker proximal to the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint. The segment includes the regions responsible for the {open_quotes}cat-eye{close_quotes}, Di George, and velo-cardio-facial syndromes and extends distal to the breakpoint cluster region (BCR). The clinical picture is dominated by the cardiac defects and includes findings reminiscent of {open_quotes}cat-eye{close_quotes} syndrome. These findings reinforce the hypothesis that the proximal 22q region contains dosage-sensitive genes involved in development. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Association of COMT and PRODH gene variants with intelligence quotient (IQ) and executive functions in 22q11.2DS subjects.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Miri; Zarchi, Omer; Michaelovsky, Elena; Frisch, Amos; Patya, Miriam; Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) carries the highest genetic risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. We investigated the association of genetic variants in two schizophrenia candidate genes with executive function (EF) and IQ in 22q11.2DS individuals. Ninety two individuals with 22q11.2 deletion were studied for the genetic association between COMT and PRODH variants and EF and IQ. Subjects were divided into children (under 12 years old), adolescents (between 12 and 18 years old) and adults (older than 18 years), and genotyped for the COMT Val158Met (rs4680) and PRODH Arg185Trp (rs4819756) polymorphisms. The participants underwent psychiatric evaluation and EF assessment. Our main finding is a significant influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on both IQ and EF performance. Specifically, 22q11.2DS subjects with Met allele displayed higher IQ scores in all age groups compared to Val carriers, reaching significance in both adolescents and adults. The Met allele carriers performed better than Val carriers in EF tasks, being statistically significant in the adult group. PRODH Arg185Trp variant did not affect IQ or EF in our 22q11.2DS cohort. In conclusion, functional COMT variant, but not PRODH, affects IQ and EF in 22q11.2DS subjects during neurodevelopment with a maximal effect at adulthood. Future studies should monitor the cognitive performance of the same individuals from childhood to old age. PMID:24853458

  6. Is child intelligence associated with parent and sibling intelligence in individuals with developmental disorders? An investigation in youth with 22q11.2 deletion (velo-cardio-facial) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Amy K; Radoeva, Petya D; Fremont, Wanda; Kates, Wendy R; Antshel, Kevin M

    2014-12-01

    Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a copy-number variation (CNV) genetic disorder, demonstrate a great deal of variability in IQ scores and are at particular risk for cognitive difficulties, with up to 45% experiencing intellectual disability. This study explored the IQ relationship between individuals with 22q11DS, their parents and their siblings. Participants included individuals with 22q11DS, unaffected siblings and community controls, who participated in a longitudinal study of 22q11DS. Significant associations between proband and relative (parent, sibling) IQ scores were found. Results suggest that the cognitive functioning of first-degree relatives could be a useful marker of general genetic background and/or environmental effects, and can explain some of the large phenotypic variability in 22q11DS. These findings underscore the importance of including siblings and parents in studies of 22q11DS whenever possible. PMID:25244692

  7. Is Child Intelligence Associated with Parent and Sibling Intelligence in Individuals with Developmental Disorders? An Investigation in Youth with 22q11.2 Deletion (Velo-Cardio-Facial) Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Amy K.; Radoeva, Petya D.; Fremont, Wanda; Kates, Wendy R.; Antshel, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a copy-number variation (CNV) genetic disorder, demonstrate a great deal of variability in IQ scores and are at particular risk for cognitive difficulties, with up to 45% experiencing intellectual disability. This study explored the IQ relationship between individuals with 22q11DS, their parents and their siblings. Participants included individuals with 22q11DS, unaffected siblings and community controls, who participated in a longitudinal study of 22q11DS. Significant associations between proband and relative (parent, sibling) IQ scores were found. Results suggest that the cognitive functioning of first-degree relatives could be a useful marker of general genetic background and/or environmental effects, and can explain some of the large phenotypic variability in 22q11DS. These findings underscore the importance of including siblings and parents in studies of 22q11DS whenever possible. PMID:25244692

  8. Congenital Anomalies and Rhabdoid Tumor Associated with 22q11 Germline Deletion and Somatic Inactivation of the SMARCB1 Tumor Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Toth, George; Zraly, Claudia B.; Thomson, Tricia L.; Jones, Carolyn; Lapetino, Shawn; Muraskas, Jonathan; Zhang, Jiwang; Dingwall, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    The most common microdeletion in humans involves the 22q11 region. Congenital anomalies associated with 22q11 loss include cardiac and facial defects. Less frequent is the co-presentation of malignant rhabdoid tumors that are highly aggressive childhood malignancies typically found in renal or extra-renal soft tissues and central nervous system. A newborn patient presented with multiple congenital anomalies consistent with 22q11 deletion syndrome including cleft lip and palate, ear tags and ventricular septal defects co-presenting with an axillary rhabdoid tumor. Comparative genomic hybridization revealed a 2.8 Mb germline deletion in the 22q11.2 region containing genes required for normal fetal development and the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene. Analysis of tumor DNA revealed a somatic deletion of exon 7 in the second allele of SMARCB1. Expression of SMARCB1 was absent, while tumor markers including MYC, GFAP and CLAUDIN-6 were upregulated. The presence of tandem oriented BCRL modules located within interspersed low copy repeat elements throughout the 22q11 distal region may predispose this area for microdeletions through nonalleleic homologous recombination. PMID:21412926

  9. Performance on a computerized neurocognitive battery in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A comparison between US and Israeli cohorts.

    PubMed

    Yi, James J; Weinberger, Ronnie; Moore, Tyler M; Calkins, Monica E; Guri, Yael; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Raquel E; Gothelf, Doron; Gur, Ruben C

    2016-07-01

    Increasingly, the effects of copy number variation (CNV) in the genome on brain function and behaviors are recognized as means to elucidate pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Such studies require large samples and we characterized the neurocognitive profile of two cohorts of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most common CNV associated with schizophrenia, in an effort to harmonize phenotyping in multi-site global collaborations. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PCNB) was administered to individuals with 22q11DS in Philadelphia (PHL; n=155, aged 12-40) and Tel Aviv (TLV; n=59, aged 12-36). We examined effect sizes of performance differences between the cohorts and confirmed the factor structure of PCNB performance efficiency in the combined sample based on data from a large comparison community sample. The cohorts performed comparably with notable deficits in executive function, episodic memory and social cognition domains that were previously associated with abnormal neuroimaging findings in 22q11DS. In mixed model analysis, while there was a main effect for site for accuracy (number of correct response) and speed (time to correct response) independently, there were no main site effects for standardized efficiency (average of accuracy and speed). The fit of a structural model was excellent indicating that PCNB tests were related to the targeted cognitive domains. Thus, our results provide preliminary support for the use of the PCNB as an efficient tool for neurocognitive assessment in international 22q11DS collaborations. PMID:27200494

  10. A patient with both Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome: clue to the genetics of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome?

    PubMed

    Robertson, Mary M; Shelley, Bhaskara Pillai; Dalwai, Suraiya; Brewer, Carole; Critchley, Hugo D

    2006-09-01

    This is the first published case description of the association of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) and chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; previously referred to as CATCH-22 syndrome). The co-occurrence of GTS, 22q11DS, and their behavioral/neuropsychiatric abnormalities may be due to the common endophenotypic mechanisms shared by these disorders, rather than due to specificity for GTS. Research into this genomic region may lead to advancement in neurobehavioral/neuropsychiatric genetics, which will help us in further explicating a broader perspective of gene-brain-behavior interrelationships and of the genetic underpinnings of various developmental psychopathologies and behavioral/neuropsychiatric disorders that are common to both GTS and 22q11DS. Our report should warrant further genetic investigations of the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion site using alternative strategies to the quantitative trait loci endophenotype-based approach, which would be useful for establishing the biological and molecular underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and GTS. PMID:16938515

  11. Whole genome sequencing and integrative genomic analysis approach on two 22q11.2 deletion syndrome family trios for genotype to phenotype correlations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jonathan H.; Cai, Jinlu; Suskin, Barrie G.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Coleman, Karlene

    2015-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) affects 1:4000 live births and presents with highly variable phenotype expressivity. In this study, we developed an analytical approach utilizing whole genome sequencing and integrative analysis to discover genetic modifiers. Our pipeline combined available tools in order to prioritize rare, predicted deleterious, coding and non-coding single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertion/deletions (INDELs) from whole genome sequencing (WGS). We sequenced two unrelated probands with 22q11DS, with contrasting clinical findings, and their unaffected parents. Proband P1 had cognitive impairment, psychotic episodes, anxiety, and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF); while proband P2 had juvenile rheumatoid arthritis but no other major clinical findings. In P1, we identified common variants in COMT and PRODH on 22q11.2 as well as rare potentially deleterious DNA variants in other behavioral/neurocognitive genes. We also identified a de novo SNV in ADNP2 (NM_014913.3:c.2243G>C), encoding a neuroprotective protein that may be involved in behavioral disorders. In P2, we identified a novel non-synonymous SNV in ZFPM2 (NM_012082.3:c.1576C>T), a known causative gene for TOF, which may act as a protective variant downstream of TBX1, haploinsufficiency of which is responsible for congenital heart disease in individuals with 22q11DS. PMID:25981510

  12. 8p23.1 Interstitial Deletion in a Patient with Congenital Cardiopathy, Neurobehavioral Disorders, and Minor Signs Suggesting 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Molck, Miriam C; Monteiro, Fabíola P; Simioni, Milena; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L

    2015-09-01

    Copy number variation studies of known disorders have the potential to improve the characterization of clinical phenotypes and may help identifying candidate genes and their pathways. The authors described a child with congenital heart disease, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, developmental delay, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. There was initially a clinical suspicion of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS), but molecular cytogenetic analysis (array genomic hybridization [aGH]) showed the presence of a de novo 3.6-Mb interstitial microdeletion in 8p23.1. The main features of 8p23.1 DS include congenital heart disease and behavioral problems, in addition to minor dysmorphisms and mental delay. Therefore, this article highlights the application of aGH to investigate 8p23.1 deletion in nonconfirmed 22q11.2 DS patients presenting neurobehavioral disorders, congenital cardiopathy, and minor dysmorphisms. PMID:26263419

  13. Copy-Number Variation of the Glucose Transporter Gene SLC2A3 and Congenital Heart Defects in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarski, Elisabeth E.; Sheridan, Molly B.; Xie, Michael; Guo, Tingwei; Racedo, Silvia E.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; Gai, Xiaowu; Chow, Eva W.C.; Vorstman, Jacob; Swillen, Ann; Devriendt, Koen; Breckpot, Jeroen; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Simon, Tony J.; Roberts, Amy E.; Piotrowicz, Małgorzata; Bearden, Carrie E.; Eliez, Stephan; Gothelf, Doron; Coleman, Karlene; Kates, Wendy R.; Devoto, Marcella; Zackai, Elaine; Heine-Suñer, Damian; Shaikh, Tamim H.; Bassett, Anne S.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Morrow, Bernice E.; Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2015-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and the phenotypic presentation is highly variable. Approximately 65% of individuals with 22q11DS have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or an aortic arch defect. The etiology of this phenotypic variability is not currently known. We hypothesized that copy-number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region might increase the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Genotyping with Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 was performed on two groups of subjects with 22q11DS separated by time of ascertainment and processing. CNV analysis was completed on a total of 949 subjects (cohort 1, n = 562; cohort 2, n = 387), 603 with CHDs (cohort 1, n = 363; cohort 2, n = 240) and 346 with normal cardiac anatomy (cohort 1, n = 199; cohort 2, n = 147). Our analysis revealed that a duplication of SLC2A3 was the most frequent CNV identified in the first cohort. It was present in 18 subjects with CHDs and 1 subject without (p = 3.12 × 10−3, two-tailed Fisher’s exact test). In the second cohort, the SLC2A3 duplication was also significantly enriched in subjects with CHDs (p = 3.30 × 10−2, two-tailed Fisher’s exact test). The SLC2A3 duplication was the most frequent CNV detected and the only significant finding in our combined analysis (p = 2.68 × 10−4, two-tailed Fisher’s exact test), indicating that the SLC2A3 duplication might serve as a genetic modifier of CHDs and/or aortic arch anomalies in individuals with 22q11DS. PMID:25892112

  14. MicroRNA Profiling of Neurons Generated Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Patients with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder, and 22q11.2 Del

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dejian; Lin, Mingyan; Chen, Jian; Pedrosa, Erika; Hrabovsky, Anastasia; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Zheng, Deyou; Lachman, Herbert M.

    2015-01-01

    We are using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology to study neuropsychiatric disorders associated with 22q11.2 microdeletions (del), the most common known schizophrenia (SZ)-associated genetic factor. Several genes in the region have been implicated; a promising candidate is DGCR8, which codes for a protein involved in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. We carried out miRNA expression profiling (miRNA-seq) on neurons generated from iPSCs derived from controls and SZ patients with 22q11.2 del. Using thresholds of p<0.01 for nominal significance and 1.5-fold differences in expression, 45 differentially expressed miRNAs were detected (13 lower in SZ and 32 higher). Of these, 6 were significantly down-regulated in patients after correcting for genome wide significance (FDR<0.05), including 4 miRNAs that map to the 22q11.2 del region. In addition, a nominally significant increase in the expression of several miRNAs was found in the 22q11.2 neurons that were previously found to be differentially expressed in autopsy samples and peripheral blood in SZ and autism spectrum disorders (e.g., miR-34, miR-4449, miR-146b-3p, and miR-23a-5p). Pathway and function analysis of predicted mRNA targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs showed enrichment for genes involved in neurological disease and psychological disorders for both up and down regulated miRNAs. Our findings suggest that: i. neurons with 22q11.2 del recapitulate the miRNA expression patterns expected of 22q11.2 haploinsufficiency, ii. differentially expressed miRNAs previously identified using autopsy samples and peripheral cells, both of which have significant methodological problems, are indeed disrupted in neuropsychiatric disorders and likely have an underlying genetic basis. PMID:26173148

  15. A multilevel analysis of cognitive dysfunction and psychopathology associated with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    SIMON, TONY J.; BISH, JOEL P.; BEARDEN, CARRIE E.; DING, LIJUN; FERRANTE, SAMANTHA; NGUYEN, VY; GEE, JAMES C.; McDONALD–McGINN, DONNA M.; ZACKAI, ELAINE H.; EMANUEL, BEVERLY S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a multilevel approach to developing potential explanations of cognitive impairments and psychopathologies common to individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Results presented support our hypothesis of posterior parietal dysfunction as a central determinant of characteristic visuospatial and numerical cognitive impairments. Converging data suggest that brain development anomalies, primarily tissue reductions in the posterior brain and changes to the corpus callosum, may affect parietal connectivity. Further findings indicate that dysfunction in “frontal” attention systems may explain some executive cognition impairments observed in affected children, and that there may be links between these domains of cognitive function and some of the serious psychiatric conditions, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia, that have elevated incidence rates in the syndrome. Linking the neural structure and the cognitive processing levels in this way enabled us to develop an elaborate structure/function mapping hypothesis for the impairments that are observed. We show also, that in the case of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, a fairly direct relationship between gene expression, cognitive function, and psychopathology exists in the affected population. Beyond that, we introduce the idea that variation in other genes may further explain the phenotypic variation in cognitive function and possibly the anomalies in brain development. PMID:16262991

  16. Familial DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome with deletions of chromosome area 22q11.2: Report of five families with a review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Leana-Cox, J.; Pangkanon, Suthipong; Eanet, K.R.

    1996-11-11

    The DiGeorge (DG), velocardiofacial (VCF), and conotruncal anomaly-face (CTAF) syndromes were originally described as distinct disorders, although overlapping phenotypes have been recognized. It is now clear that all three syndromes result from apparently similar or identical 22q11.2 deletions, suggesting that they represent phenotypic variability of a single genetic syndrome. We report on 12 individuals in five families with del(22)(q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and define the frequency of phenotypic abnormalities in those cases and in 70 individuals from 27 del(22)(q11.2) families from the literature. Common manifestations include mental impairment (97%), abnormal face (93%), cardiac malformations (681%), thymic (64%) and parathyroid (63%) abnormalities, and cleft palate or velopharyngeal insufficiency (48%). Familial DG, VCF, and CTAF syndromes due to del(22)(q11.2) show significant inter- and intrafamilial clinical variability consistent with the hypothesis that a single gene or group of tightly linked genes is the common cause of these syndromes. Up to 25% of 22q deletions are inherited, indicating that parents of affected children warrant molecular cytogenetic evaluation. We propose use of the compound term {open_quotes}DiGeorge/velocardiofacial (DGNCF) syndrome{close_quotes} in referring to this condition, as it calls attention to the phenotypic spectrum using historically familiar names. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A New Account of the Neurocognitive Foundations of Impairments in Space, Time, and Number Processing in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Tony J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I present an updated account that attempts to explain, in cognitive processing and neural terms, the nonverbal intellectual impairments experienced by most children with deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. Specifically, I propose that this genetic syndrome leads to early developmental changes in the structure and function of clearly…

  18. Investigation of TBX1 gene deletion in Iranian children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: correlation with conotruncal heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Hamid; Salehi, Mansoor; Sedghi, Maryam; Abdali, Hossein; Nouri, Nayereh; Sadri, Leyli; Hosseinzadeh, Majid; Vakili, Bahareh; Lotfi, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Background DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is the result of a microdeletion in chromosome 22q11.2 in over 90% of cases. DGS is the second most frequent syndrome after Down syndrome and has an incidence of 1/4000 births. Unequal crossover between low-copy repeats, on the proximal part of the long arm of chromosome 22, usually results in a 3 Mb deletion in one of the chromosome 22 and a reciprocal and similarly sized duplication on the other one. Several studies have indicated that TBX1 (T-box 1) haploinsufficiency is responsible for many of the phenotypic traits of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Conotruncal heart defects (CTDs) are present in 75–85% of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in Western countries. Methods Among 78 patients fulfilling the criteria for DGS diagnosed by the fluorescence in situ hybridisation test, 24 had 22q11.2 deletion. Screening for TBX1 gene deletion was performed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Results Our results revealed that of 24 patients with TBX1 gene deletion, 12 had CTDs while 12 did not show any heart defects. Conclusions Our findings indicate that other genes or gene interactions may play a role in penetrance or the severity of heart disease among patients with DGS. PMID:27326128

  19. Alterations of social interaction through genetic and environmental manipulation of the 22q11.2 gene Sept5 in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kathryn M; Hiramoto, Takeshi; Tanigaki, Kenji; Kang, Gina; Suzuki, Go; Trimble, William; Hiroi, Noboru

    2012-08-01

    Social behavior dysfunction is a symptomatic element of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although altered activities in numerous brain regions are associated with defective social cognition and perception, the causative relationship between these altered activities and social cognition and perception-and their genetic underpinnings-are not known in humans. To address these issues, we took advantage of the link between hemizygous deletion of human chromosome 22q11.2 and high rates of social behavior dysfunction, schizophrenia and ASD. We genetically manipulated Sept5, a 22q11.2 gene, and evaluated its role in social interaction in mice. Sept5 deficiency, against a high degree of homogeneity in a congenic genetic background, selectively impaired active affiliative social interaction in mice. Conversely, virally guided overexpression of Sept5 in the hippocampus or, to a lesser extent, the amygdala elevated levels of active affiliative social interaction in C57BL/6J mice. Congenic knockout mice and mice overexpressing Sept5 in the hippocampus or amygdala were indistinguishable from control mice in novelty and olfactory responses, anxiety or motor activity. Moreover, post-weaning individual housing, an environmental condition designed to reduce stress in male mice, selectively raised levels of Sept5 protein in the amygdala and increased active affiliative social interaction in C57BL/6J mice. These findings identify this 22q11.2 gene in the hippocampus and amygdala as a determinant of social interaction and suggest that defective social interaction seen in 22q11.2-associated schizophrenia and ASD can be genetically and environmentally modified by altering this 22q11.2 gene. PMID:22589251

  20. The effect of hypocalcemia in early childhood on autism-related social and communication skills in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, Meghan; Ousley, Opal Y.; Kobrynski, Lisa J.; Patel, Sheena; Oster, Matthew E.; Fernandez-Carriba, Samuel; Cubells, Joseph F.; Coleman, Karlene; Pearce, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    22q11 deletion syndrome (22qDS), also known as DiGeorge Syndrome, is a copy number variant disorder that has a diverse clinical presentation including hypocalcaemia, learning disabilities, and psychiatric disorders. Many patients with 22q11DS present with signs that overlap with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) yet the possible physiological mechanisms that link 22q11DS with ASD are unknown. We hypothesized that early childhood hypocalcemia influences the neurobehavioral phenotype of 22q11DS. Drawing on a longitudinal cohort of 22q11DS patients, we abstracted albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels from 151 participants ranging in age from newborn to 19.5 years (mean 2.5 years). We then examined a subset of 20 infants and toddlers from this group for the association between the lowest calcium level on record and scores on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP ITC). The mean (SD) age at calcium testing was 6.2 (8.5) months whereas the mean (SD) age at the CSBS-DP ITC assessment was 14.7 (3.8) months. Lower calcium was associated with significantly greater impairment in the CSBS-DP ITC Social (p<0.05), Speech (p<0.01), and Symbolic domains (p<0.05), in regression models adjusted for sex, age at blood draw, and age at the psychological assessment. Nevertheless, these findings are limited by the small sample size of children with combined data on calcium and CSBS-DP ITC, and hence will require replication in a larger cohort with longitudinal assessments. Considering the role of calcium regulation in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, low calcium during early brain development could be a risk factor for adverse neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:25267002

  1. Two Functional Copies of the DGCR6 Gene Are Present on Human Chromosome 22q11 Due to a Duplication of an Ancestral Locus

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Lisa; Stankiewicz, Pavel; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Pandita, Raj K.; Shaffer, Lisa; Lupski, James; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2001-01-01

    The DGCR6 (DiGeorge critical region) gene encodes a putative protein with sequence similarity to gonadal (gdl), a Drosophila melanogaster gene of unknown function. We mapped the DGCR6 gene to chromosome 22q11 within a low copy repeat, termed sc11.1a, and identified a second copy of the gene, DGCR6L, within the duplicate locus, termed sc11.1b. Both sc11.1 repeats are deleted in most persons with velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), and they map immediately adjacent and internal to the low copy repeats, termed LCR22, that mediate the deletions associated with VCFS/DGS. We sequenced genomic clones from both loci and determined that the putative initiator methionine is located further upstream than originally described, but in a position similar to the mouse and chicken orthologs. DGCR6L encodes a highly homologous, functional copy of DGCR6, with some base changes rendering amino acid differences. Expression studies of the two genes indicate that both genes are widely expressed in fetal and adult tissues. Evolutionary studies using FISH mapping in several different species of ape combined with sequence analysis of DGCR6 in a number of different primate species indicate that the duplication is at least 12 million years old and may date back to before the divergence of Catarrhines from Platyrrhines, 35 mya. These data suggest that there has been selective evolutionary pressure toward the functional maintenance of both paralogs. Interestingly, a full-length HERV-K provirus integrated into the sc11.1a locus after the divergence of chimpanzees and humans. PMID:11157784

  2. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome due to a Translocation t(6;22) in a Patient Conceived via in vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Gollo Dantas, Anelisa; Bortolai, Adriana; Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Takeno Herrero, Sylvia; Azoubel Antunes, Adriana; Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Ayres Meloni, Vera; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    We report on a patient conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a 22q11.2 deletion due to an unusual unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 6 and 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes. Cytogenomic studies showed that the patient has a 3.3-Mb deletion of chromosome 22q and a 0.4-Mb deletion of chromosome 6p, which resulted in haploinsufficiency of the genes responsible for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and also of the IRF4 gene, a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors, which is expressed in the immune system cells. The rearrangement could be due to the manipulation of the embryo or as a sporadic event unrelated to IVF. Translocation involving chromosome 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes is a rare event, with no previous reports involving chromosomes 6p and 22q. PMID:26997945

  3. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome due to a Translocation t(6;22) in a Patient Conceived via in vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gollo Dantas, Anelisa; Bortolai, Adriana; Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Takeno Herrero, Sylvia; Azoubel Antunes, Adriana; Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Ayres Meloni, Vera; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2016-02-01

    We report on a patient conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a 22q11.2 deletion due to an unusual unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 6 and 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes. Cytogenomic studies showed that the patient has a 3.3-Mb deletion of chromosome 22q and a 0.4-Mb deletion of chromosome 6p, which resulted in haploinsufficiency of the genes responsible for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and also of the IRF4 gene, a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors, which is expressed in the immune system cells. The rearrangement could be due to the manipulation of the embryo or as a sporadic event unrelated to IVF. Translocation involving chromosome 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes is a rare event, with no previous reports involving chromosomes 6p and 22q. PMID:26997945

  4. A Case of Concurrent Miller-Dieker Syndrome (17p13.3 Deletion) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Macmurdo, C

    2015-12-01

    Features of Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS, 17p13.3 deletion syndrome, LIS1-associated lissencephaly) include classic lissencephaly, microcephaly, cardiac malformations, growth restriction, and characteristic facial changes. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) are known to have congenital cardiac malformations (in particular conotruncal defects), palatal abnormalities (especially velopharyngeal insufficiency), hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial features. This case report describes phenotypic characteristics of a patient with extremely rare instance of having both MDS and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome that is unique in the medical literature. Prognosis in this concurrent phenotype is poor with our patient suffering from several malformations seen in both conditions and expiring in the neonatal period. PMID:27617133

  5. Kinematic Movement Strategies in Primary School Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls during Visuo-Manual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    The present study focused on the mechanism subserving the production of kinematic patterns in 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 age- and IQ-matched control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) when performing a visuo-manual…

  6. White matter microstructural abnormalities in girls with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Fragile X or Turner syndrome as evidenced by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Villalon-Reina, Julio; Jahanshad, Neda; Beaton, Elliott; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M; Simon, Tony J

    2013-11-01

    Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), or Turner syndrome (TS) are considered to belong to distinct genetic groups, as each disorder is caused by separate genetic alterations. Even so, they have similar cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, particularly in visuospatial and numerical abilities. To assess evidence for common underlying neural microstructural alterations, we set out to determine whether these groups have partially overlapping white matter abnormalities, relative to typically developing controls. We scanned 101 female children between 7 and 14years old: 25 with 22q11.2DS, 18 with FXS, 17 with TS, and 41 aged-matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Anisotropy and diffusivity measures were calculated and all brain scans were nonlinearly aligned to population and site-specific templates. We performed voxel-based statistical comparisons of the DTI-derived metrics between each disease group and the controls, while adjusting for age. Girls with 22q11.2DS showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) than controls in the association fibers of the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the corticospinal tract. FA was abnormally lower in girls with FXS in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule, posterior thalami, and precentral gyrus. Girls with TS had lower FA in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right internal capsule and left cerebellar peduncle. Partially overlapping neurodevelopmental anomalies were detected in all three neurogenetic disorders. Altered white matter integrity in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and thalamic to frontal tracts may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of all of these disorders. PMID:23602925

  7. Delineation of a recognizable phenotype for the recurrent LCR22-C to D/E atypical 22q11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Bengoa-Alonso, Amaya; Artigas-López, Mercè; Moreno-Igoa, María; Cattalli, Claudio; Hernández-Charro, Blanca; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria Antonia

    2016-06-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is typically caused by haploinsufficiency of a 3 Mb region that extends from LCR22-A until LCR22-D, while the recurrent recombination between any of the LCR22-D to H causes the 22q11.2 distal deletion syndrome. Here, we describe three patients with a de novo atypical ∼1.4 Mb 22q11.2 deletion that involves LCR22-C to a region beyond D (LCR22-C to D/E), encompassing the distal portion of the typical deleted region and the proximal portion of the distal deletion. We also review six previous published patients with the same rearrangement and compare their features with those found in patients with overlapping deletions. Patients with LCR22-C to D/E deletion present a recognizable phenotype characterized by facial dysmorphic features, high frequency of cardiac defects, including conotruncal defects, prematurity, growth restriction, microcephaly, and mild developmental delay. Genotype-phenotype analysis of the patients indicates that CRKL and MAPK1 genes play an important role as causative factors for the main clinical features of the syndrome. In particular, CRKL gene seems to be involved in the occurrence of conotruncal cardiac anomalies, mainly tetralogy of Fallot. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991864

  8. Explaining the variable penetrance of CNVs: Parental intelligence modulates expression of intellectual impairment caused by the 22q11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Petra; Duijff, Sasja; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriëtte; Beemer, Frits; Sinnema, Gerben; Breetvelt, Elemi; Schappin, Renske; Vorstman, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    The role of rare genetic variants, in particular copy number variants (CNVs), in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders is becoming increasingly clear. While the list of these disorder-related CNVs continues to lengthen, it has also become clear that in nearly all genetic variants the proportion of carriers who express the associated phenotype is far from 100%. To understand this variable penetrance of CNVs it is important to realize that even the largest CNVs represent only a tiny fraction of the entire genome. Therefore, part of the mechanism underlying the variable penetrance of CNVs is likely the modulatory impact of the rest of the genome. In the present study we used the 22q11DS as a model to examine whether the observed penetrance of intellectual impairment-one of the main phenotypes associated with 22q11DS-is modulated by the intellectual level of their parents, for which we used the parents' highest level of education as a proxy. Our results, based on data observed in 171 children with 22q11DS in the age range of 5-15 years, showed a significant association between estimated parental cognitive level and intelligence in offspring (full scale, verbal and performance IQ), with the largest effect size for verbal IQ. These results suggest that possible mechanisms involved in the variable penetrance observed in CNVs include the impact of genetic background and/or environmental influences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26953189

  9. Kabuki syndrome is not caused by a microdeletion in the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial chromosomal region within 22q11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Zackai, E.H.; Kaplan, P.; Driscoll, D.A.; Niikawa, Norio

    1996-10-16

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) or Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome is a sporadic disorder characterized by postnatal growth retardation, developmental delay, mild to moderate retardation, and a characteristic facial appearance. Cardiovascular defects, clefts of the lip, palate, or both, and musculoskeletal abnormalities occur in about 50% of patients with KS. The cause of this multiple congenital anomaly syndrome is unknown, and investigators have speculated that KS is a contiguous gene-deletion syndrome. Based on the presence of congenital heart defects in patients with KS, it was suggested that this disorder might share a common cause with the 22q11 deletion syndromes. A preliminary study of 2 patients with KS failed to detect a deletion within 22q11. We report the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization with cosmid probes for loci D22S75 (N25) and D22S259 (1132) within the DiGeorge chromosomal region (DGCR) on metaphase spreads from an additional 5 patients, 2 non-Japanese and 3 Japanese, with KS. None of the 5 had deletions at either locus. It is unlikely that KS is caused by a deletion within 22q11. 16 refs.

  10. A Pyrosequencing-Based Assay for the Rapid Detection of the 22q11.2 Deletion in DNA from Buccal and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    PubMed Central

    Koontz, Deborah; Baecher, Kirsten; Kobrynski, Lisa; Nikolova, Stanimila; Gallagher, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common deletion syndromes in newborns. Some affected newborns may be diagnosed shortly after birth because of the presence of heart defects, palatal defects, or severe immune deficiencies. However, diagnosis is often delayed in patients presenting with other associated conditions that would benefit from early recognition and treatment, such as speech delays, learning difficulties, and schizophrenia. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the gold standard for deletion detection, but it is costly and time consuming and requires a whole blood specimen. Our goal was to develop a suitable assay for population-based screening of easily collectible specimens, such as buccal swabs and dried blood spots (DBS). We designed a pyrosequencing assay and validated it using DNA from FISH–confirmed 22q11 deletion syndrome patients and normal controls. We tested DBS from nine patients and paired buccal cell and venous blood specimens from 20 patients. Results were 100% concordant with FISH assay results. DNA samples from normal controls (n = 180 cell lines, n = 15 DBS, and n = 88 buccal specimens) were negative for the deletion. Limiting dilution experiments demonstrated that accurate results could be obtained from as little as 1 ng of DNA. This method represents a reliable and low-cost alternative for detection of the common 22q11.2 microdeletions and can be adapted to high-throughput population screening. PMID:24973633

  11. Histology of the Pharyngeal Constrictor Muscle in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Non-Syndromic Children with Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Widdershoven, Josine C. C.; Spruijt, Nicole E.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; Breugem, Corstiaan C.; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic surgeons aim to correct velopharyngeal insufficiency manifest by hypernasal speech with a velopharyngoplasty. The functional outcome has been reported to be worse in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome than in patients without the syndrome. A possible explanation is the hypotonia that is often present as part of the syndrome. To confirm a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, specimens of the pharyngeal constrictor muscle were taken from children with and without the syndrome. Histologic properties were compared between the groups. Specimens from the two groups did not differ regarding the presence of increased perimysial or endomysial space, fiber grouping by size or type, internalized nuclei, the percentage type I fibers, or the diameters of type I and type II fibers. In conclusion, a myogenic component of the etiology of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome could not be confirmed. PMID:21738760

  12. Unmasking of a Recessive SCARF2 Mutation by a 22q11.12 de novo Deletion in a Patient with Van den Ende-Gupta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bedeschi, M.F.; Colombo, L.; Mari, F.; Hofmann, K.; Rauch, A.; Gentilin, B.; Renieri, A.; Clerici, D.

    2011-01-01

    Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is a congenital condition characterized by craniofacial and skeletal manifestations, specifically blepharophimosis, malar and maxillary hypoplasia, distinctive nose, arachnocamptodactyly, and long slender bones of the hands and feet. To date, only 24 patients have been described. It is generally thought that the syndrome is transmitted by an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, although evidence for genetic heterogeneity has recently been presented. We report on a girl followed from birth up to 3 years of life with a set of peculiar minor anomalies, arachnocamptodactyly of hands and feet, characteristic of VDEGS in association with a 22q11.12 deletion. Recently, the VDEGS gene was mapped to the DiGeorge syndrome region on 22q11.2, and homozygous mutations in the SCARF2 gene were identified. We now report the first patient with VDEGS due to compound heterozygosity for the common 22q11.2 microdeletion and a hemizygous SCARF2 splice site mutation. PMID:22140376

  13. Unmasking an autosomal recessive disorder by a deletion in the DiGeorge/Velo-cardio-facial chromosome region (DGCR) in 22q11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Budarf, M.L.; Michaud, D.; Emanuel, B.

    1994-09-01

    Unmasking an autosomal recessive disorder by constitutional hemizygosity is well documented for the embryonal tumors RB and WAGR, where the second hit is a somatic event. Few deletion-mediated recessive conditions have been reported in patients with germline mutations. The major platelet receptor for von Willebrand factor, Glycoprotein Ib (GpIb), is a complex of two plasma membrane glycoproteins, Ib{alpha} and Ib{beta}, covalently linked by disulfide bonds. Defects in this receptor have been associated with the rare congenital autosomal recessive bleeding disorder, Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS). BSS is characterized by prolonged bleeding times, thrombocytopenia and very large platelets. The GpIb{beta} gene has been cloned and we have mapped it within the DGCR. We have identified a patient with phenotypic features of both BSS and VCFS. The patient was referred for 22q11-deletion FISH studies because of a conventricular VSD and mild dysmorphia. FISH with the N25 DiGeorge cosmid demonstrated a deletion in 22q11.2. Western blot analysis of the patient`s platelet proteins demonstrates a complete absence of GpIb{beta}. We suggest that haploinsufficiency for the DGCR in this patient unmasks a mutation in the remaining GpIb{beta} allele, resulting in manifestations of BSS. This mechanism, haploinsufficiency coupled with a mutation of the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} chromosome, might explain some of the phenotypic variability seen amongst patients with 22q11.2 microdeletions. These results further suggest that patients with contiguous gene deletion syndromes are at increased risk for autosomal recessive disorders and that they provide the opportunity to {open_quotes}map{close_quotes}disease loci.

  14. 22q11.2 duplication syndrome: two new familial cases with some overlapping features with DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndromes.

    PubMed

    Portnoï, Marie-France; Lebas, Fanny; Gruchy, Nicolas; Ardalan, Azarnouche; Biran-Mucignat, Valérie; Malan, Valérie; Finkel, Lina; Roger, Gilles; Ducrocq, Sarah; Gold, Francis; Taillemite, Jean-Louis; Marlin, Sandrine

    2005-08-15

    Twenty-one patients, including our two cases, with variable clinical phenotype, ranging from mild learning disability to severe congenital malformations or overlapping features with DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndromes (DG/VCFS), have been shown to have a chromosome duplication 22q11 of the region that is deleted in patients with DG/VCFS. The reported cases have been identified primarily by interphase FISH and could have escaped identification and been missed by routine cytogenetic analysis. Here we report on two inherited cases, referred to us, to rule out 22q11 microdeletion diagnosis of VCFS. The first patient was a 2-month-old girl, who presented with cleft palate, minor dysmorphic features including short palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, long fingers, and hearing loss. Her affected mother had mild mental retardation and learning disabilities. The second patient was a 7(1/2)-year-old boy with velopharyngeal insufficiency and mild developmental delay. He had a left preauricular tag, bifida uvula, bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly, and bilateral cryptorchidism. His facial features appeared mildly dysmorphic with hypertelorism, large nose, and micro/retrognathia. The affected father had mild mental retardation and had similar facial features. FISH analysis of interphase cells showed three TUPLE1-probe signals with two chromosome-specific identification probes in each cell. FISH analysis did not show the duplication on the initial testing of metaphase chromosomes. On review, band q11.2 was brighter on one chromosome 22 in some metaphase spreads. The paucity of reported cases of 22q11.2 microduplication likely reflects a combination of phenotypic diversity and the difficulty of diagnosis by FISH analysis on metaphase spreads. These findings illustrate the importance of scanning interphase nuclei when performing FISH analysis for any of the genomic disorders. PMID:16007629

  15. Haplotype differences for copy number variants in the 22q11.23 region among human populations: a pigmentation-based model for selective pressure

    PubMed Central

    Polimanti, Renato; Piacentini, Sara; Iorio, Andrea; De Angelis, Flavio; Kozlov, Andrey; Novelletto, Andrea; Fuciarelli, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Two gene clusters are tightly linked in a narrow region of chromosome 22q11.23: the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene family and the glutathione S-transferase theta class. Within 120 kb in this region, two 30-kb deletions reach high frequencies in human populations. This gives rise to four haplotypic arrangements, which modulate the number of genes in both families. The variable patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between these copy number variants (CNVs) in diverse human populations remain poorly understood. We analyzed 2469 individuals belonging to 27 human populations with different ethnic origins. Then we correlated the genetic variability of 22q11.23 CNVs with environmental variables. We confirmed an increasing strength of LD from Africa to Asia and to Europe. Further, we highlighted strongly significant correlations between the frequency of one of the haplotypes and pigmentation-related variables: skin color (R2=0.675, P<0.001), distance from the equator (R2=0.454, P<0.001), UVA radiation (R2=0.439, P<0.001), and UVB radiation (R2=0.313, P=0.002). The fact that all MIF-related genes are retained on this haplotype and the evidences gleaned from experimental systems seem to agree with the role of MIF-related genes in melanogenesis. As such, we propose a model that explains the geographic and ethnic distribution of 22q11.23 CNVs among human populations, assuming that MIF-related gene dosage could be associated with adaptation to low UV radiation. PMID:24667780

  16. Self-Reported Speech Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, Jacob AS; Kon, Moshe; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2014-01-01

    Background Speech problems are a common clinical feature of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The objectives of this study were to inventory the speech history and current self-reported speech rating of adolescents and young adults, and examine the possible variables influencing the current speech ratings, including cleft palate, surgery, speech and language therapy, intelligence quotient, and age at assessment. Methods In this cross-sectional cohort study, 50 adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (ages, 12-26 years, 67% female) filled out questionnaires. A neuropsychologist administered an age-appropriate intelligence quotient test. The demographics, histories, and intelligence of patients with normal speech (speech rating=1) were compared to those of patients with different speech (speech rating>1). Results Of the 50 patients, a minority (26%) had a cleft palate, nearly half (46%) underwent a pharyngoplasty, and all (100%) had speech and language therapy. Poorer speech ratings were correlated with more years of speech and language therapy (Spearman's correlation= 0.418, P=0.004; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.632). Only 34% had normal speech ratings. The groups with normal and different speech were not significantly different with respect to the demographic variables; a history of cleft palate, surgery, or speech and language therapy; and the intelligence quotient. Conclusions All adolescents and young adults with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome had undergone speech and language therapy, and nearly half of them underwent pharyngoplasty. Only 34% attained normal speech ratings. Those with poorer speech ratings had speech and language therapy for more years. PMID:25276637

  17. Seizures as the first manifestation of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a 40-year old man: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Adriano R; Kosuri, Kalyan; Wei, Sainan; Chick, Davoren

    2007-01-01

    Background The microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is the most common human deletion syndrome. It typically presents early in life and is rarely considered in adult patients. As part of the manifestations of this condition, patients can have parathyroid glandular involvement ranging from hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism to normocalcemia with normal parathryroid hormone levels. The first manifestation of the syndrome might be seizures due to profound hypocalcemia. Case presentation A 40-year-old man without significant past medical history presented with a new-onset generalized tonic-clonic seizure. He had no personal history of hypocalcemia or seizures. Physical examination was remarkable for short stature, hypertelorism, prominent forehead and nasal voice. His initial laboratory examination showed hypocalcemia (Calcium 5.2 mg/dl and Calcium ionized 0.69 mmol/l) with hypoparathyroidism (Parathyroid hormone intact < 2.5 pg/ml. NV: 14–72 pg/ml). Urine Calcium was 3 mg/dl on a spot and 88 mg in a 24-hour urine collection (NV: 100–300 mg/24 hs). The electrocardiogram showed a prolonged corrected QT interval. Echocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound and electroencephalogram were normal. A computer tomography of the brain showed basal ganglia calcification. The subtle physical findings and the presence of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism motivated the performance of fluorescent in situ hybridization which demonstrated a microdeletion on one of the homologs 22q11.2. The patient was treated with calcium citrate and calcitriol with good response. Conclusion Microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2 is among the most clinically variable syndromes, with more than 180 features associated with the deletion. It has a variable phenotypical expression, requiring a high level of awareness for its early diagnosis. Seizures, related to marked hypocalcemia due to idiopathic hypoparathyroidism, might be the presenting feature in an adult patient with this syndrome. PMID:18053182

  18. Inherited and de novo 22q11.2 distal duplications in two patients with autistic features, speech delay and no dysmorphology

    PubMed Central

    Hantash, Feras M.; Wang, Boris T.; Owen, Renius; Ross, Leslie P.; Mahon, Loretta W.; Boyar, Fatih Z.; Anguiano, Arturo; Strom, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    In a screen of patients by fluorescence in-situ hybridization and array comparative genomic hybridization in the past two years (July 2007--July 2009), we identified two patients with duplications in the 22q11.22-23, occurring outside the common DiGeorge syndrome/valocardiofacial syndrome region. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and high density bacterial artificial chromosomes and oligo arrays were used to identify the extent of the duplications. In one patient the duplication extended from LCR22-E/5 to LCR22-H/8, which is similar to recently described 22q11.2 distal duplications, while in the second patient, a de novo duplication was identified extending between LCR22-E/5 to LCR22-F/6. The second proband also harbored a de novo 15q14 duplication, complicating phenotype interpretation. The patients were affected with speech delay and autistic features, but neither reported cardiac concern or dysmorphic features.

  19. A new account of the neurocognitive foundations of impairments in space, time and number processing in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tony J

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I present an updated account that attempts to explain, in cognitive processing and neural terms, the nonverbal intellectual impairments experienced by most children with deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. Specifically, I propose that this genetic syndrome leads to early developmental changes in the structure and function of clearly delineated neural circuits for basic spatiotemporal cognition. This dysfunction then cascades into impairments in basic magnitude and then numerical processes, because of the central role that representations of space and time play in their construction. I propose that this takes the form of "spatiotemporal hypergranularity"; the increase in grain size and thus reduced resolution of mental representations of spatial and temporal information. The result is that spatiotemporal processes develop atypically and thereby produce the characteristic impairments in nonverbal cognitive domains that are a hallmark feature of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. If this hypothesis driven account is supported by future research, the results will create a neurocognitive explanation of spatiotemporal and numerical impairments in the syndrome that is specific enough to be directly translated into the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:18612330

  20. The 22q11 PRODH/DGCR6 deletion is frequent in hyperprolinemic subjects but is not a strong risk factor for ASD.

    PubMed

    Richard, Anne Claire; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Delaby, Elsa; Charbonnier, Camille; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Hatchwell, Eli; Eis, Peggy S; Afenjar, Alexandra; Dussardier, Brigitte Gilbert; Scherer, Stephen W; Betancur, Catalina; Campion, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    The proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) gene maps to 22q11.2 in the region deleted in the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). A moderate to severe reduction (>50%) in PRODH activity resulting from recessive deletions and/or missense mutations has been shown to cause type 1 hyperprolinemia (HPI). Autistic features have been reported as a common clinical manifestation of HPI. Here we studied the frequency of a recurrent small 22q11.2 deletion encompassing PRODH and the neighboring DGCR6 gene in three case-control studies, one comprising HPI patients (n = 83), and the other two comprising autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients (total of n = 2800), analyzed with high-resolution microarrays. We found that the PRODH deletion is a strong risk factor for HPI (OR = 50.7; 95%CI = 7.5-2147) but not for ASD (P = 0.4, OR = 0.6-3.3). This result indicates either that the suggested association between ASD and HPI is spurious and results from a bias leading to the preferential inclusion of patients with autistic features in HPI series, or that HPI is present in only a very small subset of ASD patients. In this latter case, a very large sample size would be required to detect an association between the PRODH deletion and ASD in a case-control study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26978485

  1. A New Account of the Neurocognitive Foundations of Impairments in Space, Time and Number Processing in Children with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tony J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I present an updated account that attempts to explain, in cognitive processing and neural terms, the nonverbal intellectual impairments experienced by most children with deletions of chromosome 22q11.2. Specifically, I propose that this genetic syndrome leads to early developmental changes in the structure and function of clearly delineated neural circuits for basic spatiotemporal cognition. This dysfunction then cascades into impairments in basic magnitude and then numerical processes, because of the central role that representations of space and time play in their construction. I propose that this takes the form of “spatiotemporal hypergranularity”; the increase in grain size and thus reduced resolution of mental representations of spatial and temporal information. The result is that spatiotemporal processes develop atypically and thereby produce the characteristic impairments in nonverbal cognitive domains that are a hallmark feature of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. If this hypothesis driven account is supported by future research, the results will create a neurocognitive explanation of spatiotemporal and numerical impairments in the syndrome that is specific enough to be directly translated into the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:18612330

  2. Jacobsen syndrome due to an unbalanced translocation between 11q23 and 22q11.2 identified at age 40 years.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ikuko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Sawada, Kenichi; Shimojima, Keiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    A woman with psychomotor developmental delay, congenital glaucoma, and distinctive facial features, and a short neck was diagnosed with Jacobsen syndrome (JBS) at age 40 years. A previously reported balanced translocation between chromosome 11 and 22 instead showed an unbalanced translocation by a microarray-based comparative hybridization analysis with the final karyotype of 46,XX,der(11)t(11;22)(q23.3;q11.21),del(22)(q11.21) dn. The breakpoint of chromosome 11 was determined to be at TECTA and not near the apolipoprotein gene cluster site or the fragile site (FRA11B), which are commonly seen in patients with t(11;22) and patients with typical 11q deletions, respectively. Although the phenotypic features of the patient, including psychomotor developmental delay, distinctive features, and mild thrombocytopenia, were consistent with JBS, congenital glaucoma, which is an uncommon finding of JBS, was the most prominent condition during her natural history. PMID:22139980

  3. Velopharyngeal incompetence diagnosed in a series of cardiac patients prompted by the finding of a 22q11.2 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, D.A.; Emanuel, B.S.; Goldmuntz, E.

    1994-09-01

    Congenital heart disease is very common and may occur as an isolated malformation or as part of a well-defined syndrome. In some syndromes, specific types are overrepresented as compared to their incidence in the general population. Conotruncal anomalies are one such example where they are seen as part of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (VCFS). Often, the diagnosis of VCFS is not suspected because mild facial dysmorphia is frequently not appreciated in the newborn period. While overt cleft palate, a characteristic finding in VCFS, would be detected early, a submucousal cleft palate or velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) may go unrecognized in the pre-verbal child and may remain undiagnosed in the older patient who is not referred for a palatal evaluation. In patients with either DGS or VCFS, microdeletions of chromosome 22q11.2 have been demonstrated in almost 90% of patients. As part of our ongoing study, twenty patients with a conotruncal cardiac anomaly, without an overt cleft palate, were referred for 22q11.2 deletion analysis. 13/20 patients were found to have a deletion. All 13 deleted patients underwent palatal evaluations by a plastic surgeon and speech pathologist. 7 patients were noted to have VPI. Intervention including speech therapy and/or posterior pharyngeal flap surgery for these previously undiagnosed abnormalities is underway. These results suggest that palatal abnormalities are underdiagnosed in a significant proportion of patients with conotruncal cardiac defects. We therefore propose deletion studies in these patients followed by prompt palatal evaluations when the deletion is present. Early diagnosis of VPI and submucousal cleft palate should lead to early intervention and appropriate management of the speech difficulties encountered by these individuals.

  4. Localisation of the gene responsible for fechtner syndrome in a region <600 Kb on 22q11-q13.

    PubMed

    Cusano, R; Gangarossa, S; Forabosco, P; Caridi, G; Ghiggeri, G M; Russo, G; Iolascon, A; Ravazzolo, R; Seri, M

    2000-11-01

    Fechtner syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder which has been thought to be a variant of Alport syndrome. It is characterised by nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss and eye abnormalities, as well as by macrothrombocytopenia and polymorphonuclear inclusion bodies. Recently, the Fechtner syndrome has been mapped in a 5.5 Mb region on the long arm of chromosome 22 by linkage analysis in an extended Israeli family. We describe here the genetic refinement of the Fechtner critical interval to a region less than 600 Kb by linkage analysis performed in a large Italian pedigree. The presence of several recombination events allowed the disease gene to be localised between markers D22S278 and D22S426, in a region containing only two non-recombinant markers, D22S1173 and D22S283. This interval, spanning <600 Kb on genomic DNA, has been entirely sequenced and contains six known and three putative genes. PMID:11093280

  5. Age-Dependent Specific Changes in Area CA2 of the Hippocampus and Social Memory Deficit in a Mouse Model of the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piskorowski, Rebecca A; Nasrallah, Kaoutsar; Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Mukai, Jun; Hassan, Sami I; Siegelbaum, Steven A; Gogos, Joseph A; Chevaleyre, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    Several neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with cognitive and social dysfunction. Postmortem studies of patients with schizophrenia have revealed specific changes in area CA2, a long-overlooked region of the hippocampus recently found to be critical for social memory formation. To examine how area CA2 is altered in psychiatric illness, we used the Df(16)A(+/-) mouse model of the 22q11.2 microdeletion, a genetic risk factor for developing several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. We report several age-dependent CA2 alterations: a decrease in the density of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons, a reduction in the amount of feedforward inhibition, and a change in CA2 pyramidal-neuron intrinsic properties. Furthermore, we found that area CA2 is less plastic in Df(16)A(+/-) mice, making it nearly impossible to evoke action potential firing in CA2 pyramidal neurons. Finally, we show that Df(16)A(+/-) mice display impaired social cognition, providing a potential mechanism and a neural substrate for this impairment in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26748091

  6. Identification of Proximal and Distal 22q11.2 Microduplications among Patients with Cleft Lip and/or Palate: A Novel Inherited Atypical 0.6 Mb Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Sedghi, Maryam; Abdali, Hossein; Memarzadeh, Mehrdad; Salehi, Mansoor; Nouri, Narges; Hosseinzadeh, Majid; Nouri, Nayereh

    2015-01-01

    Misalignments of low-copy repeats (LCRs) located in chromosome 22, particularly band 22q11.2, predispose to rearrangements. A variety of phenotypic features are associated with 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome which makes it challenging for the genetic counselors to recommend appropriate genetic assessment and counseling for the patients. In this study, multiplex ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) analysis was performed on 378 patients with cleft lip and/or palate to characterize rearrangements in patients suspected of 22q11.2 microduplication and microdeletion syndromes. Of 378 cases, 15 were diagnosed with a microdeletion with various sizes and 3 with duplications. For the first time in this study an atypical 0.6 Mb duplication is reported. Illustration of the phenotypes associated with the microduplications increases the knowledge of phenotypes reported in the literature. PMID:26640714

  7. Persistent low thymic activity and non-cardiac mortality in children with chromosome 22q11·2 microdeletion and partial DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, P; Berger, C; Junge, S; Dougoud, S; Büchel, E Valsangiacomo; Riegel, M; Schinzel, A; Seger, R; Güngör, T

    2009-01-01

    A subgroup of patients with 22q11·2 microdeletion and partial DiGeorge syndrome (pDGS) appears to be susceptible to non-cardiac mortality (NCM) despite sufficient overall CD4+ T cells. To detect these patients, 20 newborns with 22q11·2 microdeletion and congenital heart disease were followed prospectively for 6 years. Besides detailed clinical assessment, longitudinal monitoring of naive CD4+ and cytotoxic CD3+CD8+ T cells (CTL) was performed. To monitor thymic activity, we analysed naive platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31+) expressing CD45RA+RO−CD4+ cells containing high numbers of T cell receptor excision circle (TREC)-bearing lymphocytes and compared them with normal values of healthy children (n = 75). Comparing two age periods, low overall CD4+ and naive CD4+ T cell numbers were observed in 65%/75%, respectively, of patients in period A (< 1 year) declining to 22%/50%, respectively, of patients in period B (> 1/< 7 years). The percentage of patients with low CTLs (< P10) remained robust until school age (period A: 60%; period B: 50%). Low numbers of CTLs were associated with abnormally low naive CD45RA+RO−CD4+ T cells. A high-risk (HR) group (n = 11) and a standard-risk (SR) (n = 9) group were identified. HR patients were characterized by low numbers of both naive CD4+ and CTLs and were prone to lethal infectious and lymphoproliferative complications (NCM: four of 11; cardiac mortality: one of 11) while SR patients were not (NCM: none of nine; cardiac mortality: two of nine). Naive CD31+CD45RA+RO−CD4+, naive CD45RA+RO−CD4+ T cells as well as TRECs/106 mononuclear cells were abnormally low in HR and normal in SR patients. Longitudinal monitoring of naive CD4+ and cytotoxic T cells may help to discriminate pDGS patients at increased risk for NCM. PMID:19040613

  8. Secondary EWSR1 gene abnormalities in SMARCB1-deficient tumors with 22q11-12 regional deletions: Potential pitfalls in interpreting EWSR1 FISH results.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chiang; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Kao, Yu-Chien; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-10-01

    SMARCB1 inactivation occurs in a variety of tumors, being caused by various genetic mechanisms. Since SMARCB1 and EWSR1 genes are located close to each other on chromosome 22, larger SMARCB1 deletions may encompass the EWSR1 locus. Herein, we report four cases with SMARCB1-deletions showing concurrent EWSR1 gene abnormalities by FISH, which lead initially to misinterpretations as EWSR1-rearranged tumors. Our study group included various morphologies: a poorly differentiated chordoma, an extrarenal rhabdoid tumor, a myoepithelial carcinoma, and a proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. All cases showed loss of SMARCB1 (INI1) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and displayed characteristic histologic features for the diagnoses. The SMARCB1 FISH revealed homozygous or heterozygous deletions in three and one case, respectively. The co-hybridized EWSR1 probes demonstrated either unbalanced split signals or heterozygous deletion in two cases each. The former suggested bona fide rearrangement, while the latter resembled an unbalanced translocation. However, all the FISH patterns were quite complex and distinct from the simple and uniform split signals seen in typical EWSR1 rearrangements. We conclude that in the context of 22q11-12 regional alterations present in SMARCB1-deleted tumors, simultaneous EWSR1 involvement may be misinterpreted as equivalent to EWSR1 rearrangement. A detailed clinicopathologic correlation and supplementing the EWSR1 FISH assay with complementary methodology is mandatory for correct diagnosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27218413

  9. Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of six patients with ring chromosomes 22, including one with concomitant 22q11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Soares, Karina Cunha; Simioni, Milena; Vieira, Tarsis Paiva; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera Lúcia; Kim, Chong Ae; Brunoni, Décio; Spinner, Nancy Bettina; Conlin, Laura Kathleen; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Steiner, Carlos Eduardo; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2014-07-01

    We report here on six patients with a ring chromosome 22 and the range of cytogenetic and phenotypic features presented by them. Genomic analysis was carried out using classical and molecular cytogenetics, MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification) and genome-wide SNP-array analysis. The ring was found in all patients, but Patient 6 displayed constitutional mosaicism with a normal cell line. Five patients had deletions in the ring chromosome 22, and in four of them the breakpoints--unique for each patient--could be identified by genome-wide SNP-array analysis. One patient presented with a 22q11.2 deletion concomitant with the deletion caused by the ring formation. Common phenotypic features included autism, speech delay and seizures, as previously reported for individuals with r(22) and/or 22q13.3 deletions. Investigation of the genes within the deletions revealed multiple genes related to development of the central nervous system, psychomotor delay, severe language impairment, hypotonia, and autistic symptoms. There was no clear correlation between the severity of clinical features and the size of the deleted segment. This study underscores the variability in ring structure and clinical presentation of the r(22) and adds information to the limited literature on this rare disorder. PMID:24700634

  10. Comparison of facial features of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) due to deletion 10p13-10pter with DGS due to 22q11 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Goodship, J.; Lynch, S.; Brown, J.

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital anomaly consisting of cardiac defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus and parathroid glands, and dysmorphic facial features. The majority of DGS cases have a submicroscopic deletion within chromosome 22q11. However there have been a number of reports of DGS in association with other chromosomal abnormalities including four cases with chromosome 10p deletions. We describe a further 10p deletion case and suggest that the facial features in children with DGS due to deletions of 10p are different from those associated with chromosome 22 deletions. The propositus was born at 39 weeks gestation to unrelated caucasian parents, birth weight 2580g (10th centile) and was noted to be dysmorphic and cyanosed shortly after birth. The main dysmorphic facial features were a broad nasal bridge with very short palpebral fissures. Echocardiography revealed a large subsortic VSD and overriding aorta. She had a low ionised calcium and low parathroid hormone level. T cell subsets and PHA response were normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed duplex kidneys and on further investigation she was found to have reflux and raised plasma creatinine. She had an anteriorly placed anus. Her karyotype was 46,XX,-10,+der(10)t(3;10)(p23;p13)mat. The dysmorphic facial features in this baby are strikingly similar to those noted by Bridgeman and Butler in child with DGS as the result of a 10p deletion and distinct from the face seen in children with DiGeorge syndrome resulting from interstitial chromosome 22 deletions.

  11. In Search of the Optimal Surgical Treatment for Velopharyngeal Dysfunction in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Spruijt, Nicole E.; ReijmanHinze, Judith; Hens, Greet; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) tend to have residual VPD following surgery. This systematic review seeks to determine whether a particular surgical procedure results in superior speech outcome or less morbidity. Methodology/ Principal Findings A combined computerized and hand-search yielded 70 studies, of which 27 were deemed relevant for this review, reporting on a total of 525 patients with 22qDS and VPD undergoing surgery for VPD. All studies were levels 2c or 4 evidence. The methodological quality of these studies was assessed using criteria based on the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Heterogeneous groups of patients were reported on in the studies. The surgical procedure was often tailored to findings on preoperative imaging. Overall, 50% of patients attained normal resonance, 48% attained normal nasal emissions scores, and 83% had understandable speech postoperatively. However, 5% became hyponasal, 1% had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and 17% required further surgery. There were no significant differences in speech outcome between patients who underwent a fat injection, Furlow or intravelar veloplasty, pharyngeal flap pharyngoplasty, Honig pharyngoplasty, or sphincter pharyngoplasty or Hynes procedures. There was a trend that a lower percentage of patients attained normal resonance after a fat injection or palatoplasty than after the more obstructive pharyngoplasties (11–18% versus 44–62%, p = 0.08). Only patients who underwent pharyngeal flaps or sphincter pharyngoplasties incurred OSA, yet this was not statistically significantly more often than after other procedures (p = 0.25). More patients who underwent a palatoplasty needed further surgery than those who underwent a pharyngoplasty (50% versus 7–13%, p = 0.03). Conclusions/ Significance In the heterogeneous group of patients with 22qDS and VPD, a grade C recommendation can be made to

  12. TBX1 protein interactions and microRNA-96-5p regulation controls cell proliferation during craniofacial and dental development: implications for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Moreno, Myriam; Eliason, Steven; Cao, Huojun; Li, Xiao; Yu, Wenjie; Bidlack, Felicitas B.; Margolis, Henry C.; Baldini, Antonio; Amendt, Brad A.

    2015-01-01

    T-box transcription factor TBX1 is the major candidate gene for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS, DiGeorge syndrome/Velo-cardio-facial syndrome), whose phenotypes include craniofacial malformations such as dental defects and cleft palate. In this study, Tbx1 was conditionally deleted or over-expressed in the oral and dental epithelium to establish its role in odontogenesis and craniofacial developmental. Tbx1 lineage tracing experiments demonstrated a specific region of Tbx1-positive cells in the labial cervical loop (LaCL, stem cell niche). We found that Tbx1 conditional knockout (Tbx1cKO) mice featured microdontia, which coincides with decreased stem cell proliferation in the LaCL of Tbx1cKO mice. In contrast, Tbx1 over-expression increased dental epithelial progenitor cells in the LaCL. Furthermore, microRNA-96 (miR-96) repressed Tbx1 expression and Tbx1 repressed miR-96 expression, suggesting that miR-96 and Tbx1 work in a regulatory loop to maintain the correct levels of Tbx1. Cleft palate was observed in both conditional knockout and over-expression mice, consistent with the craniofacial/tooth defects associated with TBX1 deletion and the gene duplication that leads to 22q11.2DS. The biochemical analyses of TBX1 human mutations demonstrate functional differences in their transcriptional regulation of miR-96 and co-regulation of PITX2 activity. TBX1 interacts with PITX2 to negatively regulate PITX2 transcriptional activity and the TBX1 N-terminus is required for its repressive activity. Overall, our results indicate that Tbx1 regulates the proliferation of dental progenitor cells and craniofacial development through miR-96-5p and PITX2. Together, these data suggest a new molecular mechanism controlling pathogenesis of dental anomalies in human 22q11.2DS. PMID:25556186

  13. Syndromes microdélétionnels (syndrome de Williams et syndrome de la délétion 22q11) au CHU Hassan II de Fès: à propos de 3 observations

    PubMed Central

    Ouldim, Karim; Bouguenouch, Laila; Samri, Imane; El Otmani, Ihsan; Hamdaoui, Hasna; Bennis, Sanae; Lakhdar, Mounia Idrissi; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Les syndromes microdélétionnels sont définis par la présence d’une anomalie chromosomique de taille mineure (inférieure à 5 mégabases) ou aneusomie segmentaire, décelable par cytogénétique moléculaire (FISH : Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization). Les syndromes microdélétionnels représentent des syndromes cliniques avec des phénotypes suffisamment caractéristiques pour être reconnus cliniquement. Actuellement la FISH est la technique de choix pour rechercher ces syndromes. Plusieurs syndromes microdélétionnels peuvent être confirmés aisément, les plus recherchés sont Le syndrome de Williams (microdélétion en 7q11.23) et le syndrome de la délétion 22q11 (microdélétion en 22q11.2). Le syndrome de Williams est caractérisé par une anomalie du développement qui associe un retard psycho-moteur, une dysmorphie du visage évocatrice et un profil cognitif et comportemental spécifique, une sténose aortique supravalvulaire -SASV- le plus souvent. Le Syndrome de la délétion 22q11 se caractérise par l’association de plusieurs malformations d’expression variable: une cardiopathie congénitale de type conotroncal, une dysmorphie faciale discrète mais caractéristique et une hypoplasie du thymus et des parathyroïdes. Nous rapportons nos premières observations au CHU Hassan II confirmées par FISH : Syndrome de la délétion 22q11 (n:2) et un syndrome de Williams. Le but de cet article est la mise à jour de nos connaissances sur ces deux syndromes et la mise en valeur du rôle de la cytogénétique moléculaire dans le diagnostic et le conseil génétique des syndromes microdélétionnels. PMID:22368746

  14. A rare case of trisomy 11q23.3-11q25 and trisomy 22q11.1-22q11.21.

    PubMed

    Zou, P-S; Li, H-F; Chen, L-S; Ma, M; Chen, X-H; Xue, D; Cao, D-H

    2016-01-01

    Partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 11 and the partial trisomy of 22q are uncommon karyotypic abnormalities. Here, we report the case of a 6-year-old girl who showed partial trisomy of 11q and 22q, as a result of a maternal balanced reciprocal translocation (11;22), and exhibited dysmorphic features, severe intellectual disability, brain malformations, and speech delay related to this unique chromosomal abnormality. Array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) revealed a gain in copy number on the long arm of chromosome 11, spanning at least 18.22 Mb. Additionally, there was a gain in copy number on the long arm of chromosome 22, spanning at least 3.46 Mb. FISH analysis using a chromosome 11 short arm telomere probe (11p14.2), a chromosome 11 long arm telomere probe (11q24.3), and a chromosome 22 long arm telomere probe (22q13.33) confirmed the origin of the marker chromosome. It has been confirmed by the State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics of China that this is the first reported instance of the karyotype 47,XX, +der(22)t(11;22)(q23.3;q11.1)mat in the world. Our study reports an additional case that can be used to further characterize and delineate the clinical ramifications of partial trisomy of 11q and 22q. PMID:27173335

  15. Psychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Functioning throughout Development in Velocardiofacial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Glaser, Bronwyn; Debbane, Martin; Frisch, Amos; Kotler, Moshe; Weizman, Abraham; Eliez, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is associated with cognitive deficits and high rates of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the data from two large cohorts of individuals with VCFS from Israel and Western Europe to characterize the neuropsychiatric phenotype from childhood to adulthood in a large sample.…

  16. Temporal Lobe Anatomy and Psychiatric Symptoms in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Wendy R.; Miller, Adam M.; Abdulsabur, Nuria; Antshel, Kevin M.; Conchelos, Jena; Fremont, Wanda; Roizen, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between mesial temporal lobe morphology, ratios of prefrontal cortex to amygdala and hippocampus volumes, and psychiatric symptomatology in children and adolescents with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Method: Scores on behavioral rating scales and volumetric measures of the amygdala, hippocampus, and…

  17. Molecular Mechanisms and Diagnosis of Chromosome 22q11.2 Rearrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2008-01-01

    Several recurrent, constitutional genomic disorders are present on chromosome 22q. These include the translocations and deletions associated with DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndrome and the translocations that give rise to the recurrent t(11;22) supernumerary der(22) syndrome (Emanuel syndrome). The rearrangement breakpoints on 22q cluster…

  18. How many breaks do we need to CATCH on 22q11?

    SciTech Connect

    Dallapiccola, B.; Pizzuti, A.; Novelli, G. ||

    1996-07-01

    The major clinical manifestations of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS; MIM 188400), which reflect developmental abnormalities of the 3d and 4th pharyngeal pouch derivatives, include thymus- and parathyroid-gland aplasia or hypoplasia and conotruncal cardiac malformations. The additional dysmorphic facial features, such as hypertelorism, cleft lip and palate, bifid uvula, and small/low-set ears, which are also common, presumably reflect the same defect. The DGS phenotype has been associated with chromosome abnormalities and, sometimes, is the effect of teratogenic agents such as retinoic acid and alcohol. 53 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Velo-Cardio Facial Syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Aneja, Alka; Strunge, Leslie; Peebles, Jena; Fremont, Wanda P.; Stallone, Kimberly; AbdulSabur, Nuria; Higgins, Anne Marie; Shprintzen, Robert J.; Kates, Wendy R.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which the phenotype of children comorbid for velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) differs from that of VCFS-only has not been studied. The sample consisted of 41 children (20 females) with VCFS, ranging in age from 6.5 years to 15.8 years. Eight children with VCFS met formal DSM-IV diagnostic criteria…

  20. Minute supernumerary ring chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome: Further delineation of the critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E.; El-Shanti, H.

    1995-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome (inv dup 22pter-22q11.2) resulting in four copies of this region. We describe an individual showing the inheritance of a minute supernumerary double ring chromosome 22, which resulted in expression of all cardinal features of CES. The size of the ring was determined by DNA dosage analysis and FISH analysis for five loci mapping to 22q11.2. The probes to the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E were present in four copies, whereas D22S57 and D22S181 were present in two copies. This finding further delineates the distal boundary of the critical region of CES, with ATP6E being the most distal duplicated locus identified. The phenotypically normal father and grandfather of the patient each had a small supernumerary ring chromosome and demonstrated three copies for the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E. Although three copies of this region have been reported in other cases with CES features, it is possible that the presence of four copies leads to greater susceptibility. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Long-range mapping and construction of a YAC contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Riazi, M.A.; Mears, A.J.; McDermid, H.E.

    1994-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome is characterized cytogenetically by the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome derived from duplicated regions of 22pter-22q11.2. In order to study this syndrome, we have mapped and cloned within the CES critical region (CESCR) in 22q11.2. A long-range map was constructed using probes previously mapped to the CESCR by somatic cell hybrids. The map spans from probes LN63 to D22S36 and covers approximately 3 Mb. Probes within the region were used to isolate YACs, producing a contig of approximately 1.5 Mb (cLN63-D22S57). DNA studies of a cat eye patient with an unusual marker chromosome refined the minimal critical region proximal to D22S57, indicating that most of the CESCR is now cloned. The physical map will allow us to further delineate the CESCR and isolate genes in the region. Towards this end, we have performed {open_quotes}exon-trapping{close_quotes}on a cosmid, CN63, in this region. A 250 bp exon was isolated which maps to the CESCR and has no homology in GenBank. Further characterization of the gene containing this exon is in progress.

  2. Caregiver and Adult Patient Perspectives on the Importance of a Diagnosis of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costain, G.; Chow, E. W. C.; Ray, P. N.; Bassett, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in genetics are particularly relevant in the field of intellectual disability (ID), where sub-microscopic deletions or duplications of genetic material are increasingly implicated as known or suspected causal factors. Data-driven reports on the impact of providing an aetiological explanation in ID are needed to help…

  3. DGCR6 at the proximal part of the DiGeorge critical region is involved in conotruncal heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenming; Higaki, Takashi; Eguchi-Ishimae, Minenori; Iwabuki, Hidehiko; Wu, Zhouying; Yamamoto, Eiichi; Takata, Hidemi; Ohta, Masaaki; Imoto, Issei; Ishii, Eiichi; Eguchi, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac anomaly is one of the hallmarks of DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), observed in approximately 80% of patients. It often shows a characteristic morphology, termed as conotruncal heart defects. In many cases showing only the conotruncal heart defect, deletion of 22q11.2 region cannot be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which is used to detect deletion in DGS. We investigated the presence of genomic aberrations in six patients with congenital conotruncal heart defects, who show no deletion at 22q11.2 in an initial screening by FISH. In these patients, no abnormalities were identified in the coding region of the TBX1 gene, one of the key genes responsible for the phenotype of DGS. However, when copy number alteration was analyzed by high-resolution array analysis, a small deletion or duplication in the proximal end of DiGeorge critical region was detected in two patients. The affected region contains the DGCR6 and PRODH genes. DGCR6 has been reported to affect the expression of the TBX1 gene. Our results suggest that altered dosage of gene(s) other than TBX1, possibly DGCR6, may also be responsible for the development of conotruncal heart defects observed in patients with DGS and, in particular, in those with stand-alone conotruncal heart defects. PMID:27081520

  4. An unbalanced 5;22 translocation in a patient with features of VCFS: Confirmation by FISH of loss of the DGS/VCFS critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; McGlothlin, J.C.; Lindsay, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    A 14-month-old male with a history of ventricular septal defect (VSD) and cleft lip and palate (CL/P) was referred for evaluation because of growth retardation, developmental delay and hypotonia. The initial cytogenetic analysis was 45,XY,-5,-22,+der(5)t(5q:22q). Determination of breakpoints 5q35.3 and 22q11.2 were made on G-banded chromosomes with band lengths of over 550. However, with both regions being light G bands, it was difficult to tell if the break in 22 was proximal to or distal to the DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS) critical region. Since the patient had a VSD and CL/P, velocardiofacial syndrome and a deletion of the DGS/VCFS critical region was suspected. FISH analysis of the derivative chromosome was performed with a cocktail containing two probes (ONCOR), D22S75, which maps to the DGS/VCFS region in 22q11.2 and D22S39, which maps to 22q13.3 and is used as a control for the presence of chromosome 22. Three fluorescent signals were observed, two on the normal 22 and the third on the terminal end of the derivative 5 chromosome verifying the translocation of 22q to 5q. No signal was observed for D22S75 on the proximal part of the translocated segment, verifying a deletion of the DGS/VCFS region in a patient whose clinical evaluation is consistent with velocardiofacial syndrome. Experiments with additional probes are underway to determine the deletion boundaries.

  5. Predicting reading comprehension academic achievement in late adolescents with velo-cardio-facial (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome (VCFS): A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Hier, Bridget O.; Fremont, Wanda; Faraone, Stephen V.; Kates, Wendy R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the current study was to examine the childhood predictors of adolescent reading comprehension in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Although much research has focused on mathematics skills among individuals with VCFS, no studies have examined predictors of reading comprehension. Methods 69 late adolescents with VCFS , 23 siblings of youth with VCFS and 30 community controls participated in a longitudinal research project and had repeat neuropsychological test batteries and psychiatric evaluations every 3 years. The Wechsler Individual Achievement Test – 2nd edition (WIAT-II) Reading Comprehension subtest served as our primary outcome variable. Results Consistent with previous research, children and adolescents with VCFS had mean reading comprehension scores on the WIAT-II which were approximately two standard deviations below the mean and word reading scores approximately one standard deviation below the mean. A more novel finding is that relative to both control groups, individuals with VCFS demonstrated a longitudinal decline in reading comprehension abilities yet a slight increase in word reading abilities. In the combined control sample, WISC-III FSIQ, WIAT-II Word Reading, WISC-III Vocabulary and CVLT-C List A Trial 1 accounted for 75% of the variance in Time 3 WIAT-II Reading Comprehension scores. In the VCFS sample, WISC-III FSIQ, BASC-Teacher Aggression, CVLT-C Intrusions, Tower of London, Visual Span Backwards, WCST non-perseverative errors, WIAT-II Word Reading and WISC-III Freedom from Distractibility index accounted for 85% of the variance in Time 3 WIAT-II Reading Comprehension scores. A principal component analysis with promax rotation computed on the statistically significant Time 1 predictor variables in the VCFS sample resulted in three factors: Word reading decoding / Interference control, Self-Control / Self-Monitoring and Working Memory. Conclusions Childhood predictors of late adolescent reading comprehension in VCFS differ in some meaningful ways from predictors in the non-VCFS population. These results offer some guidance for how best to consider intervention efforts to improve reading comprehension in the VCFS population. PMID:24861691

  6. Velocardiofacial syndrome in father and daughter: What is the mechanism for the deletion 22(q11.2q11.2) in only the daughter?

    SciTech Connect

    Magenis, R.E.; Gunter, K.; Toth-Fejel, S.

    1994-09-01

    E.G. had marked feeding difficulty noted at birth; the cause was determined to be a paralyzed palate. In 1992 chromosome studies were performed because of the provisional diagnosis of velocardiofacial syndrome, and a small interstitial deletion of chromosome 22 was found. Recently the family was seen in our Genetics Clinic. The father had unusual facial features shared by his daughter, a paralyzed upper lip and a history of repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. His chromosomes appeared normal. FISH studies were performed on the child`s peripheral blood using the ONCOR DiGeorge region probe (D22S75) and the deletion verified. However, the father`s chromosomes were not deleted for the ONCOR probe (D22S75) and probe DO832 sent to us by Peter Scambler. Skin cells were then obtained and no deletion was detected in a total of 66 cells examined using both probes. Several questions arise from these data: does the father have velocardiofacial syndrome? Does he have occult mosaicism? Does he have a molecular deletion not detected by the probes used? And was this deletion somehow {open_quotes}amplified{close_quotes} in his daughter?

  7. Predicting Reading Comprehension Academic Achievement in Late Adolescents with Velo-Cardio-Facial (22q11.2 Deletion) Syndrome (VCFS): A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, K.; Hier, B.; Fremont, W.; Faraone, S. V.; Kates, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The primary objective of the current study was to examine the childhood predictors of adolescent reading comprehension in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). Although much research has focused on mathematics skills among individuals with VCFS, no studies have examined predictors of reading comprehension. Methods: 69 late adolescents…

  8. Loss of Goosecoid-like and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 in interpeduncular nucleus results in altered regulation of rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Funato, Hiromasa; Sato, Makito; Sinton, Christopher M.; Gautron, Laurent; Williams, S. Clay; Skach, Amber; Elmquist, Joel K.; Skoultchi, Arthur I.; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated primarily by inhibitory interactions between the hypothalamus and brainstem. The expression of the states of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep also are correlated with the activity of groups of REM-off and REM-on neurons in the dorsal brainstem. However, the contribution of ventral brainstem nuclei to sleep regulation has been little characterized to date. Here we examined sleep and wakefulness in mice deficient in a homeobox transcription factor, Goosecoid-like (Gscl), which is one of the genes deleted in DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion syndrome. The expression of Gscl is restricted to the interpeduncular nucleus (IP) in the ventral region of the midbrain–hindbrain transition. The IP has reciprocal connections with several cell groups implicated in sleep/wakefulness regulation. Although Gscl−/− mice have apparently normal anatomy and connections of the IP, they exhibited a reduced total time spent in REM sleep and fewer REM sleep episodes. In addition, Gscl−/− mice showed reduced theta power during REM sleep and increased arousability during REM sleep. Gscl−/− mice also lacked the expression of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 14 (Dgcr14) in the IP. These results indicate that the absence of Gscl and Dgcr14 in the IP results in altered regulation of REM sleep. PMID:20921407

  9. Evidence for Involvement of GNB1L in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Zhang; Matsushita, Mark; Girirajan, Santhosh; Lisowski, Mark; Sun, Elizabeth; Sul, Youngmee; Bernier, Raphael; Estes, Annette; Dawson, Geraldine; Minshew, Nancy; Shellenberg, Gerard D; Eichler, Evan E; Rieder, Mark J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Wijsman, Ellen M; Raskind, Wendy H; Brkanac, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Structural variations in the chromosome 22q11.2 region mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination result in 22q11.2 deletion (del22q11.2) and 22q11.2 duplication (dup22q11.2) syndromes. The majority of del22q11.2 cases have facial and cardiac malformations, immunologic impairments, specific cognitive profile and increased risk for schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The phenotype of dup22q11.2 is frequently without physical features but includes the spectrum of neurocognitive abnormalities. Although there is substantial evidence that haploinsufficiency for TBX1 plays a role in the physical features of del22q11.2, it is not known which gene(s) in the critical 1.5 Mb region are responsible for the observed spectrum of behavioral phenotypes. We identified an individual with a balanced translocation 46,XY,t(1;22)(p36.1;q11.2) and a behavioral phenotype characterized by cognitive impairment, autism, and schizophrenia in the absence of congenital malformations. Using somatic cell hybrids and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) we mapped the chromosome-22 breakpoint within intron 7 of the GNB1L gene. Copy number evaluations and direct DNA sequencing of GNB1L in 271 schizophrenia and 513 autism cases revealed dup22q11.2 in two families with autism and private GNB1L missense variants in conserved residues in three families (P = 0.036). The identified missense variants affect residues in the WD40 repeat domains and are predicted to have deleterious effects on the protein. Prior studies provided evidence that GNB1L may have a role in schizophrenia. Our findings support involvement of GNB1L in ASDs as well. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22095694

  10. Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Distinguishes between critical and creative thinking and discusses critical-thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy. Outlines goals in critical-thinking curriculum, critical thinking skills (student disposition, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, presenting argument, and reflection), and…