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Sample records for 232-z contaminated waste

  1. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.

  2. RADIOLOGICAL CONTROLS FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FROM 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINSHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MINETTE, M.J.

    2007-05-30

    The 232-Z facility at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant operated as a plutonium scrap incinerator for 11 years. Its mission was to recover residual plutonium through incinerating and/or leaching contaminated wastes and scrap material. Equipment failures, as well as spills, resulted in the release of radionuclides and other contamination to the building, along with small amounts to external soil. Based on the potential threat posed by the residual plutonium, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued an Action Memorandum to demolish Building 232-2, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERC1.A) Non-Time Critical Removal Action Memorandum for Removal of the 232-2 Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (04-AMCP-0486).

  3. 24. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Details, Building 232z, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Details, Building 232-z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  4. DEMOLITION OF HANFORDS 232-Z WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-21

    The 232-Z Plutonium Incinerator Facility was a small, highly alpha-contaminated, building situated between three active buildings located in an operating nuclear complex. Approximately 500 personnel worked within 250 meters (800 ft) of the structure and expectations were that the project would neither impact plant operations nor result in any restrictions when demolition was complete. Precision demolition and tight controls best describe the project. The team used standard open-air demolition techniques to take the facility to slab-on-grade. Several techniques were key to controlling contamination and confining it to the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition began; using misting systems, frequently applying fixatives, and using a methodical demolition sequence and debris load-out process. Detailed air modeling was done before demolition to determine necessary facility source-term levels, establish radiological boundaries, and confirm the adequacy of the proposed demolition approach. By only removing the major source term in equipment, HEPA filters, gloveboxes, and the like, and leaving fixed contamination on the walls, ceilings and floors, the project showed considerable savings and reduced worker hazards and exposure. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without the spread of contamination provides confidence that similar operations can be performed successfully. By removing the major source terms, fixing the remaining contamination in the building, and using controlled demolition and contamination control techniques, similar structures can be demolished cost effectively and safely.

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, L.N.

    1994-02-01

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project.

  6. Resolution of USQ regarding source term in the 232-Z Waste Incinerator Building

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, G.A.

    1995-09-01

    The 232-Z Waste Incinerator at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was used to incinerate plutonium-bearing combustible materials generated during normal plant operations. Nondestructive (NDA) measurements performed after the incinerator ceased operations indicated high plutonium loadings in exhaust ductwork near the incinerator glovebox, while the incinerator was found to have only low quantities. Measurements, following a campaign to remove some of the ductwork, resulted in markedly higher assay value for the incinerator glovebox itself. Subsequent assays confirmed the most recent results and pointed to a potential further underestimation of the holdup, in part because of attenuation due to fire brick, which could not be seen easily and which had been reported to not be present. NaI detector based measurements were used to map the deposits. Extended count times, using high resolution Ge detectors helped estimate the isotopic composition of the plutonium and quantify the deposits. Experiments were performed using a Ge detector to obtain adequate corrections for the high attenuation of the incinerator glovebox. Several neutron detectors and detector configurations were employed to understand and quantify the neutron flux. Due to the disparity that was anticipated to occur between the gamma ray and neutron assay results, radiation modeling was used to try to reconcile the divergent results. This was a third aspect of the team`s effort, utilizing computer modeling to resolve discrepancies between measurement methods.

  7. Deactivation and cleanout of the 308 Fuels Laboratory and the 232-Z Incinerator at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.; Bliss, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the deactivation and source term reduction activities conducted over the recent past in two plutonium-contaminated Hanford Site buildings: the 308 Fuels Development Laboratory and the 232-Z Incinerator. Both of these facilities belong to the U.S. Department of Energy, and the projects are unique success stories carried out in direct support of EM-60 functions and requirements. In both cases the buildings, for different reasons, contained unacceptable amounts of plutonium, and were stabilized and placed in a safe, pre-D&D (decontamination and decommissioning) mode. The concept of deactivation as the last step in the operating life of a facility will be discussed. The need for and requirements of EM-60 transition between operations and D&D, the costs savings, techniques, regulations and lessons learned also will be discussed. This paper describes the strategies that led to successful source term reduction: accurate characterization, cooperation among different divisions within DOE and the Hanford Site, attention to regulations (especially unique in this case since the 232-Z Incinerator has been nominated as a Historic Structure to the National Register of Historic Places), and stakeholder concerns involving the proximity of the 308 Building to the Columbia River. The paper also weaves in the history, missions, and plutonium accumulation of the two buildings. The lessons learned are cogent to many other present and future deactivation activities across the DOE complex and indeed across the world.

  8. 25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23105, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  9. 26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & Dets., Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  10. CSER 94-013: Classification and access to PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility and limits on characterization and disassembly activities in 232-Z burning hood

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.M.

    1995-01-12

    This CSER justifies the Limited Control Facility designation for the closed Burning Hood in the PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility. If the Burning Hood is opened to characterize the plutonium distribution and geometric integrity of the internals or for disassembly of the internals, then the more rigorous Fissionable Material Facility classification is required. Two sets of requirements apply for personnel access, criticality firefighting category for water use, and fissile material movement for the two states of the Burning Hood. The parameters used in the criticality analysis are listed to establish the limits under which this CSER is valid. Determination that the Burning Hood fissile material, moderation, or internal arrangements are outside these limits requires reevaluation of these parameter values and activities at the 232-Z Incinerator Facility. When the Burning Hood is open, water entry is to be prevented by two physical barriers for each water source.

  11. CSER 95-003: Exemption from Criticality Alarm System requirement for 232-Z building

    SciTech Connect

    Nirider, L.T.; Miller, E.M.

    1995-05-18

    This CSER establishes an exemption for 232-Z from the requirement for a Criticality Alarm System, because the formation of a critical configuration is not a credible event for any circumstance involving the cleaning out and removal of the Burning Hood and associated equipment.

  12. Seismic analysis of safety class 1 incinerator glovebox in building 232-Z 200 W Area

    SciTech Connect

    Ocoma, E.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the seismic evaluation for the existing safety class 1 incinerator glovebox in 232Z Building. The glovebox is no longer in use and most of the internal mechanical equipment have been removed. However, the insulation firebricks are still in the glovebox for proper disposal.

  13. CSER 90-006, addendum 1: Criticality safety control for source term reduction project in the scrubber glovebox of Building 232-Z. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, A.L.

    1995-03-10

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report addendum extends the coverage of the original CSER (90-006) about dismantling the ductwork in 232-Z to include cleanout of the Scrubber Glovebox, with an estimated residual Pu holdup of less than 200 grams. For conservatism and containment considerations, the provisions about waste packaging and water exclusion from the original work are retained, even though it is not credible for the Scrubber Pu content to be made critical with water added (NDA gives about 1/3 a minimum critical mass).

  14. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies.

  15. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  16. Method of treating radioactively contaminated solvent waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, W.; Mallek, H.; Plum, W.

    1981-07-07

    A method of and apparatus for treating radioactively contaminated solvent waste are claimed. The solvent waste is supplied to material such as peat, vermiculite, diaton, etc. This material effects the distribution or dispersion of the solvent and absorbs the foreign substances found in the solvent waste. Air or an inert gas flows through the material in order to pick up the solvent portions which are volatile as a consequence of their vapor pressure. The thus formed gas mixture, which includes air or inert gas and solvent portions, is purified in a known manner by thermal, electrical, or catalytic combustion of the solvent portions.

  17. BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    1998-09-17

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  18. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated by Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jack; Palumbo, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    A Workshop on Accelerating Development of Practical Field-Scale Bioremediation Models; An Online Meeting, 23 January to 20 February 2008; A Web-based workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (DOE/ERSP) was organized in early 2008 to assess the state of the science and knowledge gaps associated with the use of computer models to facilitate remediation of groundwater contaminated by wastes from Cold War era nuclear weapons development and production. Microbially mediated biological reactions offer a potentially efficient means to treat these sites, but considerable uncertainty exists in the coupled biological, chemical, and physical processes and their mathematical representation.

  19. Transuranic contaminated waste functional definition and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the problem(s) of TRU waste classification and to document the development of an easy-to-apply standard(s) to determine whether or not this waste package should be emplaced in a geologic repository for final disposition. Transuranic wastes are especially significant because they have long half-lives and some are rather radiotoxic. Transuranic radionuclides are primarily produced by single or multiple neutron capture by U-238 in fuel elements during the operation of a nuclear reactor. Reprocessing of spent fuel elements attempts to remove plutonium, but since the separation is not complete, the resulting high-activity liquids still contain some plutonium as well as other transuranics. Likewise, transuranic contamination of low-activity wastes also occurs when the transuranic materials are handled or processed, which is primarily at federal facilities involved in R and D and nuclear weapons production. Transuranics are persistent in the environment and, as a general rule, are strongly retained by soils. They are not easily transported through most food chains, although some reconcentration does take place in the aquatic food chain. They pose no special biological hazard to humans upon ingestion because they are weakly absorbed from the gastrointestional tract. A greater hazard results from inhalation since they behave like normal dust and fractionate accordingly.

  20. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin M. Stewart

    1999-09-29

    Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a

  1. IN-SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Techniques were investigated for in-situ treatment of hazardous wastes that could be applied to contaminated soils. Included were chemical treatment methods, biological treatment, photochemical transformations and combination methods. Techniques were developed based on fundamenta...

  2. IN SITU RESTORATION TECHNIQUES FOR AQUIFERS CONTAMINATED WITH HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improper disposal of hazardous wastes is a threat to the nation's ground water supply. Methods which prevent contamination are probably the most effective techniques to protect ground water. Once contamination problems occur, there are a number of in situ techniques that can be u...

  3. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  4. Treatability study for the stabilization of chromium contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect

    McGahan, J.F.; Martin, D.

    1994-12-31

    A process has been developed which immobilizes chromium in calcined uranyl nitrate mixed waste, resulting in a waste form disposable as radioactive, non hazardous waste. A prime contractor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generates a radioactive waste contaminated with chromium. During handling, the waste becomes contaminated at a concentration sufficiently high to cause the waste to exceed the EPA`s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) leachable limit for chromium. A treatability test program was instigated to define the optimum conditions for the chemical reduction pretreatment step necessary for the stabilization of the contaminated waste. Sodium dithionite was determined to be the reducing agent of choice. A dithionite demand experiment was run to determine optimum dithionite dose. This dose, plus 67 percent excess, was added to each sample. Four different stabilization systems, at three different dosage levels, were investigated. The best performing reagent system was chosen for scale-up and more stringent performance testing. In one of the tested reagent systems, Portland cement sodium silicate and dithionite, all of the samples exhibited TCLP extract concentrations for chromium well below the regulatory limit. Portland cement/blast furnace slag blend had one passing sample, and for cement/fly ash and cement alone none of the samples had passing values for leachable chromium. The samples scaled-up passed the performance criteria and the process which is currently undergoing implementation at INEL has successfully converted mixed waste into radioactive waste for disposal.

  5. Transuranic contaminated waste container characterization and data base. Revision I

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing regulations governing the management, handling and disposal of transuranium (TRU) radioisotope contaminated wastes as part of the NRC's overall waste management program. In the development of such regulations, numerous subtasks have been identified which require completion before meaningful regulations can be proposed, their impact evaluated and the regulations implemented. This report was prepared to assist in the development of the technical data base necessary to support rule-making actions dealing with TRU-contaminated wastes. An earlier report presented the waste sources, characteristics and inventory of both Department of Energy (DOE) generated and commercially generated TRU waste. In this report a wide variety of waste sources as well as a large TRU inventory were identified. The purpose of this report is to identify the different packaging systems used and proposed for TRU waste and to document their characteristics. This document then serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of TRU waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present TRU waste management program. It is the purpose of this report to serve as a working document which will be used as appropriate in the TRU Waste Management Program. This report, and those following, will be compatible not only in format, but also in reference material and direction.

  6. Method of treating fluoride contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.; Kakaria, V.K.

    1988-04-05

    A method for treating spent aluminum smelting potliner material containing fluoride contaminants is described which comprises: adding silica to the material to form a mixture thereof; elevating the temperature of the mixture within the range of 1,000/sup 0/ to 1,700/sup 0/C. to form a slag; providing sufficient silica in the mixture and forming the slag in the presence of sufficient water for pyrohydrolysis conditions resulting in the volatilization of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants mostly in the form of hydrogen fluoride; and cooling the slag remaining after volatilizatiion of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants to produce an insoluble silicate glass-residue containing any remaining portion of the fluoride contaminants in an immobile state.

  7. Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E.; Slavin, P.; Guerin, D.

    1998-06-01

    During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill.

  8. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOEpatents

    Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Mullen, C.K.; Scott, D.W.; Feldman, E.M.; Meyer, L.C.

    1993-04-20

    A system is described to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  9. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOEpatents

    Menkhaus, Daniel E.; Loomis, Guy G.; Mullen, Carlan K.; Scott, Donald W.; Feldman, Edgar M.; Meyer, Leroy C.

    1993-01-01

    A system to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  10. Management and disposal of waste from sites contaminated by radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Carlyle J.

    1998-06-01

    Various methods of managing and disposing of wastes generated by decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) activities are described. This review of current waste management practices includes a description of waste minimization and volume reduction techniques and their applicability to various categories of radwaste. The importance of the physical properties of the radiation and radioactivity in determining the methodology of choice throughout the D & D process is stressed. The subject is introduced by a survey of the common types of radioactive contamination that must be managed and the more important hazards associated with each type. Comparisons are made among high level, transuranic, low level, and radioactive mixed waste, and technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM). The development of appropriate clean-up criteria for each category of contaminated waste is described with the aid of examples drawn from actual practice. This includes a discussion of the application of pathway analysis to the derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines. The choice between interim storage and permanent disposal of radioactive wastes is addressed. Approaches to permanent disposal of each category of radioactive waste are described and illustrated with examples of facilities that have been constructed or are planned for implementation in the near future. Actual experience at older, existing, low-level waste disposal facilities is discussed briefly.

  11. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  12. Swedish recovered wood waste: linking regulation and contamination.

    PubMed

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized. PMID:17509861

  13. 169. ARAIV Miscellaneous site details, including contaminated waste tank pit, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. ARA-IV Miscellaneous site details, including contaminated waste tank pit, fence detail, marker posts, berm, and "Caution radiation hazard" sign. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/ML-1-1-501-3. Date: March 1960. Ineel index code no. 066-0501-00-613-102795. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Mechanisms of contaminant migration from grouted waste

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, S.O.; Yu, A.D.

    1992-12-31

    Low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from the In-Tank Precipitation process. The solution is mixed with cement, slag, and fly ash, to form a grout, termed ``Saltstone``, that will be disposed in concrete vaults at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) [1]. Of the contaminants in the Saltstone, the greatest concern to SRS is the potential release of nitrate to the groundwater because of the high initial nitrate concentration (0.25 g/cm{sup 3}) in the Saltstone and the low Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 44 mg/L. The SDF is designed to allow a slow, controlled release over thousands of years. This paper addresses a modeling study of nitrate migration from intact non-degraded concrete vaults in the unsaturated zone for the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) of the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility [3]. The PA addresses the performance requirements mandated by DOE Order 5820.2A [4].

  15. Mechanisms of contaminant migration from grouted waste

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, S.O. ); Yu, A.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from the In-Tank Precipitation process. The solution is mixed with cement, slag, and fly ash, to form a grout, termed Saltstone'', that will be disposed in concrete vaults at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) [1]. Of the contaminants in the Saltstone, the greatest concern to SRS is the potential release of nitrate to the groundwater because of the high initial nitrate concentration (0.25 g/cm[sup 3]) in the Saltstone and the low Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 44 mg/L. The SDF is designed to allow a slow, controlled release over thousands of years. This paper addresses a modeling study of nitrate migration from intact non-degraded concrete vaults in the unsaturated zone for the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) of the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility [3]. The PA addresses the performance requirements mandated by DOE Order 5820.2A [4].

  16. Inhibited Release of Mobile Contaminants from Hanford Tank Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Heald, Steve M.; Arey, Bruce W.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-03-03

    Investigations of contaminant release from Hanford Site tank residual waste have indicated that in some cases certain contaminants of interest (Tc and Cr) exhibit inhibited release. The percentage of Tc that dissolved from residual waste from tanks 241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, and 241-C-203 ranged from approximately 6% to 10%. The percent leachable Cr from residual waste from tanks C-103, C 202, and C-203 ranged from approximately 1.1% to 44%. Solid phase characterization results indicate that the recalcitrant forms of these contaminants are associated with iron oxides. X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of Tc and Cr in residual waste indicates that these contaminants occur in Fe oxide particles as their lower, less soluble oxidation states [Tc(IV) and Cr(III)]. The form of these contaminants is likely as oxides or hydroxides incorporated within the structure of the Fe oxide. Leaching behavior of U from tank residual waste was studied using deionized water, and CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 saturated solutions as leachants. The release behavior of U from tank residual waste is complex. Initial U concentrations in water and CaCO3 leachants are high due to residual amounts of the highly soluble U mineral cejkaite. As leaching and dilution occur NaUO2PO4 {center_dot} xH2O, Na2U2O7(am) and schoepite (or a similar phase) become the solubility controlling phases for U. In the case of the Ca(OH)2 leachant, U release from tank residual waste is dramatically reduced. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the solubility of CaUO4(c) controls release of U from residual waste in the Ca(OH)2 leachants. It is assumed the solubility controlling phase is actually a hydrated version of CaUO4 with a variable water content ranging from CaUO4 to CaUO4 {center_dot} (H2O). The critically reviewed value for CaUO4(c) (log KSP0 = 15.94) produced good agreement with our experimental data for the Ca(OH)2 leachates.

  17. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  18. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  19. Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-04

    The Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group has screened six prospective demonstration projects for consideration by the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT). These projects include the Kirtland Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the March Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the McClellan Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the Williams Air Force Base Demonstration Project, and two demonstration projects under the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. A seventh project (Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center) was added to list of prospective demonstrations after the September 1993 Working Group Meeting. This demonstration project has not been screened by the working group. Two additional Air Force remediation programs are also under consideration and are described in Section 6 of this document. The following information on prospective demonstrations was collected by the Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group to assist the DOIT Committee in making Phase 1 Demonstration Project recommendations. The remainder of this report is organized into seven sections: Work Group Charter`s mission and vision; contamination problems, current technology limitations, and institutional and regulatory barriers to technology development and commercialization, and work force issues; screening process for initial Phase 1 demonstration technologies and sites; demonstration descriptions -- good matches;demonstration descriptions -- close matches; additional candidate demonstration projects; and next steps.

  20. Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Closed Single-Shell Tanks and Other Waste Forms Associated with the Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter describes the release of contaminants from the various waste forms that are anticipated to be associated with closure of the single-shell tanks. These waste forms include residual sludge or saltcake that will remain in the tanks after waste retrieval. Other waste forms include engineered glass and cementitious materials as well as contaminated soil impacted by previous tank leaks. This chapter also describes laboratory testing to quantify contaminant release and how the release data are used in performance/risk assessments for the tank waste management units and the onsite waste disposal facilities. The chapter ends with a discussion of the surprises and lessons learned to date from the testing of waste materials and the development of contaminant release models.

  1. Characterisation of Plasma Vitrified Simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hyatt, Neil C.; Morgan, Suzy; Stennett, Martin C.; Scales, Charlie R.; Deegan, David

    2007-07-01

    The potential of plasma vitrification for the treatment of a simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) was investigated. It was demonstrated that the PuO{sub 2} simulant, CeO{sub 2}, could be vitrified in the amorphous calcium iron aluminosilicate component of the product slag with simultaneous destruction of the organic and polymer waste fractions. Product Consistency Tests conducted at 90 deg. C in de-ionised water and buffered pH 11 solution show the PCM slag product to be durable with respect to release of Ce. (authors)

  2. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  3. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  4. Closure End States for Facilities, Waste Sites, and Subsurface Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Grover S.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Marble, Justin

    2012-11-21

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil cleanup effort in the world. DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) has made significant progress in its restoration efforts at sites such as Fernald and Rocky Flats. However, remaining sites, such as Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, Hanford Site, Los Alamos, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and West Valley Demonstration Project possess the most complex challenges ever encountered by the technical community and represent a challenge that will face DOE for the next decade. Closure of the remaining 18 sites in the DOE EM Program requires remediation of 75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, deactivation & decommissioning (D&D) of over 3000 contaminated facilities and thousands of miles of contaminated piping, removal and disposition of millions of cubic yards of legacy materials, treatment of millions of gallons of high level tank waste and disposition of hundreds of contaminated tanks. The financial obligation required to remediate this volume of contaminated environment is estimated to cost more than 7% of the to-go life-cycle cost. Critical in meeting this goal within the current life-cycle cost projections is defining technically achievable end states that formally acknowledge that remedial goals will not be achieved for a long time and that residual contamination will be managed in the interim in ways that are protective of human health and environment. Formally acknowledging the long timeframe needed for remediation can be a basis for establishing common expectations for remedy performance, thereby minimizing the risk of re-evaluating the selected remedy at a later time. Once the expectations for long-term management are in place, remedial efforts can be directed towards near-term objectives (e.g., reducing the risk of exposure to residual contamination) instead

  5. Hanford Site Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2010-06-18

    This report presents the results of laboratory characterization, testing, and analysis for a composite sample (designated 20578) of residual waste collected from single-shell tank C-108 during the waste retrieval process after modified sluicing. These studies were completed to characterize concentration and form of contaminant of interest in the residual waste; assess the leachability of contaminants from the solids; and develop release models for contaminants of interest. Because modified sluicing did not achieve 99% removal of the waste, it is expected that additional retrieval processing will take place. As a result, the sample analyzed here is not expected to represent final retrieval sample.

  6. Chemical contaminants in feedlot wastes: concentrations, effects and attenuation.

    PubMed

    Khan, S J; Roser, D J; Davies, C M; Peters, G M; Stuetz, R M; Tucker, R; Ashbolt, N J

    2008-08-01

    Commercial feedlots for beef cattle finishing are potential sources of a range of trace chemicals which have human health or environmental significance. To ensure adequate protection of human and environmental health from exposure to these chemicals, the application of effective manure and effluent management practices is warranted. The Australian meat and livestock industry has adopted a proactive approach to the identification of best management practices. Accordingly, this review was undertaken to identify key chemical species that may require consideration in the development of guidelines for feedlot manure and effluent management practices in Australia. Important classes of trace chemicals identified include steroidal hormones, antibiotics, ectoparasiticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals and dioxins. These are described in terms of their likely sources, expected concentrations and public health or environmental significance based on international data and research. Androgenic hormones such as testosterone and trenbolone are significantly active in feedlot wastes, but they are poorly understood in terms of fate and environmental implications. The careful management of residues of antibiotics including virginiamycin, tylosin and oxytetracycline appears prudent in terms of minimising the risk of potential public health impacts from resistant strains of bacteria. Good management of ectoparasiticides including synthetic pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones, fluazuron, and amitraz is important for the prevention of potential ecological implications, particularly towards dung beetles. Very few of these individual chemical contaminants have been thoroughly investigated in terms of concentrations, effects and attenuation in Australian feedlot wastes. PMID:18055014

  7. Demonstration of ATG Process for Stabilizing Mercury (<260 ppm) Contaminated Mixed Waste. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference # 2407

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mercury contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Based on efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of wastes contaminated with <260 ppm mercury and with radionuclides stored at various DOE sites is estimated to be approximately 6,000 m3). At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. Extraction methods are required to remove mercury from waste containing >260 ppm levels, but below 260 ppm Hg contamination levels the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not require removal of mercury from the waste. Steps must still be taken, however, to ensure that the final waste form does not leach mercury in excess of the limit for mercury prescribed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At this time, the limit is 0.20 mg/L. However, in the year 2000, the more stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) of 0.025 mg/L will be used as the target endpoint. Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris, as well as in different chemical species of mercury. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards. It must also be proven feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. To date, no standard method of stabilization has been developed and proven for such varying waste types as those within the DOE complex.

  8. Food chain analysis at a mining waste-contaminated wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, G.A.; Blanchet, R.J.; Linder, G.

    1994-12-31

    A food chain analysis was performed in support of a baseline ecological risk assessment oat the Milltown Reservoir Sediments Superfund site in Montana. The site consists of over 450 acres of primarily palustrine wetland contaminated with metals from mining-wastes transported from upstream sources. The food chain analysis focused on several species of terrestrial and aquatic animals indigenous to montane wetlands of the northern Rocky Mountains. Samples of small mammal tissues, grasses, forbs, invertebrates, soils, sediment, aquatic plants, and fish were collected and analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. A linear multimedia food-chain model was constructed to estimate daily intakes of the metals for each receptor, with assumed values for aquatic and terrestrial food items from the site, ingestion of local surface water, incidental ingestion of soils or sediments, and estimated bioavailability of soil metals. Evaluation of health risks was performed by the quotient method, where exposures expressed as daily intakes were compared to literature toxicity values. Results from the food chain analysis suggested that the health of primary consumers and higher trophic organisms (including mice, voles, muskrats, beaver, various waterfowl species, osprey, bald eagles, and deer) is not at risk due to the presence of elevated metals in sediments or upland soils at the site.

  9. Environmental health: an analysis of available and proposed remedies for victims of toxic waste contamination.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, W J

    1981-01-01

    Past and present residents of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, New York, fear that they and their homes have been contaminated by toxic wastes seeping out from nearby chemical disposal sites. Hundreds of landfills nationwide are as potentially dangerous as Love Canal. In the absence of a statutory remedy, victims of contamination must rely upon common law theories of lability in order to recover damages for injuries suffered as a result of toxic waste contamination. This Note examines the merits and deficiencies of four common law theories: negligence, strict liability, nuisance and trespass. The Note concludes that none of these remedies is adequate to assure recovery to a person injured by toxic waste disposal, and recommends that legislation be adopted to ensure that victims of toxic waste contamination can be compensated for their injuries. PMID:7258193

  10. ADVANCES IN ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardo...

  11. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.B.; Foltyn, E.M.; Heslop, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of {sup 238}Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes {sup 238}Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239{sup Pu}), makes disposal of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all {sup 238}Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented.

  12. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Kevin B.; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Heslop, J. Mark

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed 238PuO2 fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of 238Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes 238Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239Pu), makes disposal of 238Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all 238Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from 238Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of 238PuO2 from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  14. Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Mixed Waste Utilizing the Oak Ridge Broad Spectrum Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, C. H.; Heacker, F. K.; Cunningham, J.; Westich, B.

    2003-02-25

    To meet the requirements of the State of Tennessee's Department of Environment and Conservation Commissioner's Order for treatment of mixed low level wastes, Oak Ridge has utilized commercial treatment companies to treat and dispose mixed waste. Over the past year, Oak Ridge has shipped organic-contaminated mixed waste for treatment to meet milestones under the Site Treatment Plan. Oak Ridge has established contracts with commercial treatment companies accessible by all DOE sites for treatment of a wide range of mixed wastes. The paper will describe and summarize the activities involved in treating and disposing of organic-contaminated mixed waste utilizing DOE complex-wide contracts and the treatment and disposal activities required. This paper will describe the case history of treatment of several organic-contaminated mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation requiring treatment prior to disposal. The paper will include waste category information, implementation activities, and contract access. The paper will discuss the specifics of the mixed waste treatment including waste characteristics, treatment process and equipment utilized, and treatment results. Additional information will be provided on task order development, waste profiling, treatment pricing, and the disposal process.

  15. CHEMICAL MARKERS OF HUMAN WASTE CONTAMINATION: ANALYSIS OF UROBILIN AND PHARMACEUTICALS IN SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giving public water authorities another tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. Most of the methods used today detect such contamination by quantifying microbes occurring in feces in high enough...

  16. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  17. WASTE DERIVED PRODUCTS AS A SOURCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sale of reusable waste from industrial and municipal activities can potentially lower the overall cost of manufacturing and reduce the amount of material sent to waste sites for disposal. Marketed finished products that contain, either partially or wholly, are called waste d...

  18. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  19. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  20. Evaluation of the Contamination Control Unit during simulated transuranic waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.N.; Freeman, A.L.; Wixom, V.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report presents the results of a field demonstration at the INEL of the Contamination Control Unit (CCU). The CCU is a field deployable self-contained trailer mounted system to control contamination spread at the site of transuranic (TRU) handling operations. This is accomplished primarily by controlling dust spread. This demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Technology Development Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. The CCU, housed in a mobile trailer for easy transport, supports four different contamination control systems: water misting, dust suppression application, soil fixative application, and vacuuming operations. Assessment of the CCU involved laboratory operational performance testing, operational testing and contamination control at a decommissioned Idaho National Engineering Laboratory reactor, and field testing in conjunction with a simulated TRU buried waste retrieval effort at the Cold Test Pit.

  1. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    SciTech Connect

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-07-01

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report.

  2. Distinguishing Between Site Waste, Natural, and Other Sources of Contamination at Uranium and Thorium Contaminated Sites - 12274

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, David C.

    2012-07-01

    Uranium and thorium processing and milling sites generate wastes (source, byproduct, or technically enhanced naturally occurring material), that contain contaminants that are similar to naturally occurring radioactive material deposits and other industry wastes. This can lead to mis-identification of other materials as Site wastes. A review of methods used by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency to distinguish Site wastes from potential other sources, enhanced materials, and natural deposits, at three different thorium mills was conducted. Real case examples demonstrate the importance of understanding the methods of distinguishing wastes. Distinguishing between Site wastes and enhanced Background material can be facilitated by establishing and applying a formal process. Significant project cost avoidance may be realized by distinguishing Site wastes from enhanced NORM. Collection of information on other potential sources of radioactive material and physical information related to the potential for other radioactive material sources should be gathered and reported in the Historical Site Assessment. At a minimum, locations of other such information should be recorded. Site decision makers should approach each Site area with the expectation that non site related radioactive material may be present and have a process in place to distinguish from Site and non Site related materials. (authors)

  3. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains appendices A to F. The properties of transuranium (TRU) radionuclides are described. Immobilization of TRU wastes by bituminization, urea-formaldehyde polymers, and cements is discussed. Research programs at DOE facilities engaged in TRU waste characterization and management studies are described.

  4. Calcium Phosphate: A potential host for halide contaminated plutonium wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian L.; Donald, Ian W.; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2009-07-06

    The presence of significant quantities of fluoride and chloride in four types of legacy wastes from plutonium pyrochemical reprocessing required the development of a new wasteform which could adequately immobilize the halides in addition to the Pu and Am. Using a simulant chloride-based waste (Type I waste) and Sm as the surrogate for the Pu3+ and Am3+ present in the waste, AWE developed a process which utilised Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. The waste was successfully incorporated into two crystalline phases, chlorapatite, [Ca5(PO4)3Cl], and spodiosite, [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Radioactive studies performed at PNNL with 239Pu and 241Am confirmed the process. A slightly modified version of the process in which CaHPO4 was used as the host was successful in immobilizing a more complex multi-cation oxide–based waste (Type II) which contained significant concentrations of Cl and F in addition to 239Pu and 241Am. This waste resulted in the formation of cation-doped whitlockite, Ca3-xMgx(PO4)2, β-calcium phosphate, β-Ca2P2O7 and chlor-fluorapatite rather than the chlorapatite and spodiosite formed with Type I waste.

  5. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA`s initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE`s needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities.

  6. Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sandip

    2004-10-18

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardous waste generation. This study was performed to evaluate whether the U.S. EPA could propose treatment and disposal alternatives to the current land disposal restriction (LDR) treatment standards for mercury. The focus of this article is on the current state of encapsulation technologies that can be used to immobilize elemental mercury, mercury-contaminated debris, and other mercury-contaminated wastes, soils, sediments, or sludges. The range of encapsulation materials used in bench-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale applications for mercury-contaminated wastes are summarized. Several studies have been completed regarding the application of sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic encapsulation, and polyethylene encapsulation. Other materials reported in the literature as under development for encapsulation use include asphalt, polyester resins, synthetic elastomers, polysiloxane, sol-gels, Dolocrete, and carbon/cement mixtures. The primary objective of these encapsulation methods is to physically immobilize the wastes to prevent contact with leaching agents such as water. However, when used for mercury-contaminated wastes, several of these methods require a pretreatment or stabilization step to chemically fix mercury into a highly insoluble form prior to encapsulation. Performance data is summarized from the testing and evaluation of various encapsulated, mercury-contaminated wastes. Future technology development and research needs are also discussed. PMID:15511593

  7. FUTURE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF AQUEOUS ACTINIDE CONTAMINATED WASTE AT AWE ALDERMASTON

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, A.; Freestone, V.

    2003-02-27

    AWE Aldermaston has provided and maintained the warheads for the Untied Kingdom's nuclear deterrent for over 50 years. AWE's activities necessarily involve the use of radioactive materials and low levels of radioactivity are discharged to the environment, some of it in radioactive aqueous waste and the remainder in aerial discharges. A key part of AWE's Environmental, Safety and Health Policy to ensure ''that our actions cause no harm to the environment, public or employees'' and there is a commitment to continue to drive down AWE's discharge of radioactivity to the environment. As part of this policy AWE have made a commitment to cease discharge, by April 2005, of treated radioactive aqueous effluent, via a dedicated pipeline to the River Thames. This paper sets out how AWE have approached this challenge and how the best practicable environmental option (BPEO) for the management and disposal of AWE's radioactive aqueous wastes was identified. The BPEO identified that wastes whose radioactivity is predominantly due to the presence of actinides should be treated separately to those containing predominantly tritium. This is because of the very different behavior of tritium compared to actinides. A separate strategy has been developed for these tritiated wastes, but is not covered within this paper. The proposed treatment process for actinide contaminated aqueous waste is condensing evaporation followed by membrane filtration of the condensate. The evaporator concentrate will be solidified and the permeate will be discharged as nonradioactive trade waste. The paper highlights the importance in the decision making process of the identification of the sources of actinide contaminated radioactive aqueous waste on the AWE site and an understanding of the waste collection system. It also considers the important roles waste characterization, waste minimization, decommissioning, changes in work practices, stakeholder participation and implementation of best practice have

  8. TOTAL RECYCLE SYSTEMS FOR PETROCHEMICAL WASTE BRINES CONTAINING REFRACTORY CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Petrochemical wastewaters containing relatively high concentrations of salt and refractory organics were selected to study their feasibility for total recycle. A combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis was operated as a hybrid system using the pretreated wastes to prod...

  9. Removal of contaminants in leachate from landfill by waste steel scrap and converter slag.

    PubMed

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Jai-Young; Yoon, Jeyong

    2007-08-01

    This study may be the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of recycling industrial waste in controlling contaminants in leachate. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the efficacy of waste steel scrap and converter slag to treat mixed contaminants using mimic leachate solution. The waste steel scrap was prepared through pre-treatment by an acid-washed step, which retained both zero-valent iron site and iron oxide site. Extensive trichloroethene (TCE) removal (95%) occurred by acid-washed steel scrap within 48 h. In addition, dehalogenation (Cl(-) production) was observed to be above 7.5% of the added TCE on a molar basis for 48 h. The waste steel scrap also removed tetrachloroethylene (PCE) through the dehalogenation process although to a lesser extent than TCE. Heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were extensively removed by both acid-washed steel scrap and converter slag through the adsorption process. Among salt ions (NH (4)(+) , NO (3)(-) , and PO (4)(3-) ), PO (4)(3-) was removed by both waste steel scrap (100% within 8 h) and converter slag (100% within 20 min), whereas NO (3)(-) and NH (4)(+ ) were removed by waste steel scrap (100% within 7 days) and converter slag (up to 50% within 4 days) respectively. This work suggests that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with waste steel scrap and converter slag might be an effective approach to intercepting mixed contaminants in leachate from landfill. PMID:17492478

  10. System and method for removing contaminants from solid surfaces and decontaminating waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.L.; Geiss, A.J.; Grieco, S.; Neubauer, E.D.; Rhea, J.R.

    1995-10-10

    A method and system are disclosed for removing a surface layer contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous material and subsequently treating the waste to remove contaminants and provide an essentially contaminant-free final effluent. The contaminated material is removed by blasting the surface with a pressurized stream of air and sodium bicarbonate abrasive media, and the media is dissolved in water subsequent to the blasting operation. The resulting waste is treated in a sequence of steps including adjustment of pH, aeration and separation into primarily solid and liquid phases by precipitation of solids, which are removed for appropriate disposal. The primarily liquid phase is successively passed through a particle filter, a granulated activated carbon filter and a polishing unit to produce the clean final effluent. 1 fig.

  11. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  12. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shuck, D.L.; Skriba, M.C.; Wade, J.F.

    1993-03-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics` perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM`93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams.

  13. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shuck, D.L. . Denver Environmental Services); Skriba, M.C. ); Wade, J.F. )

    1993-01-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics' perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM'93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams.

  14. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can be assigned a low priority for further investigation and those that require additional data.

  15. Disposal and improvement of contaminated by waste extraction of copper mining in chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo Lamilla, Pedro; Blanco Fernández, David; Díaz González, Marcos; Robles Castillo, Marcelo; Decinti Weiss, Alejandra; Tapia Alvarez, Carolina; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    This project originated from the need of a mining company, which mines and processes copper ore. High purity copper is produced with an annual production of 1,113,928 tons of concentrate to a law of 32%. This mining company has generated several illegal landfills and has been forced by the government to make a management center Industrial Solid Waste (ISW). The forecast volume of waste generated is 20,000 tons / year. Chemical analysis established that the studied soil has a high copper content, caused by nature or from the spread of contaminants from mining activities. Moreover, in some sectors, soil contamination by mercury, hydrocarbons and oils and fats were detected, likely associated with the accumulation of waste. The waters are also impacted by mining industrial tasks, specifically copper ores, molybdenum, manganese, sulfates and have an acidic pH. The ISW management center dispels the pollution of soil and water and concentrating all activities in a technically suitable place. In this center the necessary guidelines for the treatment and disposal of soil contamination caused by uncontrolled landfills are given, also generating a leachate collection system and a network of fluid monitoring physicochemical water quality and soil environment. Keywords: Industrial solid waste, soil contamination, Mining waste

  16. Green remediation and recycling of contaminated sediment by waste-incorporated stabilization/solidification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-03-01

    Navigational/environmental dredging of contaminated sediment conventionally requires contained marine disposal and continuous monitoring. This study proposed a green remediation approach to treat and recycle the contaminated sediment by means of stabilization/solidification enhanced by the addition of selected solid wastes. With an increasing amount of contaminated sediment (20-70%), the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks decreased from greater than 10MPa to slightly above 1MPa. For augmenting the cement hydration, coal fly ash was more effective than lime and ground seashells, especially at low sediment content. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed varying amounts of hydration products (primarily calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate) in the presence of coal fly ash, signifying the influence of pozzolanic reaction. To facilitate the waste utilization, cullet from beverage glass bottles and bottom ashes from coal combustion and waste incineration were found suitable to substitute coarse aggregate at 33% replacement ratio, beyond which the compressive strength decreased accordingly. The mercury intrusion porosimetry analysis indicated that the increase in the total pore area and average pore diameter were linearly correlated with the decrease of compressive strength due to waste replacement. All the sediment blocks complied with the acceptance criteria for reuse in terms of metal leachability. These results suggest that, with an appropriate mixture design, contaminated sediment and waste materials are useful resources for producing non-load-bearing masonry units or fill materials for construction uses. PMID:25522855

  17. HANDBOOK ON IN SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE- CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook comprises an update of Volume1 of the 1984 USEPA document entitled "Review of In-Place Treatment Techniques for Contaminated Surface Soils." The purpose of this handbook is the same as that of the original document - to provide state-of-the-art information on in sit...

  18. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2005-01-20

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge. PMID:15626384

  19. ORGANIC WASTE CONTAMINATION INDICATORS IN SMALL GEORGIA PIEDMONT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and dissolved oxygen (DO), and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. Here we present estimates of the amounts of organic waste input to these wate...

  20. Contaminant Leach Testing of Hanford Tank 241-C-104 Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Snyder, Michelle M.V.; Wang, Guohui; Buck, Edgar C.

    2015-07-01

    Leach testing of Tank C-104 residual waste was completed using batch and column experiments. Tank C-104 residual waste contains exceptionally high concentrations of uranium (i.e., as high as 115 mg/g or 11.5 wt.%). This study was conducted to provide data to develop contaminant release models for Tank C-104 residual waste and Tank C-104 residual waste that has been treated with lime to transform uranium in the waste to a highly insoluble calcium uranate (CaUO4) or similar phase. Three column leaching cases were investigated. In the first case, C-104 residual waste was leached with deionized water. In the second case, crushed grout was added to the column so that deionized water contacted the grout prior to contacting the waste. In the third case, lime was mixed in with the grout. Results of the column experiments demonstrate that addition of lime dramatically reduces the leachability of uranium from Tank C-104 residual waste. Initial indications suggest that CaUO4 or a similar highly insoluble calcium rich uranium phase forms as a result of the lime addition. Additional work is needed to definitively identify the uranium phases that occur in the as received waste and the waste after the lime treatment.

  1. Evaluating Transport and Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone for Aqueous Waste Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2015-09-01

    An approach was developed for evaluating vadose zone transport and attenuation of aqueous wastes containing inorganic (non-volatile) contaminants that were disposed of at the land surface (i.e., directly to the ground in cribs, trenches, tile fields, etc.) and their effect on the underlying groundwater. The approach provides a structured method for estimating transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and the resulting temporal profile of groundwater contaminant concentrations. The intent of the approach is also to provide a means for presenting and explaining the results of the transport analysis in the context of the site-specific waste disposal conditions and site properties, including heterogeneities and other complexities. The document includes considerations related to identifying appropriate monitoring to verify the estimated contaminant transport and associated predictions of groundwater contaminant concentrations. While primarily intended for evaluating contaminant transport under natural attenuation conditions, the approach can also be applied to identify types of, and targets for, mitigation approaches in the vadose zone that would reduce the temporal profile of contaminant concentrations in groundwater, if needed.

  2. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID{number_sign} 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 {mu} to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solution had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml. This solution was disposed of at the TAN warm waste pond, TAN782, TSF-10.

  3. Retention of contaminants in northern natural peatlands treating mine waste waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

    2014-05-01

    The mining industry in Finland is growing, leading to an increasing number of working and proposed mine sites. As a consequence, the amount of mine waste waters created is likewise increasing. This poses a great challenge for water management and purification, as these mine waste waters can lead to severe environmental and health consequences when released to receiving water bodies untreated. In the past years, the use of natural peatlands for cost-effective passive waste water treatment has been increasing. In this study, the fate of mine water contaminants in a treatment peatland receiving process waters from the Kittilä gold mine was investigated. Special attention was paid to the fate of potentially harmful substances such as arsenic, antimony or nickel. During the 4 years of operation, the peatland removed contaminants from process waters at varying efficiencies. While arsenic, antimony and nickel were retained at high efficiencies (>80% retention), other contaminants such as zinc, sulfate or iron were not retained or even leaching from the peatland. Soil samples taken in 2013 showed a linear increase of arsenic, antimony and nickel concentration in the peatland as compared to earlier sampling times, in agreement with the good retention efficiencies for those contaminants. Measured concentrations exceeded guideline values for contaminated soils, indicating that the prolonged use of treatment peatlands leads to high soil contamination and restrict further uses of the peatlands without remediation measures. Soil and pore water samples were taken along a transect with varying distance from the process water distribution ditch and analyzed for total and more easily mobile concentrations of contaminants (peat soil) as well as total and dissolved contaminants (water samples). Concentrations of contaminants such as arsenic, manganese or antimony in peat and pore water samples were highest near the distribution ditch and decreased with increasing distance from the

  4. ISOCELL{trademark} proof-of-concept for retrieval of wastes and contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Chatwin, T.D.; Krieg, R.K.

    1992-08-01

    ISOCELL{sup TM} cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize buried hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste and contaminated soil by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust or aerosol production. A ``proof-of-concept`` test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in clean soil by RKK, Ltd., for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze moist soil into a solid block capable of being lifted and retrieved. Test conditions were compared to characteristics of possible buried waste sites in the INEL.

  5. ISOCELL trademark proof-of-concept for retrieval of wastes and contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Chatwin, T.D. ); Krieg, R.K. )

    1992-01-01

    ISOCELL{sup TM} cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize buried hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste and contaminated soil by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust or aerosol production. A proof-of-concept'' test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in clean soil by RKK, Ltd., for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze moist soil into a solid block capable of being lifted and retrieved. Test conditions were compared to characteristics of possible buried waste sites in the INEL.

  6. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  7. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in Salt Caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Smith, K. P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G. P.

    1998-08-28

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste

  8. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste

  9. Microbial treatment of sulfur-contaminated industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Zarco-Tovar, Karina; Aburto, Jorge; de León, Roberto García; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the microbial removal of sulfur from a solid industrial waste in liquid culture under laboratory conditions. The study involved the use of two bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 isolated from a Mexican soil. Experimentation for industrial waste biotreatment was done in liquid culture using 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL Starkey modified culture medium and incubated at 30°C during 7 days. The industrial waste was added at different pulp densities (8.25-100% w/v) corresponding to different sulfur contents from 0.7 to 8.63% (w/w). Sulfur-oxidizing activity of the strain AZCT-M125-5 produced 281 and 262 mg/g of sulfate and a sulfur removal of 60% and 45.7% when the pulp density was set at 8.25 and 16.5% (w/v), respectively. In comparison, the strain A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 showed a lower sulfur-oxidizing activity with a sulfate production of 25.6 and 12.7 mg/g and a sulfur removal of 6% and 2.5% at the same pulp densities, respectively. Microbial growth was limited by pulp densities higher than 25% (w/v) of industrial waste with minimal sulfur-oxidizing activity and sulfur removal. The rate of sulfur removal for Acidithiobacillus thioxidans AZCT-M125-5 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 was 0.185 and 0.0159 mg S g(-1) h(-1) with a pulp density of 16.5% (w/v), respectively. This study demonstrated that Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 possesses a high sulfur-oxidizing activity, even at high sulfur concentration, which allows the treatment of hazardous materials. PMID:24171423

  10. Organic wastes to enhance phyto-treatment of diesel-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Agamuthu, P

    2013-11-01

    Toxic inorganic and organic chemicals are major contributors to environmental contamination and pose major health risks to human population. In this work, Dracaena reflexa and Podocarpus polystachyus were investigated for their potential to remove hydrocarbons from 2.5% and 1% diesel fuel-contaminated soil amended individually with 5% organic wastes (tea leaf, soy cake and potato skin) for a period of 270 days. Loss of 90% and 99% oil was recorded in soil contaminated with 2.5% and 1% oil with soy cake amendment, respectively, compared with 52% and 62% in unamended soil with D. reflexa at the end of 270 days. Similarly, 84% and 91% oil loss was recorded for P. polystachyus amended with organic wastes in 2.5% and 1% oil, respectively. Diesel fuel disappeared more rapidly in the soil amendment with SC than in other organic waste supplementation. It was evident that plants did not accumulate hydrocarbon from the soil, while the number of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria was high in the rhizosphere, thus suggesting that the mechanism of the oil degradation was rhizodegradation. The kinetic model result indicated a high rate of degradation in soil amendment with SC at 1% with D. reflexa compared with other treatments. Thus, a positive relationship was observed between diesel hydrocarbon degradation with plant biomass production. Dracaena reflexa with organic wastes amendment has a greater potential of restoring hydrocarbon-contaminated soil compared to P. polystachyus plant. PMID:24025373

  11. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  12. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTES: CROSSCURRENT AND COUNTERCURRENT SOLVENT WASHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    solvent washing was evaluated as a method to remove pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aged field soils contaminated with wood treating wastes. Several soil:solvent contact ratios were considered. Solvent washing processes were evaluated based on the removal of PCP from the soil throug...

  13. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. efunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations we...

  14. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: VITRIFICATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY HAZARDOUS AND/OR RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A performance summary of an advanced multifuel-capable combustion and melting system (CMS) for the vitrification of hazardous wastes is presented. Vortex Corporation has evaluated its patented CMS for use in the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclid...

  15. LAND TREATMENT AND THE TOXICITY RESPONSE OF SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils contaminated with wood preserving wastes, including pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote, are treated at a field-scale in an engineered prepared-bed system consisting of two one-acre land treatment units (LTUs). he concentration of selected indicator compounds of treatment ...

  16. CHEMICAL MARKERS OF HUMAN WASTE CONTAMINATION IN SOURCE WATERS: A SIMPLIFIED ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giving public water authorities a tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. This methodology, using both urobilin and azithromycin (or any other human-use pharmaceutical) could be used to give pub...

  17. 125. ARAI Contaminated waste storage tank (ARA729). Shows location of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. ARA-I Contaminated waste storage tank (ARA-729). Shows location of tank on the ARA-I site, section views, connecting pipeline, and other details. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-301-3. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0301-00-613-102711. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Effects of closure cap and liner on contaminant release rates from grouted wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, A.D.; Fowler, J.R.; Bignell, D.T.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a groundwater modeling study of waste disposal concepts using grouted waste forms. The focus of the study is on the effects of clay caps and concrete vaults on contaminant migration. The authors modeled three waste disposal scenarios: (1) Grouted waste was solidified in an earthen trench and covered with soil, there was no vault and no cap; (2) grouted waste was solidified in an earthen trench, the entire waste disposal facility was then closed under a clay cap; (3) grouted waste was solidified in a concrete vault and protected by the same closure as in 2. Because of the huge contrast in hydraulic conductivities and highly non-linear multi-phase flow characteristics, these waste disposal concepts presented a difficult problem for numerical simulation. Advanced fluid flow and contaminant transport codes were used to solve the problem. Among the codes tested, ECLIPSE out-performed other codes in speed, accuracy (smaller material balance errors) and capability in handling sophisticated scenarios. The authors used nitrate as a tracer for the simulation. Nitrate does not absorb in the solid phase and does not decay. As a result, predicted release rate based on nitrate is conservative. They also assumed that the facility is intact for 10,000 years. In other words, properties of the materials used for this study do not change with time. Predicted peak flux for the no vault and no closure case was 5.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} per year at 12 years. If a clay cap was installed, predicted peak flux was 8.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year at 110 years. If the grout was disposed in a concrete vault and covered by a clay cap, predicted peak flux became 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} per year at 8,000 years. Both concrete liner and clay cap can reduce the rate of contaminant release to the water table and delay the peak time.

  19. CONTAMINATION CONTROL DURING IN SITU JET GROUTING FOR APPLICATION IN A BURIED TRANSURANIC WASTE SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Guy G.; Jessmore, Jim J.

    2003-02-27

    Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

  20. Contamination Control During In Situ Jet Grouting for Application in a Buried Transuranic Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Guy George; Jessmore, James Joseph

    2003-02-01

    Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

  1. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOEpatents

    Vijayan, Sivaraman; Wong, Chi F.; Buckley, Leo P.

    1994-01-01

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  2. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOEpatents

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  3. Hanford tank residual wastecontaminant source terms and release models

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2011-08-23

    Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). In the long term, the residual wastes represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2 to 29.1 wt%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low (<1.5 wt%) in other tanks (C-202 and C-203). Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations, while non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-P±H phases are common in the U-rich residual wastes from tanks C-202 and C-203. Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples studied to date. Contaminant release from the residual wastes was studied by conducting batch leach tests using distilled deionized water, a Ca(OH)2-saturated solution, or a CaCO3-saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO3-saturated solution than with the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution than by the CaCO3-saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less

  4. Detection and Monitoring of E-Waste Contamination through Remote Sensing and Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garb, Yaakov; Friedlander, Lonia

    2015-04-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams, and also one of the more problematic, as this end-of-life product contains precious metals mixed with and embedded in a variety of low value and potentially harmful plastic and other materials. This combination creates a powerful incentive for informal value chains that transport, extract from, and dispose of e-waste materials in far-ranging and unregulated ways, and especially in settings where regulation and livelihood alternatives are sparse, most notably in areas of India, China, and Africa. E-waste processing is known to release a variety of contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, including flame retardants, dioxins and furans. In several sites, where the livelihoods of entire communities are dependent on e-waste processing, the resulting contaminants have been demonstrated to enter the hydrological system and food chain and have serious health and ecological effects. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of multi-spectral remote sensing imagery to detect and monitor the release and possibly the dispersal of heavy metal contaminants released in e-waste processing. While similar techniques have been used for prospecting or for studying heavy metal contamination from mining and large industrial facilities, we suggest that these techniques are of particular value in detecting contamination from the more dispersed, shifting, and ad-hoc kinds of release typical of e-waste processing. Given the increased resolution and decreased price of multi-spectral imagery, such techniques may offer a remarkably cost-effective and rapidly responsive means of assessing and monitoring this kind of contamination. We will describe the geochemical and multi-spectral image-processing principles underlying our approach, and show how we have applied these to an area in which we have a detailed, multi-temporal, spatially referenced, and ground

  5. Khazar Iodine Production Plant Site Remediation in Turkmenistan. NORM Contaminated Waste Repository Establishment - 12398

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbutovskiy, Alexander B.; Cheremisin, Peter I.; Troshev, Alexander V.; Egorov, Alexander J.; Boriskin, Mikhail M.; Bogod, Mikhail A.

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety provisions for NORM contaminated areas are in use in a number of the former Soviet republics. Some of these areas were formed by absorbed radionuclides at the iodine and bromine extraction sites. As a rule, there are not any plant radiation monitoring systems nor appropriate services to ensure personnel, population and environmental radiation safety. The most hazardous sites are those which are situated in the Caspian Sea coastal zone. The bulk of the accumulated waste is represented by a loose mixture of sand and charcoal, which was basically used as the iodine extraction sorbent. The amounts of these wastes were estimated to be approximately 20,000 metric tons. The waste contamination is mainly composed of Ra-226 (U-238 decay series) and Ra-224, Ra-228 (Th-232 decay series). In 2009, the 'ECOMET-S', a Closed Joint-Stock Company from St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, was authorized by the Turkmenistan government to launch the rehabilitation project. The project includes D and D activities, contaminated areas remediation, collected wastes safe transportation to the repository and its disposal following repository closure. The work at the Khazar chemical plant started in September, 2010. Comprehensive radiological surveys to estimate the waste quantities were carried out in advance. In course of the rehabilitation work at the site of the Khazar chemical plant additional waste quantities (5,000 MT, 10,000 m{sup 3}) were discovered after the sludge was dumped and drained. Disposal volumes for this waste was not provided initially. The additional volume of the construction wastes was required in order to accommodate all the waste to be disposed. For the larger disposal volume the project design enterprise VNIPIET, offered to erect a second wall outside the existing one and this solution was adopted. As of May, 2011, 40,575 m{sup 3} of contaminated waste were collected and disposed safely. This volume represents 96.6% of the initial repository volume

  6. Dose potential of sludge contaminated and/or TRU contaminated waste in B-25s for tornado and straight wind events

    SciTech Connect

    Aponte, C.I.

    2000-02-17

    F and H Tank Farms generate supernate and sludge contaminated Low-Level Waste. The waste is collected, characterized, and packaged for disposal. Before the waste can be disposed of, however, it must be properly characterized. Since the radionuclide distribution in typical supernate is well known, its characterization is relatively straight forward and requires minimal effort. Non-routine waste, including potentially sludge contaminated, requires much more effort to effectively characterize. The radionuclide distribution must be determined. In some cases the waste can be contaminated by various sludge transfers with unique radionuclide distributions. In these cases, the characterization can require an extensive effort. Even after an extensive characterization effort, the container must still be prepared for shipping. Therefore a significant amount of time may elapse from the time the waste is generated until the time of disposal. During the time it is possible for a tornado or high wind scenario to occur. The purpose of this report is to determine the effect of a tornado on potential sludge contaminated waste, or Transuranic (TRU) waste in B-25s [large storage containers], to evaluate the potential impact on F and H Tank Farms, and to help establish a B-25 control program for tornado events.

  7. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of tannery waste contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Masood, Farhana; Malik, Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Soil samples from agricultural fields in the vicinity of industrial area of Jajmau, Kanpur (India) were collected and found to be heavily contaminated with various toxic heavy metals. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of organic compounds mainly phthalates in contaminated soils. Samples were extracted using dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane solvents, and the extracts were assayed for genotoxic potential using three different bioassays namely Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome test, DNA repair defective Escherichia coli K-12 mutants and Allium cepa chromosomal aberration assay. TA98 was found to be the most sensitive strain to all the soil extracts tested. The highest mutagenic potential was observed in DCM extracts of soil as compared with hexane extracts for each strain of Salmonella typhimurium. DCM extracts of the soil exhibited maximum damage to the cells at a dose of 40 μl of soil extracts/ml of culture after a 6-h treatment. The survival was 23% in polA, 40% in lexA and 53% in recA mutants when treated with DCM extract of site I. In A. cepa assay, all the test concentrations of soil extracts (5-100%) affected mitotic index in a dose-dependent manner and several types of abnormalities were observed at different mitotic stages with the treatments: C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, laggards, binucleated cells, stickiness, broken and unequal distributions of chromosomes at anaphase stage of cell division. The soil is accumulating a large number of pollutants as a result of wastewater irrigation and this practice of accumulation has an adverse impact on soil health. PMID:23268142

  8. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were {sup 85}Sr, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period.

  9. Effects of natural attenuation processes on groundwater contamination caused by abandoned waste sites in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerndorff, Helmut; Kühn, Stephan; Minden, Thomas; Orlikowski, Dagmar; Struppe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this research project is to identify, characterize and quantify natural attenuation (NA) processes in groundwater affected by emissions of abandoned waste disposal sites in Berlin-Kladow/Gatow, Germany. It is part of the funding priority called KORA established by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) to explore the extent to which NA can be used for remedial purposes for varied forms of soil and groundwater contamination. Information on the emission behaviour of individual parameters is generated on the basis of hydrogeochemical comparison of 20 years old and new data. Using groundwater-modelling and CFC-analysis, information on the transport and retention of pollutants in groundwater is compiled. The microbial colonization of contaminated aquifers is characterized by molecular biological methods [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] to differentiate between contaminated and not contaminated zones.

  10. Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Robinson, Ryan; Brännvall, Evelina; Nordmark, Désirée; Bjurström, Henrik; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders; Ecke, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment. PMID:20630737

  11. Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

  12. Contaminant Release Data Package for Residual Waste in Single-Shell Hanford Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-12-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation report be submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology. The RCRA Facility Investigation report will provide a detailed description of the state of knowledge needed for tank farm performance assessments. This data package provides detailed technical information about contaminant release from closed single-shell tanks necessary to support the RCRA Facility Investigation report. It was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., which is tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with tank closure. This data package is a compilation of contaminant release rate data for residual waste in the four Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) that have been tested (C-103, C-106, C-202, and C-203). The report describes the geochemical properties of the primary contaminants of interest from the perspective of long-term risk to groundwater (uranium, technetium-99, iodine-129, chromium, transuranics, and nitrate), the occurrence of these contaminants in the residual waste, release mechanisms from the solid waste to water infiltrating the tanks in the future, and the laboratory tests conducted to measure release rates.

  13. Toward Identifying the Next Generation of Superfund and Hazardous Waste Site Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled “Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation” held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants. Objectives Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants. Discussion Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific attributes: They are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, occur in large quantities, and have localized accumulation with a likelihood of exposure. Although still under development and incompletely applied, methods to quantify these attributes can assist in winnowing down the list of candidates from the universe of potential CECs. Unfortunately, significant research gaps exist in detection and quantification, environmental fate and transport, health and risk assessment, and site exploration and remediation for CECs. Addressing these gaps is prerequisite to a preventive approach to generating and managing hazardous waste sites. Conclusions A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention. PMID:21205582

  14. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  15. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    A. Faucette; J. Bognar; T. Broderick; T. Battaglia

    2000-01-13

    Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, a sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. Four new sorbents have been developed to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, with mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant is targeted at colloidal mercury that is not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicate good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and

  16. [Simulation on contamination forecast and control of groundwater in a certain hazardous waste landfill].

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-Fei; An, Da; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; Li, Ding-Long; Zhang, Jin-Bao; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of site investigation and data collection of a certain hazardous waste landfill, the groundwater flow and solute transport coupled models were established by applying Visual Modflow software, which was used to conduct a numerical simulation that forecast the transport process of Cr6+ in groundwater and the effects of three control measures (ground-harden, leakage-proof barriers and drainage ditches) of contaminants transport after leachate leakage happened in impermeable layer of the landfill. The results show that the contamination plume of Cr6+ transports with groundwater flow direction, the contamination rang would reach the pool's boundary in 10 years, and the distance of contamination transport is 1 450 m. But the diffusion range of contamination plume would not be obviously expanded between 10 and 20 years. While the ground is hardened, the contamination plume would not reach the pool's boundary in 20 years. When the leakage-proof barrier is set in the bottom of water table aquifer, the concentration of Cr6+ is higher than that the leakage-proof barrier is unset, but the result is just opposite when setting the leakage-proof barrier in the bottom of underlying aquifer. The range of contamination plume is effectively controlled by setting drainage ditches that water discharge is 2 642 m3 x d(-1), which makes the monitoring wells would not be contaminated in 20 years. Moreover, combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches can get the best effect in controlling contaminants diffusion, and meanwhile, the drainage ditches' daily discharge is reduced to 1 878 m3 x d(-1). Therefore, it is suggested that the control measure combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches should apply to prevent contamination diffusion in groundwater when leachate leakage have happened in impermeable layer of the landfill. PMID:22452190

  17. Determination of biological removal of recalcitrant organic contaminants in coal gasification waste water.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qinhong; Tabassum, Salma; Yu, Guangxin; Chu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2015-01-01

    Coal gasification waste water treatment needed a sustainable and affordable plan to eliminate the organic contaminants in order to lower the potential environmental and human health risk. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-aerobic intermittent system carried out 66 operational cycles together for the treatment of coal gasification waste water and the removal capacity of each organic pollutant. Contaminants included phenols, carboxylic acids, long-chain hydrocarbons, and heterocyclic compounds, wherein the relative content of phenol is up to 57.86%. The long-term removal of 77 organic contaminants was evaluated at different hydraulic retention time (anaerobic24 h + aerobic48 h and anaerobic48 h +aerobic48 h). Contaminant removal ranged from no measurable removal to near-complete removal with effluent concentrations below the detection limit. Contaminant removals followed one of four trends: steady-state removal throughout, increasing removal to steady state (acclimation), decreasing removal, and no removal. Organic degradation and transformation in the reaction were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technology. PMID:25951900

  18. Removable of trace radionuclides and chemical contaminants from waste evaporator condensates by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Del Debbio, J.A.

    1986-09-01

    The feasibility of using electrodialysis, a membrane separation process, to remove radioactive and chemical contaminants from Process Equipment Waste (PEW) evaporator condensates was evaluated with a one-hundredth scale vendor-built pilot plant. Decontamination efficiencies (DE) for nine radionuclides and six chemical contaminants were determined. Excluding plutonium, which behaved erratically, the average radionuclide DE was 96%. Nitric acid removal averaged 98%, while the average DE for mercury was 83%. To a large extent, radionuclide removal was due to sorption on the membranes. Seventy-two percent of the input radioactivity for eleven runs became sorbed on the membranes.

  19. Waste management and contaminated site remediation practices after oil spill: a case study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando Jorge Santos; da Rocha Calixto, Renata Oliveira; Felippe, Carlos Eduardo Cunha; de Franca, Francisca Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    A case study is presented on waste management practices implemented after a residual fuel oil spill from a steam-generating boiler in an industrial area, and on the technical feasibility of monitored natural attenuation as a treatment option for a recently contaminated tropical soil. One day after contamination, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbons and phenanthrene concentrations varied from 3.1 to 7.9 g kg(-1) and 149 to 287 µg kg(-1), respectively. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations decayed along the monitored time and after 90 days of processes the soil was considered rehabilitated for future industrial use. PMID:24163378

  20. Mercury retorting of calcine waste, contaminated soils and railroad ballast at the Idaho National Egineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Rothermel, J.S.; Sherwood, J.; Heath, S.A.; Lo, T.Y.R.

    1996-02-28

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been involved in nuclear reactor research and development for over 40 years. One of the earliest major projects involved the development of a nuclear powered aircraft engine, a long-term venture which used mercury as a shielding medium. Over the course of several years, a significant amount of mercury was spilled along the railroad tracks where the test engines were transported and stored. In addition, experiments with volume reduction of waste through a calcine process employing mercury as a catalyst resulted in mercury contaminated calcine waste. Both the calcine and Test Area North wastes have been identified in Department of Energy Action Memorandums to be retorted, thereby separating the mercury from the various contaminated media. Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company awarded the Mercury Retort contract to ETAS Corporation and assigned Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. to manage the treatment field activities. The mercury retort process entails a mobile unit which consists of four trailer-mounted subsystems requiring electricity, propane, and a water supply. This mobile system demonstrates an effective strategy for retorting waste and generating minimal secondary waste.

  1. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; <1.4-100, <1.2-100, and <0.5-20 ng/L, respectively). Interestingly, there were specific PFC profiles: perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid (88 and 77 ng/L, respectively) were almost as abundant as PFOA in MD leachate (100 ng/L), whereas PFNA was prevalent in ER and BR (mean, 17 and 6.2 ng/L, respectively) and PFUDA was the most abundant in municipal wastewater (mean, 5.6 ng/L), indicating differences in PFC contents in different waste materials. PMID:22773082

  2. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

    2002-02-25

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  3. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE.

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

    2002-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  4. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  5. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on {sup 90}Sr, {sup 3}H, and {sup 137}Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides.

  6. Demonstration of NFS DeHg Process for Stabilizing Mercury (<260 ppm) Contaminated Mixed Waste. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 2229

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Based on efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of wastes contaminated with < 260 ppm mercury and with radionuclides stored at various DOE sites is estimated to be approximately 6,000 m3 (Conley, Morris, Osborne-Lee, and Hulet 1998). At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. Extraction methods are required to remove mercury from waste containing >260 ppm levels, but below 260 ppm Hg contamination levels, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not require removal of mercury from the waste. Steps must still be taken, however, to ensure that the final waste form does not leach mercury in excess of the limit for mercury prescribed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) when subjected to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At this time, the limit is 0.20mg/L. However, in the year 2000, the more stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) of 0.025 mg/L will be used as the target endpoint. Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards and to be feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. To date, no standard method of stabilization has been developed and proven for such varying waste types as those within the DOE complex.

  7. Caustic Waste-Soil Weathering Reactions and Their Impacts on Trace Contaminant Migration and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Chorover, Jon; Mueller, Karl T.; O'Day, Peggy; Serne, R. Jeff

    2003-06-01

    High pH waste solutions are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the subsurface environment and react with sediment minerals, promoting dissolution and precipitation processes that impact 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I speciation and migration behavior in the vadose zone. We have conducted long-term kinetic studies, with reaction times ranging from 1 to 369 d, to examine relationships between aluminosilicate weathering in the presence of synthetic tank waste leachate (STWL) and contaminant uptake and release. Our experiments employ a sequence of specimen clay minerals including illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite and kaolinite, which are also important reactive solids in the Hanford sediments. These studies have shown direct coupling between mineral transformation reactions and contaminant sequestration/stabilization.

  8. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2005-06-03

    CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL.

  9. Tomographic gamma scanning of uranium-contaminated waste at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, D.J.; Betts, S.E.; Prettyman, T.H.; Rael, C.D.

    1998-12-31

    A tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS) instrument was deployed at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to assist with the deactivation of Building 886. Many 208-L drums containing waste contaminated with highly enriched uranium were measured in order to certify these sites for shipment and disposal. This project marks a successful cooperation between RFETS and Los Alamos National Laboratory and is the first major field experience using TGS technology to assay uranium.

  10. High-Level Waste Tanks Multi-Dimensional Contaminant Transport Model Development Enhancements for 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2001-09-21

    A suite of multi-dimensional computer models was developed in 1999 (Collard and Flach) to analyze the transport of residual contamination from high-level waste tanks through the subsurface to seeplines. Enhancements in 2000 to those models include investigate the effect of numerical dispersion, develop a solubility-limited case for U and Pu, and develop a plan for a database as part of the Rapid Screening Tool and start to implement that plan.

  11. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in soils near a primitive e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The total concentrations of 12 heavy metals in surface soils (SS, 0-20 cm), middle soils (MS, 30-50 cm) and deep soils (DS, 60-80 cm) from an acid-leaching area, a deserted paddy field and a deserted area of Guiyu were measured. The results showed that the acid-leaching area was heavily contaminated with heavy metals, especially in SS. The mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb in SS from the acid-leaching area were 278.4, 684.1, 572.8, 1.36, 3,472, 1,706 and 222.8 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal pollution in the deserted paddy field was mainly concentrated in SS and MS. The average values of Sb in SS and MS from the deserted paddy field were 16.3 and 20.2 mg/kg, respectively. However, heavy metal contamination of the deserted area was principally found in the DS. Extremely high concentrations of heavy metals were also observed at some special research sites, further confirming that the level of heavy metal pollution was very serious. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values revealed that the acid-leaching area was severely polluted with heavy metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Pb, while deserted paddy field was contaminated predominately by metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu. It was obvious that the concentrations of some uncommon contaminants, such as Sb and Sn, were higher than principal contaminants, such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, suggesting that particular attention should be directed to Sn and Sb contamination in the future research of heavy metals in soils from e-waste-processing areas. Correlation analysis suggested that Li and Be in soils from the acid-leaching area and its surrounding environment might have originated from other industrial activities and from batteries, whereas Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb contamination was most likely caused by uncontrolled electronic waste (e-waste) processing. These results indicate the significant need for optimisation of e-waste-dismantling technologies and remediation of polluted soil

  12. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters.

  13. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  14. Processing results of 1800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-05-01

    Mercury-contaminated rinse solution was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 reactor shield tank. Approximately 6.8 m{sup 3} (1,800 pi) of waste was generated and placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 2--5 cm in depth, with the average depth of about 6 cm. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/mL while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pCi/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. The resulting solution after treatment had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml.

  15. Caffeine and pharmaceuticals as indicators of waste water contamination in wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Zaugg, S.D.; Thomas, J.M.; Howcroft, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of caffeine or human pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations can provide a clear, unambiguous indication that domestic waste water is a source of some of the nitrate. Water from domestic, public supply, and monitoring wells in three communities near Reno, Nevada, was sampled to test if caffeine or pharmaceuticals are common, persistent, and mobile enough in the environment that they can be detected in nitrate-contaminated ground water and, thus, can be useful indicators of recharge from domestic waste water. Results of this study indicate that these compounds can be used as indicators of recharge from domestic waste water, although their usefulness is limited because caffeine is apparently nonconservative and the presence of prescription pharmaceuticals is unpredictable. The absence of caffeine or pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations does not demonstrate that the aquifer is free of waste water contamination. Caffeine was detected in ground water samples at concentrations up to 0.23 ??g/L. The human pharmaceuticals chlorpropamide, phensuximide, and carbamazepine also were detected in some samples.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2002-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench).

  17. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  18. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Rates EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments... respective annual market share of 88 percent for reusable wipes and 12 percent for disposable wipes (68 FR... of the Common Sense Initiative (CSI) for the printing industry (59 FR 27295). The CSI...

  19. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Labieniec, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface.

  20. Demonstration of New Technologies Required for the Treatment of Mixed Waste Contaminated with {ge}260 ppm Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.

    2002-02-06

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defines several categories of mercury wastes, each of which has a defined technology or concentration-based treatment standard, or universal treatment standard (UTS). RCRA defines mercury hazardous wastes as any waste that has a TCLP value for mercury of 0.2 mg/L or greater. Three of these categories, all nonwastewaters, fall within the scope of this report on new technologies to treat mercury-contaminated wastes: wastes as elemental mercury; hazardous wastes with less than 260 mg/kg [parts per million (ppm)] mercury; and hazardous wastes with 260 ppm or more of mercury. While this report deals specifically with the last category--hazardous wastes with 260 ppm or more of mercury--the other two categories will be discussed briefly so that the full range of mercury treatment challenges can be understood. The treatment methods for these three categories are as follows: Waste as elemental mercury--RCRA identifies amalgamation (AMLGM) as the treatment standard for radioactive elemental mercury. However, radioactive mercury condensates from retorting (RMERC) processes also require amalgamation. In addition, incineration (IMERC) and RMERC processes that produce residues with >260 ppm of radioactive mercury contamination and that fail the RCRA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limit for mercury (0.20 mg/L) require RMERC, followed by AMLGM of the condensate. Waste with <260 ppm mercury--No specific treatment method is specified for hazardous wastes containing <260 ppm. However, RCRA regulations require that such wastes (other than RMERC residues) that exceed a TCLP mercury concentration of 0.20 mg/L be treated by a suitable method to meet the TCLP limit for mercury of 0.025 mg/L. RMERC residues must meet the TCLP value of {ge}0.20 mg/L, or be stabilized and meet the {ge}0.025 mg/L limit. Waste with {ge}260 ppm mercury--For hazardous wastes with mercury contaminant concentrations {ge}260 ppm and RCRA

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site.

    PubMed

    Adama, M; Esena, R; Fosu-Mensah, B; Yirenya-Tawiah, D

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites. PMID:27034685

  2. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    PubMed Central

    Adama, M.; Esena, R.; Fosu-Mensah, B.; Yirenya-Tawiah, D.

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites. PMID:27034685

  3. Effective solidification/stabilisation of mercury-contaminated wastes using zeolites and chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xinyan; Xiong, Ya; Wang, Guoping; Zheng, Na

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two kinds of zeolites materials (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) were added to the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic processes to treat mercury-contaminated wastes. Strong promotion effects of zeolites (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) on the stability of mercury in the wastes were obtained and these technologies showed promising advantages toward the traditional Portland cement process, i.e. using Portland cement as a solidification agent and natural or thiol-functionalised zeolite as a stabilisation agent. Not only is a high stabilisation efficiency (lowered the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Hg by above 10%) obtained, but also a lower dosage of solidification (for thiol-functionalised zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.5 g g(-1) and 0.7 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) and stabilisation agents (for natural zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.35 g g(-1) and 0.4 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) were used compared with the Portland cement process. Treated by thiol-functionalised zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic under optimum parameters, the waste containing 1500 mg Hg kg(-1) passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test. Moreover, stabilisation/solidification technology using natural zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic also passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test (the mercury waste containing 625 mg Hg kg(-1)). Moreover, the presence of chloride and phosphate did not have a negative effect on the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic/thiol-functionalised zeolite treatment process; thus, showing potential for future application in treatment of 'difficult-to-manage' mercury-contaminated wastes or landfill disposal with high phosphate and chloride content. PMID:25568090

  4. Summary report on the demonstration of the Duratek process for treatment of mixed-waste contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Lomenick, T.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of the demonstration of the Duratek process for removal of radioactive and hazardous waste compounds from mixed-waste contaminated groundwaters found at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). The process uses Duratek proprietary Durasil{reg_sign} ion-exchange media to remove the above contaminants from the water to produce treated water that can meet current and proposed drinking water quality standards with regard to the above contaminants. The demonstration showed that the process is simple, compact, versatile, and rugged and requires only minimal operator attention. It is thus recommended that this process be considered for remediating the mixed-waste contaminated waters found at the Energy Systems-managed DOE sites.

  5. Summary report on the demonstration of the Duratek process for treatment of mixed-waste contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Lomenick, T.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of the demonstration of the Duratek process for removal of radioactive and hazardous waste compounds from mixed-waste contaminated groundwaters found at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). The process uses Duratek proprietary Durasil{reg sign} ion-exchange media to remove the above contaminants from the water to produce treated water that can meet current and proposed drinking water quality standards with regard to the above contaminants. The demonstration showed that the process is simple, compact, versatile, and rugged and requires only minimal operator attention. It is thus recommended that this process be considered for remediating the mixed-waste contaminated waters found at the Energy Systems-managed DOE sites.

  6. Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.

    2012-04-01

    Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance <500m to the

  7. Three dimensional electrode for the electrolytic removal of contaminants from aqueous waste streams

    DOEpatents

    Spiegel, Ella F.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-01-01

    Efficient and cost-effective electrochemical devices and processes for the remediation of aqueous waste streams. The invention provides electrolytic cells having a high surface area spouted electrode for removal of heavy metals and oxidation of organics from aqueous environments. Heavy metal ions are reduced, deposited on cathode particles of a spouted bed cathode and removed from solution. Organics are efficiently oxidized at anode particles of a spouted bed anode and removed from solution. The method of this inventions employs an electrochemical cell having an anolyte compartment and a catholyte compartment, separated by a microporous membrane, in and through which compartments anolyte and catholyte, respectively, are circulated. A spouted-bed electrode is employed as the cathode for metal deposition from contaminated aqueous media introduced as catholyte and as the anode for oxidation of organics from contaminated aqueous media introduced as anolyte.

  8. Remote automatic control scheme for plasma arc cutting of contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Ward, C.R.; Kriikku, E.M.

    1993-10-01

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Technology Center has developed and implemented a scheme to perform automatic cutting of metallic contaminated waste. The scheme employs a plasma arc cutter in conjunction with a laser ranging sensor attached to a robotic manipulator called the Telerobot. A software algorithm using proportional control is then used to perturb the robot`s trajectory in such a way as to regulate the plasma arc standoff and the robot`s speed in order to achieve automatic plasma arc cuts. The scheme has been successfully tested on simulated waste materials and the results have been very favorable. This report details the development and testing of the scheme.

  9. Risk assessment of particle dispersion and trace element contamination from mine-waste dumps.

    PubMed

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Ortiz, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a model to delimit risk zones influenced by atmospheric particle dispersion from mine-waste dumps is developed to assess their influence on the soil and the population according to the concentration of trace elements in the waste. The model is applied to the Riotinto Mine (in SW Spain), which has a long history of mining and heavy land contamination. The waste materials are separated into three clusters according to the mapping, mineralogy, and geochemical classification using cluster analysis. Two of the clusters are composed of slag, fresh pyrite, and roasted pyrite ashes, which may contain high concentrations of trace elements (e.g., >1 % As or >4 % Pb). The average pollution load index (PLI) calculated for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Tl, and Zn versus the baseline of the regional soil is 19. The other cluster is primarily composed of sterile rocks and ochreous tailings, and the average PLI is 3. The combination of particle dispersion calculated by a Gaussian model, the PLI, the surface area of each waste and the wind direction is used to develop a risk-assessment model with Geographic Information System GIS software. The zone of high risk can affect the agricultural soil and the population in the study area, particularly if mining activity is restarted in the near future. This model can be applied to spatial planning and environmental protection if the information is complemented with atmospheric particulate matter studies. PMID:25190539

  10. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Impact of Cement Reactions on Release of Contaminants from Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2006-09-01

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. Initial work to produce release models was conducted on residual tank sludge using pure water as the leaching agent. The results were reported in an earlier report. The decision has now been made to close the tanks after waste retrieval with a cementitious grout to minimize infiltration and maintain the physical integrity of the tanks. This report describes testing of the residual waste with a leaching solution that simulates the composition of water passing through the grout and contacting the residual waste at the bottom of the tank.

  11. Closure End States for Facilities, Waste Sites, and Subsurface Contamination - 12543

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, Kurt; Chamberlain, Grover; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Marble, Justin; Wellman, Dawn; Deeb, Rula; Hawley, Elisabeth

    2012-07-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil cleanup effort in the world. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has made significant progress in its restoration efforts at sites such as Fernald and Rocky Flats. However, remaining sites, such as Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, Hanford Site, Los Alamos, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and West Valley Demonstration Project possess the most complex challenges ever encountered by the technical community and represent a challenge that will face DOE for the next decade. Closure of the remaining 18 sites in the DOE EM Program requires remediation of 75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of over 3000 contaminated facilities and thousands of miles of contaminated piping, removal and disposition of millions of cubic yards of legacy materials, treatment of millions of gallons of high level tank waste and disposition of hundreds of contaminated tanks. The financial obligation required to remediate this volume of contaminated environment is estimated to cost more than 7% of the to-go life-cycle cost. Critical in meeting this goal within the current life-cycle cost projections is defining technically achievable end states that formally acknowledge that remedial goals will not be achieved for a long time and that residual contamination will be managed in the interim in ways that are protective of human health and environment. Formally acknowledging the long timeframe needed for remediation can be a basis for establishing common expectations for remedy performance, thereby minimizing the risk of re-evaluating the selected remedy at a later time. Once the expectations for long-term management are in place, remedial efforts can be directed towards near-term objectives (e.g., reducing the risk of exposure to residual contamination

  12. Development and Implementation of an Assay System for Rapid Screening of Transuranic Waste in Highly Contaminated Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Akers; Hopi Salomon; Lyle Robal

    2010-08-01

    An overview of the Fissile Material Monitor Waste Screener (FMM-WS) System is presented. This system is a multifunctional radioactive waste assay system suitable for the rapid assay of highly contaminated transuranic wastes immediately after retrieval, prior to packaging. The FMM-WS was developed for use at the Accelerated Cleanup Project (ARP) and began initial testing and operation in April 2008. The FMM-WS is currently in use and is providing needed data on transuranic (TRU) wastes with a range of material types, volumes, and densities from the Accelerated Retrieval Project (ARP).

  13. Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Krook, J. . E-mail: joakr@ikp.liu.se; Martensson, A.; Eklund, M.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW.

  14. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination. PMID:25298023

  15. Remediation of a historically Pb contaminated soil using a model natural Mn oxide waste.

    PubMed

    McCann, Clare M; Gray, Neil D; Tourney, Janette; Davenport, Russell J; Wade, Matthew; Finlay, Nina; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A; Johnson, Karen L

    2015-11-01

    A natural Mn oxide (NMO) waste was assessed as an in situ remediation amendment for Pb contaminated sites. The viability of this was investigated using a 10 month lysimeter trial, wherein a historically Pb contaminated soil was amended with a 10% by weight model NMO. The model NMO was found to have a large Pb adsorption capacity (qmax 346±14 mg g(-1)). However, due to the heterogeneous nature of the Pb contamination in the soils (3650.54-9299.79 mg kg(-1)), no treatment related difference in Pb via geochemistry could be detected. To overcome difficulties in traditional geochemical techniques due to pollutant heterogeneity we present a new method for unequivocally proving metal sorption to in situ remediation amendments. The method combines two spectroscopic techniques; namely electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Using this we showed Pb immobilisation on NMO, which were Pb free prior to their addition to the soils. Amendment of the soil with exogenous Mn oxide had no effect on microbial functioning, nor did it perturb the composition of the dominant phyla. We conclude that NMOs show excellent potential as remediation amendments. PMID:26073590

  16. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  17. Control technologies for remediation of contaminated soil and waste deposits at Superfund lead-battery recycling sites

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, M.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Gaire, R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. Metallic lead and lead compounds are generally the principal contaminants of concern in soils and waste deposits. Other metals (e.g., cadmium, copper, arsenic, antimony, and selenium) are often present at LBRS. The article is primarily based on experience gained from: (1) Superfund site investigation, removal, and remedial actions, and (2) development and demonstration of control technologies under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The primary remedial options for lead contaminated soils and waste deposits include: (1) no action, (2) off-site disposal, (3) containment, (4) immobilization, (5) separation with resource recovery, and (6) separation without resource recovery.

  18. Fundamental Studies of the Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters via Reduction by Zero-Valent Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmoff, Jory A.; Amrhein, Christopher

    1999-06-01

    Contaminated groundwater and surface waters are a problem throughout the United States and the world. In many instances, the types of contamination can be directly attributed to man's actions. For instance, the burial of chemical wastes, casual disposal of solvents in unlined pits, and the development of irrigated agriculture have all contributed to groundwater and surface water contamination. The kinds of contaminants include chlorinated solvents and toxic trace elements (including radioisotopes) that are soluble and mobile in soils and aquifers. Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. Uranium is a particularly widespread contaminant at most DOE sites including Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats, Hanford, Idaho (INEEL), and Fernald. The uranium contamination is associated with mining and milling of uranium ore (UMTRA sites), isotope separation and enrichment, and mixed waste and TRU waste burial. In addition, the careless disposal of halogenated solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, has further contaminated many groundwaters at these sites. A potential remediation method for many of these oxyanions and chlorinated-solvents is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron. In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used on an experimental basis at many DOE sites. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed for this purpose. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the contaminants and the iron surfaces. We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant chlorinated solvents and trace element-containing compounds with single- and poly-crystalline Fe surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop th e fundamental

  19. Reclamation with Recovery of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Materials, Soils, and Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, A. J.; Dodge, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites. In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded, and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (polyuranate) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

  20. Modelling groundwater contamination above a nuclear waste repository at Gorleben, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2012-05-01

    The candidate repository for high-level nuclear waste in the Gorleben salt dome, Germany, is expected to host 8,550 tonnes of uranium in burnt fuel. It has been proposed that 5,440 waste containers be deposited at a depth of about 800 m. There is 260-280 m of siliciclastic cover sediments above the proposed repository. The potential groundwater contamination in the siliciclastic aquifer is simulated with the TOUGHREACT and TOUGH2-MP codes for a three-dimensional model with 290,435 elements. Two deterministic cases are simulated. The single-phase case considers the transport of radionuclides in the liquid phase only. The two-phase case accounts for hydrogen gas generated by the corrosion of waste containers and release of gaseous C-14. The gas release via a backfilled shaft is assumed to be steady (non-explosive). The simulation period is 2,000,000 years for the single-phase case and 7,000 years for the two-phase case. Only the radioactive dose in the two-phase case is higher than the regulatory limit (0.1 mSv/a).

  1. Hexachlorocyclohexane derivatives in industrial waste and samples from a contaminated riverine system.

    PubMed

    Berger, M; Löffler, D; Ternes, T; Heininger, P; Ricking, M; Schwarzbauer, J

    2016-05-01

    Side and initial degradation products of the persistent organic pollutant hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were largely neglected in environmental analysis so far. However, these compounds can be indicative for biodegradation or emission sources. Thus, several samples from a contaminated riverine system in vicinity to a former HCH production site in Central Germany were analyzed. This area adjacent to the industrial megasite Bitterfeld-Wolfen is known for elevated concentrations of various organic industrial pollutants as legacy of decades of industrial activity and subsequent deposition of chemical waste and emission of waste effluents. In environmental compartments of this riverine system, several isomers of HCH related compounds were detected comprising the two lower chlorinated species tetrachlorocyclohexene (TeCCH) and pentachlorocyclohexene (PeCCH) and the higher chlorinated species heptachlorocyclohexane (HpCCH). Except for the uppermost soil of an analyzed riparian wetland, concentrations of these compounds were low. Detected isomers in sediment, water, and soil samples correlated and dominant isomers of PeCCH and HpCCH were observed in the alluvial deposits. Comparisons with industrial HCH waste revealed isomeric patterns similar to patterns found in soil samples. Therefore, the application of HpCCH as an indicator of industrial HCH pollution is suggested. PMID:26901479

  2. Radioactive waste management and environmental contamination issues at the Chernobyl site.

    PubMed

    Napier, B A; Schmieman, E A; Voitsekovitch, O

    2007-11-01

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near-surface waste storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986-1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5-15 km from the nuclear power plant site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100 y service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel-containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel-containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste

  3. Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Contamination Issues at the Chernobyl Site

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Schmieman, Eric A.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-11-01

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near surface waste-storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986 to 1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5 to 15 km from the NPP site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100-years service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste

  4. Development in Waste Volume Reduction Technologies for Highly Contaminated Organic Radioactive Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    AKAI, Yoshie; OHMURA, Hisao; FUJIE, Makoto; MONIWA, Shinobu; SEKI, Shuji; YOTSUYANAGI, Tadasu; EBATA, Masaaki; TAKAGI, Junichi

    2006-07-01

    In nuclear facilities, there is highly contaminated organic radioactive waste such as ion exchange resins for water purification in nuclear power plants. In the future, it is desired that this waste be decomposed to reduce the volume and to become stable. Toshiba has developed a waste treatment system using supercritical water. Furthermore, the new demineralization system without using ion exchange resin has been examined. By this new system, it is possible to reduce the volume of ion exchange resin waste. First, supercritical water was applied to the decomposition of ion exchange resin. The supercritical water whose temperature and pressure exceed 647 K and 22 MPa is an excellent solvent for organic compound decomposition, since oxygen and organic compounds can exist in a single homogeneous fluid phase. Organic compounds can be rapidly and completely decomposed using supercritical water. Almost all the reactants can be kept in the water during organic compound decomposition. Therefore, applying supercritical water to treat organic radioactive waste is an attractive proposition. Actual plant-size apparatus was constructed with a treatment capacity of 1 kg of ion exchange resin per hour. The test revealed that more than 99.9% of the ion exchange resin was decomposed at 723 K and 30 MPa. By this system, ion exchange resin decomposes rapidly and completely, and the volume of ion exchange resin waste can be largely reduced. Secondly, the new demineralization system without using ion exchange resin is described. The new demineralization system consists of a filter and a demineralization cell. A metal mesh filter is adopted to remove crud, and the demineralization cell removes ionic impurities. In this system, it is important whether demineralization can take place at high temperature. Thus, this report describes the test results of the new demineralization process. This demineralization cell consists of an anode, a cathode, and a membrane made of inorganic material. The

  5. Removal of contaminants from equipment and debris and waste minimization using TechXtract{reg_sign} technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bonem, M.W.

    1997-10-01

    Under this Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA), EET, Inc., is extending its proprietary TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical decontamination technology into an effective, economical, integrated contaminant removal system. This integrated system will consist of a series of decontamination baths using the TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical formulas, followed by a waste treatment process that will remove the contaminants from the spent chemicals. Sufficient decontamination will result so that materials can be released without restriction after they have been treated, even those materials that have traditionally been considered to be {open_quotes}undecontaminable.{close_quotes} The secondary liquid waste will then be treated to separate any hazardous and radioactive contaminants, so that the spent chemicals and wastewater can be discharged through conventional, permitted outlets. The TechXtract{reg_sign} technology is a unique process that chemically extracts hazardous contaminants from the surface and substrate of concrete, steel, and other solid materials. This technology has been used successfully to remove contaminants as varied as PCBs, radionuclides, heavy metals, and hazardous organics. The process` advantage over other alternatives is its effectiveness in safe and consistent extraction of subsurface contamination. TechXtract{reg_sign} is a proprietary process developed, owned, and provided by EET, Inc. The objective of the PRDA is to demonstrate on a full-scale basis an economical system for decontaminating equipment and debris, with further treatment of secondary waste streams to minimize waste volumes. Contaminants will be removed from the contaminated items to levels where they can be released for unrestricted use. The entire system will be designed with maximum flexibility and automation in mind.

  6. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a health risk and ecological risk screening analysis for Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) using available data to identify contaminants and environmental pathways that will require either further investigation or immediate consideration for remediation based on the screening indices. The screening analysis will also identify contaminants that can be assigned a low priority for further investigation and those that require additional data.

  7. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  8. Mineral transformation controls speciation and pore-fluid transmission of contaminants in waste-weathered Hanford sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, Nicolas; Thompson, Aaron; O'Day, Peggy A.; Steefel, Carl I.; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-01

    Portions of the Hanford Site (WA, USA) vadose zone were subjected to weathering by caustic solutions during documented releases of high level radioactive waste (containing Sr, Cs and I) from leaking underground storage tanks. Previous studies have shown that waste-sediment interactions can promote variable incorporation of contaminants into neo-formed mineral products (including feldspathoids and zeolites), but processes regulating the subsequent contaminant release from these phases into infiltrating background pore waters remain poorly known. In this paper, reactive transport experiments were conducted with Hanford sediments previously weathered for one year in simulated hyper-alkaline waste solutions containing high or low 88Sr, 127I, and 133Cs concentrations, with or without CO2(aq). These waste-weathered sediments were leached in flow-through column experiments with simulated background pore water (characteristic of meteoric recharge) to measure contaminant release from solids formed during waste-sediment interaction. Contaminant sorption-desorption kinetics and mineral transformation reactions were both monitored using continuous-flow and wet-dry cycling regimes for ca. 300 pore volumes. Less than 20% of contaminant 133Cs and 88Sr mass and less than 40% 127I mass were released over the course of the experiment. To elucidate molecular processes limiting contaminant release, reacted sediments were studied with micro- (TEM and XRD) and molecular- (Sr K-edge EXAFS) scale methods. Contaminant dynamics in column experiments were principally controlled by rapid dissolution of labile solids and competitive exchange reactions. In initially feldspathoidic systems, time-dependent changes in the local zeolitic bonding environment observed with X-ray diffraction and EXAFS are responsible for limiting contaminant release. Linear combination fits and shell-by-shell analysis of Sr K-edge EXAFS data revealed modification in Sr-Si/Al distances within the zeolite cage. Wet

  9. Multiple-tracer tests for contaminant transport process identification in saturated municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, N.D. Rees-White, T.C.; Stringfellow, A.M.; Beaven, R.P.; Hudson, A.P.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Multiple tracers were applied to saturated MSW to test dual-porosity properties. • Lithium demonstrated to be non-conservative as a tracer. • 260 mm diameter column too small to test transport properties of MSW. • The classical advection-dispersion mode was rejected due to high dispersivity. • Characteristic diffusion times did not vary with the tracer. - Abstract: Two column tests were performed in conditions emulating vertical flow beneath the leachate table in a biologically active landfill to determine dominant transport mechanisms occurring in landfills. An improved understanding of contaminant transport process in wastes is required for developing better predictions about potential length of the long term aftercare of landfills, currently measured in timescales of centuries. Three tracers (lithium, bromide and deuterium) were used. Lithium did not behave conservatively. Given that lithium has been used extensively for tracing in landfill wastes, the tracer itself and the findings of previous tests which assume that it has behaved conservatively may need revisiting. The smaller column test could not be fitted with continuum models, probably because the volume of waste was below a representative elemental volume. Modelling compared advection-dispersion (AD), dual porosity (DP) and hybrid AD–DP models. Of these models, the DP model was found to be the most suitable. Although there is good evidence to suggest that diffusion is an important transport mechanism, the breakthrough curves of the different tracers did not differ from each other as would be predicted based on the free-water diffusion coefficients. This suggested that solute diffusion in wastes requires further study.

  10. Stabilization/solidification of mercury-contaminated waste ash using calcium sodium phosphate (CNP) and magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) processes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2014-08-15

    This study examined the stabilization and solidification (S/S) of mercury (Hg)-contaminated waste ash generated from an industrial waste incinerator using chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) technology. A magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP; MgKPO4 · 6H2O) ceramic, fabricated from MgO and KH2PO4, and a calcium sodium phosphate (CNP; CaNaPO4) ceramic, fabricated from CaO and Na2HPO4, were used as solidification binders in the CBPC process, and Na2S or FeS was added to each solidification binder to stabilize the Hg-contaminated waste ash. The S/S processes were conducted under various operating conditions (based on the solidification binder and stabilization reagent, stabilization reagent dosage, and waste loading ratio), and the performance characteristics of the S/S sample under each operating condition were compared, including the Hg leaching value and compressive strength. The Hg leaching value of untreated Hg-contaminated waste ash was 231.3 μg/L, whereas the S/S samples treated using the MKP and CNP processes exhibited Hg leaching values below the universal treatment standard (UTS) limit (25 μg/L). Although the compressive strengths of the S/S samples decreased as the sulfide dosage and waste loading ratio were increased, most of the S/S samples fabricated by the MKP and CNP processes exhibited good mechanical properties. PMID:24997263

  11. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds. PMID:26189016

  12. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Salati, S; Quadri, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. PMID:19932537

  13. Hydrothermal conversion of urban food waste to chars for removal of textile dyes from contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-06-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization of urban food waste was carried out to prepare hydrochars for removal of Acridine Orange and Rhodamine 6G dyes from contaminated water. The chemical composition and microstructure properties of the synthesized hydrochars were investigated in details. Batch adsorption experiments revealed that hydrochars with lower degree of carbonization were more efficient in adsorption of dyes. Operational parameters such as pH and temperature had a strong influence on the dye uptake process. The adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental kinetic data in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations suggested that dye adsorption onto hydrochars was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of dye removal appears to be associated with physisorption. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling was further carried out to predict the dye adsorption capacity of the hydrochars. PMID:24727353

  14. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  15. Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT(TM) Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jorg Schwitzgebel; Klaus Schwitzgebel; Michael W. Bonem; Ronald E. Borah

    1998-12-09

    From September, 1996 through July, 1997, EET, Inc. conducted a series of experiments under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA). This project, entitled "Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT â Technology" was conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC21- 96MC33138, administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center. The contract is divided into two phases - a base phase during which bench scale testing was conducted; and an optional phase for a field demonstration of a full-scale system. This report documents the results from the base phase of the contract. The base phase included the following major elements: - Evaluation of the effectiveness of various decontamination options, using both surrogate and radioactively contaminated samples. - Evaluation of various methods for the treatment of the secondary waste streams from the preferred decontamination system(s). - Evaluation of decontamination effectiveness for concrete rubble. - Preliminary engineering design and cost estimation for a full-scale system. - Preliminary economic analysis of the proposed system versus other currently available options for disposition of the materials. Results from the base phase, which are described in the following report, are very positive. Testing has shown that free release requirements and extremely high decontamination factors can be achieved for a variety of materials and radionuclides. Results for concrete rubble decontamination were less conclusive. The bench scale testing has led to the design of two different systems, both based on the TECHXTRACT â chemistry, for potential full-scale demonstration. Based on the preliminary economic analysis, this system compares favorably with currently available commercial options, including disposal.

  16. Environmental considerations for the disposal of PBB-contaminated animals and wastes.

    PubMed

    Shah, B P

    1978-04-01

    Accidental contamination of livestock feed in 1973 by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) led to the destruction of over 30,000 animals in Michigan. Animal carcasses of mostly dairy cattle along with some beef cattle, hogs, sheep and rabbits destroyed under the Federal Food and Drug Administration guidelines were disposed on the land at an environmentally safe site in Kalkaska County, Michigan. The geology and hydrology of the disposal site on state-owned land is considered favorable for the disposal of contaminated carcasses and to prevent any migration of PBBs into ground and surface waters of the area. Materials underneath the site are predominantly sand with layers of silts and clays of glacial origin. The vertical isolation from the surface to the water table is over 90 ft, and the horizontal isolation to the privately owned properties and surface water bodies is well over 1.5 mile in all directions. The site design provides necessary safeguards for minimizing surface water infiltration into disposal trenches and maximizing the protection to the environment. A series of water wells in the direction of flow are established for monitoring groundwater quality for years to come. A 40-acre Gratiot County landfill located near St. Louis, Michigan, has received 269,000 lb of wastes containing 60 to 70% PBBs between 1971 and 1973. PBB wastes are intermixed with general refuse at various depths predominantly in the eastern half of the landfill. Phase I of the hydrogeological investigation shows that the landfill is situated immediately above the groundwater aquifer and a divide. Recently drilled test wells show traces of PBBs in the aquifer in all directions. Additional studies are planned in the near future for corrective measures and monitoring. PMID:209986

  17. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24652574

  18. Effect of clay minerals and nanoparticles on chromium fractionation in soil contaminated with leather factory waste.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Marzieh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-10-30

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of time, clay minerals and nanoparticles (NPs) on chromium (Cr) fractionation in a soil contaminated with leather factory waste (LFW). Soil was mixed with LFW, then, the contaminated soils were treated with clay minerals (bentonite and zeolite) and nanoparticles (MgO, TiO2 and ZnO) at 5% and 1%, respectively. The samples were incubated for 15-180 days at 25 °C and constant moisture. After incubation, Cr in control and treated soils was fractionated by the sequential extraction procedure. The distribution of various Cr fractions in control soil indicated that the greatest amounts of Cr were found in the residual fraction (RES) followed by the carbonate (CAR), organic matter (OM) and exchangeable (EXC) fractions. The addition of LFW in soils increased Cr concentration in all fractions. The higher proportion of EXC fraction in the soil treated with LFW indicates its higher potential of leaching and runoff transport. In all treated soils, the RES fraction was increased, while EXC and OM fractions were decreased during incubation. The results indicated that NPs are effective adsorbent for the removal of Cr ions from LFW treated soil, and they could be useful in reducing their environment risk. PMID:25956643

  19. Olive mill waste biochar: a promising soil amendment for metal immobilization in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hmid, Amine; Al Chami, Ziad; Sillen, Wouter; De Vocht, Alain; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of biochar from olive mill waste for in situ remediation of metal contaminated soils was evaluated. Biochar was mixed with metal contaminated soil originating from the vicinity of an old zinc smelter. Soil-biochar mixtures were equilibrated for 30 and 90 days. At these time points, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals were determined, and effects of the biochar amendment on soil toxicity were investigated using plants, bacteria, and earthworms. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) growth, metal content, antioxidative enzymes activities, and soluble protein contents were determined. Furthermore, effects on soil microbial communities (activity, diversity, richness) were examined using Biolog ECOplates. After 120 days of soil-biochar equilibration, effects on weight and reproduction of Eisenia foetida were evaluated. With increasing biochar application rate and equilibration period, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals decreased, and growth of bean plants improved; leaf metal contents reduced, the activities of antioxidative stress enzymes decreased, and soluble protein contents increased. Soil microbial activity, richness, and diversity were augmented. Earthworm mortality lowered, and their growth and reproduction showed increasing trends. PMID:25146122

  20. Susceptibility of the Memphis water supply to contamination from the pesticide waste-disposal site in northeastern Hardeman County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert

    1979-01-01

    Public concern has been expressed over the possiblity that leachates from a pesticide waste-disposal site in northeastern Hardeman County, Tennessee, might eventually reach the Memphis area and endanger the city 's water supply. An examination of the possible pathways and means of transport of these contaminants reveals that, the Memphis area in detectable concentrations is unlikely. (USGS)

  1. Recommendations for dealing with waste contaminated with Ebola virus: a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points approach

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Kelly L; Elrahman, Samira Abd; Bell, Diana J; Brainard, Julii; Dervisevic, Samir; Fedha, Tsimbiri P; Few, Roger; Howard, Guy; Lake, Iain; Maes, Peter; Matofari, Joseph; Minnigh, Harvey; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Montgomery, Maggie; Morter, Sarah; Muchiri, Edward; Mudau, Lutendo S; Mutua, Benedict M; Ndambuki, Julius M; Pond, Katherine; Sobsey, Mark D; van der Es, Mike; Zeitoun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess, within communities experiencing Ebola virus outbreaks, the risks associated with the disposal of human waste and to generate recommendations for mitigating such risks. Methods A team with expertise in the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework identified waste products from the care of individuals with Ebola virus disease and constructed, tested and confirmed flow diagrams showing the creation of such products. After listing potential hazards associated with each step in each flow diagram, the team conducted a hazard analysis, determined critical control points and made recommendations to mitigate the transmission risks at each control point. Findings The collection, transportation, cleaning and shared use of blood-soiled fomites and the shared use of latrines contaminated with blood or bloodied faeces appeared to be associated with particularly high levels of risk of Ebola virus transmission. More moderate levels of risk were associated with the collection and transportation of material contaminated with bodily fluids other than blood, shared use of latrines soiled with such fluids, the cleaning and shared use of fomites soiled with such fluids, and the contamination of the environment during the collection and transportation of blood-contaminated waste. Conclusion The risk of the waste-related transmission of Ebola virus could be reduced by the use of full personal protective equipment, appropriate hand hygiene and an appropriate disinfectant after careful cleaning. Use of the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework could facilitate rapid responses to outbreaks of emerging infectious disease. PMID:27274594

  2. REPORT ON THE HOMELAND SECURITY WORKSHOP ON TRANSPORT AND DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes discussions from the "Homeland Security Workshop on Transport and Disposal of Wastes From Facilities Contaminated With Chemical or Biological Agents." The workshop was held on May 28-30, 2003, in Cincinnati, Ohio, and its objectives were to:

    .Documen...

  3. Changes in microbial properties after manure, lime, and bentonite application to a heavy metal-contaminated mine waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One proposed method for stabilizing lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contaminated mine wastes is to apply large quantities of organic matter in order to improve soil physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, which should stimulate nutrient cycling, reduce metal availability, and facilitate vegetati...

  4. PCDD/Fs atmospheric deposition fluxes and soil contamination close to a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Vassura, Ivano; Passarini, Fabrizio; Ferroni, Laura; Bernardi, Elena; Morselli, Luciano

    2011-05-01

    Bulk depositions and surface soil were collected in a suburban area, near the Adriatic Sea, in order to assess the contribution of a municipal solid waste incinerator to the area's total contamination with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Samples were collected at two sites, situated in the area most affected by plant emissions (according to the results of the Calpuff air dispersion model), and at an external site, considered as a reference. Results show that the studied area is subject to low contamination, as far as these compounds are concerned. Deposition fluxes range from 14.3 pg m(-2)d(-1) to 89.9 pg m(-2)d(-1) (0.75 pg-TEQ m(-2)d(-1) to 3.73 pg-TEQ m(-2)d(-1)) and no significant flow differences are observed among the three monitored sites. Total soil concentration amounts to 93.8 ng kg(-1) d.w. and 1.35 ng-TEQ kg(-1)d.w, on average, and confirms a strong homogeneity in the studied area. Furthermore, from 2006 to 2009, no PCDD/Fs enrichment in the soil was noticed. Comparing the relative congener distributions in environmental samples with those found in stack emissions from the incineration plant, significant differences are observed in the PCDD:PCDF ratio and in the contribution of the most chlorinated congeners. From this study we can conclude that the incineration plant is not the main source of PCDD/Fs in the studied area, which is apparently characterized by a homogeneous and widespread contamination situation, typical of an urban area. PMID:21459405

  5. De-oiled two-phase olive mill waste may reduce water contamination by metribuzin.

    PubMed

    Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Becerra, Daniel; Ramírez, Manuel

    2016-01-15

    The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the behavior of metribuzin in Mediterranean agricultural soils is evaluated, and the effects of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions are assessed. Four soils were selected and amended in the laboratory with DW at the rates of 2.5% and 5%. One of these soils was also amended in the field with 27 and 54 Mg ha(-1) of DW for 9 years. Significant increases in metribuzin sorption were observed in all the amended soils. In the laboratory, the 5% DW application rate increased the t1/2 values of metribuzin from 22.9, 35.8, 29.1, and 20.0 d for the original soils to 59.2, 51.1, 45.7, and 29.4d, respectively. This was attributable mainly to the inhibitory effect of the amendment on microbial activity. However, the addition of DW transformed naturally under field conditions decreased the persistence down to 3.93 d at the greater application rate. Both amendments (fresh and field-aged DW) significantly reduced the amount of metribuzin leached. This study showed that DW amendment may be an effective and sustainable management practice for controlling groundwater contamination by metribuzin. PMID:26437341

  6. Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

  7. Arsenic and copper stabilisation in a contaminated soil by coal fly ash and green waste compost.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    In situ metal stabilisation by amendments has been demonstrated as an appealing low-cost remediation strategy for contaminated soil. This study investigated the short-term leaching behaviour and long-term stability of As and Cu in soil amended with coal fly ash and/or green waste compost. Locally abundant inorganic (limestone and bentonite) and carbonaceous (lignite) resources were also studied for comparison. Column leaching experiments revealed that coal fly ash outperformed limestone and bentonite amendments for As stabilisation. It also maintained the As stability under continuous leaching of acidic solution, which was potentially attributed to high-affinity adsorption, co-precipitation, and pozzolanic reaction of coal fly ash. However, Cu leaching in the column experiments could not be mitigated by any of these inorganic amendments, suggesting the need for co-addition of carbonaceous materials that provides strong chelation with oxygen-containing functional groups for Cu stabilisation. Green waste compost suppressed the Cu leaching more effectively than lignite due to the difference in chemical composition and dissolved organic matter. After 9-month soil incubation, coal fly ash was able to minimise the concentrations of As and Cu in the soil solution without the addition of carbonaceous materials. Nevertheless, leachability tests suggested that the provision of green waste compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of As and Cu leachability in a fairly aggressive leaching environment. These results highlight the importance of assessing stability and remobilisation of sequestered metals under varying environmental conditions for ensuring a plausible and enduring soil stabilisation. PMID:24859701

  8. Demonstration of GTS Duratek Process for Stabilizing Mercury Contaminated (<260 ppm) Mixed Wastes. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2409

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes in many forms are present at various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. At least 26 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities, totaling approximately 6,000 m3. Mercury contamination in the wastes at DOE sites presents a challenge because it exists in various forms, such as soil, sludges, and debris, as well as in different chemical species of mercury. Stabilization is of interest for radioactively contaminated mercury waste (<260 ppm Hg) because of its success with particular wastes, such as soils, and its promise of applicability to a broad range of wastes. However, stabilization methods must be proven to be adequate to meet treatment standards. They must also be proven feasible in terms of economics, operability, and safety. This report summarizes the findings from a stabilization technology demonstration conducted by GTS Duratek, Inc. Phase I of the study involved receipt and repackaging of the material, followed by preparations for waste tracking. Phase II examined the bench-scale performance of grouting at two different loadings of waste to grouted mass. Phase III demonstrated in-drum mixing and solidification using repackaged drums of sludge. Phase IV initially intended to ship final residues to Envirocare for disposal. The key results of the demonstration are as follows: (1) Solidification tests were performed at low and high waste loading, resulting in stabilization of mercury to meet the Universal Treatment Standard of 0.025 mg/L at the low loading and for two of the three runs at the high loading. The third high-loading run had a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of 0.0314 mg/L. (2) Full-drum stabilization using the low loading formula was demonstrated. (3) Organic compound levels were discovered to be higher than originally reported, including the presence of some pesticides. Levels of some radionuclides were much higher than initially reported. (4

  9. Final Report: Caustic Waste-Soil Weathering Reactions and Their Impacts on Trace Contaminant Migration and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, Peggy A.; Chorover, J.; Mueller, K.T.; Serne, R.J.

    2006-12-11

    The principal goal of this project was to assess the molecular nature and stability of radionuclide (137-Cs, 90-Sr, and 129-I) immobilization during weathering reactions in bulk Hanford sediments and their high surface area clay mineral constituents. We focused on the unique aqueous geochemical conditions that are representative of waste-impacted locations in the Hanford site vadose zone: high ionic strength, high pH and high Al concentrations. The specific objectives of the work were to (i) measure the coupling of clay mineral weathering and contaminant uptake kinetics of Cs+, Sr2+ and I-; (ii) determine the molecular structure of contaminant binding sites and their change with weathering time during and after exposure to synthetic tank waste leachate (STWL); (iii) establish the stability of neoformed weathering products and their sequestered contaminants upon exposure of the solids to more “natural” soil solutions (i.e., after removal of the caustic waste source); and (iv) integrate macroscopic, microscopic and spectroscopic data to distinguish labile from non-labile contaminant binding environments, including their dependence on system composition and weathering time. During this funding period, we completed a large set of bench-scale collaborative experiments and product characterization aimed at elucidating the coupling between mineral transformation reactions and contaminant sequestration/stabilization. Our experiments included three representative Hanford sediments: course and fine sediments collected from the Hanford Formation and Ringold Silt, in addition to investigations with specimen clay minerals illite, vermiculite, smectite and kaolinite. These experiments combined macroscopic measurements of element release, contaminant uptake and subsequent neoformed mineral dissolution behavior, with detailed studies of solid phase products using SEM and TEM microscopy, NMR, XAS and FTIR spectroscopy. Our studies have shown direct coupling between mineral

  10. Contamination by Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in mine wastes from abandoned metal mines classified as mineralization types in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Myung Chae

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate heavy metal contamination and geochemical characteristics of mine wastes, including tailings, from 38 abandoned mines classified as five mineralization types. Mine waste materials including tailings and soils were sampled from the mines and the physical and chemical characteristics of the samples were analyzed. The particle size of tailings was in the range of 10-100 microm. The pH of the waste covered a wide range, from 1.73 to 8.11, and was influenced by associated minerals and elevated levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, extracted by a Korean Standard Method (digestion with 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl), which were found in the wastes. Half of the samples contained heavy metals at levels above those stipulated by the Soil Environmental Conservation Act (SECA) in Korea. In addition, extremely high concentrations of the metals were also found in mine wastes extracted by aqua regia, especially those from mines associated with sulfide minerals. Thus, it can be expected that trace elements in mine wastes may be dispersed both downstream and downslope through water and wind. Eventually they may pose a potential health risk to residents in the vicinity of the mine. It is necessary to control mine wastes by using a proper method for their reclamation, such as neutralization of the mine wastes using a fine-grained limestone. PMID:17687627

  11. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M

    2004-03-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950,000 m3). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  12. Hexavalent chromium removal in contaminated water using reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles from seafood processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Dima, Jimena Bernadette; Sequeiros, Cynthia; Zaritzky, Noemi E

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan particles (CH) were obtained from seafood processing wastes (shrimp shells) and physicochemically characterized; deacetylation degree of CH was measured by Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and potentiometric titration; polymer molecular weight was determined by intrinsic viscosity measurements. Reticulated micro/nanoparticles of chitosan (MCH) with an average diameter close to 100nm were synthesized by ionic gelation of chitosan using tripolyphosphate (TPP), and characterized by SEM, size distribution and Zeta-potential. Detoxification capacities of CH and MCH were tested analyzing the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) from contaminated water, at different initial chromium concentrations. The effect of pH on adsorption capacity of CH and MCH was experimentally determined and analyzed considering the Cr(VI) stable complexes (anions) formed, the presence of protonated groups in chitosan particles and the addition of the reticulating agent (TPP). Chitosan crosslinking was necessary to adsorb Cr(VI) at pH<2 due to the instability of CH particles in acid media. Langmuir isotherm described better than Freundlich and Temkin equations the equilibrium adsorption data. Pseudo-second order rate provided the best fitting to the kinetic data in comparison to pseudo-first order and Elovich equations. Chemical analysis to determine the oxidation state of the adsorbed Cr, showed that Cr(VI) was adsorbed on CH particles without further reduction; in contrast Cr(VI) removed from the solution was reduced and bound to the MCH as Cr(III). The reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to the less or nontoxic Cr(III) by the reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles can be considered a very efficient detoxification technique for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated water. PMID:26151484

  13. Process and equipment for the utilization of thermal energy of waste having been subjected to oil contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Vajdovich, G.; Csorba, I.

    1984-02-07

    A process and apparatus is discussed for recovering the heat content of oil-contaminated waste water wherein the waste water is collected and is conducted through a plurality of waste water carrying ducts with shut-off valves, from an oil manipulating system into a single duct with a shut-off valve. A duct with two branches is attached to and leads from the shut-off valve. Each branch of the branched duct has a magnet valve which operates contrarily to the magnet valve in the other branch. Each of the magnet valves are connected by means of a cable to an instrument which senses the oil content of the waste water. If the instrument does not sense oil, one magnet valve is open and the other is closed, and if the instrument senses oil, the other magnet valve is open and the one magnet valve is closed. A pressurized sample collector is connected via a duct to one of the magnet valves, and the sensing instrument. A pressurized collector having a sampling place on a float is connected by a duct to a sampling vessel and the sensing instrument. A duct for carrying the waste water from the collector is connected to a shut-off means and a pump which is connected to and controlled by a sensing instrument. This waste water duct transports the uncontaminated waste water through a check valve for further utilization and carries the contaminated waste water through a duct leading from the other magnet valve to an external repository.

  14. Solid-waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions. Volume 1, Batch leach and adsorption tests and sediment characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Conca, J.L.; Wood, M.I.

    1993-10-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development of conceptual-release models for Hanford Site defense solid-waste forms; (2) optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release from contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments; and (3) creation of empirical data for use as provisional source term and retardation factors that become input parameters for performance assessment analyses for future Hanford disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing disposal units.

  15. Use of jute processing wastes for treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Souvik; Dastidar, M G

    2005-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential of jute processing waste (JPW) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics generated from various activities associated with jute cultivation and fibre production. Adsorption studies in batch mode have been conducted using dye solution as an adsorbate and JPW as an adsorbent. A comparative adsorption study was made with standard adsorbents such as powdered and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC, respectively). A maximum removal of 81.7% was obtained with methylene blue dye using JPW as compared to 61% using PAC and 40% using GAC under similar conditions. The adsorption potential of JPW was observed to be dependent on various parameters such as type of dye, initial dye concentration, pH and dosage of adsorbent. The batch sorption data conformed well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. However, lower BOD (33.3%) and COD (13.8%) removal from retting effluent was observed using JPW as compared to 75.6% BOD removal and 71.1% COD removal obtained with GAC. PMID:16084372

  16. Assessment of contamination of the Issyk-Kul' valley natural waters with uranium mine wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palesski, S. V.; Nikolaeva, I. V.; Saprykin, A. I.; Gavshin, V. M.

    2003-05-01

    The Lake Issyk-Kul' of the central Tyan-Shan is characterized by increased natural uranium content. Uranium-carbon deposit situated on the southern bank of the Lake can be the reason of chemical and radioactive contamination of this unique basin by exploitation wastes. ln order to estimate possible danger, a project “Assessment and prognosis of environmental changes in Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrghyzstan)” was developed and supported by the Program ofthe European Commission “Copernicus-2” (2001-2003). According to this project the water assays were sampled from different depths near the banks of the Lake and from low-debit sources draining the dumping grounds of the uranium-carbon deposit. Elemental and isotopic examinations of these water samples were performed using an ELEMENT HR-ICP-MS (Finnigan Mat). The results obtained are the evidence that the ecological status of the Lake Issyk-Kul'is not damaged at present. Wastewaters from the uranium-carbon mine do not make decisive contribution into the natural radioactive background.

  17. Characterization of iron- and manganese-cemented redoximorphic aggregates in wetland soils contaminated with mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Patrick J; McDaniel, Paul A; Strawn, Daniel G

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands, translocation of Fe and Mn from reducing to oxidizing zones creates localized enrichments and depletions of oxide minerals. In zones of enrichment, oxides cement matrix particles together into aggregates. In this paper, we describe the various Fe- and Mn-cemented features present in the 1 to 2-mm size fraction of mine-waste contaminated wetland soils of the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Basin in northern Idaho. These aggregates are categorized based on color and morphology. Total Fe and Mn concentrations are also reported. Distribution of the aggregates in soil profiles along an elevation transect with varying water table heights was investigated. Six distinct categories of aggregates were characterized in the 1 to 2-mm size fraction. The two most predominant categories were aggregates cemented by only Fe oxides and aggregates cemented by a mixture of Fe and Mn oxides. Iron-depleted aggregates, Fe and Mn-cemented sand aggregates, and root channel linings were also identified. The remaining aggregates were categorized into a catch-all category that consisted of primarily charcoal particles. The highest Fe content was in the root channel linings, and the highest Mn content was in the Fe/Mn cemented particles. Iron-cemented aggregates were most common in surface horizons at all sites, and root channels were most common in the 30 to 45-cm core at the lowland point, reflecting the presence of deep rooting vegetation at this site. Spatial distributions of other aggregates at the site were not significant. PMID:18948492

  18. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated. PMID:26577215

  19. Ground-water contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, Wilfred E.; Rostad, Colleen E.; Garbarino, John R.; Hult, Marc F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed.

  20. Groundwater contamination by organic bases derived from coal-tar wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A fluid sample from a shallow aquifer contaminated by coal-tar wastes was analyzed for organic bases. The sample consisted of a mixture of aqueous and oily-tar phases. The phases were separated by centrifugation and filtration. Organic bases were isolated from each phase by pH adjustment and solvent extraction. Organic bases in the oily-tar phase were further purified by neutral-alumina, micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic bases in each phase were achieved by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-computer (GC-MS-COM) and probe distillation-high resolution mass spectrometry (PD-HRMS) techniques. Organic bases present in the aqueous phase included primary aromatic amines (such as aniline, alkylated anilines, and naphthylamines) as well as azaarenes (such as alkylated pyridines, quinolines, acridine, and benzoquinolines). The oily-tar phase contained acridine, benzacridines, dibenzacridines, and numerous other azaarenes, the elemental compositions of which were determined by PD-HRMS. Azaarenes in the oily-tar phase, varying in size from 6 to 12 rings, are reported for the first time. The origin and environmental significance of these compounds are discussed. ?? 1983.

  1. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND CONTAMINATION ON MPCMS ELECTRODES IN 241-AY-101 AND 241-AN-107 TANK WASTE SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    CATO DM; DAHL MM; PHILO GL; EDGEMON GL; BELL DR.JLS; MOORE CG

    2010-03-26

    This report documents the results of tests designed to characterize the relationship between temperature and the measured potential of electrodes installed on multi-probe corrosion monitoring systems in waste tanks. This report also documents the results of tests designed to demonstrate the impact of liquid in-leakage into electrode bodies as well as the contamination of primary reference electrodes by diffusion through the electrode tip.

  2. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-02-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential.

  3. Spatial and taxonomic variation in trace element bioaccumulation in two herbivores from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; Vaun McArthur, J

    2014-03-01

    Dissimilarities in habitat use, feeding habits, life histories, and physiology can result in syntopic aquatic taxa of similar trophic position bioaccumulating trace elements in vastly different patterns. We compared bioaccumulation in a clam, Corbicula fluminea and mayfly nymph Maccaffertium modestum from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Collection sites differed in distance to contaminant sources, incision, floodplain activity, and sources of flood event water and organic matter. Contaminants variably accumulated in both sediment and biofilm. Bioaccumulation differed between species and sites with C. fluminea accumulating higher concentrations of Hg, Cs, Sr, Se, As, Be, and Cu, but M. modestum higher Pb and V. Stable isotope analyses suggested both spatial and taxonomic differences in resource use with greater variability and overlap between species in the more physically disturbed site. The complex but essential interactions between organismal biology, divergence in resource use, and bioaccumulation as related to stream habitat requires further studies essential to understand impacts of metal pollution on stream systems. PMID:24507146

  4. Electrokinetic remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site wastes: results from a pilot-scale on-site trial.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Kieran; Cundy, Andrew B; Hopkinson, Laurence; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Purdie, Philip

    2011-02-28

    This paper examines the field-scale application of a novel low-energy electrokinetic technique for the remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site soils, using soil wastes from the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston site, Berkshire, UK as a test medium. Soils and sediments with varying composition, contaminated with Pu through historical site operations, were electrokinetically treated at laboratory-scale with and without various soil pre-conditioning agents. Results from these bench-scale trials were used to inform a larger on-site remediation trial, using an adapted containment pack with battery power supply. 2.4 m(3) (ca. 4t onnes) of Pu-contaminated soil was treated for 60 days at a power consumption of 33 kWh/m(3), and then destructively sampled. Radiochemical data indicate mobilisation of Pu in the treated soil, and migration (probably as a negatively charged Pu-citrate complex) towards the anodic compartment of the treatment cell. Soil in the cathodic zone of the treatment unit was remediated to a level below free-release disposal thresholds (1.7 Bq/g, or <0.4 Bq/g above background activities). The data show the potential of this method as a low-cost, on-site tool for remediation of radioactively contaminated soils and wastes which can be operated remotely on working sites, with minimal disruption to site infrastructure or operations. PMID:21227583

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-07-17

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  6. Alpha-contaminated solid waste sorting and conditioning at Belgoprocess (Belgium): lessons learned from the first three years operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cuchet, J.M.; Lahaye, J.P.; Luycx, P.; Van Nueten, E.; Goeyse, A. de

    2007-07-01

    The alpha-contaminated solid waste generated in Belgium results from past activities in the fuel cycle (R and D + Reprocessing and MOX fabrication pilot plants) and operation of BELGONUCLEAIRE's MOX fuel fabrication plant. After the main steps in the management of alpha-contaminated solid waste were established, BELGONUCLEAIRE, with the support of BELGOPROCESS and ONDRAF/NIRAS, started the design and construction of the T and C and interim-storage facilities for this alpha waste. The accumulated solid alpha radwaste containing a mixture of combustible and non-combustible material must be sorted and characterized. After sorting, both the accumulated and recently-generated alpha waste will be compacted and the pellets will be embedded in a cement matrix in a 400-1 drum. The commissioning of the sorting unit which includes glove boxes was completed at BP, at the beginning of year 2005; the sorting campaign of 30-1 cans has been achieved in March 2007. The paper describes the project environment and gives a short description of the used facilities; the lessons learned from the sorting campaign and from the first T/C period, will be presented, as well. (authors)

  7. Fate of selected microorganisms when introduced as cross-contamination inocula into simulated food trash compartment waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Richards, Jeffrey; Birmele, Michele; Roberts, Michael

    counts and general cultivation-based methods. Detection and enumeration of challenge microbes was accomplished by cultivation-based microbiological methods with specific selective media and by molecular methods using quantitative stocktickerPCR (qPCR) with stocktickerDNA primers specific for each challenge organism. stocktickerDNA was extracted and purified from residual wastes with a stocktickerDNA isolation kit (Mo Bio), and quantified (NanoDrop) from standard curves prepared from pure culture isolates of each challenge organism. QPCR was conducted on a Roche LightCycler 480 using the Roche stocktickerSYBR Green Master Mix Kit. The identity of all challenge microbes in recovered isolates was verified by stocktickerDNA sequencing (stocktickerABI 3130 Genetic Analyzer - Applied Biosystems). To date, concentrations of challenge microbial populations at concentrations ranging from ˜107 - 108 have been added to simulated food waste and extracted either immediately after mixing or after 1 week of storage. Cultivation-based counts indicated that 5 of 6 challenge microbes could be recovered from simulated food wastes after inoculation for both concentrations. Only S. enterica serovar typhimurium could not be detected at week 0 for the 107 inoculum. Between week 0 and 1, challenge microbes increased in density: S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa increasing up to 4 orders of magnitude from the 107 inoculum. Molecular results for the week 0 and week 1 stored samples indicated that the relative concentrations of target stocktickerDNA for the challenge microbes had increased between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude. These preliminary studies demonstrate that potential problems regarding pathogens as cross-contaminants from other waste streams could develop during storage of space mission solid wastes. Ongoing studies are examining longer storage times up to 6 weeks. The results can be used to determine requirements and criteria for waste treatment prior to storage and provides a

  8. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-02-01

    The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  9. Enhanced electrokinetic (E/K) remediation on copper contaminated soil by CFW (carbonized foods waste).

    PubMed

    Han, Jung-Geun; Hong, Ki-Kwon; Kim, Young-Woong; Lee, Jong-Young

    2010-05-15

    The E/K remediation method is presented to purify low permeable contaminated soils due to Cu(2+), and carbonized foods waste (CFW) was used as a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) material. For adsorption and precipitation of the Cu(2+) in the PRB during its motion, PRB was installed in a zone of rapidly changing pH values. The adsorption efficiency of CFW used as PRB material was found to be 4-8 times more efficient than that of Zeolite. Throughout the experiment, a voltage slope of 1V/cm was implemented and acetic acid was injected on the anode to increase the remediation efficiency. The electrode exchange was executed to more completely remove precipitated heavy metals in the vicinity of the cathode. The majority of Cu(2+) was adsorbed or sedimented by CFW prior to the exchange of the electrode, and the remaining quantity of precipitated Cu(2+) on the cathode had decreased with an increase in the operating time. Experiments of seven cases with different E/K operating times were performed, and the average removal ratios were 53.4-84.6%. The removal efficiencies for the majority of cases increased proportionally with an increase in the operating time. After the experiments were completed, the adsorbed Cu(2+) on CFW was 75-150 mg. This means that the role of CFW as the material in PRB for remediating heavy metals was confirmed. The cost of energies needed to remove Cu(2+), CFW, and acetic acid are estimated at US$ 13.3-40/m(3). PMID:20080337

  10. Remediation of inorganic contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils polluted by municipal solid waste incineration residues.

    PubMed

    Jobin, Philippe; Coudert, Lucie; Taillard, Vincent; Blais, Jean-Francois; Mercier, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Three soils polluted by municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration residues and containing various concentrations of Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn were treated using magnetism, gravity separation (jig and shaking table) and flotation/leaching. The process removed between 18% and 39% of the contaminants present in soil 1, between 31% and 53% of the contaminants present in soil 2 and between 42% and 56% of the contaminants present in soil 3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were present only in soil 3, and the process removed 64% of its PAHs total content. Magnetism seemed to be the most efficient technique to remove metals from contaminated soils, followed by gravity separation and finally flotation/leaching. The global efficiency of the process was higher when the initial contaminant concentrations were lower (smaller proportions of MSW incineration residues). The estimated costs of the process, including direct and indirect costs, varied from $82 to $88 per ton of treated soil depending on the proportion of MSW incineration residues mixed with the soil. PMID:26729603

  11. Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Stefan; Prakash, Om; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will; Cardenas, Erick; Hubbard, Daniela; Tiedje, James M.; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel

    2011-01-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of ribosomal RNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure, and denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen and sampling season did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter. Results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment.

  12. CANCER MORTALITY AMONG UNITED STATES COUNTIES WITH HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES AND SOLE SOURCE DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the late 1950's more than 750 million tons of toxic wastes have been discarded in an estimated 30,000 to 50,000 hazardous waste sies (HWS). he uncontrolled discarding of chemical wastes creates the potential for risks to human health. tilizing the National Priorities Listin...

  13. Investigation of Contaminated Groundwater at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) groundwater contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. Engineered remediation aspects at the site consist of a zero-valent-iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) installed in December 2002 intercepting the contamination plume and a phytoremediation test stand of loblolly pine trees planted in the source area in May 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey planted an additional phytoremediation test stand of loblolly pine trees on the upgradient side of the southern end of the PRB in February 2008. At least once during the summer, however, the trees were inadvertently mowed during lawn cutting activity. The PRB along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells upgradient from the PRB showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest downgradient from the PRB showed a sharp increase in 2005, followed by a decrease in 2006. Farther downgradient in the forest, the VOC concentrations began to increase in 2007 and continued to increase into 2008. The VOC-concentration changes in groundwater beneath the forest appear to indicate movement of a groundwater-contaminant pulse through the forest. It also is possible that the data may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in groundwater-flow direction.

  14. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    PubMed

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-04-01

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive. PMID:23360773

  15. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R.StJ.; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-04-15

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive.

  16. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste. PMID:21286847

  17. In situ vitrification of a mixed-waste contaminated soil site: The 116-B-6A crib at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Koegler, S.S.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lowery, P.S.; Winkelman, R.G.

    1992-09-01

    The first large-scale mixed-waste test of in situ vitrification (ISV) has been completed. The large-scale test was conducted at an actual contaminated soil site, the 116-B-6A crib, on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The large-scale test was a demonstration of the ISV technology and not an interim action for the 116-B-6A crib. This demonstration has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of mixed-waste contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test's successful completion. technical data on the vitrified soil are available on how well the process incorporates transuranics and heavy metals into the waste form. how well the form resists leaching of transuranics and heavy metals. how well the process handles sites with high combustible loadings, and the important site parameters which may affect the achievable process depth. This report describes the 116-B-6A crib site, the objectives of the ISV demonstration, the results in terms of the objectives, and the overall process performance.

  18. Graphic products used in the evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected superfund hazardous waste sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the overhead imagery and field sampling results used to prepare U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1050, 'Evaluation of Traditional and Emerging Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites'. These graphic products were used in the evaluation of remote sensing technology in postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites and represent an ongoing research effort. Soil sampling results presented here were accomplished with field portable x-ray fluoresence (XRF) technology and are used as screening tools only representing the current conditions of metals and other contaminants at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites.

  19. Opportunities for Cost Effective Disposal of Radioactively Contaminated Solid Waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN - 13045

    SciTech Connect

    DeMonia, Brian; Dunning, Don; Hampshire John

    2013-07-01

    recent DOE assessment found that implementation of the site-specific authorized limits for volumetrically contaminated waste was potentially limited due in part to confusion regarding the applicability of volumetric concentration limits and/or surface activity limits to specific wastes. This paper describes recent efforts to update the authorized limits for Industrial Landfill V and Construction/Demolition Landfill VII and to improve the procedures for implementation of these criteria. The approved authorized limits have been evaluated and confirmed to meet the current requirements of DOE Order 458.1, which superseded DOE Order 5400.5 in February 2011. In addition, volumetric concentration limits have been developed for additional radionuclides, and site-specific authorized limits for wastes with surface contamination have been developed. Implementing procedures have been revised to clarify the applicability of volumetric concentration limits and surface activity limits, and to allow the use of non-destructive waste characterization methods. These changes have been designed to promote improved utilization of available disposal capacity of the onsite disposal facilities within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. In addition, these changes serve to bring the waste acceptance requirements at these DOE onsite landfills into greater consistency with the requirements for commercial/ public landfills under the TDEC Bulk Survey for Release (BSFR) program, including two public RCRA Subtitle D landfills in close proximity to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. (authors)

  20. Adsorption/Membrane Filtration as a Contaminant Concentration and Separation Process for Mixed Wastes and Tank Wastes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, M.M.

    1999-10-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate novel approaches for removing radioactive strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs) from the tank wastes. The bulk of the Sr removal research conducted as part of this project investigated adsorption of Sr onto a novel adsorbent known as iron-oxide-coated sand. The second major focus of the work was on the removal of cesium. Since the chemistries of strontium and cesium have little commonality, different materials (namely, cesium scavengers known as hexacyanoferrates, HCFs) were employed in these tests. This study bridged several scientific areas and yielded valuable knowledge for implementing new technological processes. The applicability of the results extends beyond the highly specialized application niches investigated experimentally to other issues of potential interest for EMSP programs (e.g., separation of chromium from a variety of wastes using IOCS, separation of Cs from neutral and acidic wastes with EC-controlled HCFs).

  1. Investigation of Ground-Water Contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. The primary contaminants of interest are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. In general, the hydrogeology of Solid Waste Management Unit 12 consists of a surficial aquifer, composed of sand to clayey sand, overlain by dense clay that extends from about land surface to a depth of about 8 to 10 feet and substantially limits local recharge. During some months in the summer, evapotranspiration and limited local recharge result in ground-water level depressions in the forested area near wells 12MW-12S and 12MW-17S, seasonally reflecting the effects of evapotranspiration. Changes in surface-water levels following Hurricane Gaston in 2004 resulted in a substantial change in the ground-water levels at the site that, in turn, may have caused lateral shifting of the contaminant plume. Hydraulic conductivity, determined by slug tests, is higher along the axis of the plume in the downgradient part of the forests than adjacent to the plume, implying that there is some degree of lithologic control on the plume location. Hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic gradient, sulfur-hexafluoride measurements, and historical data indicate that ground-water flow rates are substantially slower in the forested area relative to upgradient areas. The ground-water contamination, consisting of chlorinated volatile organic compounds, extends eastward in the surficial aquifer from the probable source area near a former underground storage tank. Engineered remediation approaches include a permeable reactive barrier and phytoremediation. The central part of the permeable reactive barrier along the

  2. Residual waste from Hanford tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204. 2. Contaminant release model.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Krupka, Kenneth M; Deutsch, William J; Lindberg, Michael J

    2006-06-15

    Release of U and 99Tc from residual sludge in Hanford waste tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204 atthe U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state was quantified by water-leaching, selective extractions, empirical solubility measurements, and thermodynamic modeling. A contaminant release model was developed based on these experimental results and solid-phase characterization results presented elsewhere. Uranium release was determined to be controlled by two phases and occurred in three stages. In the first stage, U release is controlled by the solubility of tejkaite, which is suppressed by high concentrations of sodium released from the dissolution of NaNO3 in the residual sludges. Equilibrium solubility calculations indicate the U released during this stage will have a maximum concentration of 0.021 M. When all the NaNO3 has dissolved from the sludge, the solubility of the remaining cejkaite will increase to 0.28 M. After cejkaite has completely dissolved, the majority of the remaining U is in the form of poorly crystalline Na2U2O7 [or clarkeite Na[(UO2)O(OH)](H20)0-1]. In contact with Hanford groundwater this phase is not stable, and becquerelite becomes the U solubility controlling phase, with a calculated equilibrium concentration of 1.2 x 10(-4) M. For Tc, a significant fraction of its concentration in the residual sludge was determined to be relatively insoluble (20 wt % for C-203 and 80 wt % for C-204). Because of the low concentrations of Tc in these sludge materials, the characterization studies did not identify any discrete Tc solids phases. Release of the soluble fraction of Tc was found to occur concomitantly with NO3-. It was postulated that a NaNO3-NaTcO4 solid solution could be responsible for this behavior. The Tc release concentrations for the soluble fraction were estimated to be 2.4 x 10-6 M for C-203 and 2.7 x 10(-5) M for C-204. Selective extraction results indicated that the recalcitrant fraction of Tc was

  3. Metal contamination of urban soils in the vicinity of a municipal waste incinerator: one source among many.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, David L; Vizard, Catherine G; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja; Singleton, Ian; Air, Vivienne S; Keatinge, Zoe A F

    2006-03-01

    Concern from local residents about possible contamination with metals and PCDD/F (dioxins and furans) from fugitive and stack emissions from the Byker municipal solid waste incinerator in Newcastle upon Tyne led the City Council to initiate a study of the concentration of these pollutants in soils. We report here the results for the metals and arsenic. Soils were sampled at distances up to 2.25 km from the incinerator stack. The intensity of sampling in concentric zones was four times greater in the northeast (down-wind) direction, and twice as great in the northwest and southeast directions, compared to the southwest (up-wind) direction. In total 163 samples were collected and analyzed for total As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Concentrations were generally elevated above background levels, but were typical of those found in other urban areas. For As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn, contamination hotspots were identified. These were spread throughout the sampling area, and there was no evidence of greater concentrations down-wind of the incinerator compared to other directions, nor of any trend in concentration at increasing distance from the incinerator. We concluded that metal contamination resulting from the incinerator could not be detected in an environment with generally elevated concentrations. Potential sources for many of the hotspots of contamination were identified in a survey of historic land use based on maps of the locality dating back to 1856. Detailed investigations of particular areas with serious contamination will now be undertaken by the local authorities using the CLEA (Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment) model. PMID:15935448

  4. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Detection of Septic System Waste in the Groundwaters of Southern California Using Emerging Contaminants and Isotopic Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Conkle, J.; Sickman, J. O.; Lucero, D.; Pang, F.; Gan, J.

    2011-12-01

    In California, groundwater supplies 30-40% of the State's water and in rapidly growing regions like the Inland Empire, groundwater makes up 80-90% of the municipal water supply. However, anthropogenic contamination could adversely affect groundwater quality and thereby reduce available supplies. Appropriate tracers are needed to identify groundwater contamination and protect human health. Stable isotopes δ15N and δ 18O offer unique information about the importance of nitrate sources and processes affecting nitrate in aquifers. We investigated the influence of septic systems on groundwater quality in and around the city of Beaumont, CA during 2010-11. Groundwater samples were collected from 38 active wells and 10 surface water sites in the region (urban and natural streams, agricultural drainage and groundwater recharge basins supplied by the California State Water Project). Stable isotopes and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were analyzed for all the water samples. The variations of δ15N and δ 18O of nitrate were 2 - 21 per mil and -4 - 9 per mil respectively. δ15N-NO3 values greater than 10 per mil have been associated with nitrate inputs from sewage and animal waste, but in the Beaumont wells, PPCP concentrations were at or below the detection limit in most wells with high isotope ratios. We also observed a strong linear relationship between δ15N and δ 18O of nitrate (slope of~ 0.5) in the vast majority of our samples including those with high isotope ratios. Our results suggest that denitrification was widespread in the Beaumont aquifer and strongly affected the isotope composition of nitrate. In some wells, PPCPs (carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, primidone, meprobamate and diuron) and isotope measurements indicated inputs from human waste, but these sites were affected primarily by local waste-water treatment plant effluent. A mixing model was developed using multiple tracers to determine sources and contributions of groundwater

  6. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  7. ADSORPTION/MEMBRANE FILTRATION AS A CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION AND SEPARATION PROCESS FOR MIXED WASTES AND TANK WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hanford Reservation is the largest and perhaps most complex Superfund site in the U.S., containing numerous hazardous chemicals and medium- to long-lived radionuclides. Each category of waste presents a different set of scientific and technological challenges for characteriza...

  8. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-31

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--1480, dated July 2012, documents repairs of erosion and construction of engineered erosion protection features at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02 (MULLET) and CAS 09-99-06 (PLAYER). The final as-built drawings are included in Appendix A, and photographs of field work are included in Appendix B. Field work was completed on March 11, 2013.

  9. Hanford Tanks 241-C-202 and 241-C-203 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2007-09-13

    As directed by Congress, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of River Protection in 1998 to manage DOE's largest, most complex environmental cleanup project – retrieval of radioactive waste from Hanford tanks for treatment and eventual disposal. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored at Hanford in aging deteriorating tanks. If not cleaned up, this waste is a threat to the Columbia River and the Pacific Northwest. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., is the Office of River Protection's prime contractor responsible for the storage, retrieval, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. As part of this effort, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for DOE.

  10. Removal of Heavy Metal Contamination from Peanut Skin Extracts by Waste Biomass Adsorbents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, 3.6 million pounds of peanuts are harvested in the United States. Consequent processing, however, generates large amounts of waste biomass as only the seed portion of the fruit is consumed. The under-utilization of waste biomass is a lost economic opportunity to the industry. In particula...

  11. Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Donald, Ian W.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2007-03-31

    The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable waste form. At AWE, we have developed such a process using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Successful trials of the process with actinide- and Cl-bearing Type I waste were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined at 40°C and 28 days were 12 x 10-6 g∙m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g∙m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing 238Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the 239Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (a oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of Pu in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Initial investigations into the use of HfO2 as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste indicated no significant differences.

  12. TECHNICAL REPORT - ADVANCES IN ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is
    a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques
    because of ongoing hazardous waste generation and historic operations that have led to<...

  13. ADVANCES IN ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of ongoing hazardous waste generation and historic operations that have led to signif...

  14. ASSESSING DETOXIFICATION AND DEGRADATION OF WOOD PRESERVING AND PETROLEUM WASTES IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to evaluate in-situ soil bioremediation processes, including degradation and detoxification, for two types of wood preserving wastes and two types of petroleum refining wastes at high concentrations in an unacclimated soil. The soil solid phase, water so...

  15. NEARBY LAKE SEDIMENT QUALITY AND SEEDLING TREE SURVIVAL ON ERODED OILY WASTE/BRINE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ecosystem restoration study is being conducted at an old oil production area in Northeast Oklahoma. Surface soil samples from areas impacted by discarded crude oil and brine wastes have been chemically characterized. Surface erosion has occurred in areas impacted by waste disc...

  16. Single-Pass Flow-Through Test Elucidation of Weathering Behavior and Evaluation of Contaminant Release Models for Hanford Tank Residual Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Buck, Edgar C.; Neiner, Doinita; Geiszler, Keith N.

    2013-01-01

    Contaminant release models are required to evaluate and predict long-term environmental impacts of even residual amounts of high-level radioactive waste after cleanup and closure of radioactively contaminated sites such as the DOE’s Hanford Site. More realistic and representative models have been developed for release of uranium, technetium, and chromium from Hanford Site tanks C-202, C-203, and C-103 residual wastes using data collected with a single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) method. These revised models indicate that contaminant release concentrations from these residual wastes will be considerably lower than previous estimates based on batch experiments. For uranium, a thermodynamic solubility model provides an effective description of uranium release, which can account for differences in pore fluid chemistry contacting the waste that could occur through time and as a result of different closure scenarios. Under certain circumstances in the SPFT experiments various calcium rich precipitates (calcium phosphates and calcite) form on the surfaces of the waste particles, inhibiting dissolution of the underlying uranium phases in the waste. This behavior was not observed in previous batch experiments. For both technetium and chromium, empirical release models were developed. In the case of technetium, release from all three wastes was modeled using an equilibrium Kd model. For chromium release, a constant concentration model was applied for all three wastes.

  17. Gas generation and migration studies involving recently generated /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste for the TRU Waste Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zerwekh, A.; Warren, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    This study is part of the multicontractor TRU Waste Sampling Program. Radiolytically generated gases were vented through a filtering device to determine its effectiveness in maintaining hydrogen concentrations within acceptably safe levels. In the second part of the study measurements were made to determine the ability of these gases, particularly hydrogen, to migrate through a sealed rigid polyethylene drum liner. Void volumes in these drums were found to be generally in excess of 90%. The carbon composite filter was found to satisfactorily vent hydrogen up to moderately high levels of alpha activity in the waste substrate. The sealed 90-mil liner was found to inhibit, but not prevent, the migration of hydrogen and other radiolytically generated gases.

  18. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies and system concepts for testing the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L. ); Feizollahi, F. ); Del Signore, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  19. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  20. Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site.

    PubMed

    Green, Stefan J; Prakash, Om; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will A; Cardenas, Erick; Hubbard, Daniela; Tiedje, James M; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher W; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka, Joel E

    2012-02-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of rRNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure and that denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower-pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as the concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen level, and sampling season, did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter bacteria. The results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment. PMID:22179233

  1. Denitrifying Bacteria from the Genus Rhodanobacter Dominate Bacterial Communities in the Highly Contaminated Subsurface of a Nuclear Legacy Waste Site

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stefan J.; Prakash, Om; Jasrotia, Puja; Overholt, Will A.; Cardenas, Erick; Hubbard, Daniela; Tiedje, James M.; Watson, David B.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of rRNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure and that denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower-pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as the concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen level, and sampling season, did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter bacteria. The results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment. PMID:22179233

  2. New regulations for radiation protection for work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident--disposal of contaminated soil and wastes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2014-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, released a large amount of radioactive material. To rehabilitate the contaminated areas, the government of Japan decided to carry out decontamination work and manage the waste resulting from decontamination. In the summer of 2013, the Ministry of the Environment planned to begin a full-scale process for waste disposal of contaminated soil and wastes removed as part of the decontamination work. The existing regulations were not developed to address such a large amount of contaminated wastes. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), therefore, had to amend the existing regulations for waste disposal workers. The amendment of the general regulation targeted the areas where the existing exposure situation overlaps the planned exposure situation. The MHLW established the demarcation lines between the two regulations to be applied in each situation. The amendment was also intended to establish provisions for the operation of waste disposal facilities that handle large amounts of contaminated materials. Deliberation concerning the regulation was conducted when the facilities were under design; hence, necessary adjustments should be made as needed during the operation of the facilities. PMID:24856781

  3. An application of geoelectrical methods for contamination plume recognition in Urbanowice waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mycka, Mateusz; Mendecki, Maciej Jan

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to detect groundwater pollution and to identify the conditions of soil and groundwater near the Urbanowice landfill site using geoelectrical measurements. Presented measurements are preliminary results from tested site and are beginning of continuous monitoring. Contamination outflows detected by resistivity and IP technique show a good correlation with available hydrological data. Contamination plume were found in Eastern part of survey profil.

  4. Microbial characterization of a radionuclide- and metal-contaminated waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, H. Jr.; Lumppio, H.L.; Ainsworth, C.C.; Plymale, A.E.

    1993-04-01

    The operation of nuclear processing facilities and defense-related nuclear activities has resulted in contamination of near-surface and deep-subsurface sediments with both radionuclides and metals. The presence of mixed inorganic contaminants may result in undetectable microbial populations or microbial populations that are different from those present in uncontaminated sediments. To determine the impact of mixed radionuclide and metal contaminants on sediment microbial communities, we sampled a processing pond that was used from 1948 to 1975 for the disposal of radioactive and metal-contaminated wastewaters from laboratories and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities on the Hanford Site in Washington State. Because the Hanford Site is located in a semiarid environment with average rainfall of 159 mm/year, the pond dried and a settling basin remained after wastewater input into the pond ceased in 1975. This processing pond basin offered a unique opportunity to obtain near-surface sediments that had been contaminated with both radionuclides and metals for several decades. Our objectives were to determine the viable populations of microorganisms in the sediments and to test several hypotheses about how the addition of both radionuclides and metals influenced the microbial ecology of the sediments. Our first hypothesis was that viable populations of microorganisms would be lower in the more contaminated sediments. Second, we expected that long-term metal exposure would result in enhanced metal resistance. Finally, we hypothesized that microorganisms from the most radioactive sediments should have had enhanced radiation resistance.

  5. Genetically Engineering Bacillus subtilis with a Heat-Resistant Arsenite Methyltransferase for Bioremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Organic Waste

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ke; Chen, Chuan; Shen, Qirong; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Organic manures may contain high levels of arsenic (As) due to the use of As-containing growth-promoting substances in animal feed. To develop a bioremediation strategy to remove As from organic waste, Bacillus subtilis 168, a bacterial strain which can grow at high temperature but is unable to methylate and volatilize As, was genetically engineered to express the arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase gene (CmarsM) from the thermophilic alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The genetically engineered B. subtilis 168 converted most of the inorganic As in the medium into dimethylarsenate and trimethylarsine oxide within 48 h and volatized substantial amounts of dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine. The rate of As methylation and volatilization increased with temperature from 37 to 50°C. When inoculated into an As-contaminated organic manure composted at 50°C, the modified strain significantly enhanced As volatilization. This study provides a proof of concept of using genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation of As-contaminated organic waste during composting. PMID:26187966

  6. Genetically Engineering Bacillus subtilis with a Heat-Resistant Arsenite Methyltransferase for Bioremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Organic Waste.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke; Chen, Chuan; Shen, Qirong; Rosen, Barry P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2015-10-01

    Organic manures may contain high levels of arsenic (As) due to the use of As-containing growth-promoting substances in animal feed. To develop a bioremediation strategy to remove As from organic waste, Bacillus subtilis 168, a bacterial strain which can grow at high temperature but is unable to methylate and volatilize As, was genetically engineered to express the arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase gene (CmarsM) from the thermophilic alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. The genetically engineered B. subtilis 168 converted most of the inorganic As in the medium into dimethylarsenate and trimethylarsine oxide within 48 h and volatized substantial amounts of dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine. The rate of As methylation and volatilization increased with temperature from 37 to 50°C. When inoculated into an As-contaminated organic manure composted at 50°C, the modified strain significantly enhanced As volatilization. This study provides a proof of concept of using genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation of As-contaminated organic waste during composting. PMID:26187966

  7. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    PubMed

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed. PMID:26676540

  8. Release of trace metals, sulfate and complexed cyanide from soils contaminated with gas-purifier wastes: a microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Rennert, T; Mansfeldt, T

    2006-01-01

    Deposited gas-purifier wastes are commonly contaminated with trace metals, sulfate and cyanide (CN) compounds. We investigated their release from three soils contaminated with gas-purifier wastes into solution in microcosm experiments under varying redox conditions (E(H) 170-620 mV). The soils differed in pH (2.2; 4.9; 7.4) and featured low amounts of trace metals, but large amounts of total S and total CN. The pH governed trace metal release in the case of the acidic soil and CN release in the case of the slightly alkaline soil. The redox potential controlled trace metal and CN release in the case of the moderately acidic soil. Sources of dissolved SO(4)(2-) were dissolution of gypsum, desorption from Fe oxides and probably oxidation of elemental S. The geochemical behaviors of trace metals (soluble under acidic and reducing conditions) and CN (soluble under alkaline and oxidizing conditions) were diametrically opposed. PMID:16019115

  9. PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION TEST BURN OF TCDD-CONTAMINATED TRICHLOROPHENOL PRODUCTION WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of three tests directed at evaluating the incinerability of the toluene stillbottoms waste from trichlorophenol production previously generated by the Vertac Chemical Company were performed in the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) rotary kiln incineration system. This w...

  10. Pilot-scale incineration test burn of TCDD-contaminated trichlorophenol production waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.W.; Backhouse, T.H.; Vocque, R.H.; Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.

    1986-12-01

    A series of three tests directed at evaluating the incinerability of the toluene stillbottoms waste from trichlorophenol production previously generated by the Vertac Chemical Company were performed in the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) rotary kiln incineration system. This waste contained 37 ppm 2,3,7,8-TCDD as its principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC). Flue gas 2,3,7,8-TCDD levels were less than detectable at all locations sampled. Corresponding incinerator destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) were greater than 99.9997 percent, based on individual sampling train analyses. By analyzing combined extracts from four simultaneous sampling trains, it was concluded that 2,3,7,8-TCDD DRE was indeed greater than 99.9999 percent. These results suggest that incineration of the Vertac waste is capable of achieving the required DRE and should be considered a treatment option for this waste.