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Sample records for 23na neutron-induced reactions

  1. Spin distribution in neutron induced preequilibrium reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dashdorj, D; Kawano, T; Chadwick, M; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N; Nelson, R O; Mitchell, G E; Garrett, P E; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Macri, R; Younes, W

    2005-10-04

    The preequilibrium reaction mechanism makes an important contribution to neutron-induced reactions above E{sub n} {approx} 10 MeV. The preequilibrium process has been studied exclusively via the characteristic high energy neutrons produced at bombarding energies greater than 10 MeV. They are expanding the study of the preequilibrium reaction mechanism through {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Cross-section measurements were made of prompt {gamma}-ray production as a function of incident neutron energy (E{sub n} = 1 to 250 MeV) on a {sup 48}Ti sample. Energetic neutrons were delivered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory spallation neutron source located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility. The prompt-reaction {gamma} rays were detected with the large-scale Compton-suppressed Germanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE). Neutron energies were determined by the time-of-flight technique. The {gamma}-ray excitation functions were converted to partial {gamma}-ray cross sections taking into account the dead-time correction, target thickness, detector efficiency and neutron flux (monitored with an in-line fission chamber). Residual state population was predicted using the GNASH reaction code, enhanced for preequilibrium. The preequilibrium reaction spin distribution was calculated using the quantum mechanical theory of Feshback, Kerman, and Koonin (FKK). The multistep direct part of the FKK theory was calculated for a one-step process. The FKK preequilibrium spin distribution was incorporated into the GNASH calculations and the {gamma}-ray production cross sections were calculated and compared with experimental data. The difference in the partial {gamma}-ray cross sections using spin distributions with and without preequilibrium effects is significant.

  2. Experimental determination of the {sup 26}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 23}Na reaction cross section and calculation of the Maxwellian averaged cross section at stellar temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Smet, L. de; Wagemans, C.; Wagemans, J.; Heyse, J.; Gils, J. van

    2007-10-15

    The {sup 26}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 23}Na reaction cross section has been studied at the linear accelerator GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements in Geel, Belgium, and has been determined up to a neutron energy of about 100 keV using the time-of-flight technique. Six resonances could be observed in this energy region, whereas before only one had been identified experimentally. For four of them, resonance parameters such as resonance energy, total width, area, and spin of the state could be determined. From the obtained {sup 26}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 23}Na cross section data, Maxwellian averaged cross section (MACS) values were calculated by numerical integration. Since neutron induced reactions are among the major destruction mechanisms of {sup 26}Al in our Galaxy, these new MACS values contribute to a better understanding of the observed {sup 26}Al abundance.

  3. Three New Low-Energy Resonances in the 22Ne (p ,γ )23Na Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavanna, F.; Depalo, R.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Boeltzig, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; di Leva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Prati, P.; Scott, D. A.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Trezzi, D.; LUNA Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The 22Ne (p ,γ )23Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle affects the synthesis of the elements between 20Ne and 27Al in asymptotic giant branch stars and novae. The 22Ne(p ,γ )23Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of unobserved resonances lying in the Gamow window. At proton energies below 400 keV, only upper limits exist in the literature for the resonance strengths. Previous reaction rate evaluations differ by large factors. In the present work, the first direct observations of the 22Ne (p ,γ )23Na resonances at 156.2, 189.5, and 259.7 keV are reported. Their resonance strengths are derived with 2%-7% uncertainty. In addition, upper limits for three other resonances are greatly reduced. Data are taken using a windowless 22Ne gas target and high-purity germanium detectors at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in the Gran Sasso laboratory of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy, taking advantage of the ultralow background observed deep underground. The new reaction rate is a factor of 20 higher than the recent evaluation at a temperature of 0.1 GK, relevant to nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars.

  4. Three New Low-Energy Resonances in the ^{22}Ne(p,γ)^{23}Na Reaction.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, F; Depalo, R; Aliotta, M; Anders, M; Bemmerer, D; Best, A; Boeltzig, A; Broggini, C; Bruno, C G; Caciolli, A; Corvisiero, P; Davinson, T; di Leva, A; Elekes, Z; Ferraro, F; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Menegazzo, R; Mossa, V; Pantaleo, F R; Prati, P; Scott, D A; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Szücs, T; Takács, M P; Trezzi, D

    2015-12-18

    The ^{22}Ne(p,γ)^{23}Na reaction takes part in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle affects the synthesis of the elements between ^{20}Ne and ^{27}Al in asymptotic giant branch stars and novae. The ^{22}Ne(p,γ)^{23}Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of unobserved resonances lying in the Gamow window. At proton energies below 400 keV, only upper limits exist in the literature for the resonance strengths. Previous reaction rate evaluations differ by large factors. In the present work, the first direct observations of the ^{22}Ne(p,γ)^{23}Na resonances at 156.2, 189.5, and 259.7 keV are reported. Their resonance strengths are derived with 2%-7% uncertainty. In addition, upper limits for three other resonances are greatly reduced. Data are taken using a windowless ^{22}Ne gas target and high-purity germanium detectors at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in the Gran Sasso laboratory of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Italy, taking advantage of the ultralow background observed deep underground. The new reaction rate is a factor of 20 higher than the recent evaluation at a temperature of 0.1 GK, relevant to nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars. PMID:26722918

  5. 23Na (α,p )26Mg Reaction Rate at Astrophysically Relevant Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, A. M.; Munch, M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Kirsebom, O. S.; Laursen, K. L.; Diget, C. Aa.; Hubbard, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    The production of 26Al in massive stars is sensitive to the 23Na (α,p )26Mg cross section. Recent experimental data suggest the currently recommended cross sections are underestimated by a factor of ˜40 . We present here differential cross sections for the 23Na (α,p )26Mg reaction measured in the energy range Ec .m .=1.7 - 2.5 MeV . Concurrent measurements of Rutherford scattering provide absolute normalizations that are independent of variations in target properties. Angular distributions are measured for both p0 and p1 permitting the determination of total cross sections. The results show no significant deviation from the statistical model calculations upon which the recommended rates are based. We therefore retain the previous recommendation without the increase in cross section and resulting stellar reaction rates by a factor of 40, impacting the 26Al yield from massive stars by more than a factor of 3.

  6. Cross sections of neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2010-10-15

    We study the properties of the neutron-nucleus total and reaction cross sections for several nuclei. We have applied an analytical model, the nuclear Ramsauer model, justified it from the nuclear reaction theory approach, and extracted the values of 12 parameters used in the model. The given parametrization has an advantage as phenomenological optical model potentials are limited up to 150-200 MeV. The present model provides good estimates of the total cross sections for several nuclei particularly at high energies.

  7. Neutron-induced reaction studies using stored ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorius, Jan; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Reifarth, René

    2015-11-01

    Storage rings provide unique possibilities for investigations of nuclear reactions. Radioactive ions can be stored if the ring is connected to an appropriate facility and reaction studies are feasible at low beam intensities because of the recycling of beam particles. Using gas jet or droplet targets, charged particle-induced reactions on short-lived isotopes can be studied in inverse kinematics. In such a system a high-flux reactor could serve as a neutron target extending the experimental spectrum to neutron-induced reactions. Those could be studied over a wide energy range covering the research fields of nuclear astrophysics and reactor safety, transmutation of nuclear waste and fusion.

  8. Direct measurement of the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction cross section at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Federico; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction takes part in the NeNa cycle of hydrogen burning, influencing the production of the elements between 20Ne and 27Al in red giant stars, asymptotic giant stars and classical novae. The 22Ne(p,γ)27Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of tentative resonances in the Gamow window, where only upper limits were quoted in literature. A direct measurement of the 22Ne(p, γ)23Na reaction cross section has been carried out at LUNA using a windowless differential-pumping gas target with two high- purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. A new measurement with a 4π bismuth germanate (BGO) summing detector is ongoing. During the HPGe phase of the experiment the strengths of the resonances at 156.2 keV, 189.5 keV and 259.7 keV have been directly measured for the first time and their contribution to the reaction rate has been calculated. The decay scheme of the newly discovered resonances has been established as well and some improved upper limits on the unobserved resonances have been put. The BGO detector with its 70% γ-detection efficiency allows to measure the cross section at lower energy. In order to further investigate the resonances at 71 keV and 105 keV and the direct-capture component, the data taking is ongoing.

  9. Low-Energy resonances in the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction directly observed at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depalo, Rosanna; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning influences the synthesis of the elements between 20Ne and 27Al in AGB stars and classical novae explosions. The 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction rate is very uncertain because of a large number of unobserved resonances lying in the Gamow window. A new direct study of the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction has been performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) using a windowless gas target and two HPGe detectors. Several resonances have been observed for the first time in a direct experiment.

  10. Exploring the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction at LUNA and at HZDR

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanna, Francesca; Collaboration: LUNA Collaboration

    2014-05-09

    The {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction is involved in the hydrogen burning NeNa cycle. This determines the nucleosynthesis of the Ne and Na isotopes in the Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch phases of stellar evolution. In the energy range relevant for astrophysics (20 keV < E < 600 keV), the {sup 22}Ne(p,γ){sup 23}Na reaction rate is highly uncertain because of the contribution of a large number of resonances never measured directly. A related study is under preparation at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA), in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, and it will cover the energy range 100 keV < E < 400 keV. Meanwhile, a measurement at higher energies (i.e. 436 keV) has been carried out at the Tandetron accelerator of the HZDR (Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf) in Germany. Some preliminary results will be presented.

  11. Neutron-induced fission cross sections of short-lived actinides with the surrogate reaction method.

    SciTech Connect

    Kessedijian, G.; Jurado, B.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Bidaud, A.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Audouin, L.; Capellan, N.; Tassan-Got, L.; Wilson, J. N.; Berthoumieux, E.; Gunsing, F.; Theisen, Ch.; Serot, O.; Bauge, E.; Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.

    2010-09-13

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 242,243}Cm and {sup 241}Am have been obtained with the surrogate reaction method. Recent results for the neutron-induced cross section of {sup 243}Cm are questioned by the present data. For the first time, the {sup 242}Cm cross section has been determined up to the onset of second-chance fission. The good agreement at the lowest excitation energies between the present results and the existing neutron-induced data indicates that the distributions in spin and parity of states populated with both techniques are similar.

  12. Facility for neutron induced few body reactions at Bochum University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannach, B.; Bodek, K.; Börker, G.; Kamke, D.; Krug, J.; Lekkas, P.; Lübcke, W.; Stephan, M.

    1987-02-01

    A facility is described which is designed for the measurement of neutron induced three-body breakup. It has been used for the breakup of deuterium and of the nucleus 9Be. Neutrons are produced by a pulsed beam of deuterons from the Bochum 4MV Dynamitron-Tandem accelerator by bombarding a thick tritium-titanium target or a deuterium gas target. The outgoing beam is collimated by a 4π shielding to a solid angle of about 1 msr. In most cases, a liquid scintillator (NE232 or a mixture of NE232/NE213) serves as a target for the neutron beam. Scattered neutrons are detected by NE213-detectors of different sizes. For testing purposes the differential elastic n-d cross section and simultaneously the response of NE232 have been measured at 22.4 and 7.9 MeV.

  13. Low-background spectrometer for the study of fast neutron-induced (n,α) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khriachkov, V. A.; Ketlerov, V. V.; Mitrofanov, V. F.; Semenova, N. N.

    2000-04-01

    An α-particle spectrometer based on an ionization chamber with Frisch grid and a waveform digitizer has been developed for studies of fast neutron-induced (n,α) reactions. The information on the energy of the α-particle and its emission angle can be obtained from the amplitude and rise time of the digitized anode signal. For a situation where both the solid target on the cathode of the ionization chamber and the working gas are the α-particle sources, a new method for the suppression of the neutron-induced background is proposed. The background due to gaseous α-particles was reduced by a factor of 30.

  14. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the region of Iriduim and Gold

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Kelley, K; Escher, J; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2008-02-26

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from osmium (Z = 76) to gold (Z = 79). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Ir and Au including reactions on isomeric targets.

  15. α and 2 p 2 n emission in fast neutron-induced reactions on 60Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotiades, N.; Devlin, M.; Haight, R. C.; Nelson, R. O.; Kunieda, S.; Kawano, T.

    2015-06-01

    Background: The cross sections for populating the residual nucleus in the reaction ZAX(n,x) Z -2 A -4Y exhibit peaks as a function of incident neutron energy corresponding to the (n ,n'α ) reaction and, at higher energy, to the (n ,2 p 3 n ) reaction. The relative magnitudes of these peaks vary with the Z of the target nucleus. Purpose: Study fast neutron-induced reactions on 60Ni. Locate experimentally the nuclear charge region along the line of stability where the cross sections for α emission and for 2 p 2 n emission in fast neutron-induced reactions are comparable as a further test of reaction models. Methods: Data were taken by using the Germanium Array for Neutron-Induced Excitations. The broad-spectrum pulsed neutron beam of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's Weapons Neutron Research facility provided neutrons in the energy range from 1 to 250 MeV. The time-of-flight technique was used to determine the incident-neutron energies. Results: Absolute partial cross sections for production of seven discrete Fe γ rays populated in 60Ni (n ,α /2 p x n γ ) reactions with 2 ≤x ≤5 were measured for neutron energies 1 MeVneutron-induced reactions on stable targets via α emission at the peak of the (n ,α ) and (n ,n'α ) reactions is comparable to that for 2 p 2 n and 2 p 3 n emission at higher incident energies in the nuclear charge region around Fe.

  16. Barites - Anomalous xenon from spallation and neutron-induced reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, B.

    1976-01-01

    Sedimentary barites from South Africa and Western Australia (about 3 billion years old) contain spallogenic Xe isotopes produced by reactions of Ba with nuclear-active particles in cosmic rays. 'Surface residence time' of these samples was calculated from the observed concentrations of spallogenic Xe-126. Comparison of spallogenic ratios of Xe-131/Xe-126 in the two samples provides evidence for the reaction Ba-130(n, gamma) yields Xe-131, which is characterized by a large number of resonances for neutron absorption in the epithermal region. This observation lends additional support to the conclusions already reached regarding the origin of anomalous Xe-131 in lunar samples.

  17. Direct measurement of the (23)Na(α,p)(26)Mg reaction cross section at energies relevant for the production of galactic (26)Al.

    PubMed

    Almaraz-Calderon, S; Bertone, P F; Alcorta, M; Albers, M; Deibel, C M; Hoffman, C R; Jiang, C L; Marley, S T; Rehm, K E; Ugalde, C

    2014-04-18

    The 1809-keV γ ray from the decay of (26)Al(g) is an important target for γ-ray astronomy. In the convective C/Ne burning shell of massive presupernova stars, the (23)Na(α,p)(26)Mg reaction directly influences the production of (26)Al. We have performed a direct measurement of the (23)Na(α,p)(26)Mg reaction cross section at the appropriate astrophysically important energies. The stellar rate calculated in the present work is larger than the recommended rate by nearly a factor of 40 and could strongly affect the production of (26)Al in massive stars. PMID:24785033

  18. Neutron Induced Capture Reaction Studies in the Resonance Region at GELINA

    SciTech Connect

    Schillebeeckx, Peter; Borella, A.; Kopecky, S.; Mihailescu, L. C.; Siegler, P.; Sirakov, I.; Massimi, C.; Moxon, M.; Ware, T.

    2009-01-28

    The neutron time-of-flight facility GELINA installed at the IRMM Geel (B) has been designed to study neutron-induced reactions in the resonance region. It is a multi-user facility, providing a pulsed white neutron source, with a neutron energy range between 10 meV and 20 MeV and a time resolution of 1 ns. The research program concentrates on cross section data needs for nuclear energy applications. In this paper efforts to improve the quality of cross section data for neutron induced capture reactions in the resolved and unresolved resonance region are presented together with examples of cross section data to support the development of advanced reactor concepts and to optimize the use of present nuclear power plants.

  19. Evaluation of photon production data from neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation methods and procedures used for generating the photon production data in the current Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B, Version V) are reviewed. There are 42 materials in the General Purpose File of ENDF/B-V that contain data for prompt photon production. Almost all evaluations had substantial experimental data bases, but fewer than half of them employed any of the following evaluation methods. Only a few used theoretical techniques that are sophisticated enough to ensure internal consistency with other particle production data. Comments are made on four evaluation methods: the empirical formalism of Howerton et al., the Troubetzkoy model, the multiparticle Hauser-Feshbach/precompound model, and the Yost method. Critiques are also made on three procedures used for conserving photon energies in neutron capture reactions. The presence of photon production data in the file is useful for studying energy balance, since photon production generally accounts for a large portion of the reaction energy output. Problems found in energy balance checks are discussed. 9 figures, 1 table.

  20. Neutron-induced reaction studies at FIGARO using a spallation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochman, D.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Devlin, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Granier, T.

    2004-05-01

    A description is given of the new flexible facility Fast Neutron-Induced Gamma-Ray Observer (FIGARO) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. FIGARO is designed to study fast-neutron-induced reactions that result in the emission of γ rays and neutrons, using the white neutron beam of the Weapons Neutron Research Facility. The emitted neutrons and γ rays are detected by several liquid scintillators and one high-resolution germanium or one barium-fluoride detector, respectively. As an example, the inelastic neutron scattering on Si from 4 to 20 MeV is presented and the results are compared with predictions of the nuclear model calculations performed with the codes GNASH and EMPIRE II.

  1. The Status of Cross Section Measurements for Neutron-induced Reactions Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with lunar rocks and meteorites produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) allow production rates to be measured routinely in well-documented lunar rocks and meteorites. These measurements are analyzed using theoretical models to learn about the object itself and the history of the cosmic rays that fell on it. Good cross section measurements are essential input to the theoretical calculations. Most primary cosmic ray particles are protons so reliable cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. A cross section is deemed accurate if measurements made by different experimenters using different techniques result in consistent values. Most cross sections for proton induced reactions are now well measured. However, good cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions are still needed. These cross sections are required to fully account for all galactic cosmic ray interactions at depth in an extraterrestrial object. When primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interact with an object many secondary neutrons are produced, which also initiate spallation reactions. Thus, the total GCR contribution to the overall cosmogenic nuclide archive has to include the contribution from the secondary neutron interactions. Few relevant cross section measurements have been reported for neutron-induced reactions at neutron energies greater than approximately 20 MeV. The status of the cross section measurements using quasi-monoenergetic neutron energies at iThemba LABS, South Africa and white neutron beams at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos are reported here.

  2. Neutron-induced reactions on AlF3 studied using the optical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Lv, Cui-Juan; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Wei; Zuo, Jia-Xu

    2015-08-01

    Neutron-induced reactions on 27Al and 19F nuclei are investigated using the optical model implemented in the TALYS 1.4 toolkit. Incident neutron energies in a wide range from 0.1 keV to 30 MeV are calculated. The cross sections for the main channels (n, np), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), and (n, γ) and the total reaction cross section (n, tot) of the reactions are obtained. When the default parameters in TALYS 1.4 are adopted, the calculated results agree with the measured results. Based on the calculated results for the n + 27Al and n + 19F reactions, the results of the n + 27Al19F reactions are predicted. These results are useful both for the design of thorium-based molten salt reactors and for neutron activation analysis techniques.

  3. FIGARO: a New Facility for Studying Neutron-Induced Reactions that Produce Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, L.; Haight, R. C.; Devlin, M.; Aprahamian, A.

    2000-04-01

    FIGARO (Fast neutron-Induced GAmma-Ray Observer) was established in 1999 at LANSCE/WNR. This new capability is intended to extend our research into nuclear reactions and nuclear structure using gamma rays as the principal probe. The detector will consist of an array of germanium and NE-213 neutron detectors, operating in coincidence, placed at a distance of about 20 m from the neutron source. The scientific goals of FIGARO include: investigation of nuclear level densities using gamma-ray transitions as an indicator of angular momentum populated in the reaction; investigations of pre-equilibrium reactions; and study of cross sections and neutron emission spectra in (n,n') excitations. A first measurement, with the detection of only gamma-rays, has been performed with a ^59Co sample. By comparison with existing data(T. E. Slusarchyk, ORNL/TM-11404(1989)) we can assess the performance of the detector. Results will be discussed.

  4. The 12C(12C,α)20Ne and 12C(12C,p)23Na reactions at the Gamow peak via the Trojan Horse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Guardo, L.; Gulino, M.; Indelicato, I.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartá, R.

    2016-05-01

    A measurement of the 12C(14N,α20Ne)2H and 12C(14N,p23Na)2Hreactions has been performed at a 14N beam energy of 30.0 MeV. The experiment aims to explore the extent to which contributing 24Mg excited states can be populated in the quasi-free reaction off the deuteron in 14N. In particular, the 24Mg excitation region explored in the measurement plays a key role in stellar carbon burning whose cross section is commonly determined by extrapolating high-energy fusion data. From preliminary results, α and proton channels are clearly identified. In particular, ground and first excited states of 20Ne and 23Na play a major role.

  5. Analysis of the Nuclear Structure of 186 Re Using Neutron-Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matters, David; McClory, John; Carroll, James; Chiara, Chris; Fotiades, Nikolaos; Devlin, Matt; Nelson, Ron O.

    2015-04-01

    Evaluated nuclear structure data for 186 Re identifies the majority of spin-parity assignments as tentative, with approximate values associated with the energies of several levels and transitions. In particular, the absence of known transitions that feed the Jπ =8+ isomer motivates their discovery, which would have astrophysical implications and a potential application in the development of an isomer power source. Using the GErmanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE) spectrometer at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility, the (n,2n γ) and (n,n' γ) reactions in a 99.52% enriched 187 Re target were used to measure γ-ray excitation functions in 186 Re and 187 Re, respectively. A preliminary analysis of the data obtained from the experiment reveals several new transitions in 186 Re and 187 Re.

  6. Nuclear Reaction Models Responsible for Simulation of Neutron-induced Soft Errors in Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y. Abe, S.

    2014-06-15

    Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in MOSFETs from a 65 nm down to a 25 nm design rule are analyzed by means of multi-scale Monte Carlo simulation using the PHITS-HyENEXSS code system. Nuclear reaction models implemented in PHITS code are validated by comparisons with experimental data. From the analysis of calculated soft error rates, it is clarified that secondary He and H ions provide a major impact on soft errors with decreasing critical charge. It is also found that the high energy component from 10 MeV up to several hundreds of MeV in secondary cosmic-ray neutrons has the most significant source of soft errors regardless of design rule.

  7. Bayesian Evaluation Including Covariance Matrices of Neutron-induced Reaction Cross Sections of {sup 181}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Leeb, H. Schnabel, G.; Srdinko, Th.; Wildpaner, V.

    2015-01-15

    A new evaluation of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 181}Ta using a consistent procedure based on Bayesian statistics is presented. Starting point of the evaluation is the description of nuclear reactions via nuclear models implemented in TALYS 1.4. A retrieval of experimental data was performed and covariance matrices of the experiments were generated from an extensive study of the corresponding literature. All reaction channels required for a transport file up to 200 MeV have been considered and the covariance matrices of cross section uncertainties for the most important channels are determined. The evaluation has been performed in one step including all available experimental data. A comparison of the evaluated cross sections and spectra with experimental data and available evaluations is performed. In general the evaluated cross section reflect our best knowledge and give a fair description of the observables. However, there are few deviations from expectation which clearly indicate the impact of the prior and the need to account for model defects. Using the results of the evaluation a complete ENDF-file similarly to those of the TENDL library is generated.

  8. Strengths of the resonances at 436, 479, 639, 661, and 1279 keV in the 22Ne(p ,γ ) 23Na reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depalo, Rosanna; Cavanna, Francesca; Ferraro, Federico; Slemer, Alessandra; Al-Abdullah, Tariq; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Anders, Michael; Bemmerer, Daniel; Elekes, Zoltán; Mattei, Giovanni; Reinicke, Stefan; Schmidt, Konrad; Scian, Carlo; Wagner, Louis

    2015-10-01

    The 22Ne(p ,γ )23Na reaction is included in the neon-sodium cycle of hydrogen burning. A number of narrow resonances in the Gamow window dominate the thermonuclear reaction rate. Several resonance strengths are only poorly known. As a result, the 22Ne(p ,γ )23Na thermonuclear reaction rate is the most uncertain rate of the cycle. Here, a new experimental study of the strengths of the resonances at 436, 479, 639, 661, and 1279 keV proton beam energy is reported. The data have been obtained using a tantalum target implanted with 22Ne. The strengths ω γ of the resonances at 436, 639, and 661 keV have been determined with a relative approach, using the 479- and 1279-keV resonances for normalization. Subsequently, the ratio of resonance strengths of the 479- and 1279-keV resonances were determined, improving the precision of these two standards. The new data are consistent with, but more precise than, the literature with the exception of the resonance at 661 keV, which is found to be less intense by one order of magnitude. In addition, improved branching ratios have been determined for the gamma decay of the resonances at 436, 479, and 639 keV.

  9. Theoretical evaluation of the reaction rates for {sup 26}Al(n,p){sup 26}Mg and {sup 26}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 23}Na

    SciTech Connect

    Oginni, B. M.; Iliadis, C.; Champagne, A. E.

    2011-02-15

    The reactions that destroy {sup 26}Al in massive stars have significance in a number of astrophysical contexts. We evaluate the reaction rates of {sup 26}Al(n,p){sup 26}Mg and {sup 26}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 23}Na using cross sections obtained from the codes empire and talys. These have been compared to the published rates obtained from the non-smoker code and to some experimental data. We show that the results obtained from empire and talys are comparable to those from non-smoker. We also show how the theoretical results vary with respect to changes in the input parameters. Finally, we present recommended rates for these reactions using the available experimental data and our new theoretical results.

  10. Application of the Trojan Horse Method to study neutron induced reactions: the 17O(n, α)14C reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Tang, X. D.; Guardo, G. L.; Lamia, L.; Cherubini, S.; Bucher, B.; Burjan, V.; Couder, M.; Davies, P.; deBoer, R.; Fang, X.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Lamm, L.; La Cognata, M.; Li, C.; Ma, C.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Notani, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Roberson, D.; Sergi, M. L.; Tan, W.; Thompson, I. J.; Wiescher, M.

    2014-03-01

    The reaction 17O(n, α)14C was studied using virtual neutrons coming from the quasi-free deuteron break-up in the three body reaction 17O+d → α+14C+p. This technique, called virtual neutron method, extends the Trojan Horse method to neutron-induced reactions allowing to study the reaction cross section avoiding the suppression effects coming from the penetrability of the centrifugal barrier. For incident neutron energies from thermal up to a few hundred keV, direct experiments have shown the population of two out of three expected excited states at energies 8213 keV and 8282 keV and the influence of the sub-threshold level at 8038 keV. In the present experiment the 18O excited state at E* = 8.125 MeV, missing in the direct measurement, is observed. The angular distributions of the populated resonances have been measured for the first time. The results unambiguously indicate the ability of the method to overcome the centrifugal barrier suppression effect and to pick out the contribution of the bare nuclear interaction.

  11. Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Induced Reactions: Quasi-Free Reactions and RIBs

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Coc, A.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; De Sereville, N.

    2010-08-12

    The use of quasi-free reactions in studying nuclear reactions between charged particles of astrophysical interest has received much attention over the last two decades. The Trojan Horse Method is based on this approach and it has been used to study a number of reactions relevant for Nuclear Astrophysics. Recently we applied this method to the study of nuclear reactions that involve radioactive species, namely to the study of the {sup 18}F+p{yields}{sup 15}O+{alpha} process at temperatures corresponding to the energies available in the classical novae scenario. Quasi-free reactions can also be exploited to study processes induced by neutrons. This technique is particularly interesting when applied to reaction induced by neutrons on unstable short-lived nuclei. Such processes are very important in the nucleosynthesis of elements in the sand r-processes scenarios and this technique can give hints for solving key questions in nuclear astrophysics where direct measurements are practically impossible.

  12. Feeding of isomers of stable Rh, Ag, Ir and Au isotopes in fast-neutron-induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotiades, N.; Devlin, M.; Nelson, R. O.; Carroll, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    The GEANIE spectrometer, comprised of 20 high-purity Ge detectors coupled to the broad-spectrum pulsed neutron beam of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's (LANSCE) WNR facility, has been used to determine partial γ-ray cross sections in (n , xn) fast-neutron-induced reactions. In (n ,n') reactions on stable Ir and Au isotopes the γ-ray feeding, as established with GEANIE, for the isomers relative to the feeding of the corresponding ground states increases with increasing neutron energy up to the neutron energy where the (n , 2 n) reaction channel opens and then decreases. The behavior in mass A = 100 region of the γ-ray feeding of isomers and ground states was also studied with GEANIE in fast-neutron-induced reactions on stable Rh and Ag isotopes. The feeding of the isomers was found to be very similar in the corresponding reaction channels and it was compared to the feeding determined for the ground states. The opening of higher-neutron-emitting reaction channels remove angular momentum from the compound system and reduce the population of higher-spin isomers relative to the feeding of lower-spin ground states in all cases studied.

  13. Measurement of fragment mass distributions in neutron-induced fission reactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutkin, V. D.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Blomgren, J.; Pomp, S.; Österlund, M.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2009-10-01

    Fragment mass distributions from neutron-induced fission of 232Th and 238U have been measured at quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE. The measurements have been carried out making use of a multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. The measurement technique as well as the data processing is described. Preliminary data on primary fragment mass yields are given for an incident neutron energy of 32.8 MeV.

  14. Neutron-induced reactions in the hohlraum to study reaction in flight neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, M. S.; Elliott, S. R.; Guiseppe, V.; Kidd, M.; Rundberg, B.; Tybo, J.

    2013-04-01

    We are currently developing the physics necessary to measure the Reaction In Flight (RIF) neutron flux from a NIF capsule. A measurement of the RIF neutron flux from a NIF capsule could be used to deduce the stopping power in the cold fuel of the NIF capsule. A foil irradiated at the Omega laser at LLE was counted at the LANL low-background counting facility at WIPP. The estimated production rate of 195Au was just below our experimental sensitivity. We have made several improvements to our counting facility in recent months. These improvements are designed to increase our sensitivity, and include installing two new low-background detectors, and taking steps to reduce noise in the signals.

  15. Neutron-induced reactions in the hohlraum to study reaction in flight neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, M. S.; Elliott, S. R.; Tybo, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Rundberg, B.; Kidd, M.

    2013-04-19

    We are currently developing the physics necessary to measure the Reaction In Flight (RIF) neutron flux from a NIF capsule. A measurement of the RIF neutron flux from a NIF capsule could be used to deduce the stopping power in the cold fuel of the NIF capsule. A foil irradiated at the Omega laser at LLE was counted at the LANL low-background counting facility at WIPP. The estimated production rate of {sup 195}Au was just below our experimental sensitivity. We have made several improvements to our counting facility in recent months. These improvements are designed to increase our sensitivity, and include installing two new low-background detectors, and taking steps to reduce noise in the signals.

  16. Cross Sections for Neutron-induced Reactions on Actinide Targets Extracted from Surrogate Experiments: A Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Lesher, S R; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J; Younes, W

    2009-10-01

    The Surrogate nuclear reactions method, an indirect approach for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving difficult-to-measure targets, is reviewed. Focusing on cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on actinides, we review the successes of past and present applications of the method and assess its uncertainties and limitations. The approximations used in the analyses of most experiments work reasonably well for (n,f) cross sections for neutron energies above 1-2 MeV, but lead to discrepancies for low-energy (n,f) reactions, as well as for (n,{gamma}) applications. Correcting for some of the effects neglected in the approximate analyses leads to improved (n,f) results. We outline steps that will further improve the accuracy and reliability of the Surrogate method and extend its applicability to reactions that cannot be approached with the present implementation of the method.

  17. Revised Production Rates for Na-22 and Mn-54 in Meteorites Using Cross Sections Measured for Neutron-induced Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.; Kim, K. J.; Reedy, R. C.

    2004-01-01

    The interactions of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) with extraterrestrial bodies produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. The production rates of many relatively short-lived radionuclides, including 2.6-year Na-22 and 312-day Mn-54, have been measured in several meteorites collected very soon after they fell. Theoretical models used to calculate production rates for comparison with the measured values rely on input data containing good cross section measurements for all relevant reactions. Most GCR particles are protons, but secondary neutrons make most cosmogenic nuclides. Calculated production rates using only cross sections for proton-induced reactions do not agree well with measurements. One possible explanation is that the contribution to the production rate from reactions initiated by secondary neutrons produced in primary GCR interactions should be included explicitly. This, however, is difficult to do because so few of the relevant cross sections for neutron-induced reactions have been measured.

  18. Yield of delayed neutrons in the thermal-neutron-induced reaction 245Cm( n, f)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianov, V. R.; Vyachin, V. N.; Gundorin, N. A.; Druzhinin, A. A.; Zhdanova, K. V.; Lihachev, A. N.; Pikelner, L. B.; Rebrova, N. V.; Salamatin, I. M.; Furman, V. I.

    2008-10-01

    The yield of delayed neutrons, v d , from thermal-neutron-induced fission of 245Cm is measured. Experiments aimed at studying the properties of delayed neutrons from the fission of some reactor isotopes and initiated in 1997 were continued at the upgraded Isomer-M facility by a method according to which a periodic irradiation of a sample with a pulsed neutron beam from the IBR-2 reactor was accompanied by recording emitted neutrons in the intervals between the pulses. The accuracy of the resulting total delayed-neutron yield v d = (0.64 ± 0.02)% is two times higher than that in previous measurements. This work was performed at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna).

  19. Evaluation of cross sections for neutron-induced reactions in sodium. [10/sup -5/ eV to 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.C.

    1980-09-01

    An evaluation of the neutron-induced cross sections of /sup 23/Na has been done for the energy range from 10/sup -5/ eV to 20 MeV. All significant cross sections are given, including differential cross sections for production of gamma rays. The recommended values are based on experimental data where available, and use results of a consistent model code analysis of available data to predict cross sections where there are no experimental data. This report describes the evaluation that was submitted to the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) for consideration as a part of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, Version V, and subsequently issued as MAT 1311. 126 references, 130 figures, 14 tables.

  20. Neutron Elastic and Inelastic Scattering Cross Sections on ^NatFe and ^23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersting, Luke; Lueck, Collin J.; Hicks, S. F.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2010-10-01

    Neutron elastic and inelastic scattering angular distributions from ^NatFe and ^23Na at incident neutron energies of 3.57 and 3.81 MeV have been measured at the University of Kentucky 7 MV Van de Graaff laboratory using neutron time-of-flight techniques. The neutron beam was produced using the ^3H(p,n)He^3reaction. The scattered neutrons were detected at angles between 20 and 150 in 10 intervals with a hexafluorbenzene detector located approximately 3 m from the scattering samples. Neutron scattering differential cross sections were deduced. These cross sections and their uncertainties are important for understanding neutron-induced reactions in fission reactors and are important for fission reactor criticality calculations.

  1. Neutron-induced transmutation reactions in 237Np, 238Pu, and 239Pu at the massive natural uranium spallation target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorka, L.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A. A.; Caloun, P.; Chilap, V. V.; Furman, W. I.; Kadykov, M. G.; Khushvaktov, J.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Sotnikov, V.; Stegailov, V. I.; Suchopar, M.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.; Voronko, V.; Vrzalova, J.

    2015-04-01

    Transmutation reactions in the 237Np, 238Pu, and 239Pu samples were investigated in the neutron field generated inside a massive (m = 512 kg) natural uranium spallation target. The uranium target assembly QUINTA was irradiated with the deuteron beams of kinetic energy 2, 4, and 8 GeV provided by the Nuclotron accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. The neutron-induced transmutation of the actinide samples was measured off-line by implementing methods of gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe detectors. Results of measurement are expressed in the form of both the individual reaction rates and average fission transmutation rates. For the purpose of validation of radiation transport programs, the experimental results were compared with simulations of neutron production and distribution performed by the MCNPX 2.7 and MARS15 codes employing the INCL4-ABLA physics models and LAQGSM event generator, respectively. In general, a good agreement between the experimental and calculated reaction rates was found in the whole interval of provided beam energies.

  2. α and 2p2n emission in fast neutron-induced reactions on Ni60

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fotiades, N.; Devlin, M.; Haight, R. C.; Nelson, R. O.; Kunieda, S.; Kawano, T.

    2015-06-19

    The cross sections for populating the residual nucleus in the reaction AZX(n,x)A-4Z-2Y exhibit peaks as a function of incident neutron energy corresponding to the (n,n'α) reaction and, at higher energy, to the (n,2p3n) reaction. In addition, the relative magnitudes of these peaks vary with the Z of the target nucleus.

  3. Neutron Induced Reactions with the 17 Mev Facility at the Athens Tandem Accelerator NCSR 'Demokritos'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlastou, R.; Kalamara, A.; Serris, M.; Diakaki, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Paneta, V.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.

    In the 5.5 MV tandem T11/25 Accelerator Laboratory of NCSR "Demokritos" monoenergetic neutron beams have been produced in the energy range∼ 15-20 MeV using anew Ti-tritiated target of 373 GBq activity, by means of the 3H(d,n)4He reaction. The corresponding deuteron beam energies obtained from the accelerator, were in the 1.5-4.5MeV range.The maximum flux has been determined to be of the order of 106 n/cm2 s, implementing reference reactions. The 17.1MeV neutron beam has been used for the measurement of 197Au(n,2n) reaction cross section. Theoretical calculations have been performed via the statistical model code EMPIRE and compared to the experimental data of the present work and data from literature.

  4. Neutron-Induced Reactions on Copper and Zero-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, Matthew; Kelley, John; Fallin, Brent; Finch, Sean; Howell, Calvin; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner

    2012-10-01

    Cross-section measurements of (n,xγ) reactions on ^natCu were carried out at TUNL using monoenergetic neutrons at six energies of En = 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 MeV. These studies were performed to provide accurate cross-section data on materials abundant in experimental setups involving HPGe detectors used to search for rare events, like the neutrino-less double-beta decay of ^76Ge. Spallation and (α,n) neutrons are expected to cause the largest source of external background in the energy region of interest. At TUNL pulsed neutron beams were produced via the ^2H(d,n)^3He reaction and the deexcitation γ rays from the reaction ^natCu(n,xγ) were detected with clover HPGe detectors. Our cross-section data will be compared to theoretical calculations and to data recently obtained at LANL with a white neutron beam.

  5. Neutron-induced reactions relevant for Inertial-Cofinement Fusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, Melissa; Devlin, Mathew; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Merrill, Frank; Nelson, Ronald; Tonchev, Anton

    2014-09-01

    The typical ignition experiment at the National Ignition Facility ablatively implodes a plastic capsule filled with DT fuel, generating a high flux of 14-MeV neutrons from the d(t,n) α reaction. There is some spread in the energy of these primary 14-MeV neutrons, which is mainly attributable to Doppler shifting from the relative thermal motion of the burning DT fuel. Neutrons created during this reaction have 5--10% chance of scattering before escaping the fuel assembly, losing some fraction of their energy in the scattering process. Neutrons emerging with an energy greater than the reaction energy are generated by a two-step process where neutrons first transfer momentum to a deuteron or tritium ion, these enhanced energy ions then fuse in flight to produce higher energy neutrons; some of these neutrons have energies in excess of 30 MeV. Measuring the fluencies of both the low- and high-energy neutrons is a powerful mechanism for studying the properties of the fuel assembly, and the various parameters important to inertial confinement fusion. We have developed a number of tools to measure the spectral characteristics of the NIF neutron spectrum. Most of these methods rely on exploiting the energy dependence of (n, γ), (n,2n), (n,3n) and (n,p) reactions on a variety o.

  6. Influence of different data tables on neutron induced reactions in quasi-infinite 238U and 232Th targets irradiated by protons with relativistic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhivkov, P.; Stoyanov, Ch; Tyutyunnikov, S.; Furman, W.

    2016-06-01

    The last decade saw the emergence of various theoretical analysis and developments of ADS (Accelerator Driving System). Different transport codes, nuclear models and nuclear cross sections have been used to predict and estimate the properties of ADS. The energy of the proton beam is supposed to range between 1 and 1.5 GeV, but some analyses suggest higher energy - up to 10 GeV. The recent papers examine the influence of the nuclear models on neutron induced reactions (n,f), (n,g), (n,xn), (n,el.) and (n,inel.). The experimental set-ups and the presumable ADS constructions consist of thousands of segments and details for example project Myrrha, Belgum [1]. The calculation of the above reactions depends on the neutron spectrum in each segment. There is a considerable difference in the size of these segments in ADS, which makes the estimation of the influence of the nuclear models and the cross sections on the integral number of neutron induced reactions more difficult. This article considers the influence of different cross section data tables on neutron induced reactions in 238U or 232Th targets. One nuclear model describing the high energy part of the nuclear interaction and various cross section data tagble (ENDF, ENDL, TENDL2014 and etc.) are used. All particles generated in the nuclear interaction process deposit their energy in the target volume. MCNP 6.1 transport code was used.

  7. Isomeric Cross-Section Study of Neutron-Induced Reactions on Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Vlastou, R.; Galanopoulos, S.; Papadopoulos, C. T.; Kokkoris, M.; Serris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Demetriou, P.

    2009-01-28

    The {sup 72}Ge(n,{alpha}){sup 69m}Zn, {sup 74}Ge(n,{alpha}){sup 71m}Zn, {sup 76}Ge(n,2n){sup 75g+m}Ge reaction cross sections have been measured from 9.6 to 11.4 MeV and studied, along with data from literature, within the frame of the statistical model using the code EMPIRE-II.

  8. Determination of Resonance Parameters and their Covariances from Neutron Induced Reaction Cross Section Data

    SciTech Connect

    Schillebeeckx, P.; Becker, B.; Danon, Y.; Guber, K.; Harada, H.; Heyse, J.; Junghans, A.R.; Kopecky, S.; Massimi, C.; Moxon, M.C.; Otuka, N.; Sirakov, I.; Volev, K.

    2012-12-15

    Cross section data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region are represented by nuclear reaction formalisms using parameters which are determined by fitting them to experimental data. Therefore, the quality of evaluated cross sections in the resonance region strongly depends on the experimental data used in the adjustment process and an assessment of the experimental covariance data is of primary importance in determining the accuracy of evaluated cross section data. In this contribution, uncertainty components of experimental observables resulting from total and reaction cross section experiments are quantified by identifying the metrological parameters involved in the measurement, data reduction and analysis process. In addition, different methods that can be applied to propagate the covariance of the experimental observables (i.e. transmission and reaction yields) to the covariance of the resonance parameters are discussed and compared. The methods being discussed are: conventional uncertainty propagation, Monte Carlo sampling and marginalization. It is demonstrated that the final covariance matrix of the resonance parameters not only strongly depends on the type of experimental observables used in the adjustment process, the experimental conditions and the characteristics of the resonance structure, but also on the method that is used to propagate the covariances. Finally, a special data reduction concept and format is presented, which offers the possibility to store the full covariance information of experimental data in the EXFOR library and provides the information required to perform a full covariance evaluation.

  9. Decay Properties of {sup 266}Bh and {sup 262}Db Produced in the {sup 248}Cm+{sup 23}Na Reaction - Further Confirmation of the {sup 278}113 Decay Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.; Kaji, D.; Haba, H.; Ozeki, K.; Kudou, Y.; Yoneda, A.; Ichikawa, T.; Katori, K.; Yoshida, A.; Sato, N.; Sumita, T.; Fujimori, Y.; Tokanai, F.; Goto, S.; Ideguchi, E.; Kasamatsu, Y.; Koura, H.; Tsukada, K.; Komori, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Decay properties of an isotope {sup 266}Bh and its daughter nucleus {sup 262}Db produced by the {sup 248}Cm({sup 23}Na,5n) reaction were studied by using a gas-filled recoil separator coupled with a position-sensitive semiconductor detector. {sup 266}Bh was clearly identified from the correlation of the known nuclide, {sup 262}Db. The obtained decay properties of {sup 266}Bh and {sup 262}Db are consistent with those observed in the {sup 278}113 chain by RIKEN collaboration, which provided further confirmation of the discovery of {sup 278}113.

  10. Measurement of Neutron-Induced, Angular-Momentum-Dependent Fission Probabilities Direct Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koglin, Johnathon; Jovanovic, Igor; Burke, Jason; Casperson, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The surrogate method has previously been used to successfully measure (n , f) cross sections of a variety of difficult to produce actinide isotopes. These measurements are inaccurate at excitation energies below 1.5 MeV where the distribution of angular momentum states populated in the compound nucleus created by neutron absorption significantly differs from that arising from direct reactions. A method to measure the fission probability of individual angular momentum states arising from 239 Pu(d , pf) and 239 Pu(α ,α' f) reactions has been developed. This method consists on charged particle detectors with 40 keV FWHM resolution at 13 angles up and downstream of the beam. An array of photovoltaic (solar) cells is used to measure the angular distribution of fission fragments with high angular resolution. This distribution uniquely identifies the populated angular momentum states. These are fit to expected distributions to determine the contribution of each state. The charged particle and fission matrix obtained from these measurements determines fission probabilities of specific angular momentum states in the transition nucleus. Development of this scheme and first results will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Grant Award Number 2012-DN-130-NF0001.

  11. Advanced Monte Carlo modeling of prompt fission neutrons for thermal and fast neutron-induced fission reactions on Pu239

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, P.; Becker, B.; Kawano, T.; Chadwick, M. B.; Danon, Y.

    2011-06-01

    Prompt fission neutrons following the thermal and 0.5 MeV neutron-induced fission reaction of Pu239 are calculated using a Monte Carlo approach to the evaporation of the excited fission fragments. Exclusive data such as the multiplicity distribution P(ν), the average multiplicity as a function of fragment mass ν¯(A), and many others are inferred in addition to the most used average prompt fission neutron spectrum χ(Ein,Eout), as well as average neutron multiplicity ν¯. Experimental information on these more exclusive data help constrain the Monte Carlo model parameters. The calculated average total neutron multiplicity is ν¯c=2.871 in very close agreement with the evaluated value ν¯e=2.8725 present in the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The neutron multiplicity distribution P(ν) is in very good agreement with the evaluation by Holden and Zucker. The calculated average spectrum differs in shape from the ENDF/B-VII.0 spectrum, evaluated with the Madland-Nix model. In particular, we predict more neutrons in the low-energy tail of the spectrum (below about 300 keV) than the Madland-Nix calculations, casting some doubts on how much scission neutrons contribute to the shape of the low-energy tail of the spectrum. The spectrum high-energy tail is very sensitive to the total kinetic energy distribution of the fragments as well as to the total excitation energy sharing at scission. Present experimental uncertainties on measured spectra above 6 MeV are too large to distinguish between various theoretical hypotheses. Finally, comparisons of the Monte Carlo results with experimental data on ν¯(A) indicate that more neutrons are emitted from the light fragments than the heavy ones, in agreement with previous works.

  12. (22)Ne(proton, gamma)(23)Na, (23)Na(proton, gamma)(24)Mg, and globular cluster abundance anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Stephen Earl, Jr.

    Anticorrelations between sodium and oxygen have been observed in red giant stars in globular clusters, contrary to expectations from the standard theory of stellar evolution. It has been proposed that the 23Na is being produced through the NeNa cycle operating in layers above the main hydrogen-burning shell. The (p, γ) reactions that produce and destroy sodium have large uncertainties because of the possible influence of several resonances. We have carried out measurements of the ( 3He, d) proton-stripping reaction on 22Ne and 23Na in order to study these resonances. The upper limits on the resonance strengths of two possible resonances at Ecm = 68 and 100 keV, that account for most of the uncertainty in 22Ne( p, γ)23Na, have been reduced by factors of 10 and 4, respectively. The reaction rate of 23Na(p, γ) 24Mg has been increased dramatically with the observation of the resonance at Ecm = 136 keV with an increased strength from 10 to 6300 times stronger than the previously used value. The effect of these changes is to establish the nuclear reactions that can produce sodium in the red giant hydrogen-burning shell. The production of sodium is seen to coincide with the destruction of oxygen, through the NeNa and the CNO cycle respectively.

  13. Development of a Nuclear Reaction Database on Silicon for Simulation of Neutron-Induced Single-Event Upsets in Microelectronics and its Application

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Kodama, Akihiro; Tukamoto, Yasuyuki; Nakashima, Hideki

    2005-05-24

    We have developed a cross-section database for neutron-induced reactions on 28Si in the energy range between 2 MeV and 3 GeV in order to analyze single-event upsets (SEUs) phenomena induced by cosmic-ray neutrons in microelectronic devices. A simplified spherical device model is proposed for simulation of the initial processes of SEUs. The model is applied to SEU cross-section calculations for semiconductor memory devices. The calculated results are compared with measured SEU cross sections and the other simulation result. The dependence of SEU cross sections on incident neutron energy and secondary ions having the most important effects on SEUs are discussed.

  14. Cross-Section Measurements for Proton- and Neutron-Induced Reactions Needed to Understand Cosmic-Ray Interactions on Earth and in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisterson, Janet M.

    2005-05-01

    Primary cosmic rays interact directly with extraterrestrial bodies and cosmic-ray shower particles interact with the earth's surface to produce small quantities of radionuclides and stable isotopes, which are measured routinely using appropriate techniques. Theoretical models are used to analyze these measurements to learn the history of the object or the cosmic rays that fell upon it. Cross sections for reactions producing these cosmogenic nuclides are essential input to these models. Most primary cosmic rays are protons, and good measurements of the cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. Most relevant cross sections are now well measured, but discrepancies still exist between the measurements and calculations. One explanation is that neutrons produced in primary cosmic-ray interactions also initiate spallation reactions contributing significantly to the cosmogenic nuclide inventory, but few of the relevant cross sections have been measured at energies >30 MeV. We have measured many of these needed cross sections for neutron-induced reactions using two different techniques. Cross sections at selected unique neutron energies >70 MeV are measured at iThemba LABS, South Africa (iTL) using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams. Energy integrated (average) cross sections are measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), using `white' neutron beams with an energy range of 0.1-750 MeV.

  15. (n,2n) and (n,3n) cross sections of neutron-induced reactions on 150Sm for En from threshold to 35 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Dashdorj, D; Mitchell, G; Kawano, T; Becker, J; Wu, C; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N; Nelson, R; Kunieda, S

    2009-03-16

    Cross-section measurements were made of prompt discrete {gamma}-ray production as a function of incident neutron energy (E{sub n} = 1 to 35 MeV) on a {sup 150}Sm sample fo 1550 mg/cm{sup 2} of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} enriched to 95.6% in {sup 150}Sm. Results are compared with enhanced Hauser-Feshbach model calculations including the pre-equilibrium reactions. Energetic neutrons were delivered by the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility. The prompt-reaction {gamma} rays were detected with the Compton-suppressed Germanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE). Incident neutron energies were determined by the time-of-flight technique. Excitation functions for thirteen individual {gamma}-rays up to E{sub x} = 0.8 MeV in {sup 149}Sm and one {gamma}-ray transition between the first excited and ground state in {sup 148}Sm were measured. Partial {gamma}-ray cross sections were calculated using GNASH, an enhanced Hauser-Feshbach statistical nuclear reaction model code, and compared with the experimental results. The particle transmission coefficients were calculated with new systematic 'global' optical model potential parameters. The coupled-channel optical model based on the soft rotor model was employed to calculate the particle transmission coefficients. The pre-equilibrium part of the spin distribution in {sup 150}Sm was calculated using the quantum mechanical theory of Feshbach, Kerman, and Koonin (FKK) and incorporated into the GNASH reaction model code. the partial cross sections for discrete {gamma}-ray cascade paths leading to the ground state in {sup 149}Sm and {sup 148}Sm have been summed (without double counting) to estimate lower limits for reaction cross sections. These lower limits are combined with Hauser-Feshbach model calculations to deduce the reaction channel cross sections. These reaction channel cross sections agree with previously measured experimental and ENDF/B-VII evaluations.

  16. Cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reactions by the Liège intranuclear cascade model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Dong, Tiekuang; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the paper is mainly to test the validity of the Liège intranuclear cascade (INCL) model in calculating the cross sections of proton-induced reactions for cosmogenic nuclei using the newly compiled database of proton cross sections. The model calculations of 3He display the rising tendency of cross sections with the increase of energy, in accordance with the experimental data. Meanwhile, the differences between the theoretical results and experimental data of production cross sections (10Be and 26Al) are generally within a factor of 3, meaning that the INCL model works quite well for the proton-induced reactions. Based on the good agreement, we predict the production cross sections of 26Al from reactions n + 27Al, n + 28Si, and n + 40Ca and those of 10Be from reactions n + 16O and n + 28Si. The results also show a good agreement with a posteriori excitation functions.

  17. A new set-up for the simultaneous measurement of neutron-induced capture and fission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gunsing, F.; Andriamonje, S.

    2011-07-01

    The measurement of the capture cross section of fissile elements, of upmost importance for the design of innovative nuclear reactors and the management of nuclear waste, involves particular difficulties related to the {gamma}-ray background produced in the fission reactions. These difficulties are the reason why five out of the six actinide {sigma}(n,{gamma}) measurements in the NEA High Request Priority List are fissile isotopes. At n-TOF we have combined the Total Absorption Calorimeter capture detector with a set of three {sup 235}U loaded MicroMegas fission detectors for measuring simultaneously the two reactions: capture and fission. In a first test measurement we have succeeded in measuring simultaneously with high efficiency the {sup 235}U capture and fission cross sections, disentangling accurately the two types of reactions. (authors)

  18. Revised Calculations of the Production Rates for Co Isotopes in Meteorites Using New Cross Sections for Neutron-induced Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.; Brooks, F. D.; Buffler, A.; Allie, M. S.; Herbert, M. S.; Nchodu, M. R.; Makupula, S.; Ullmann, J.; Reedy, R. C.; Jones, D. T. L.

    2002-01-01

    New cross section measurements for reactions induced by neutrons with energies greater than 70 MeV are used to calculate the production rates for cobalt isotopes in meteorites and these new calculations are compared to previous estimates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Measurement of activation cross-sections for high-energy neutron-induced reactions of Bi and Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Naik, Haladhara; Shahid, Muhammad; Lee, Manwoo

    2015-08-01

    The cross-sections for 209Bi(n, 4n)206Bi, 209Bi(n, 5n)205Bi, natPb(n, xn)204mPb, natPb(n, xn)203Pb, natPb(n, xn)202mPb,natPb(n, xn)201Pb, natPb(n, xn)200Pb, natPb(n, αxn)203Hg and natPb(n, p xn)202Tl reactions were determined at the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Korea in the neutron energy range of 15.2 to 37.2 MeV. The above cross-sections were obtained by using the activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The quasi-monoenergetic neutron used for the above reactions are based on the 9Be(p, n) reaction. Simulations of the spectral flux from the Be target were done using the MCNPX program. The cross-sections were estimated with the TALYS 1.6 code using the default parameter. The data from the present work and literature were compared with the data from the EAF-2010 and the TENDL-2013 libraries, and calculated values of TALYS 1.6 code. It shows that appropriate level density model, the γ-ray strength function, and the spin cut-off parameter are needed to obtain a good agreement between experimental data and theoretical values from TALYS 1.6 code.

  20. Measurement of gamma-ray production cross sections in neutron-induced reactions for Al and Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlik, A.; Vonach, H.; Hitzenberger, H.; Nelson, R.O.; Haight, R.C.; Wender, S.A.; Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    The prompt gamma-radiation from the interaction of fast neutrons with aluminum and lead was measured using the white neutron beam of the WNR facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples (Al and isotopically enriched {sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb) were positioned at about 20 m or 41 m distance from the neutron production target. The spectra of the emitted gamma-rays were measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector. The incident neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight method and the neutron fluence was measured with a U fission chamber. From the aluminum gamma-ray spectra excitation functions for prominent gamma-transitions in various residual nuclei (in the range from O to Al) were derived for neutron energies from 3 MeV to 400 MeV. For lead (n,xn{gamma}) reactions were studied for neutron energies up to 200 MeV by analyzing prominent gamma-transitions in the residual nuclei {sup 200,202,204,206,207,208}Pb. The experimental results were compared with nuclear model calculations using the code GNASH. A good overall agreement was obtained without special parameter adjustments.

  1. Study of the 17O(n,α)14C reaction: Extension of the Trojan Horse Method to neutron induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardo, G. L.; Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Gulino, M.; Tang, X. D.; Bucher, B.; Burjan, V.; Cherubini, S.; Couder, M.; Davies, P.; deBoer*, R.; Fang, X.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Lamm, L.; La Cognata, M.; Li, C.; Ma, C.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Notani, M.; OBrien, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Roberson, D.; Sergi, M. L.; Tan, W.; Thompson, I. J.; Wiescher, M.

    2014-05-01

    The experimental study of the 17O(n,α)14C reaction has been performed in the energy range 0-350 keV. This reaction could play an important role in explaining heavy elements (s-process) nucleosynthesis in various astrophysical scenario. To overcome the practical problems arising from the neutrons production, a new application of the Trojan Horse Method has been recently suggested. In more details, the 17O(n,α)14C reaction has been studied using the quasi-free 2H(17O,α14C)1H reaction, induced at an energy of 43.5 MeV. The measurement allows one to investigate the ℓ=3, 75 keV resonance (E*=8.125 MeV, Jπ=5-), absent in the available direct measurements because of centrifugal suppression effects.

  2. Study of the {sup 17}O(n,α){sup 14}C reaction: Extension of the Trojan Horse Method to neutron induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Guardo, G. L.; Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Gulino, M.; Tang, X. D.; Bucher, B.; Couder, M.; Davies, P.; Boer, R. de; Fang, X.; Lamm, L.; Ma, C.; Notani, M.; OBrien, S.; Roberson, D.; Tan, W.; Wiescher, M.; and others

    2014-05-02

    The experimental study of the {sup 17}O(n,α){sup 14}C reaction has been performed in the energy range 0-350 keV. This reaction could play an important role in explaining heavy elements (s-process) nucleosynthesis in various astrophysical scenario. To overcome the practical problems arising from the neutrons production, a new application of the Trojan Horse Method has been recently suggested. In more details, the {sup 17}O(n,α){sup 14}C reaction has been studied using the quasi-free {sup 2}H({sup 17}O,α{sup 14}C){sup 1}H reaction, induced at an energy of 43.5 MeV. The measurement allows one to investigate the ℓ=3, 75 keV resonance (E*=8.125 MeV, J{sup π}=5{sup −}), absent in the available direct measurements because of centrifugal suppression effects.

  3. Statistical Hauser-Feshbach theory with width-fluctuation correction including direct reaction channels for neutron-induced reactions at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, T.; Capote, R.; Hilaire, S.; Chau Huu-Tai, P.

    2016-07-01

    A model to calculate particle-induced reaction cross sections with statistical Hauser-Feshbach theory including direct reactions is given. The energy average of the scattering matrix from the coupled-channels optical model is diagonalized by the transformation proposed by Engelbrecht and Weidenmüller [C. A. Engelbrecht and H. A. Weidenmüller, Phys. Rev. C 8, 859 (1973), 10.1103/PhysRevC.8.859]. The ensemble average of S -matrix elements in the diagonalized channel space is approximated by a model of Moldauer [P. A. Moldauer, Phys. Rev. C 12, 744 (1975), 10.1103/PhysRevC.12.744] using the newly parametrized channel degree-of-freedom νa to better describe the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) reference calculations. The Moldauer approximation is confirmed by a Monte Carlo study using a randomly generated S matrix, as well as the GOE threefold integration formula. The method proposed is applied to the 238U(n ,n' ) cross-section calculation in the fast-energy range, showing an enhancement in the inelastic scattering cross sections.

  4. Creation of a strongly dipolar gas of ultracold ground-state 23 Na87 Rb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Wang, Dajun; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    We report on successful creation of an ultracold sample of ground-state 23 Na87 Rb molecules with a large effective electric dipole moment. Through a carefully designed two-photon Raman process, we have successfully transferred the magneto-associated Feshbach molecules to the singlet ground state with high efficiency, obtaining up to 8000 23 Na87 Rb molecules with peak number density over 1011 cm-3 in their absolute ground-state level. With an external electric field, we have induced an effective dipole moment over 1 Debye, making 23 Na87 Rb the most dipolar ultracold particle ever achieved. Contrary to the expectation, we observed a rather fast population loss even for 23 Na87 Rb in the absolute ground state with the bi-molecular exchange reaction energetically forbidden. The origin for the short lifetime and possible ways of mitigating it are currently under investigation. Our achievements pave the way toward investigation of ultracold bosonic molecules with strong dipolar interactions. This work is supported by the Hong Kong RGC CUHK404712 and the ANR/RGC Joint Research Scheme ACUHK403/13.

  5. Neutron-induced background by an α-beam incident on a deuterium gas target and its implications for the study of the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, M.; Trezzi, D.; Bellini, A.; Aliotta, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Costantini, H.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Elekes, Z.; Erhard, M.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Marta, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Scott, D.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.

    2013-02-01

    The production of the stable isotope 6Li in standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis has recently attracted much interest. Recent observations in metal-poor stars suggest that a cosmological 6Li plateau may exist. If true, this plateau would come in addition to the well-known Spite plateau of 7Li abundances and would point to a predominantly primordial origin of 6Li , contrary to the results of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Therefore, the nuclear physics underlying Big Bang 6Li production must be revisited. The main production channel for 6Li in the Big Bang is the 2H(α,γ)6Li reaction. The present work reports on neutron-induced effects in a high-purity germanium detector that were encountered in a new study of this reaction. In the experiment, an α-beam from the underground accelerator LUNA in Gran Sasso, Italy, and a windowless deuterium gas target are used. A low neutron flux is induced by energetic deuterons from elastic scattering and, subsequently, the 2H(d,n)3He reaction. Due to the ultra-low laboratory neutron background at LUNA, the effect of this weak flux of 2-3MeV neutrons on well-shielded high-purity germanium detectors has been studied in detail. Data have been taken at 280 and 400keV α-beam energy and for comparison also using an americium-beryllium neutron source.

  6. Towards a study of 22Ne(pγ)23Na at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depalo, R.; LUNA Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction is involved in the NeNa cycle of hydrogen burning. This cycle plays an important role for nucleosynthesis in the Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch phases of stellar evolution, as well as in classical novae and type Ia supernovae explosions. The 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction rate is highly uncertain because of a large number of resonances lying in the energy region of the Gamow peak. Several of these resonances have never been studied in either direct or indirect experiments, and only upper limits exist for their strengths. A measurement of the 2Ne(p,γ)23Na cross section is on-going at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) in Gran Sasso. With the LUNA setup, it will be possible to study the 22Ne+p reaction inside the Gamow window. The results of a feasibility test, as well as the measurement strategy and the setup for the first experimental campaign are discussed

  7. Creation of an Ultracold Gas of Ground-State Dipolar 23Na 87 Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier; Wang, Dajun

    2016-05-01

    We report the successful production of an ultracold sample of absolute ground-state 23Na 87Rb molecules. Starting from weakly bound Feshbach molecules formed via magnetoassociation, the lowest rovibrational and hyperfine level of the electronic ground state is populated following a high-efficiency and high-resolution two-photon Raman process. The high-purity absolute ground-state samples have up to 8000 molecules and densities of over 1011 cm-3 . By measuring the Stark shifts induced by external electric fields, we determined the permanent electric dipole moment of the absolute ground-state 23Na 87Rb and demonstrated the capability of inducing an effective dipole moment over 1 D. Bimolecular reaction between ground-state 23Na 87Rb molecules is endothermic, but we still observed a rather fast decay of the molecular sample. Our results pave the way toward investigation of ultracold molecular collisions in a fully controlled manner and possibly to quantum gases of ultracold bosonic molecules with strong dipolar interactions.

  8. Neutron-Induced Charged Particle Studies at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye Young; Haight, Robert C.

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurements on neutron-induced charged particle reactions are of interest for nuclear astrophysics and applied nuclear energy. LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) produces neutrons in energy of thermal to several hundreds MeV. There has been an effort at LANSCE to upgrade neutron-induced charged particle detection technique, which follows on (n,z) measurements made previously here and will have improved capabilities including larger solid angles, higher efficiency, and better signal to background ratios. For studying cross sections of low-energy neutron induced alpha reactions, Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is designed with segmented anodes for improving signal-to-noise ratio near reaction thresholds. Since double-differential cross sections on (n,p) and (n,a) reactions up to tens of MeV provide important information on deducing nuclear level density, the ionization chamber will be coupled with silicon strip detectors (DSSD) in order to stop energetic charged particles. In this paper, we will present the status of this development including the progress on detector design, calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy - Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  9. The molecular environment of intracellular sodium: 23Na NMR relaxation.

    PubMed

    Rooney, W D; Springer, C S

    1991-10-01

    The comprehensive approach described in the accompanying paper is illustrated here with the 23Na signal of a concentrated solution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in saline and the intracellular (Nai) 23Na resonance of a dense suspension of Na(+)-loaded yeast cells. We use frequency shift reagents to discriminate the latter from the extracellular resonance. We find that the Nai signal corresponds to that of an effective single population of Na+ ions exhibiting a single type c spectrum. This is true despite the fact that the yeast protoplasm is too large and too compartmentalized for a given Na+ ion to sample its entirety on the relevant NMR timescale. Our results show clearly that, in addition to the decay of transverse magnetization, the recovery of longitudinal magnetization is biexponential. This is required for a type c spectrum but has not often been detected. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate constants of the Nai resonance is not consistent with either a simple Debye process or a discrete exchange mechanism connecting two sites in the fast limit. We have fitted the data using an asymmetric continuous distribution of correlation times for the fluctuations of electric field gradients sensed by the Nai nuclei. The analogous distribution function for the Na+ in a 44% (w/w) BSA solution is quite similar to that of the Nai at the same temperature. This suggests that while the macromolecular environment of the Nai ions is quite congested, it is also isotropic on quite a small spatial scale. Also, one can use the correlation time distribution function, obtained from fitting the relaxation data, to calculate a relaxometry curve. This is useful because experimental 23Na relaxometry is difficult. The calculated curve may be a reasonable model for the mostly extracellular 23Na resonance encountered in vivo. PMID:1751346

  10. Coherent Microwave Control of Ultracold 23Na 4K Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Sebastian A.; Park, Jee Woo; Yan, Zoe Z.; Loh, Huanqian; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate coherent microwave control of rotational and hyperfine states of trapped, ultracold, and chemically stable 23Na 40K molecules. Starting with all molecules in the absolute rovibrational and hyperfine ground state, we study rotational transitions in combined magnetic and electric fields and explain the rich hyperfine structure. Following the transfer of the entire molecular ensemble into a single hyperfine level of the first rotationally excited state, J =1 , we observe lifetimes of more than 3 s, comparable to those in the rovibrational ground state, J =0 . Long-lived ensembles and full quantum state control are prerequisites for the use of ultracold molecules in quantum simulation, precision measurements, and quantum information processing.

  11. Application of 23Na MRI to Monitor Chemotherapeutic Response in RIF-1 Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Babsky, Andriy M; Hekmatyar, Shahryar K; Zhang, Hong; Solomon, James L; Bansal, Navin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Effects of an alkylating anticancer drug, cyclophosphamide (Cp), on 23Na signal intensity (23Na SI) and water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were examined in subcutaneously-implanted radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumors by in vivo 23Na and 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI experiments were performed on untreated control (n = 5) and Cp-treated (n = 6) C3H mice, once before Cp injection (300 mg/kg) then daily for 3 days after treatment. Tumor volumes were significantly lower in treated animals 2 and 3 days posttreatment. At the same time points, MRI experiments showed an increase in both 23Na SI and water ADC in treated tumors, whereas control tumors did not show any significant changes. The correlation between 23Na SI and water ADC changes was dramatically increased in the Cp-treated group, suggesting that the observed increases in 23Na SI and water ADC were caused by the same mechanism. Histologic sections showed decreased cell density in the regions of increased 23Na and water ADC SI. Destructive chemical analysis showed that Cp treatment increased the relative extracellular space and tumor [Na+]. We conclude that the changes in water ADC and 23Na SI were largely due to an increase in extracellular space. 23Na MRI and 1H water ADC measurements may provide valuable noninvasive techniques for monitoring chemotherapeutic responses. PMID:16026645

  12. Measurement of 23Na(α,p)26Mg at Energies Relevant to 26Al Production in Massive Stars.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, J R; Fallis, J; Laird, A M; Fox, S P; Akers, C; Alcorta, M; Bentley, M A; Christian, G; Davids, B; Davinson, T; Fulton, B R; Galinski, N; Rojas, A; Ruiz, C; de Séréville, N; Shen, M; Shotter, A C

    2015-07-31

    26Al is an important radioisotope in astrophysics that provides evidence of ongoing nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. The 23Na(α, p)26Mg reaction has been identified by a sensitivity study as being one of the most important reactions for the production of 26Al in the convective C/Ne burning shell of massive stars. Owing to large uncertainties in previous experimental data, model calculations are used for the reaction rate of 23Na(α, p)26Mg in this sensitivity study. Current experimental data suggest a reaction rate a factor of ∼40 higher than model calculations. However, a new measurement of this reaction cross section has been made in inverse kinematics in the energy range E(c.m.)=1.28-3.15  MeV at TRIUMF, and found to be in reasonable agreement with the model calculation. A new reaction rate is calculated and tight constraints on the uncertainty in the production of 26Al, due to this reaction, are determined. PMID:26274415

  13. Differential Cross Sections for Neutron Elastic and Inelastic Scattering on 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Hicks, S. F.; Chakraborty, A.; Champine, B. R.; Combs, B.; Crider, B. P.; Kersting, L. J.; Kumar, A.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Sidwell, L.; Sigillito, A.; Watts, D. W.; Yates, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic scattering from 23Na have been performed for sixteen incident neutron energies above 1.5 MeV with the 7-MV University of Kentucky Accelerator using the 3H(p,n) reaction as the neutron source. These measurements were complemented by γ-ray excitation functions using the (n,n'γ) reaction. The time-of-flight technique is employed for background reduction in both neutron and γ- ray measurements and for determining the energy of the scattered neutrons. Cross section determinations support fuel cycle and structural materials research and development. Previous reaction model evaluations [1] relied primarily on total cross sections and four (n,n0) and (n,n1) angular distributions in the En = 5 to 9 MeV range. The inclusion of more inelastic channels at lower neutron energies provides additional information on direct couplings between elastic and inelastic scattering as a function of angular momentum transfer. Reaction model calculations examining direct collective and statistical properties were performed.

  14. Neutron-induced 2.2 MeV background in gamma ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanrosso, E. M.; Long, J. L.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron-induced gamma ray production is an important source of background in Compton scatter gamma ray telescopes where organic scintillator material is used. Most important is deuteron formation when atmospheric albedo and locally produced neutrons are thermalized and subsequently absorbed in the hydrogenous material. The resulting 2.2 MeV gamma ray line radiation essentially represents a continuous isotropic source within the scintillator itself. Interestingly, using a scintillator material with a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio to minimize the scintillator material with a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio to minimize the neutron-induced 4.4 MeV carbon line favors the np reaction. The full problem of neutron-induced background in Compton scatter telescopes has been previously discussed. Results are presented of observations with the University of California balloon-borne Compton scatter telescope where the 2.2 MeV induced line emission is prominently seen.

  15. Neutron-induced defects in optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzolo, S.; Morana, A.; Cannas, M.; Bauer, S.; Perisse, J.; Mace, J.-R.; Boscaino, R.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.; Nacir, B.; Girard, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present a study on 0.8 MeV neutron-induced defects up to fluences of 1017 n/cm2 in fluorine doped optical fibers by using electron paramagnetic resonance, optical absorption and confocal micro-luminescence techniques. Our results allow to address the microscopic mechanisms leading to the generation of Silica-related point-defects such as E', H(I), POR and NBOH Centers.

  16. Neutron-induced defects in optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzolo, S.; Morana, A.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.; Girard, S.; Cannas, M.; Boscaino, R.; Bauer, S.; Perisse, J.; Mace, J-R.; Nacir, B.

    2014-10-21

    We present a study on 0.8 MeV neutron-induced defects up to fluences of 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2} in fluorine doped optical fibers by using electron paramagnetic resonance, optical absorption and confocal micro-luminescence techniques. Our results allow to address the microscopic mechanisms leading to the generation of Silica-related point-defects such as E', H(I), POR and NBOH Centers.

  17. Neutron induced bystander effect among zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. Y. P.; Kong, E. Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Suya, N.; Uchihori, Y.; Cheng, S. H.; Konishi, T.; Yu, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper reported the first-ever observation of neutron induced bystander effect (NIBE) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as the in vivo model. The neutron exposure in the present work was provided by the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. Two different strategies were employed to induce NIBE, namely, through directly partnering and through medium transfer. Both results agreed with a neutron-dose window (20-50 mGy) which could induce NIBE. The lower dose limit corresponded to the threshold amount of neutron-induced damages to trigger significant bystander signals, while the upper limit corresponded to the onset of gamma-ray hormesis which could mitigate the neutron-induced damages and thereby suppress the bystander signals. Failures to observe NIBE in previous studies were due to using neutron doses outside the dose-window. Strategies to enhance the chance of observing NIBE included (1) use of a mono-energetic high-energy (e.g., between 100 keV and 2 MeV) neutron source, and (2) use of a neutron source with a small gamma-ray contamination. It appeared that the NASBEE facility used in the present study fulfilled both conditions, and was thus ideal for triggering NIBE.

  18. Measurement of (23)Na(n,2n) cross section in well-defined reactor spectra.

    PubMed

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Baroň, Petr; Milčák, Ján; Mareček, Martin; Uhlíř, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The present paper aims to compare the calculated and experimental reaction rates of (23)Na(n,2n)(22)Na in a well-defined reactor spectra of a special core assembled in the LR-0 reactor. The experimentally determined reaction rate, derived using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated NaF sample, is used for average cross section determination. The resulting value averaged in spectra is 0.91±0.02µb. This cross-section is important as it is included in International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File and is also relevant to the correct estimation of long-term activity of Na coolant in Sodium Fast Reactors. The calculations were performed with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Generally the best C/E agreement, within 2%, was found using the ROSFOND-2010 data set, whereas the worst, as high as 40%, was found using the ENDF/B-VII.0. PMID:26894323

  19. Neutron scattering differential cross sections for 23Na from 1.5 to 4.5 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Hicks, S. F.; Chakraborty, A.; Champine, B. R.; Combs, B. M.; Crider, B. P.; Kersting, L. J.; Kumar, A.; Lueck, C. J.; Liu, S. H.; McDonough, P. J.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Sidwell, L. C.; Sigillito, A. J.; Watts, D. W.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections from 23Na have been performed for sixteen incident neutron energies between 1.5 and 4.5 MeV. These measurements were complemented by γ-ray excitation functions using the (n ,n‧ γ) reaction to include excited levels not resolved in the neutron detection measurements. The time-of-flight (TOF) technique was employed for background reduction in both neutron and γ-ray measurements and for energy determination in neutron detection measurements. Previous reaction model evaluations relied primarily on neutron total cross sections and four (n, n0) and (n, n1) angular distributions in the 5 to 9 MeV range. The inclusion of more inelastic channels and measurements at lower incident neutron energies provide additional information on direct couplings between elastic and inelastic scattering as a function of angular momentum transfer. Reaction model calculations examining collective direct-coupling and compound absorption components were performed.

  20. 231Pa and 233Pa Neutron-Induced Fission Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, V.M.; Tetereva, N.A.; Baba, M.; Hasegawa, A.; Kornilov, N.V.; Kagalenko, A.B.

    2005-05-24

    The 231Pa and 233Pa neutron-induced fission cross-section database is analyzed within the Hauser-Feshbach approach. The consistency of neutron-induced fission cross-section data and data extracted from transfer reactions is investigated. The fission probabilities of Pa, fissioning in 231,233Pa(n,nf) reactions, are defined by fitting (3He,d) or (3He,t) transfer-reaction data. The present estimate of the 233Pa(n,f) fission cross section above the emissive fission threshold is supported by smooth level-density parameter systematics, validated in the case of the 231Pa(n,f) data description up to En =20 MeV.

  1. Status of the direct measurements of 18O(p,γ)19F and 23Na(p,γ)24Mg cross sections at astrophysical energies at LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeltzig, A.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Best, A.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.

    2016-04-01

    18O(p, γ)19F and 23Na(p,γ)24Mg are reactions of astrophysical interest for example in AGB star scenarios. The rates of both reactions are potentially influenced by low-energy resonances for whose strengths either exist only values with large uncertainties, upper limits or even contradictory claims. Measurements at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) aim at a direct observation of these low-energy resonances, and additional cross section measurements to aid a more precise determination of the reaction rates in astrophysical scenarios. We report the experimental setup and the status of the ongoing measurements of the two reactions at LUNA.

  2. Elastic Scattering between Ultracold 23Na and 85Rb Atoms in the Triplet State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiu-Bo; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Sun, Jin-Feng; Yu, Ke

    2011-04-01

    The elastic scattering properties between ultracold 23Na and 85Rb atoms for the triplet state (a3 Σ+u) are researched. The s-wave scattering lengths of 23Na and 85Rb are calculated by the Numerov and semiclassical method with two kinds of interatomic potentials, which are the interpolation potential and Lennard—Jones potential (LJ12,6) by the same phase Φ. Shape resonances appear clearly in the l = 5 partial waves for the a3 Σ+u state. Moreover, the s-wave scattering cross section, total cross section and energy positions of shape resonances are also discussed.

  3. Partial Cross Sections of Neutron-Induced Reactions on nCu at En = 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 MeV for 0νββ Background Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, M. E.; Fallin, B. A.; Finch, S. W.; Kelley, J. H.; Howell, C. R.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Stanislav, V.

    2014-05-01

    Partial cross-section measurements of (n,n'γ) reactions on natCu were carried out at TUNL using monoenergetic neutrons at six energies of En = 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 MeV. These studies were performed to provide accurate cross-section data on materials abundant in experimental setups involving HPGe detectors used to search for rare events, like the neutrino-less double-beta decay of 76Ge. Spallation and (α,n) neutrons are expected to cause the largest source of external background in the energy region of interest. At TUNL pulsed neutron beams were produced via the 2H(d,n)3He reaction and the deexcitation γ rays from the reaction natCu(n,xγ) were detected with clover HPGe detectors. Cross-section results for the strongest transtions in 63Cu and 65Cu will be reported, and will compared to model calculations and to data recently obtained at LANL with a white neutron beam.

  4. Neutron-induced reactions in tissue-resident elements

    SciTech Connect

    Herling, G.H.; Bassel, R.H.; Adams, J.H.; Fraser, W.A.

    1981-07-08

    Kerma-to-fluence ratios have been calculated for neutrons with energies between 20 and 60 MeV incident upon 1H, 12C, 14N, and 16O. The following charged particles have been taken into account: protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and heavy recoils. Results are presented for NE-213 plastic, muscle, and tissue-equivalent plastic.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance of 23Na ions interacting with the gramicidin channel.

    PubMed Central

    Monoi, H.

    1985-01-01

    Basic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) features of 23Na ions bound to the gramicidin channel (packaged into lecithin liposomes) were studied. The first binding constant K1 of Na+ was not significantly dependent on channel models employed. With the two-identical-site model (Model I), K1 was 13.7 (+/- 1.4) molal-1 (in the activity basis) at 25 degrees C; when the binding of a third ion was included (Model II), it was 13.0 (+/- 2.0) molal-1. The second binding constant K2 was model dependent; it was 1.6 (+/- 0.2) and 3-4 molal-1 for Models I and II, respectively. The rate constants, k-1 and k-2, of Na+ for exit from singly and doubly loaded channels, respectively, were 8 X 10(5) s-1 less than or equal to k-1 less than or equal to 3 X 10(6) s-1 and 8 X 10(5) s-1 less than or equal to k-2 less than or equal to 1.0 X 10(7) s-1 at 25 degrees C; the lower bound represents a rough approximation of k-1. The ratio k-2/k-1 was greater than one and did not greatly exceed 20. From the competition experiment, K1 of T1+ was 5.7 (+/- 0.6) X 10(2) molal-1. The longitudinal relaxation time T1 of bound 23Na in the state of single occupancy (T 1B sing) was virtually independent of models, 0.56 (+/- 0.03) and 0.55 (+/- 0.04) ms at 25 degrees C for Models I and II, respectively. For the state of double occupancy, T1 of bound 23Na (T 1B doub) was model dependent: 0.27 (+/- 0.01) and 0.4-0.6 ms for Models I and II. The correlation time tau c of bound 23Na was 2.2 (+/- 0.2) ns at 25 degrees C for single occupancy; tau c for double occupancy was not significantly different from this value. The estimated tau c was found to involve no appreciable contribution of the exchange of 23Na between the channel and the bulk solution. Thé quadrupole coupling constant chi was 1.0 (+/- 0.1) MHz for 23Na in single occupancy; chi for double occupancy was 0.9-1.4 MHz, depending on models. A lower bound of the average quadrupole coupling constant chi alpha was 0.13-0.26 MHz at 25 degrees C for 23Na in single

  6. Geometric Hall Effect of ^{23}Na Condensate in a Time- and Space-Dependent Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Gong-Ping; Yang, Ling-Ling; Chang, Gao-Zhan; Wu, Zhe

    2016-04-01

    We simulate numerically the dynamics of ^{23}Na condensate in a time- and space-dependent magnetic field with a variational approach. It is shown to be an efficient method to describe the complex dynamics of the system, which may excite the breather mode, the scissor mode, and the dipole mode simultaneously. Our results agree with the experimental observations of Choi et al. (Phys Rev Lett 111:245301, 2013). We reproduce qualitatively the geometric Hall effect and resonance behavior. We also find that the condensate shows a scissor-mode-like motion, which may play the shearing force to deform the condensate and consequently leads to the dynamical nucleation of quantized vortices.

  7. Neutron-induced gamma-ray production

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.O.; Drake, D.M.; Haight, R.C.; Laymon, C.M.; Wender, S.A.; Young, P.G. ); Drosg, M.; Pavlik, A.; Vonach, H. . Inst. fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik); Larson, D.C. )

    1990-01-01

    High resolution Ge detectors coupled with the WNR high-intensity, high-energy, pulsed neutron source at LAMPF recently have been used to measure a variety of reactions including (n,xn) for 1 {le} x {le} 11, (n,n{alpha}), (n,np), etc. The reactions are identified by the known gamma-ray energies of prompt transitions between the low lying states in the final nuclei. With our spallation neutron source cross section data are obtained at all neutron energies from a few MeV to over 200 MeV. Applications of the data range from assisting the interpretation of the planned Mars Observer mission to map the elemental composition of the martian surface, to providing data for nuclear model verification and understanding reaction mechanisms. For example, a study of the Pb(n,xn) reactions for 2 {le} x {le} 11 populating the first excited states of the even Pb isotopes is underway. These data will be used to test preequilibrium and other reaction models. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Neutron radiography and neutron-induced autoradiography for the classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Aderhold, H.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The Cornell 500-kW MARK II TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering has been used to illustrate the application of neutron radiography (NR) and neutron-induced autoradiography (NIAR) for solving problems in engineering as well as problems in art history. The applications are described in the paper.

  9. High Energy Neutron Induced Gamma Production

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D A; Johnson, M; Navratil, P

    2007-09-28

    N Division has an interest in improving the physics and accuracy of the gamma data it provides to its customers. It was asked to look into major gamma producing reactions for 14 MeV incident neutrons for several low-Z materials and determine whether LLNL's processed data files faithfully represent the current state of experimental and theoretical knowledge for these reactions. To address this, we surveyed the evaluations of the requested materials, made recommendations for the next ENDL release and noted isotopes that will require further experimental study. This process uncovered several major problems in our translation and processing of the ENDF formatted evaluations, most of which have been resolved.

  10. Creating Fermionic Ground State Molecules of 23Na40K with Strong Dipolar Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jee; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Schloss, Jennifer; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2013-05-01

    In our experiment, we work towards creating fermionic ground state molecules of 23Na40K with strong dipolar interactions. These molecules will be chemically stable in the rovibrational ground state, and will carry a large induced dipole moment of 2.72 Debye. Building up on our previous work, we have done photoassociation spectroscopy on the 23Na-40K mixture in order to understand the molecular excited state potentials and identify possible intermediate states for efficient STIRAP transfer of Feshbach molecules down to the absolute rovibrational ground state. In addition, our recent effort in doing two-photon spectroscopy to locate the absolute rovibrational ground state will be presented. Our work paves the way towards creating stable dipolar quantum gases, which will open up new avenues to quantum many-body phases with intriguing properties such as supersolidity and topological phases. This work was supported by the NSF, AFOSR-MURI and -PECASE, ARO-MURI, ONR YIP, DARPA YFA, a grant from the Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program and the David and Lucille Packard Foundation.

  11. Rotational Spectroscopy on Ultracold 23 Na40 K Ground State Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Sebastian; Park, Jee Woo; Yan, Zoe; Loh, Huanqian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold molecules with controllable dipolar long-range interactions will open up new routes for quantum simulation and the creation of novel states of matter. In particular, the molecules' rich internal degrees of freedom allow for versatile control of intermolecular interactions by applying static electric and microwave fields. Starting from an ultracold, spin-polarized ensemble of trapped fermionic 23 Na40 K molecules in the absolute ground state, we perform microwave spectroscopy on the first rotationally excited state for a range of magnetic and electric fields. Extracting the rotational and hyperfine coupling constants, we comprehensively understand the observed spectra. Following the coherent transfer of the entire ensemble of chemically stable 23 Na40 K molecules to the first rotationally excited state, we observe a lifetime of more than 3 sec, comparable to the lifetime in the rovibrational ground state. The collisional stability of excited rotational states opens up intriguing prospects for the control of intermolecular van-der-Waals interactions via electric fields.

  12. Four-dimensional 1H and 23Na imaging using continuously oscillating gradients.

    PubMed

    Star-Lack, J M; Roos, M S; Wong, S T; Schepkin, V D; Budinger, T F

    1997-02-01

    A class of fast magnetic spectroscopic imaging methods using continuously oscillating gradients for four-dimensional (three spatial and one spectral) localization is introduced. Sampling may start immediately following the application of an RF excitation pulse, thus enabling measurement of spin density, chemical shift, and relaxation rates of short-T2 species. For spatial localization, steady-state sinusoidal gradient waveforms are used to sample a ball in k space. The two types of trajectories presented include: (1) continuously oscillating gradients with continuously rotating direction used for steady-state free-precession imaging and (2) continuously oscillating gradients followed by a spoiler directed along discrete projections. Design criteria are given and spatial-spectral and spatial-temporal reconstruction methods are developed. Theoretical point-spread functions and signal-to-noise ratios are derived while considering T2*, off-resonance effects, and RF excitation options. Experimental phantom, in vivo, and in vitro 1H and 23Na images collected at 2.35 T are presented. The 1H images were acquired with isotropic spatial resolution ranging from 0.03 to 0.27 cm3 and gradient-oscillation frequencies ranging from 600 to 700 Hz, thus allowing for the separation of water and lipid signals within a voxel. The 23Na images, acquired with 500 and 800 Hz gradient waveforms and 0.70 cm3 isotropic resolution, were resolved in the time domain, yielding spatially localized FIDs. PMID:9169223

  13. Measurement of Neutron Induced and Spontaneous Fission in Pu-242 at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyzh, Andrii; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R.; Couture, A.; Lee, H. Y.; Ullmann, J.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Jandel, M.; Haight, R. C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Dance Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Neutron capture and fission reactions are important in nuclear engineering and physics. DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Measurement, LANL) combined with PPAC (avalanche technique based fission tagging detector, LLNL) were used to study neutron induced and spontaneous fission in 242Pu. 2 measurements were performed in 2013. The first experiment was done without the incident neutron beam with the fission tagging ability to study γ-rays emitted in the spontaneous fission of 242Pu. The second one - with the neutron beam to measure both the neutron capture and fission reactions. This is the first direct measurement of prompt fission γ-rays in 242Pu. The γ-ray multiplicity, γ-ray energy, and total energy of γ-rays per fission in 242Pu will be presented. These distributions of the 242Pu spontaneous fission will be compared to those in the 241Pu neutron induced fission. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Neutron induced fission of 234U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Al-Adili, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Pomp, S.

    2012-02-01

    The fission fragment properties of 234U(n,f) were investigated as a function of incident neutron energy from 0.2 MeV up to 5 MeV. The fission fragment mass, angular distribution and kinetic energy were measured with a double Frisch-grid ionization chamber using both analogue and digital data acquisition techniques. The reaction 234U(n,f) is relevant, since it involves the same compound nucleus as formed after neutron evaporation from highly excited 236U*, the so-called second-chance fission of 235U. Experimental data on fission fragment properties like fission fragment mass and total kinetic energy (TKE) as a function of incident neutron energy are rather scarce for this reaction. For the theoretical modelling of the reaction cross sections for Uranium isotopes this information is a crucial input parameter. In addition, 234U is also an important isotope in the Thorium-based fuel cycle. The strong anisotropy of the angular distribution around the vibrational resonance at En = 0.77 MeV could be confirmed using the full angular range. Fluctuations in the fragment TKE have been observed in the threshold region around the strong vibrational resonance at En = 0.77 MeV. The present results are in contradiction with corresponding literature values. Changes in the mass yield around the vibrational resonance and at En = 5 MeV relative to En = 2 MeV show a different signature. The drop in mean TKE around 2.5 to 3 MeV points to pair breaking as also observed in 235,238U(n,f). The measured two-dimensional mass yield and TKE distribution have been described in terms of fission modes. The yield of the standard 1 (S1) mode shows fluctuations in the threshold of the fission cross section due to the influence of the resonance and levels off at about 20% yield for higher incident neutron energies. The S2 mode shows the respective opposite behaviour. The mean TKE of both modes decreases with En. The decrease in mean TKE overrules the increase in S1 yield, so the mean TKE is dropping

  15. 23Na NMR study of the effect of organic osmolytes on DNA counterion atmosphere.

    PubMed Central

    Flock, S; Labarbe, R; Houssier, C

    1996-01-01

    The effect of different organic osmolytes on the DNA counterion condensation layer has been investigated by 23Na NMR relaxation measurements. The zwitterionic compounds glycine, beta-alanine, 4-aminobutyric acid, and 6-aminocaproic acid have shown an increasing capacity to decrease the amount of sodium ions in the vicinity of the macromolecule. The experimental data have been correlated with the dielectric constant increase in their corresponding solutions and have been compared with the prediction of counterion condensation theory. Polyols (sorbitol and mannitol) did not display the same effect. These compounds largely increase the relaxation rate of sodium ions in the proximity of DNA, unlike the zwitterionic compounds. This probably results from a perturbation of the water dynamic around the macromolecule, of the primary or secondary hydration shell of the sodium nuclei involved, or both. PMID:8874025

  16. Developments for neutron-induced fission at IGISOL-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelov, D.; Penttilä, H.; Al-Adili, A.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Koponen, J.; Lantz, M.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I. D.; Pohjalainen, I.; Pomp, S.; Rakopoulos, V.; Reinikainen, J.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.; Voss, A.; Äystö, J.

    2016-06-01

    At the IGISOL-4 facility, neutron-rich, medium mass nuclei have usually been produced via charged particle-induced fission of natural uranium and thorium. Neutron-induced fission is expected to have a higher production cross section of the most neutron-rich species. Development of a neutron source along with a new ion guide continues to be one of the major goals since the commissioning of IGISOL-4. Neutron intensities at different angles from a beryllium neutron source have been measured in an on-line experiment with a 30 MeV proton beam. Recently, the new ion guide coupled to the neutron source has been tested as well. Details of the neutron source and ion guide design together with preliminary results from the first neutron-induced fission experiment at IGISOL-4 are presented in this report.

  17. Neutron-induced autoradiography used in the investigation of modern pigments in paintings of known composition

    SciTech Connect

    Aderhold, H.C.; Taft, W.S.

    1992-07-01

    Neutron-Induced Autoradiography is an effective analytical technique for mapping the location of a number of specified pigments in paintings. Most paintings which have been examined through neutron-induced autoradiography to date were painted prior to the introduction of the most common of modern pigments. By understanding die nuclear properties of these pigments, as revealed by this technique, a more informed analysis of modem paintings may result This investigation is part of an ongoing program to develop case studies for presentation to an undergraduate class at Cornell University, 'Art, Isotopes and Analysis'. We have found that this technique is a graphic and effective method of presenting nuclear reactions and radioactivity to non-specialists. Sample paintings are produced using pigments of known composition. A sequence of discreet layers, each a separate image, is documented in order to establish a reference for accurately interpreting the autoradiographs. The painting is then activated in the Cornell TRIGA reactor and a series of autoradiographs produced Gamma spectra taken before and after each film exposure gives us detailed information on which radioisotopes (and therefore, which pigments), are active. (author)

  18. Cryptate 13C and 23Na nuclear magnetic relaxation as a probe of counterion dynamics in aqueous polyacrylate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Maarel, J. R. C.; Van Duijn, D.; De Bleijser, J.; Leyte, J. C.

    1987-03-01

    In a series of fully alkali neutralized polyacrylate solutions the counterions are included by a macrobicyclic ligand (cryptand) to form a well-defined coordination shell. Vapor pressure experiments show the polyacrylate-cryptate system to behave osmotically as an ordinary polyelectrolyte solution. Cryptate 13C and 23Na relaxation show that the influence of polyions on the counter-ion reorientational mobility is moderate. The main 23Na relaxation mechanism is found to be the fluctuating electric field gradient caused by the surrounding ligand.

  19. Prompt Gamma Emission in Resonance Neutron Induced Fission of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskov, I.; Kopatch, Yu. N.; Panteleev, Ts.; Skoy, V. R.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Dermendjiev, E.; Janeva, N.; Pikelner, L. B.; Grigoriev, Yu. V.; Mezentseva, Zh. V.; Ivanov, I.

    The scientific interest in the resonance neutron induced capture and fission reactions on 239Pu is continuously rising during the last decade. From a practical point of view, this is because more precise data on capture and fission cross sections, fission fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions, variation of prompt fission neutron and gamma yields in the resonance neutron region, are needed for the modelling of new generation nuclear power plants and for nuclear spent fuel and waste transmutation. From a heuristic and fundamental point of view, such a research improves our knowledge and understanding of the fission phenomena itself. To achieve these goals more powerful neutron sources and more precise fission product detectors have to be used. At the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP), where already half a century the thermal and resonance neutron induced nuclear reactions are studied, a new electron accelerator driven white spectrum pulsed neutron source IREN has been built and successfully tested. The improved characteristics of this facility, in comparison with those of the former pulse neutron fast reactor IBR-30, will allow measuring some of the neutron-nuclear reaction data with better precision and accuracy. A new experimental setup for detecting gamma rays (and neutrons) has been designed and is under construction. It will consist of 2 rings (arrays) of 12 NaI(Tl) detectors each (or 1 array of 24 detectors) with variable ring diameter and distance between both rings. Such a setup will make possible not only to measure the multiplicity, energy and angular anisotropy of prompt fission gammas, but also to separate the contribution of prompt fission neutrons by their longer time-of-flight from the fissile target to the detectors. The signals from all the 24 detectors will be recorded simultaneously in digitized form and will be stored on the hard disk of the personal computer for further off

  20. Radioactive targets for neutron-induced cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, A.; Bond, E. M.; Glover, S. E.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Esch, E. I.; Reifarth, R.; Ullmann, J. L.; Haight, Robert C.; Rochmann, D.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements using radioactive targets are important for the determination of key reaction path ways associated with the synthesis of the elements in nuclear astrophysics (sprocess), advanced fuel cycle initiative (transmutation of radioactive waste), and stockpile stewardship. High precision capture cross-section measurements are needed to interpret observations, predict elemental or isotopical ratios, and unobserved abundances. There are two new detector systems that are presently being commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory for very precise measurements of (n,{gamma}) and (n,f) cross-sections using small quantities of radioactive samples. DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments), a 4 {pi} gamma array made up of 160 BaF{sub 2} detectors, is designed to measure neutron capture cross-sections of unstable nuclei in the low-energy range (thermal to {approx}500 keV). The high granularity and high detection efficiency of DANCE, combined with the high TOF-neutron flux available at the Lujan Center provides a versatile tool for measuring many important cross section data using radioactive and isotopically enriched targets of about 1 milligram. Another powerful instrument is the Lead-slowing down spectrometer (LSDS), which will enable the measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-section of U-235m and other short-lived actinides in a energy range from 1-200 keV with sample sizes down to 10 nanograms. Due to the short half-life of the U-235m isomer (T{sub 1/2} = 26 minutes), the samples must be rapidly and repeatedly extracted from its {sup 239}Pu parent. Since {sup 239}Pu is itself highly fissile, the separation must not only be rapid, but must also be of very high purity (the Pu must be removed from the U with a decontamination factor >10{sup 12}). Once extracted and purified, the {sup 235m}U isomer would be electrodeposited on solar cells as a fission detector and placed within the LSDS for direct (n,f) cross section measurements. The

  1. Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections Measurements at n_TOF

    SciTech Connect

    Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Isaev, S.; Koehler, Paul Edward; Collaboration, n_TOF

    2008-01-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 237}Np, {sup 209}Bi, {sup nat}Pb have been measured at the n{_}TOF facility at CERN over 9 orders of magnitude in neutron energy using {sup 235}U as a reference. Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters were used to detect both fission fragments in coincidence, thus efficiently discriminating fissions from other reactions. Data benefit from the remarkable energy resolution of the n{_}TOF facility. They are found in overall good agreement with databases and previous measurements, but some clear discrepancies can be put in evidence. These data are the first full coverage of the high-energy region (up to 1 GeV).

  2. A New Facility for High-Energy Neutron-Induced Fission Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofiev, A.; Carlsson, M.; Einarsson, L.; Haag, N.; Pomp, S.; Bergenwall, B.; Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Mermod, P.; Oesterlund, M.; Tippawan, U.; Dangtip, S.

    2005-05-24

    A new facility is constructed for measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections in the 20-180 MeV energy region versus the np scattering cross section, which is adopted as the primary neutron standard. The advantage of the experiment compared to earlier studies is that the fission-fragment detection and the neutron-flux measurement via np scattering are performed simultaneously and at the same position in the beam, and, therefore, many sources of systematic errors cancel out. Further reduction of systematic errors is achieved due to 'embedded' determination of effective solid angle of particle detectors using {alpha}-particles from the radioactive decay of the target nuclei. The performance of the facility is illustrated by first data obtained for angular distributions of fission fragments in the 238U(n,f) reaction.

  3. Long Hyperfine Coherence Time of Ultracold Fermionic 23 Na40 K Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jee Woo; Yan, Zoe; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold molecules created and trapped at sub uK temperatures allow the full control of the molecule's external and internal degrees of freedom down to a single hyperfine state. In particular, an ensemble of molecules all initialized in a single rotational and hyperfine state can be prepared and be coherently addressed using microwave fields. In this talk, we report on the observation of long coherence time between two hyperfine states of fermionic 23 Na40 K molecules in the ro-vibronic ground state (v = 0 , J = 0). A direct two-photon microwave transition via the J = 1 state is used to prepare a superposition of two lowest hyperfine states of J = 0 , and we perform Ramsey spectroscopy as a direct probe of phase coherence between these states. The fermionic nature of the molecules and the lack of electronic angular momentum in the ro-vibronic ground state heavily suppress the decoherence from collisions and external fields, respectively, and we observe long coherence times upto 0.5 sec for this hyperfine superposition state. The observed long coherence time is a crucial step for applications of trapped dipolar molecules in quantum information processing schemes.

  4. Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik K; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

  5. High resolution measurement of neutron inelastic scattering cross-sections for 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouki, C.; Archier, P.; Borcea, C.; De Saint Jean, C.; Drohé, J. C.; Kopecky, S.; Moens, A.; Nankov, N.; Negret, A.; Noguère, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Stanoiu, M.

    2012-04-01

    The neutron inelastic scattering cross-section of 23Na has been measured in response to the relevant request of the OECD-NEA High Priority Request List, which requires a target uncertainty of 4% in the energy range up to 1.35 MeV for the development of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The measurement was performed at the GELINA facility with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS), featuring eight high purity germanium detectors. The setup is installed at a 200 m flight path from the neutron source and provides high resolution measurements using the (n,n'γ)-technique. The sample was an 80 mm diameter metallic sodium disk prepared at IRMM. Transitions up to the seventh excited state were observed and the differential gamma cross-sections at 110° and 150° were measured, showing mostly isotropic gamma emission. From these the gamma production, level and inelastic cross-sections were determined for neutron energies up to 3838.9 keV. The results agree well with the existing data and the evaluated nuclear data libraries in the low energies, and provide new experimental points in the little studied region above 2 MeV. Following a detailed review of the methodology used for the gamma efficiency calibrations and flux normalization of GAINS data, an estimated total uncertainty of 2.2% was achieved for the inelastic cross-section integrals over the energy ranges 0.498-1.35 MeV and 1.35-2.23 MeV, meeting the required targets.

  6. Energy dependence of mass, charge, isotopic, and energy distributions in neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasca, H.; Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kim, Y.

    2016-05-01

    The mass, charge, isotopic, and kinetic-energy distributions of fission fragments are studied within an improved scission-point statistical model in the reactions 235U+n and 239Pu+n at different energies of the incident neutron. The charge and mass distributions of the electromagnetic- and neutron-induced fission of 214,218Ra, 230,232,238U are also shown. The available experimental data are well reproduced and the energy-dependencies of the observable characteristics of fission are predicted for future experiments.

  7. Interface Induced Growth and Transformation of Polymer-Conjugated Proto-Crystalline Phases in Aluminosilicate Hybrids: A Multiple-Quantum (23)Na-(23)Na MAS NMR Correlation Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Brus, Jiri; Kobera, Libor; Urbanova, Martina; Doušová, Barbora; Lhotka, Miloslav; Koloušek, David; Kotek, Jiří; Čuba, Pavel; Czernek, Jiri; Dědeček, Jiří

    2016-03-22

    Nanostructured materials typically offer enhanced physicochemical properties because of their large interfacial area. In this contribution, we present a comprehensive structural characterization of aluminosilicate hybrids with polymer-conjugated nanosized zeolites specifically grown at the organic-inorganic interface. The inorganic amorphous Al-O-Si framework is formed by alkali-activated low-temperature transformation of metakaoline, whereas simultaneous copolymerization of organic comonomers creates a secondary epoxide network covalently bound to the aluminosilicate matrix. This secondary epoxide phase not only enhances the mechanical integrity of the resulting hybrids but also introduces additional binding sites accessible for compensating negative charge on the aluminosilicate framework. This way, the polymer network initiates growth and subsequent transformation of protocrystalline short-range ordered zeolite domains that are located at the organic-inorganic interface. By applying an experimental approach based on 2D (23)Na-(23)Na double-quantum (DQ) MAS NMR spectroscopy, we discovered multiple sodium binding sites in these protocrystalline domains, in which immobilized Na(+) ions form pairs or small clusters. It is further demonstrated that these sites, the local geometry of which allows for the pairing of sodium ions, are preferentially occupied by Pb(2+) ions during the ion exchange. The proposed synthesis protocol thus allows for the preparation of a novel type of geopolymer hybrids with polymer-conjugated zeolite phases suitable for capturing and storage of metal cations. The demonstrated (23)Na-(23)Na DQ MAS NMR combined with DFT calculations represents a suitable approach for understanding the role of Na(+) ions in aluminositicate solids and related inorganic-organic hybrids, particularly their specific arrangement and clustering at interfacial areas. PMID:26931131

  8. Discrimination of intra- and extracellular 23Na + signals in yeast cell suspensions using longitudinal magnetic resonance relaxography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yajie; Poirer-Quinot, Marie; Springer, Charles S.; Balschi, James A.

    2010-07-01

    This study tested the ability of MR relaxography (MRR) to discriminate intra- (Nai+) and extracellular (Nae+)23Na + signals using their longitudinal relaxation time constant ( T1) values. Na +-loaded yeast cell ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suspensions were investigated. Two types of compartmental 23Na +T1 differences were examined: a selective Nae+T1 decrease induced by an extracellular relaxation reagent (RR e), GdDOTP 5-; and, an intrinsic T1 difference. Parallel studies using the established method of 23Na MRS with an extracellular shift reagent (SR e), TmDOTP 5-, were used to validate the MRR measurements. With 12.8 mM RR e, the 23Nae+T1 was 2.4 ms and the 23Nai+T1 was 9.5 ms (9.4T, 24 °C). The Na + amounts and spontaneous efflux rate constants were found to be identical within experimental error whether measured by MRR/RR e or by MRS/SR e. Without RR e, the Na +-loaded yeast cell suspension 23Na MR signal exhibited two T1 values, 9.1 (±0.3) ms and 32.7 (±2.3) ms, assigned to 23Nai+ and 23Nae+, respectively. The Nai+ content measured was lower, 0.88 (±0.06); while Nae+ was higher, 1.43 (±0.12) compared with MRS/SR e measures on the same samples. However, the measured efflux rate constant was identical. T1 MRR potentially may be used for Nai+ determination in vivo and Na + flux measurements; with RR e for animal studies and without RR e for humans.

  9. Lanl Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section Measurement Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, A. B.; Tovesson, F.; Hill, T. S.

    2014-09-01

    A well established program of neutron-induced fission cross section measurement at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is supporting the Fuel Cycle Research program (FC R&D). Combining measurements at two LANSCE facilities, the Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research facility (WNR), cover neutron energies over 10 orders of magnitude: from sub-thermal up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate fission ionization chamber was used as a fission fragment detector. The 235U(n,f) standard was used as the reference. Fission cross sections have been measured for multiple actinides. The new data presented here completes the suite of long-lived Uranium isotopes that were investigated with this experimental approach. The cross section data are presented in comparison with existing evaluations and previous measurements.

  10. Neutron Induced D Breakup in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the Omega Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Knauer, J. P.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Schroder, W. U.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution neutron spectroscopy is used to study the deuteron breakup reaction D(n,n ') np in the thermonuclear environment created in inertial confinement fusion experiments at the Omega Laser Facility. Neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV generated in the primary D-T fusion reactions scatter elastically and inelastically off the dense (cryogenic) D-T fuel assembly surrounding the central hot spot at peak fuel compression. These neutrons also induce a breakup of the fuel deuterons. The corresponding breakup cross section is measured relative to elastic n -D and n -T scattering, i.e., simultaneously in the same environment. Apart from astrophysical and technological interest, the neutron-induced deuteron breakup reaction is of interest to the physics of nucleon -nucleon forces. For example, theoretical calculations predict a noticeable influence of nucleonic three-body forces on the magnitude of the breakup cross section. Preliminary results from measurements of the neutron contribution in the 2- to 6-MeV range show reasonable agreement with the published ENDL 2008.2 semi-empirical cross-section. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  11. (39) K and (23) Na relaxation times and MRI of rat head at 21.1 T.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Armin M; Umathum, Reiner; Rösler, Manuela B; Ladd, Mark E; Litvak, Ilya; Gor'kov, Peter L; Brey, William W; Schepkin, Victor D

    2016-06-01

    At ultrahigh magnetic field strengths (B0  ≥ 7.0 T), potassium ((39) K) MRI might evolve into an interesting tool for biomedical research. However, (39) K MRI is still challenging because of the low NMR sensitivity and short relaxation times. In this work, we demonstrated the feasibility of (39) K MRI at 21.1 T, determined in vivo relaxation times of the rat head at 21.1 T, and compared (39) K and sodium ((23) Na) relaxation times of model solutions containing different agarose gel concentrations at 7.0 and 21.1 T. (39) K relaxation times were markedly shorter than those of (23) Na. Compared with the lower field strength, (39) K relaxation times were up to 1.9- (T1 ), 1.4- (T2S ) and 1.9-fold (T2L ) longer at 21.1 T. The increase in the (23) Na relaxation times was less pronounced (up to 1.2-fold). Mono-exponential fits of the (39) K longitudinal relaxation time at 21.1 T revealed T1  = 14.2 ± 0.1 ms for the healthy rat head. The (39) K transverse relaxation times were 1.8 ± 0.2 ms and 14.3 ± 0.3 ms for the short (T2S ) and long (T2L ) components, respectively. (23) Na relaxation times were markedly longer (T1  = 41.6 ± 0.4 ms; T2S  = 4.9 ± 0.2 ms; T2L  = 33.2 ± 0.2 ms). (39) K MRI of the healthy rat head could be performed with a nominal spatial resolution of 1 × 1 × 1 mm(3) within an acquisition time of 75 min. The increase in the relaxation times with magnetic field strength is beneficial for (23) Na and (39) K MRI at ultrahigh magnetic field strength. Our results demonstrate that (39) K MRI at 21.1 T enables acceptable image quality for preclinical research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27061712

  12. Solid-state 23Na and 7Li NMR investigations of sodium- and lithium-reduced mesoporous titanium oxides.

    PubMed

    Lo, Andy Y H; Schurko, Robert W; Vettraino, Melissa; Skadtchenko, Boris O; Trudeau, Michel; Antonelli, David M

    2006-02-20

    Mesoporous titanium oxide synthesized using a dodecylamine template was treated with 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0 equiv of Li- or Na-naphthalene. The composite materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state 23Na and 7Li NMR spectroscopy. In all cases the wormhole mesoporosity was retained as evidenced by BET surface areas from 400 to 700 m(2)/g, Horvath-Kawazoe pore sizes in the 20 Angstroms range, and a lack of hysteresis in the nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Variable-temperature conductivity studies show that the Li-reduced materials are semiconductors, with conductivity values 3 orders of magnitude higher than those of the Na-reduced materials. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ ions into pristine mesoporous Ti oxides with good cycling capacity. Solid-state 23Na NMR reveals two distinct Na environments: one corresponding to sodium ions in the mesoporous channels and the other corresponding to sodium ions intercalated into the metal framework. 23Na NMR spectra also indicate that the relative population of the framework site increases with increased reduction levels. Solid-state 7Li NMR spectra display a single broad resonance, which increases in breadth with increased reduction levels, though individual resonances inferring the presence of channel and framework Li species are not resolved. Comparisons of the lithium chemical shifts with published values suggests an "anatase-like structure" with no long-range order in the least-reduced samples but a "lithium titanate-like structure" with no long-range order in the higher reduced materials. PMID:16472000

  13. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.; Ackerman, J.J.; Karl, I.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ((Na+)i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for (Na+)i. Five rat RBC specimens had (Na+)i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing (6,6-2H2)glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in (Na+)i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in (Na+)i in the two groups of patients. The (Na+)i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the (Na+)i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism.

  14. 23Na Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lower Leg of Acute Heart Failure Patients during Diuretic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hammon, Matthias; Grossmann, Susan; Linz, Peter; Kopp, Christoph; Dahlmann, Anke; Garlichs, Christoph; Janka, Rolf; Cavallaro, Alexander; Luft, Friedrich C.; Uder, Michael; Titze, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Objective Na+ can be stored in muscle and skin without commensurate water accumulation. The aim of this study was to assess Na+ and H2O in muscle and skin with MRI in acute heart failure patients before and after diuretic treatment and in a healthy cohort. Methods Nine patients (mean age 78 years; range 58–87) and nine age and gender-matched controls were studied. They underwent 23Na/1H-MRI at the calf with a custom-made knee coil. Patients were studied before and after diuretic therapy. 23Na-MRI gray-scale measurements of Na+-phantoms served to quantify Na+-concentrations. A fat-suppressed inversion recovery sequence was used to quantify H2O content. Results Plasma Na+-levels did not change during therapy. Mean Na+-concentrations in muscle and skin decreased after furosemide therapy (before therapy: 30.7±6.4 and 43.5±14.5 mmol/L; after therapy: 24.2±6.1 and 32.2±12.0 mmol/L; p˂0.05 and p˂0.01). Water content measurements did not differ significantly before and after furosemide therapy in muscle (p = 0.17) and only tended to be reduced in skin (p = 0.06). Na+-concentrations in calf muscle and skin of patients before and after diuretic therapy were significantly higher than in healthy subjects (18.3±2.5 and 21.1±2.3 mmol/L). Conclusions 23Na-MRI shows accumulation of Na+ in muscle and skin in patients with acute heart failure. Diuretic treatment can mobilize this Na+-deposition; however, contrary to expectations, water and Na+-mobilization are poorly correlated. PMID:26501774

  15. A double species 23Na and 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate with tunable miscibility via an interspecies Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fudong; Li, Xiaoke; Xiong, Dezhi; Wang, Dajun

    2016-01-01

    We have realized a dual-species Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 23Na and 87Rb atoms and observed its immiscibility. Because of the favorable background intra- and inter-species scattering lengths, stable condensates can be obtained via efficient evaporative cooling and sympathetic cooling without the need for fine tuning of the interactions. Our system thus provides a clean platform for studying inter-species interactions-driven effects in superfluid mixtures. With a Feshbach resonance, we have successfully created double BECs with largely tunable inter-species interactions and studied the miscible-immiscible phase transition.

  16. 23Na NMR and FT-IR studies of sodium complexes with the ionophore lasalocid in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, G.; Gierczyk, B.; Brzezinski, B.; Różalski, B.; Bartl, F.; Zundel, G.; Sośnicki, J.; Grech, E.

    2000-01-01

    Lasalocid forms 1:1 or 2:2 complexes with sodium ions. The process of complexation was studied in different solvents at various temperatures by 23Na NMR. The formation constants and Δ G values were determined. The nature of the complex between lasalocid and Na + ions was also studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. In chloroform, a 2:2 complex of lasalocid and Na + ions is formed. A continuous absorption is observed in the far FT-IR spectrum of this complex. It indicates the large Na + polarizability due to fast fluctuations of the Na + ions in multiminima potentials, in the dimeric structure.

  17. Neutron-induced background in charge-coupled device detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jaanimagi, P. A.; Boni, R.; Keck, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    The inertial confinement fusion (ICF) community must become more cognizant of the neutron-induced background levels in charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors that are replacing film as the recording medium in many ICF diagnostics. This background degrades the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the recorded signals and for the highest-yield shots comprises a substantial fraction of the pixel's full well capacity. CCD detectors located anywhere in the OMEGA Target Bay are precluded from recording high precision signals (SNR>30) for deuterium--tritium neutron yields greater than 10{sup 13}. CCDs make excellent calibrated neutron detectors. The average CCD background level is proportional to the neutron yield, and we have measured a linear response over four decades. The spectrum of deposited energy per pixel is heavily weighted to low energies, <50 keV, with a few isolated saturated pixels. Most of the background recorded by the CCDs is due to secondary radiation produced by interactions of the primary neutrons with all the materials in the Target Bay as well as the shield walls and the floor. Since the noise source comes from all directions it is very difficult to shield. The fallback position of using film instead of CCD cameras for high-neutron-yield target shots is flawed, as we have observed substantially increased fog levels on our x-ray recording film as a function of the neutron yield.

  18. The Upgrade of the Neutron Induced Positron Source NEPOMUC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenschmidt, C.; Ceeh, H.; Gigl, T.; Lippert, F.; Piochacz, C.; Pikart, P.; Reiner, M.; Weber, J.; Zimnik, S.

    2013-06-01

    In summer 2012, the new NEutron induced POsitron Source MUniCh (NEPOMUC) was installed and put into operation at the research reactor FRM II. At NEPOMUC upgrade 80% 113Cd enriched Cd is used as neutron-gamma converter in order to ensure an operation time of 25 years. A structure of Pt foils inside the beam tube generates positrons by pair production. Moderated positrons leaving the Pt front foil are electrically extracted and magnetically guided to the outside of the reactor pool. The whole design, including Pt-foils, the electric lenses and the magnetic fields, has been improved in order to enhance both the intensity and the brightness of the positron beam. After adjusting the potentials and the magnetic guide and compensation fields an intensity of about 3·109 moderated positrons per second is expected. During the first start-up, the measured temperatures of about 90°C ensure a reliable operation of the positron source. Within this contribution the features and the status of NEPOMUC upgrade are elucidated. In addition, an overview of recent positron beam experiments and current developments at the spectrometers is given.

  19. A double-tuned 1H/23Na dual resonator system for tissue sodium concentration measurements in the rat brain via Na-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterling, Friedrich; Tabbert, Martin; Junge, Sven; Gallagher, Lindsay; Mhairi Macrae, I.; Fagan, Andrew J.

    2010-12-01

    A method for quantifying the tissue sodium concentration (TSC) in the rat brain from 23Na-MR images was developed. TSC is known to change in a variety of common human diseases and holds considerable potential to contribute to their study; however, its accurate measurement in small laboratory animals has been hindered by the extremely low signal to noise ratio (SNR) in 23Na images. To address this, the design, construction and characterization of a double-tuned 1H/23Na dual resonator system for 1H-guided quantitative 23Na-MRI are described. This system comprises an SNR-optimized surface detector coil for 23Na image acquisition, and a volume resonator producing a highly homogeneous B1 field (<5% inhomogeneity) for the Na channel across the rat head. The resonators incorporated channel-independent balanced matching and tuning capabilities with active decoupling circuitry at the 23Na resonance frequency. A quantification accuracy of TSC of <10 mM was achieved in Na-images with 1.2 µl voxel resolution acquired in 10 min. The potential of the quantification technique was demonstrated in an in vivo experiment of a rat model of cerebral stroke, where the evolution of the TSC was successfully monitored for 8 h after the stroke was induced.

  20. Measurement of a wide range of intracellular sodium concentrations in erythrocytes by 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, Y; Vinay, P; Desroches, M

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of the 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the sodium concentration in erythrocytes was tested by comparing the NMR results to those obtained by emission-flame photometry. Comparisons were made on aqueous solutions, hemolysates, gels, ghosts, and intact erythrocytes. The intra- and extracellular 23Na NMR signals were distinguished by addition of the dysprosium tripolyphosphate [Dy(PPP)7-2] shift reagent to the extracellular fluid. The intra- and extracellular volumes of ghosts and cells were determined by the isotope dilution method. Our results indicate that greater than 20% of the intracellular signal remains undetected by NMR in ghosts and cells. When the cells are hemolyzed, the amount of NMR-detectable sodium varies depending on the importance of gel formation. In hemolysates prepared by water addition, the NMR and flame photometry results are identical. The loss of signal in ghosts, cells, and undiluted hemolysates is attributed to partial binding of the Na+ ion to intracellular components, this binding being operative only when these components exist in a gel state. In a second part, 31P NMR was used to monitor the penetration of the shift reagent into the cells during incubation. Our data demonstrate that free Dy3+ can slowly accumulate inside the red cell. PMID:3986283

  1. Time course of myocardial sodium accumulation after burn trauma: a (31)P- and (23)Na-NMR study.

    PubMed

    Sikes, P J; Zhao, P; Maass, D L; Horton, J W

    2001-12-01

    In this study, (23)Na- and (31)P- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were examined in perfused rat hearts harvested 1, 2, 4, and 24 h after 40% total body surface area burn trauma and lactated Ringer resuscitation, 4 ml. kg(-1). %(-1) burn. (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy monitored myocardial intracellular Na+ using the paramagnetic shift reagent thulium 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetra(methylenephosphonic acid). Left ventricular function, cardiac high-energy phosphates (ATP/PCr), and myocyte intracellular pH were studied by using (31)P NMR spectroscopy to examine the hypothesis that burn-mediated acidification of cardiomyocytes contributes to subsequent Na+ accumulation by this cell population. Intracellular Na+ accumulation was confirmed by sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate loading and fluorescence spectroscopy in cardiomyocytes isolated 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h postburn. This myocyte Na+ accumulation as early as 2 h postburn occurred despite no changes in cardiac ATP/PCr and intracellular pH. Left ventricular function progressively decreased after burn trauma. Cardiomyocyte Na+ accumulation paralleled cardiac contractile dysfunction, suggesting that myocardial Na+ overload contributes, in part, to the progressive postburn decrease in ventricular performance. PMID:11717236

  2. Diagnostics of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source helium plasma with the injection of 23Na1+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Galatà, A.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Thuillier, T.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Mascali, D.; Neri, L.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the utilization of an injected 23Na1+ ion beam as a diagnostics of the helium plasma of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The obtained data allows estimating the upper limit for the ion-ion collision mean-free path of the incident sodium ions, the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequencies for all charge states of the sodium ions and the lower limit of the helium plasma density. The ion-ion collision frequencies of high charge state ions are shown to be at least on the order of 1-10 MHz and the plasma density is estimated to be on the order of 1011 cm-3 or higher. The experimental results are compared to simulations of the 23Na1+ capture into the helium plasma. The results indicate that the lower breeding efficiency of light ions in comparison to heavier elements is probably due to different capture efficiencies in which the in-flight ionization of the incident 1 + ions plays a vital role.

  3. α and 2p2n emission in fast neutron-induced reactions on Ni60

    SciTech Connect

    Fotiades, N.; Devlin, M.; Haight, R. C.; Nelson, R. O.; Kunieda, S.; Kawano, T.

    2015-06-19

    The cross sections for populating the residual nucleus in the reaction AZX(n,x)A-4Z-2Y exhibit peaks as a function of incident neutron energy corresponding to the (n,n'α) reaction and, at higher energy, to the (n,2p3n) reaction. In addition, the relative magnitudes of these peaks vary with the Z of the target nucleus.

  4. Neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy: simulations for chemical mapping of planetary surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brueckner, J.; Waenke, H.; Reedy, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic rays interact with the surface of a planetary body and produce a cascade of secondary particles, such as neutrons. Neutron-induced scattering and capture reactions play an important role in the production of discrete gamma-ray lines that can be measured by a gamma-ray spectrometer on board of an orbiting spacecraft. These data can be used to determine the concentration of many elements in the surface of a planetary body, which provides clues to its bulk composition and in turn to its origin and evolution. To investigate the gamma rays made by neutron interactions, thin targets were irradiated with neutrons having energies from 14 MeV to 0.025 eV. By means of foil activation technique the ratio of epithermal to thermal neutrons was determined to be similar to that in the Moon. Gamma rays emitted by the targets and the surrounding material were detected by a high-resolution germanium detector in the energy range of 0.1 to 8 MeV. Most of the gamma-ray lines that are expected to be used for planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy were found in the recorded spectra and the principal lines in these spectra are presented. 58 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Methods and procedures for evaluation of neutron-induced activation cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.A.

    1981-09-01

    One cannot expect measurements alone to supply all of the neutron-induced activation cross-section data required by the fission reactor, fusion reactor, and nuclear weapons development communities, given the wide ranges of incident neutron energies, the great variety of possible reaction types leading to activation, and targets both stable and unstable. Therefore, the evaluator must look to nuclear model calculations and systematics to aid in fulfilling these cross-section data needs. This review presents some of the recent developments and improvements in the prediction of neutron activation cross sections, with specific emphasis on the use of empirical and semiempirical methods. Since such systematics require much less nuclear informaion as input and much less computational time than do the multistep Hauser-Feshbach codes, they can often provide certain cross-section data at a sufficient level of accuracy within a minimum amount of time. The cross-section information that these systematics can and cannot provide and those cases in which they can be used most reliably are discussed.

  6. Practical design of a 4 Tesla double-tuned RF surface coil for interleaved 1H and 23Na MRI of rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecci, M.; Romanzetti, S.; Kaffanke, J.; Celik, A.; Wegener, H. P.; Shah, N. J.

    2006-08-01

    MRI is proving to be a very useful tool for sodium quantification in animal models of stroke, ischemia, and cancer. In this work, we present the practical design of a dual-frequency RF surface coil that provides 1H and 23Na images of the rat head at 4 T. The dual-frequency RF surface coil comprised of a large loop tuned to the 1H frequency and a smaller co-planar loop tuned to the 23Na frequency. The mutual coupling between the two loops was eliminated by the use of a trap circuit inserted in the smaller coil. This independent-loop design was versatile since it enabled a separate optimisation of the sensitivity and RF field distributions of the two coils. To allow for an easy extension of this simple double-tuned coil design to other frequencies (nuclei) and dimensions, we describe in detail the practical aspects of the workbench design and MRI testing using a phantom that mimics in vivo conditions. A comparison between our independent-loop, double-tuned coil and a single-tuned 23Na coil of equal size obtained with a phantom matching in vivo conditions, showed a reduction of the 23Na sensitivity (about 28 %) because of signal losses in the trap inductance. Typical congruent 1H and 23Na rat brain images showing good SNR ( 23Na: brain 7, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid 11) and spatial resolution ( 23Na: 1.25 × 1.25 × 5 mm 3) are also reported. The in vivo SNR values obtained with this coil were comparable to, if not better than, other contemporary designs in the literature.

  7. Fast production of large {sup 23}Na Bose-Einstein condensates in an optically plugged magnetic quadrupole trap

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Myoung-Sun; Choi, Jae-yoon; Shin, Yong-il

    2011-01-15

    We demonstrate a fast production of large {sup 23}Na Bose-Einstein condensates in an optically plugged magnetic quadrupole trap. A single global minimum of the trapping potential is generated by slightly displacing the plug beam from the center of the quadrupole field. With a dark magneto-optical trap and a simple rf evaporation, our system produces a condensate with N{approx_equal}10{sup 7} atoms every 17 s. The Majorana loss rates and the resultant heating rates for various temperatures are measured with and without plugging. The average energy of a spin-flipped atom is almost linearly proportional to temperature and determined to be about 60% of the average energy of a trapped atom. We present a numerical study of the evaporation dynamics in a plugged linear trap.

  8. Evaluation of {sup 28,29,30}Si neutron induced cross sections for ENDF/B-VI

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, D.M.; Larson, D.C.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Epperson, S.J.

    1997-04-01

    Separate evaluations have been done for the three stable isotopes of silicon for ENDF/B-VI. The evaluations are based on analysis of experimental data, supplemented by results of nuclear model calculations. The computational methods and the parameters required as input to the nuclear model codes are reviewed. Discussion of the evaluated data given for resonance parameters, neutron induced reaction cross sections, associated angular and energy distributions, and gamma-ray production cross sections is included. Extensive comparisons of the evaluated cross sections to measured data are shown in this report. The evaluations include all necessary data to allow KERMA (Kinetic Energy Released in MAterials) and displacement cross sections to be calculated directly. These quantities are fundamental to studies of neutron heating and radiation damage.

  9. Determination of neutron-induced alpha-particle cross sections on carbon using the response of a liquid scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Brede, H.J.; Dietze, G.; Klein, H.; Schoelermann, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the sums of the cross section {sup 12}C(n, {alpha}{sub 0}) {sup 9}Be and {sup 12}C(n, N{prime}3{alpha}) determined in the neutron energy range between 7.4 and 11 MeV. An NE-213 scintillation detector is simultaneously used as a carbon target, an alpha-particle detector, and a neutron fluence monitor. By comparing the measured and calculated response spectra, the neutron-induced alpha-particle events in the scintillation volume are separated and the cross sections {sigma}{sub n,{alpha}0} + {sigma}{sub n,n{prime}3{alpha}} are determined relative to the n-p scattering cross section. The pulse-height distribution due to alpha particles allows the angular distribution to be extracted on the basis of the reaction kinematics and an accurately determined light output function for alpha particles in the NE-213 detector.

  10. Calculated neutron-induced cross sections for /sup 53/Cr from 1 to 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, K.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    Neutron-induced cross sections of /sup 53/Cr have been calculated in the energy regions from 1 to 20 MeV. The quantities obtained are the cross sections for the reactions (n,n'..gamma..), (n,2n), (n,np), (n,n..cap alpha..), (n,p..gamma..), (n,pn), (n,..cap alpha gamma..), (n,..cap alpha..n), (n,d), (n,t), (n,/sup 3/He), and (n,..gamma..), as well as the spectra of emitted neutrons, protons, alpha particles, and gamma rays. The precompound process was included above 5 MeV in addition to the compound process. For the inelastic scattering, the contribution of the direct interaction was calculated with DWBA. 36 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Dynamical simulation of neutron-induced fission of uranium isotopes using four-dimensional Langevin equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Mirfathi, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    Four-dimensional Langevin equations have been suggested for the dynamical simulation of neutron-induced fission at low and medium excitation energies. The mass distribution of the fission fragments, the neutron multiplicity, and the fission cross section for the thermal and fast neutron-induced fission of 233U, 235U, and 238U is studied by considering energy dissipation of the compound nucleus through the fission using four-dimensional Langevin equations combined with a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The calculated results using this approach indicate reasonable agreement with available experimental data.

  12. 23Na and 35/37Cl as NMR probes of growth and shape of sodium taurodeoxycholate micellar aggregates in the presence of NaCl.

    PubMed

    Asaro, Fioretta; Feruglio, Luigi; Galantini, Luciano; Nardelli, Alessia

    2013-02-15

    The growth of the aggregates of the dihydroxylated bile salt sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) upon NaCl addition and the involvement of the counterion were investigated by NMR spectroscopy of monoatomic ionic species. (23)Na T(1) values from 0.015, 0.100, and 0.200 mol kg(-1) NaTDC solutions in D(2)O, at variable NaCl content, proved to be sensitive to the transition from primary to secondary aggregates, which occurs in the former sample, and to intermicellar interaction. Some (79)Br NMR measurements were performed on a 0.100 mol kg(-1) NaTDC sample added by NaBr in place of NaCl for comparison purposes. The (23)Na, (35)Cl, and (37)Cl double quantum filtered (DQF) patterns, from the 0.100 mol kg(-1) NaTDC sample, and (23)Na ones also from the 0.200 mol kg(-1) NaTDC one, in the presence of 0.750 mol kg(-1) NaCl, are a clear manifestation of motional anisotropy. Moreover, the DQF spectra of (23)Na and (37)Cl, which possess close quadrupole moments, display a striking similarity. The DQF lineshapes were simulated exploiting the Scilab environment to obtain an estimate of the residual quadrupole splitting magnitude. These results support the description of NaTDC micelles as cylindrical aggregates, strongly interacting at high ionic strengths, and capable of association with added electrolytes. PMID:23127873

  13. NMR relaxation behavior and quadrupole coupling constants of 39K and 23Na ions in glycerol. Comparisons with 39K tissue data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellard, R. Mark; Shehan, B. Philip; Craik, David J.; Adam, William R.

    The quadrupole coupling constants (qcc) for 39K and 23Na ions in glycerol have been calculated from linewidths measured as a function of temperature (which in turn results in changes in solution viscosity). The qcc of 39K in glycerol is found to be 1.7 MHz, and that of 23Na is 1.6 MHz. The relaxation behavior of 39K and 23Na ions in glycerol shows magnetic field and temperature dependence consistent with the equations for transverse relaxation more commonly used to describe the reorientation of nuclei in a molecular framework with intramolecular field gradients. It is shown, however, that τ c is not simply proportional to the ratio of viscosity/temperature (η T). The 39K qcc in glycerol and the value of 1.3 MHz estimated for this nucleus in aqueous solution are much greater than values of 0.075 to 0.12 MHz calculated from T 2 measurements of 39K in freshly excised rat tissues. This indicates that, in biological samples, processes such as exchange of potassium between intracellular compartments or diffusion of ions through locally ordered regions play a significant role in determining the effective quadrupole coupling constant and correlation time governing 39K relaxation. T1 and T2 measurements of rat muscle at two magnetic fields also indicate that a more complex correlation function may be required to describe the relaxation of 39K in tissue. Similar results and conclusions are found for 23Na.

  14. Lanthanide complexes of aminophosphonates as shift reagents for 7Li and 23Na NMR studies in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, R; Castro, M M; de Freitas, D M; Geraldes, C F

    1992-01-01

    A systematic NMR characterization of various Dy(III) complexes of linear and macrocyclic aminophosphonates as 7Li and 23Na NMR shift reagents for biological systems was undertaken. Their efficacy as shift reagents (SR) was tested under constant aqueous solution ionic strength conditions at pH 7.5 as a function of rho = [SR]/[M+]. Further characterization of the two best SRs, Dy(PcPcP)2(7-) and Dy(DOTP)5-, led to the conclusion that, although quite sensitive to solution pH and the presence of alkali metal ions and Mg2+ and Ca2+, these complexes were stable towards hydrolysis by phosphatases. The lack of precipitation of its solutions in the presence of Ca2+, allowed the choice of Dy(DOTP)5- as the best overall SR for biological studies. Other SRs, like Dy(TTHA)3-, although less sensitive to pH and to divalent ions, require significantly higher concentrations to yield the same shifts, leading to large bulk susceptibility artifacts in perfused tissues and organs. PMID:1467337

  15. Positive and Negative Mixed Glass Former Effects in Sodium Borosilicate and Borophosphate Glasses Studied by (23)Na NMR.

    PubMed

    Storek, Michael; Adjei-Acheamfour, Mischa; Christensen, Randilynn; Martin, Steve W; Böhmer, Roland

    2016-05-19

    Glasses with varying compositions of constituent network formers but constant mobile ion content can display minima or maxima in their ion transport which are known as the negative or the positive mixed glass former effect, MGFE, respectively. Various nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used to probe the ion hopping dynamics via the (23)Na nucleus on the microscopic level, and the results are compared with those from conductivity spectroscopy, which are more sensitive to the macroscopic charge carrier mobility. In this way, the current work examines two series of sodium borosilicate and sodium borophosphate glasses that display positive and negative MGFEs, respectively, in the composition dependence of their Na(+) ion conductivities at intermediate compositions of boron oxide substitution for silicon oxide and phosphorus oxide, respectively. A coherent theoretical analysis is performed for these glasses which jointly captures the results from measurements of spin relaxation and central-transition line shapes. On this basis and including new information from (11)B magic-angle spinning NMR regarding the speciation in the sodium borosilicate glasses, a comparison is carried out with predictions from theoretical approaches, notably from the network unit trap model. This comparison yields detailed insights into how a variation of the boron oxide content and thus of either the population of silicon or phosphorus containing network-forming units with different charge-trapping capabilities leads to nonlinear changes of the microscopic transport properties. PMID:27092392

  16. Short-T2 Imaging for Quantifying Concentration of Sodium (23Na) of Bi-Exponential T2 Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yongxian; Panigrahy, Ashok; Laymon, Charles M.; Lee, Vincent K.; Drappatz, Jan; Lieberman, Frank S.; Boada, Fernando E.; Mountz, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This work intends to demonstrate a new method for quantifying concentration of sodium (23Na) of bi-exponential T2 relaxation in patients on MRI scanners at 3.0 Tesla. Theory Two single-quantum (SQ) sodium images acquired at very-short and short echo times (TE=0.5 and 5.0ms) are subtracted to produce an image of the short-T2 component of the bi-exponential (or bound) sodium. An integrated calibration on the SQ and short-T2 images quantifies both total and bound sodium concentrations. Methods Numerical models were used to evaluate signal response of the proposed method to the short-T2 components. MRI scans on agar phantoms and brain tumor patients were performed to assess accuracy and performance of the proposed method, in comparison with a conventional method of triple-quantum filtering. Results A good linear relation (R2=0.98) was attained between the short-T2 image intensity and concentration of bound sodium. A reduced total scan time of 22min was achieved under the SAR restriction for human studies in quantifying both total and bound sodium concentrations. Conclusion The proposed method is feasible for quantifying bound sodium concentration in routine clinical settings at 3.0 Tesla. PMID:25078966

  17. High resolution 23Na-nuclear magnetic resonance study of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kwan, C Y; Seo, Y; Ito, H; Murakami, M; Watari, H

    1987-06-01

    The intracellular Na+ content of washed erythrocytes from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and Wistar-Kyoto normotensive rats (WKY) was measured by a high resolution 23Na-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique using a non-permeant aqueous shift reagent, dysprosium triethylenetetramine hexaacetic acid, Dy(TTHA)3-. The initial intracellular Na+ of freshly isolated and washed erythrocytes was very low (approximately 5 mmol/l) and increased progressively with prolonged incubation in isotonic salt solution at 37 degrees C. There was no significant difference in the erythrocyte Na+ concentration between SHRSP and WKY over the entire period of measurement, nor was any difference detected in their osmotic fragility or total cellular volume, although the osmotic fragility decreased with incubation time. The high energy phosphate metabolites were also studied in the same erythrocytes by 31P-NMR. The level of intracellular ATP decreased with incubation at 37 degrees C but showed no difference between the SHRSP and WKY samples. Inclusion of 1 mmol/l ouabain in the incubation medium substantially retarded the breakdown of intracellular ATP and resulted in a concomitant increase in intracellular Na+. However, neither the ouabain-sensitive nor the ouabain-insensitive component of Na+ influx altered in SHRSP erythrocytes compared with WKY erythrocytes in paired experiments. Our results do not support the hypothesis that altered Na+ transport, resulting in an increase in erythrocyte Na+ concentration, is associated with spontaneous hypertension. PMID:3611783

  18. Continuous versus pulse neutron induced gamma spectroscopy for soil carbon analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neutron induced gamma spectra analysis (NGA) provides a means of measuring carbon in large soil volumes without destructive sampling. Calibration of the NGA system must account for system background and the interference of other nuclei on the carbon peak at 4.43 MeV. Accounting for these factors pro...

  19. Analysis of prompt fission neutrons in 235U(nth,f) and fission fragment distributions for the thermal neutron induced fission of 234U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Adili, A.; Tarrío, D.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Göök, A.; Jansson, K.; Solders, A.; Rakopoulos, V.; Gustafsson, C.; Lantz, M.; Mattera, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Vidali, M.; Österlund, M.; Pomp, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the ongoing analysis of two fission experiments. Both projects are part of the collaboration between the nuclear reactions group at Uppsala and the JRC-IRMM. The first experiment deals with the prompt fission neutron multiplicity in the thermal neutron induced fission of 235U(n,f). The second, on the fission fragment properties in the thermal fission of 234U(n,f). The prompt fission neutron multiplicity has been measured at the JRC-IRMM using two liquid scintillators in coincidence with an ionization chamber. The first experimental campaign focused on 235U(nth,f) whereas a second experimental campaign is foreseen later for the same reaction at 5.5 MeV. The goal is to investigate how the so-called sawtooth shape changes as a function of fragment mass and excitation energy. Some harsh experimental conditions were experienced due to the large radiation background. The solution to this will be discussed along with preliminary results. In addition, the analysis of thermal neutron induced fission of 234U(n,f) will be discussed. Currently analysis of data is ongoing, originally taken at the ILL reactor. The experiment is of particular interest since no measurement exist of the mass and energy distributions for this system at thermal energies. One main problem encountered during analysis was the huge background of 235U(nth,f). Despite the negligible isotopic traces in the sample, the cross section difference is enormous. Solution to this parasitic background will be highlighted.

  20. Neutron Induced Capture and Fission Processes on 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprea, Cristiana; Oprea, Alexandru

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear data on Uranium isotopes are of crucial interest for new generation of nuclear reactors. Processes of interest are the nuclear reactions induced by neutrons and in this work mainly the capture and the fission process on 238U will be analyzed in a wide energy interval. For slow and resonant neutrons the many levels Breit - Wigner formalism is necessary. In the case of fast and very fast neutrons up to 200 MeV the nuclear reaction mechanism implemented in Talys will be used. The present evaluations are necessary in order to obtain the field of neutrons in the design of nuclear reactors and they are compared with experimental data from literature obtained from capture and (n,xn) processes.

  1. Neutron-induced peaks in Ge detectors from evaporation neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gete, E.; Measday, D. F.; Moftah, B. A.; Saliba, M. A.; Stocki, T. J.

    1997-02-01

    We have studied the peak shapes at 596 and 691 keV resulting from fast neutron interactions inside germanium detectors. We have used neutrons from a 252Cf source, as well as from the 28Si(μ -, nv), and 209Bi(π -, xn) reactions to compare the peaks and to check for a dependence of peak shape on the incoming neutron energy. In our investigation, no difference between these three measurements has been observed. In a comparison of these peak shapes with other studies, we found similar results to ours except for those measurements using monoenergetic neutrons in which a significant variation with neutron energy has been observed.

  2. T invariance and T-odd asymmetries for the cold-polarized-neutron-induced fission of nonoriented nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bunakov, V. E.; Titova, L. V.

    2014-12-15

    It is shown that the coefficients D{sup exp} for all T-odd asymmetries observed experimentally in the cross sections for the reactions of cold-polarized-neutron-induced fission of nonoriented target nuclei (which involves the emission of prescission and evaporated particles) comply in shape and scale with the coefficients D{sup theor} calculated for the analogous asymmetries on the basis of quantum-mechanical nuclear-fission theory for T-invariant Hamiltonians of fissile systems. It is also shown that the asymmetries in question arise upon taking into account the effect of (i) the interference between the fission amplitudes of s- and p-wave resonances of a polarized fissile compound nucleus formed in the aforementioned reactions; (ii) the collective rotation of the compound nucleus in question (this rotation entails a change in the angular distributions of fission fragments and third particles); and (iii) the wriggling vibrations of this compound nucleus in the vicinity of its scission point, which lead to the appearance of high aligned spins of fission fragments, with the result that the emission of neutrons and photons evaporated from these fragments becomes anisotropic. The possible contribution of T-noninvariant interactions to the formation of the T-odd asymmetries under analysis is estimated by using the results obtained in experimentally testing the detailed-balance principle, (P-A) theorem, and T invariance of cross sections for elastic proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering.

  3. Spatial Mapping of Flow-Induced Molecular Alignment in a Noncrystalline Biopolymer Fluid Using Double Quantum Filtered (DQF) (23)Na MRI.

    PubMed

    Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Flow-induced molecular alignment was observed experimentally in a non-liquid-crystalline bioplymeric fluid during developed tubular flow. The fluid was comprised of rigid rods of the polysaccharide xanthan and exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Without a requirement for optical transparency or the need for an added tracer, (23)Na magic angle (MA) double quantum filtered (DQF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enabled the mapping of the anisotropic molecular arrangement under flow conditions. A regional net molecular alignment was found in areas of high shear values in the vicinity of the tube wall. Furthermore, the xanthan molecules resumed random orientations after the cessation of flow. The observed flow-induced molecular alignment was correlated with the rheological properties of the fluid. The work demonstrates the ability of (23)Na MA DQF magnetic resonance to provide a valuable molecular-mechanical link. PMID:26277955

  4. Neutron-induced soft error rate measurements in semiconductor memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünlü, Kenan; Narayanan, Vijaykrishnan; Çetiner, Sacit M.; Degalahal, Vijay; Irwin, Mary J.

    2007-08-01

    Soft error rate (SER) testing of devices have been performed using the neutron beam at the Radiation Science and Engineering Center at Penn State University. The soft error susceptibility for different memory chips working at different technology nodes and operating voltages is determined. The effect of 10B on SER as an in situ excess charge source is observed. The effect of higher-energy neutrons on circuit operation will be published later. Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor was used as the neutron source in the experiments. The high neutron flux allows for accelerated testing of the SER phenomenon. The experiments and analyses have been performed only on soft errors due to thermal neutrons. Various memory chips manufactured by different vendors were tested at various supply voltages and reactor power levels. The effect of 10B reaction caused by thermal neutron absorption on SER is discussed.

  5. Measurement of the Absolute Elastic and Inelastic Differential Neutron Cross Sections for 23Na Between 2 and 4 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Yates, S. W.; Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Luke, C. J.; McDonough, P. J.; Sigillito, A. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2013-03-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering angular distributions have been measured from 23Na for incident neutron energies between 2 and 4 MeV at the University of Kentucky using neutron time-of-flight techniques. The cross sections obtained are important for applications in nuclear reactor development and other areas, and they are an energy region in which existing data are very sparse. Absolute cross sections were obtained by normalizing Na angular distributions to the well-known np cross sections.

  6. Lead exchange into zeolite and clay minerals: A [sup 29]Si, [sub 27]Al, [sup 23]Na solid-state NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J.J.; Sherriff, B.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Chabazite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, hectorite, and kaolinite were used to remove Pb, through ion exchange, from 0.01 M aqueous Pb(NO[sub 3])[sub 2] solutions. These minerals contained 27 (Na-chabazite), 16, 9, 9, and 0.5 wt % of Pb, respectively, after equilibration with the solutions. Ion exchange reached equilibrium within 24 h for Na-chabazite and vermiculite, but in less than 5 min for montmorillonite and hectorite. Na-chabazite took up more Pb than natural (Ca, Na)-chabazite (7 wt % Pb), whereas no such difference was observed in different cation forms of the clay minerals. Calcite impurities, associated with the clay minerals, effectively removed Pb from the aqueous solutions by the precipitation of cerussite (PbCO[sub 3]). [sup 29]Si, [sup 27]Al, and [sup 23]Na magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), [sup 23]Na double rotation (DOR) NMR, and [sup 23]Na variable-temperature MAS NMR were used to study the ion exchange mechanisms. In Na-chabazite, cations in all three possible sites take part in the fast chemical exchange. The chemical exchange passes from the fast exchange regime to the slow regime at [minus]80 to [minus]100[degrees]C. One site contains a relatively low population of exchangeable cations. The other two more shielded sites contain most of the exchangeable cation. The exchangeable cations in chabazite and vermiculite were found to be close to the SiO[sub 4] and AlO[sub 4] tetrahedra, while those in the other clay minerals were more distant. Two sites (or groups of sites) for exchangeable cations were observed in hectorite. Lead tended to occupy the one which corresponds to the [minus]8 ppM peak on the [sup 23]Na MAS NMR spectrum. The behavior of the exchangeable cations in the interlayer sites was similar in all the clay minerals studied. 27 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Studies of neutron induced fission and nuclear reaction for AHWR and ADS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, Paresh M.

    The rapidly expanding oil sands of western Canada, the third largest reserves in the world, are creating serious challenges, such as ecological harm, labour shortages, and extensive natural gas consumption. This thesis develops three practical real options models to evaluate the feasibility of oil sands projects and to estimate the optimal rate of oil sands expansion, while accounting for the stated concerns. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  8. Multiple quantum filtered 23Na NMR in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart: Ratio of triple/double quantum filtered signals correlates with [Na]i

    PubMed Central

    Eykyn, Thomas R.; Aksentijević, Dunja; Aughton, Karen L.; Southworth, Richard; Fuller, William; Shattock, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the potential of multiple quantum filtered (MQF) 23Na NMR to probe intracellular [Na]i in the Langendorff perfused mouse heart. In the presence of Tm(DOTP) shift reagent the triple quantum filtered (TQF) signal originated largely from the intracellular sodium pool with a 32 ± 6% contribution of the total TQF signal arising from extracellular sodium, whilst the rank 2 double-quantum filtered signal (DQF), acquired with a 54.7° flip-angle pulse, originated exclusively from the extracellular sodium pool. Given the different cellular origins of the 23Na MQF signals we propose that the TQF/DQF ratio can be used as a semi-quantitative measure of [Na]i in the mouse heart. We demonstrate a good correlation of this ratio with [Na]i measured with shift reagent at baseline and under conditions of elevated [Na]i. We compare the measurements of [Na]i using both shift reagent and TQF/DQF ratio in a cohort of wild type mouse hearts and in a transgenic PLM3SA mouse expressing a non-phosphorylatable form of phospholemman, showing a modest but measurable elevation of baseline [Na]i. MQF filtered 23Na NMR is a potentially useful tool for studying normal and pathophysiological changes in [Na]i, particularly in transgenic mouse models with altered Na regulation. PMID:26196304

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Neutron Induced Noise on Gated X-ray Framing Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N; Stone, G; Hagmann, C; Sorce, C; Bradley, D K; Moran, M; Landen, O L; Stoeffl, W; Springer, P; Tommasini, R; Hermann, H W; Kyrala, G A; Glebov, V Y; Sangster, T C; Koch, J A

    2009-10-08

    A micro-channel plate based temporally-gated x-ray camera (framing camera) is one of the most versatile diagnostic tools of inertial confinement fusion experiments; particularly for observation of the shape of x-ray self emission from compressed core of imploded capsules. However, components used in an x-ray framing camera have sensitivity to neutrons induced secondary radiations. On early low-yield capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the expected neutron production is about 5 x 10{sup 14}. Therefore, the expected neutron fluence at a framing camera located {approx} 150 cm from the object is 2 x 10{sup 9} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. To obtain gated x-ray images in such harsh neutron environments, quantitative understanding of neutron-induced backgrounds is crucial.

  10. Neutron-Induced Fission Measurements at the Dance and Lsds Facilities at Lanl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Fowler, M. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Rundberg, R. S.; Rusev, G. Y.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Alexander, C. W.; Belier, G.

    2014-09-01

    New results from neutron-induced fission measurements performed at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) and Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) are presented. New correlated data on promptfission γ-ray (PFG) distributions were measured using the DANCE array for resonant neutron-induced fission of 233U, 235U and 239Pu. The deduced properties of PFG emission are presented using a simple parametrization. An accurate knowledge of fission γ-ray spectra enables us to analyze the isomeric states of 236U created after neutron capture on 235U. We briefly discuss these new results. Finally, we review details and preliminary results of the challenging 237U(n,f) cross section measurement at the LSDS facility.

  11. Neutron-induced fission measurements at the time-of-flight facility nELBE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kögler, T.; Beyer, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2015-05-18

    Neutron-induced fission of ²⁴²Pu is studied at the photoneutron source nELBE. The relative fast neutron fission cross section was determined using actinide fission chambers in a time-of-flight experiment. A good agreement of present nuclear data with evalua- tions has been achieved in the range of 100 keV to 10 MeV.

  12. Enrico Fermi's Discovery of Neutron-Induced Artificial Radioactivity: Neutrons and Neutron Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    We reconstruct and analyze the path leading from James Chadwick’s discovery of the neutron in February 1932 through Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie’s discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 to Enrico Fermi’s discovery of neutron-induced artificial radioactivity in March 1934. We show, in particular, that Fermi’s innovative construction and use of radon-beryllium neutron sources permitted him to make his discovery.

  13. Explosive Material Identification via Neutron-Induced Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiberg, David; Litz, Marc

    2014-09-01

    With the increase in the usage of improvised explosive devices, both vehicle-borne and buried, it has become increasingly important to quickly identify potentially explosive materials before they can be detonated. In a field test performed in January of 2014, 14 MeV neutrons generated in a deuterium-tritium reaction induced gamma emissions in explosive material targets. The resulting gamma rays were counted in LaBr3 detectors in both a time-binned associated particle imaging (API) mode and a repetitively pulsed mode. The details of the resulting data sets were analyzed, and gamma lines for carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen were identified in the spectra produced by both modes. Post-test noise reduction techniques included empty hole background subtraction, Compton background subtraction, peak area integration, and time-of-flight gating. The induced C, O, and N gamma line intensities and ratios were compared to the elemental weight ratios expected for each type of material. The composition results are indicative of the known elemental weights in the target materials. The statistics are limited because of the short, 20 second data collection periods, and would improve greatly with longer exposure times in the future.

  14. Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections of Nuclei in the Vicinity of 208Pb at Incident Energies below 60 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, Igor V.; Tutin, Gennady A.; Eismont, Vilen P.; Mitryukhin, Andrey G.; Oplavin, Valery S.; Soloviev, Sergey M.; Meulders, Jean-Pierre; El Masri, Youssef; Keutgen, Thomas; Prieels, René; Nolte, Ralf

    2005-05-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 205Tl, 204, 206, 207, 208Pb, and 209Bi have been measured at incident energies of 32.8, 45.3, and 59.9 MeV. The measurements were performed at the Louvain-la-Neuve neutron beam facility using the 7Li (p, n) reaction as neutron source. Fission fragments were detected with a multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber (MFGIC). Neutron fluence measurements were based on the 238U(n, f) reaction. The neutron fluence monitoring procedure was asserted by crosscheck measurement, in which the 59.9-MeV neutron beam fluence was simultaneously determined with the MFGIC and with a fission chamber monitor calibrated relative to a proton-recoil telescope.

  15. Neutron-induced fission cross section of Np237 in the keV to MeV range at the CERN n_TOF facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Diakaki, M.; Karadimos, D.; Vlastou, R.; Kokkoris, M.; Demetriou, P.; Skordis, E.; Tsinganis, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; et al

    2016-03-17

    We experimentally determined the neutron-induced fission cross section of Np-237 at the high-resolution and high-intensity facility n_TOF, at CERN, in the energy range 100 keV to 9 MeV, using the U-235(n, f) and U-238(n, f) cross section standards below and above 2 MeV, respectively. Moreover, a fast ionization chamber was used in order to detect the fission fragments from the reactions and the targets were characterized as far as their mass and homogeneity are concerned by means of a spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy respectively. Finally, theoretical calculations within the Hauser-Feshbach formalism have been performed, employing the EMPIRE code, andmore » the model parameters were tuned in order to successfully reproduce the experimental fission cross-sectional data and simultaneously all the competing reaction channels.« less

  16. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 237Np in the keV to MeV range at the CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakaki, M.; Karadimos, D.; Vlastou, R.; Kokkoris, M.; Demetriou, P.; Skordis, E.; Tsinganis, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; David, S.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dorochenko, A.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, Ch.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fuji, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gallino, R.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Ioannidis, K.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Kolokolov, D.; Konovalov, V.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Sedysheva, M.; Stamoulis, K.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Voss, F.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.; n TOF Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 237Np was experimentally determined at the high-resolution and high-intensity facility n_TOF, at CERN, in the energy range 100 keV to 9 MeV, using the 235U(n ,f ) and 238U(n ,f ) cross section standards below and above 2 MeV, respectively. A fast ionization chamber was used in order to detect the fission fragments from the reactions and the targets were characterized as far as their mass and homogeneity are concerned by means of α spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy respectively. Theoretical calculations within the Hauser-Feshbach formalism have been performed, employing the empire code, and the model parameters were tuned in order to successfully reproduce the experimental fission cross-sectional data and simultaneously all the competing reaction channels.

  17. Neutron induced radio-isotopes and background for Ge double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Pinghan; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Environmental neutrons, mostly produced by muons in the cosmic rays, might contribute backgrounds to the search for neutrinoless double beta decays. These neutrons can interact with materials and generate radio-isotopes, which can decay and produce radioactive backgrounds. Some of these neutron-induced isotopes have a signature of a time-delayed coincidence, allowing us to study these infrequent events. For example, such isotopes can decay by beta decay to metastable states and then decay by gamma decay to the ground state. Considering the time-delayed coincidence of these two processes, we can determine candidates for these neutron-induced isotopes in the data and estimate the flux of neutrons in the deep underground environment. In this report, we will list possible neutron-induced isotopes and the methodology to detect them, especially those that can affect the search for neutrinoless double beta decays in 76Ge. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  18. New JEFF-3.2 Sodium Neutron Induced Cross-sections Evaluation for Neutron Fast Reactors Applications: from 0 to 20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archier, P.; Noguère, G.; De Saint Jean, C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rouki, C.

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the ASTRID project, a new 23Na evaluation, containing re-evaluated nuclear data and associated covariances, has been prepared to be submitted for the future JEFF-3.2 library. This work has been motivated mainly because the current JEFF-3.1.1 sodium evaluation showed large differences with microscopic measurements and does not have covariances data. Recent experimental data from IRMM and high resolution measurements from Larson have been simultaneously analyzed with the data assimilation code CONRAD and a good agreement with the evaluated cross-sections has been achieved. Experimental systematic uncertainties have been propagated to the nuclear reaction model parameters in order to produce a coherent set of covariance data. Several figures are provided in this paper to illustrate the new features of this evaluation.

  19. Thermotropic ionic liquid crystals. II. 1H and 23Na NMR study of the smectic mesophase of molten sodium n-butyrate and sodium isovalerate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonekamp, J. E.; Eguchi, T.; Plesko, S.; Jonas, J.

    1983-08-01

    The 1H and 23Na NMR studies of smectic ionic mesophases of molten sodium n-butyrate and sodium isovalerate are reported over the temperature range of the stability of the liquid crystalline phases. The 1H spin-lattice relaxation times T1 at ν0=9.2, 24.3, and 60 MHz for the anions of both the systems are interpreted in terms of diffusion intermolecular relaxation mechanism. The predicted anion diffusion coefficients are in agreement with those measured directly by spin-echo technique and indicate that the anion diffuses rapidly. In contrast to the T1 relaxation mechanism the results obtained for the proton relaxation times in the rotating coordinate frame T1ρ indicate that the order-fluctuation relaxation mechanism determines the frequency dispersion of T1ρ. The analysis of the T1ρ data provides an approximate measure of the order parameter S as a function of temperature. Fourier transform spectra of the 23Na transitions show that the electric field gradient (EFG) at the Na+ ion is nonaveraged and of such a strength as to produce a second order quadrupole effect in the spectra of the central transition. From the first-order splitting, the quadrupole coupling constant (QCC) is obtained as a function of temperature. The gradual temperature change of QCC demonstrates that only a single liquid crystalline phase exists over the temperature interval of the stability of the smectic mesophase. Using approximate analysis the correlation time τc for the EFG fluctuation is obtained from the 23Na T1 data for the melts of both sodium n-butyrate and sodium isovalerate.

  20. In Situ 13C and 23Na Magic Angle Spinning NMR Investigation of Supercritical CO2 Incorporation in Smectite-Natural Organic Matter Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Hoyt, David W.; Burton, Sarah D.; Ferguson, Brennan O.; Varga, Tamas; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2014-01-29

    This paper presents an in situ NMR study of clay-natural organic polymer systems (a hectoritehumic acid [HA] composite) under CO2 storage reservoir conditions (90 bars CO2 pressure, 50°C). The 13C and 23Na NMR data show that supercritical CO2 interacts more strongly with the composite than with the base clay and does not react to form other C-containing species over several days at elevated CO2. With and without organic matter, the data suggest that CO2 enters the interlayer space of Na-hectorite equilibrated at 43% relative humidity. The presence of supercritical CO2 also leads to increased 23Na signal intensity, reduced line width at half height, increased basal width, more rapid 23Na T1 relaxation rates, and a shift to more positive resonance frequencies. Larger changes are observed for the hectorite-HA composite than for the base clay. In light of recently reported MD simulations of other polymer-Na-smectite composites, we interpret the observed changes as an increase in the rate of Na+ site hopping in the presence of supercritical CO2, the presence of potential new Na+ sorption sites when the humic acid is present, and perhaps an accompanying increase in the number of Na+ ions actively involved in site hopping. The results suggest that the presence of organic material either in clay interlayers or on external particle surfaces can significantly affect the behavior of supercritical CO2 and the mobility of metal ions in reservoir rocks.

  1. Tables of Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section for Various Pu, U, and Th Isotopes, Deduced from Measured Fission Probabilites

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-03-31

    Cross sections for neutron-induced fission of {sup 231,233}Th, {sup 234,235,236,237,239}U, and {sup 240,241,243}Pu are presented in tabular form for incident neutron energies of 0.1 {le} E{sub n}(MeV) {le} 2.5. The cross sections were obtained by converting measured fission probabilities from (t,pf) reactions on mass-A targets to (n,f) cross sections on mass-A + 1 neutron targets, by using modeling to compensate for the differences in the reaction mechanisms. Data from Britt et al. were used for the {sup 234}U(t,pf) reaction, from Cramer et al. for the {sup 230,232}Th(t,pf), {sup 236,238}U(t,pf), and {sup 240,242}Pu(t,pf) reactions, and from Britt et al. for the {sup 233,235}U(t,pf) and {sup 239}Pu(t,pf) reactions. The fission probabilities P{sub (t,pf)}(E{sub x}), measured as a function of excitation energy E{sub x} of the compound system formed by the (t,p) reaction, are listed in the tables with the corresponding deduced cross sections as a function of incident neutron energy E{sub n}, {sigma}{sub (n,f)}(E{sub n}). The excitation energy and incident neutron energy are related by E{sub x} = E{sub n} + B{sub n}, where B{sub n}, where B{sub n} is the neutron binding energy. Comparison with ENDF/B-VI evaluations of the well-measured {sup 234,235,236}U(n,f) and {sup 240,241}Pu(n,f) cross sections confirms the accuracy of the present results within a 10% standard deviation above E{sub n} = 1 MeV. Below E{sub n} = 1 MeV, localized deviations of at most {+-} 20% are observed.

  2. Neutron-induced latch-up immunity in metal gate CMOS integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.E.; Rollins, J.G.; Hachey, D.

    1987-12-01

    Neutron-induced latch-up immunity has been studied in metal gate CMOS integrated circuits as a function of neutron fluence by measuring both the current gain products (beta product) of parasitic NPN and PNP transistors, and the flash x-ray latch-up thresholds prior to and following irradiation and subsequent stabilization anneal. Correlations between the actual latch-up thresholds and the measured beta products are established for the three part types investigated. These correlations indicate that the measurement of beta products on judiciously chosen parasitic transistors is a viable technique for estimating latch-up susceptibility when the observed margin is substantial.

  3. Experimental study of neutron induced background noise on gated x-ray framing cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N.; Hagmann, C.; Stone, G.; Hey, D.; Glenn, S.; Conder, A.; Teruya, A.; Sorce, C.; Tommasini, R.; Stoeffl, W.; Springer, P.; Landen, O. L.; Eckart, M.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Koch, J. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kyrala, G. A.; Bahukutumbi, R.; and others

    2010-10-15

    A temporally gated x-ray framing camera based on a proximity focus microchannel plate is one of the most important diagnostic tools of inertial confinement fusion experiments. However, fusion neutrons produced in imploded capsules interact with structures surrounding the camera and produce background to x-ray signals. To understand the mechanisms of this neutron induced background, we tested several gated x-ray cameras in the presence of 14 MeV neutrons produced at the Omega laser facility. Differences between background levels observed with photographic film readout and charge-coupled-device readout have been studied.

  4. Continuous versus pulse neutron induced gamma spectroscopy for soil carbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Kavetskiy, A; Yakubova, G; Torbert, H A; Prior, S A

    2015-02-01

    Neutron induced gamma spectra analysis (NGA) provides a means of measuring carbon in large soil volumes without destructive sampling. Calibration of the NGA system must account for system background and the interference of other nuclei on the carbon peak at 4.43 MeV. Accounting for these factors produced measurements in agreement with theoretical considerations. The continuous NGA mode was twice as fast and just as accurate as the pulse mode, thus this mode was preferable for routine soil carbon analysis. PMID:25497322

  5. Atomic masses of {sup 6}Li,{sup 23}Na,{sup 39,41}K,{sup 85,87}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, Brianna J.; Redshaw, Matthew; Myers, Edmund G.

    2010-10-15

    The atomic masses of the alkali-metal isotopes {sup 6}Li,{sup 23}Na,{sup 39,41}K,{sup 85,87}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs have been obtained from measurements of cyclotron frequency ratios of pairs of ions simultaneously trapped in a Penning trap. The results, with one standard deviation uncertainty, are: M({sup 6}Li)=6.015 122 887 4(16)u,M({sup 23}Na)=22.989769 282 8(26)u,M({sup 39}K)=38.963 706 485 6(52)u,M({sup 41}K)=40.961 825 257 4(48)u,M({sup 85}Rb)=84.911 789739(9)u,M({sup 87}Rb)=86.909 180 535(10)u, and M({sup 133}Cs)=132.905 451 963(13)u. Our mass of {sup 6}Li yields an improved neutron separation energy for {sup 7}Li of 7251.1014(45) keV.

  6. Reducing Uncertainties in Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections Using a Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Brett; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections for actinides have long been of great interest for nuclear energy and stockpile stewardship. Traditionally, measurements were performed using fission chambers which provided limited information about the detected fission events. For the case of 239Pu(n,f), sensitivity studies have shown a need for more precise measurements. Recently the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) has developed the fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) to measure fission cross sections to better than 1% uncertainty by providing 3D tracking of fission fragments. The fissionTPC collected data to calculate the 239Pu(n,f) cross section at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center during the 2014 run cycle. Preliminary analysis has been focused on studying particle identification and target and beam non-uniformities to reduce the uncertainty on the cross section. Additionally, the collaboration is investigating other systematic errors that could not be well studied with a traditional fission chamber. LA-UR-15-24906.

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities in neutron-induced acute myeloid leukemias in CBA/H mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bouffler, S.D.; Meijne, E.I.M.; Huiskamp, R.

    1996-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) induced in CBA/H mice by 1 MeV fission neutrons have been examined for chromosomal abnormalities by G-band analysis. In common with X-ray- and {alpha}-particle-induced AMLs in CBA/H mice, more than 90% (16/17) of the myeloid leukemias had chromosome 2 abnormalities, in this case, all interstitial deletions. Chromosome 2 breakpoints were not wholly consistent, but clustering in three specific G-band regions was observed. Very distal (H-region) breakpoints were more common in the neutron AMLs than in X-ray- or {alpha}-particle-induced leukemias. These data indicate that neutron-induced AMLs in CBA/H mice are not characterized by a specific chromosome deletion but that a variety of chromosome 2 deletion types are associated with the disease. Trisomy of chromosome 1 (12.5% AMLs) and aneusomy of chromosomes 6 (31% AMLs) and Y (37.5% AMLs) were noted. While chromatid breakage was observed occasionally in neutron-induced AML, no clear indications of persistent chromosomal instability or high levels of stable chromosomal change were apparent. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Use of PuBe source to simulate neutron-induced single event upsets in static RAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.; Wert, J.L.; Doherty, W.R.; Oberg, D.L.; Measel, P.R.; Criswell, T.L.

    1988-12-01

    Neutron induced single event upsets were measured in static memory devices using a 10 curie PuBe source. The PuBe source conservatively overestimates the spectrum of fast neutrons emitted by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). For the 93L422, the neutron-induced upset rate compared favorably with calculated values derived using the burst generation concept. By accounting for the production of the ionizing particles by the PuBe and RTG neutron spectra, convenient upper bound SEU upset rates for memory devices near an RTG can be derived.

  9. Competition between Na + and Li + for Unsealed and Cytoskeleton-Depleted Human Red Blood Cell Membrane: A 23Na Multiple Quantum Filtered and 7Li NMR Relaxation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Chandra; Minadeo, Nicole; Toon, Jason; Graham, Daniel; Mota de Freitas, Duarte; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.

    1999-09-01

    Evidence for competition between Li+ and Na+ for binding sites of human unsealed and cytoskeleton-depleted human red blood cell (csdRBC) membranes was obtained from the effect of added Li+ upon the 23Na double quantum filtered (DQF) and triple quantum filtered (TQF) NMR signals of Na+-containing red blood cell (RBC) membrane suspensions. We found that, at low ionic strength, the observed quenching effect of Li+ on the 23Na TQF and DQF signal intensity probed Li+/Na+ competition for isotropic binding sites only. Membrane cytoskeleton depletion significantly decreased the isotropic signal intensity, strongly affecting the binding of Na+ to isotropic membrane sites, but had no effect on Li+/Na+ competition for those sites. Through the observed 23Na DQF NMR spectra, which allow probing of both isotropic and anisotropic Na+ motion, we found anisotropic membrane binding sites for Na+ when the total ionic strength was higher than 40 mM. This is a consequence of ionic strength effects on the conformation of the cytoskeleton, in particular on the dimer-tetramer equilibrium of spectrin. The determinant involvement of the cytoskeleton in the anisotropy of Na+ motion at the membrane surface was demonstrated by the isotropy of the DQF spectra of csdRBC membranes even at high ionic strength. Li+ addition initially quenched the isotropic signal the most, indicating preferential Li+/Na+ competition for the isotropic membrane sites. High ionic strength also increased the intensity of the anisotropic signal, due to its effect on the restructuring of the membrane cytoskeleton. Further Li+ addition competed with Na+ for those sites, quenching the anisotropic signal. 7Li T1 relaxation data for Li+-containing suspensions of unsealed and csdRBC membranes, in the absence and presence of Na+ at low ionic strength, showed that cytoskeleton depletion does not affect the affinity of Na+ for the RBC membrane, but increases the affinity of Li+ by 50%. This clearly indicates that cytoskeleton

  10. 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO2 selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2012-07-01

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr2+ and Ba2+ ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO2 adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium.

  11. Measurement of the Absolute Elastic and Inelastic Differential Neutron Cross Sections for 23Na between 2 and 4 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; McEllistrem, M. T.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estevez, F. M.; Chakraborty, A.; Yates, S. W.; Sigillito, A.; McDonough, P. J.; Kersting, L. J.; Luke, C. J.; Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2011-10-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering angular distributions for 23Na sample were measured at the University of Kentucky using the time-of-flight (ToF) technique, between 2 and 4 MeV incident neutron energies.Normalization of yields into scattering cross sections was accomplished by comparison of Na yields to the yields obtained from hydrogen in polyethylene samples via the well-known n-p scattering cross sections.The 3H(p,n) differential cross sections are used to determine the energy-dependent efficiency of the main detector. Because the efficiency of this detector appears as a ratio in the comparison of scattered yields from different samples, the absolute values of the 3H(p,n) cross sections are not critical, but their energy dependence is. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE contract no. DE-AC07-051D14517.

  12. Studies of Neutron-Induced Fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Dana; TKE Team

    2014-09-01

    A Frisch-gridded ionization chamber and the double energy (2E) analysis method were used to study mass yield distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) release from neutron-induced fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu. Despite decades of fission research, little or no TKE data exist for high incident neutron energies. Additional average TKE information at incident neutron energies relevant to defense- and energy-related applications will provide a valuable observable for benchmarking simulations. The data can also be used as inputs in theoretical fission models. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center-Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE - WNR) provides a neutron beam from thermal to hundreds of MeV, well-suited for filling in the gaps in existing data and exploring fission behavior in the fast neutron region. The results of the studies on 238U, 235U, and 239Pu will be presented. LA-UR-14-24921.

  13. Fast neutrons-induced apoptosis is Fas-independent in lymphoblastoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Barbara; Benzina, Sami; Jeannequin, Pierre; Dufour, Patrick; Bergerat, Jean-Pierre; Denis, Jean-Marc; Gueulette, John; Bischoff, Pierre L. . E-mail: Pierre.Bischoff@ircad.u-strasbg.fr

    2005-08-26

    We have previously shown that ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphoblastoid cells differs according to their p53 status, and that caspase 8-mediated cleavage of BID is involved in the p53-dependent pathway. In the present study, we investigated the role of Fas signaling in caspase 8 activation induced by fast neutrons irradiation in these cells. Fas and FasL expression was assessed by flow cytometry and by immunoblot. We also measured Fas aggregation after irradiation by fluorescence microscopy. We found a decrease of Fas expression after irradiation, but no change in Fas ligand expression. We also showed that, in contrast to the stimulation of Fas by an agonistic antibody, Fas aggregation did not occur after irradiation. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that fast neutrons induced-apoptosis is Fas-independent, even in p53-dependent apoptosis.

  14. Measurement of the 240,242Pu Neutron-induced Fission Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Bryś, T.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Pretel, C.; Vidali, M.

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 240,242Pu has been measured at the Van de Graaff facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (JRC-IRMM). A Twin-Frisch Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) has been used in a back-to-back geometry with the secondary standards 237Np and 238U to normalize the cross section. The energy range measured is from 0.2 keV up to 3 MeV. Preliminary results show some discrepancies around 1 MeV for the 242Pu with the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation. The spontaneous fission half-life has been measured for both isotopes, too. Preliminary results show reasonable agreement with the recommended values.

  15. Neutron-induced Fission Cross Section of 240242Pu up to En = 3 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Pretel, C.; Vidali, M.

    2014-05-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of 240,242Pu have been measured at JRC-IRMM with incident neutron energy from 0.2 MeV up to 3 MeV. A Twin-Frisch Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) has been used in a back-to-back geometry. The measurements have been performed using the secondary standards 237Np and 238U as a reference. The purity of the plutonium samples was 99.89% for 240Pu and 99.97% for 242Pu. The results obtained follow the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation for 240Pu, but some discrepancies are visible around E/n = 1 MeV for 242Pu. In addition, the spontaneous fission half-life has been measured for both isotopes.

  16. Determination of the 243,246,248Cm thermal neutron induced fission cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serot, O.; Wagemans, C.; Vermote, S.; Heyse, J.; Soldner, T.; Geltenbort, P.

    2005-11-01

    The minor actinide waste produced in nuclear power plants contains various Cm-isotopes, and transmutation scenarios require improved fission cross section data. The available thermal neutron induced fission cross section data for 243Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm are not very accurate, so new cross section measurements have been performed at the high flux reactor of the ILL in Grenoble (France) under better experimental conditions (highly enriched samples, very intense and clean neutron beam). The measurements were performed at a neutron energy of 5.38 meV, yielding fission cross section values of (1240±28)b for 243Cm, (25±47)mb for 246Cm and (685±84)mb for 248Cm. From these results, thermal fission cross section values of (572±14)b; (12±25)mb and (316±43)mb have been deduced for 243Cm, 246Cm and 248Cm, respectively.

  17. Neutron kinetics in moderators and SNM detection through epithermal-neutron-induced fissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; King, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Extension of the well-established Differential Die Away Analysis (DDAA) into a faster time domain, where more penetrating epithermal neutrons induce fissions, is proposed and demonstrated via simulations and experiments. In the proposed method the fissions stimulated by thermal, epithermal and even higher-energy neutrons are measured after injection of a narrow pulse of high-energy 14 MeV (d,T) or 2.5 MeV (d,D) source neutrons, appropriately moderated. The ability to measure these fissions stems from the inherent correlation of neutron energy and time ("E-T" correlation) during the process of slowing down of high-energy source neutrons in common moderating materials such as hydrogenous compounds (e.g., polyethylene), heavy water, beryllium and graphite. The kinetic behavior following injection of a delta-function-shaped pulse (in time) of 14 MeV neutrons into such moderators is studied employing MCNPX simulations and, when applicable, some simple "one-group" models. These calculations served as a guide for the design of a source moderator which was used in experiments. Qualitative relationships between slowing-down time after the pulse and the prevailing neutron energy are discussed. A laboratory system consisting of a 14 MeV neutron generator, a polyethylene-reflected Be moderator, a liquid scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) and a two-parameter E-T data acquisition system was set up to measure prompt neutron and delayed gamma-ray fission signatures in a 19.5% enriched LEU sample. The measured time behavior of thermal and epithermal neutron fission signals agreed well with the detailed simulations. The laboratory system can readily be redesigned and deployed as a mobile inspection system for SNM in, e.g., cars and vans. A strong pulsed neutron generator with narrow pulse (<75 ns) at a reasonably high pulse frequency could make the high-energy neutron induced fission modality a realizable SNM detection technique.

  18. Enrico Fermi's Discovery of Neutron-Induced Artificial Radioactivity:The Recovery of His First Laboratory Notebook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acocella, Giovanni; Guerra, Francesco; Robotti, Nadia

    . We give a short description of the discovery of the first experimental notebook of Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) on his researches during March and April of 1934 on neutron-induced artificial radioactivity, and we point out its relevance for a proper historical and conceptual understanding of those researches.

  19. Measurement of Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections of {sup 229}Th and {sup 231}Pa Using Linac-Driven Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Yamamoto, Shuji; Lee, Samyol; Cho, Hyun-Je; Yamana, Hajimu; Moriyama, Hirotake; Fujita, Yoshiaki; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki

    2001-11-15

    Use is made of a back-to-back type of double fission chamber and an electron linear accelerator-driven lead slowing-down spectrometer to measure the neutron-induced fission cross sections of {sup 229}Th and {sup 231}Pa below 10 keV relative to that of {sup 235}U. A measurement relative to the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}) reaction is also made using a BF{sub 3} counter at energies below 1 keV and normalized to the absolute value obtained by using the cross section of the {sup 235}U(n,f) reaction between 200 eV and 1 keV.The experimental data of the {sup 229}Th(n,f) reaction, which was measured by Konakhovich et al., show higher cross-section values, especially at energies of 0.1 to 0.4 eV. The data by Gokhberg et al. seem to be lower than the current measurement above 6 keV. Although the evaluated data in JENDL-3.2 are in general agreement with the measurement, the evaluation is higher from 0.25 to 5 eV and lower above 10 eV. The ENDF/B-VI data evaluated above 10 eV are also lower. The current thermal neutron-induced fission cross section at 0.0253 eV is 32.4 {+-} 10.7 b, which is in good agreement with results of Gindler et al., Mughabghab, and JENDL-3.2.The mean value of the {sup 231}Pa(n,f) cross sections between 0.37 and 0.52 eV, which were measured by Leonard and Odegaarden, is close to the current measurement. The evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI are lower below 0.15 eV and higher above {approx}30 eV. The ENDF/B-VI and the JEF-2.2 are extremely higher above 1 keV. The JENDL-3.2 data are in general agreement with the measurement, although they are lower above {approx}100 eV.

  20. Fragment-mass distributions in neutron-induced fission of Th232 and U238 at 33, 45, and 60 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, I. V.; Yavshits, S. G.; Tutin, G. A.; Kovalev, N. V.; Saulski, A. V.; Kudryashev, N. A.; Onegin, M. S.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Grudzevich, O. T.; Simutkin, V. D.; Pomp, S.; Blomgren, J.; Österlund, M.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2011-05-01

    We have measured fission fragment-mass yields for neutron-induced fission of Th232 and U238 at energies 32.8, 45.3, and 59.9 MeV. The experiments were done at quasimonoenergetic neutron beams of the Cyclotron Research Center at Louvain-la-Neuve. To detect the fission fragments, a multisection Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used. The measurement and data analysis techniques are discussed in detail. The obtained mass yields are compared to model calculations with the intermediate-energy nuclear reaction code MCFX. The MCFX code is used to calculate the fraction of fissioning nuclei after cascade, preequilibrium, and statistical reaction stages. The formation of mass distributions is considered as a result of oscillations of the mass-asymmetry degree of freedom in the potential well calculated with the temperature-dependent shell correction method. The experimental results as well as the results of the model calculations demonstrate that the probability of symmetric fission increases with incident neutron energy for both nuclei. The comparison also shows that the symmetric fission is more enhanced for thorium than for uranium with increasing neutron energy. We also compare U238 results with available experimental data; the Th232 data were measured for the first time.

  1. 23Na and 39K nuclear magnetic resonance studies of perfused rat hearts. Discrimination of intra- and extracellular ions using a shift reagent.

    PubMed Central

    Pike, M M; Frazer, J C; Dedrick, D F; Ingwall, J S; Allen, P D; Springer, C S; Smith, T W

    1985-01-01

    High-resolution 23Na and 39K nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of perfused, beating rat hearts have been obtained in the absence and presence of the downfield shift reagent Dy(TTHA)3- in the perfusing medium. Evidence indicates that Dy(TTHA)3- enters essentially all extracellular spaces but does not enter intracellular spaces. It can thus be used to discriminate the resonances of the ions in these spaces. Experiments supporting this conclusion include interventions that inhibit the Na+/K+ pump such as the inclusion of ouabain in and the exclusion of K+ from the perfusing medium. In each of these experiments, a peak corresponding to intracellular sodium increased in intensity. In the latter experiment, the increase was reversed when the concentration of K+ in the perfusing medium was returned to normal. When the concentration of Ca2+ in the perfusing medium was also returned to normal, the previously quiescent heart resumed beating. In the beating heart where the Na+/K+ pump was not inhibited, the intensity of the intracellular Na+ resonance was less than 20% of that expected. Although the data are more sparse, the NMR visibility of the intracellular K+ signal appears to be no more than 20%. PMID:4016206

  2. Quantification of the Contribution of Extracellular Sodium to 23Na Multiple-Quantum-Filtered NMR Spectra of Suspensions of Human Red Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knubovets, Tatyana; Shinar, Hadassah; Navon, Gil

    1998-03-01

    23Na double-quantum-filtered (DQF) NMR enables the detection of anisotropic motion of sodium ions due to their interaction with ordered structures in biological tissues. Using the technique, anisotropic motion was found for sodium ions in mammalian red blood cell suspensions (RBC) and the effect was shown to correlate with the integrity of membrane cytoskeleton. In the present study relative contributions to the DQF and triple-quantum-filtered (TQF) spectra of sodium bound to anisotropic and isotropic binding sites in the intra- and extracellular sodium pools (Na content being 15 and 150 mM, respectively) of human RBC were quantified for different hematocrits. DQF spectra were measured by a modified Jeener-Broekaert pulse sequence which enabled exclusive detection of anisotropically moving sodium ions. The relative contributions of the extracellular sodium to the TQF and DQF spectra decreased as the hematocrit increased, but their efficiency relative to the sodium content increased. The contribution of the extracellular sodium to the TQF signal was found to dominate the spectrum of the RBC suspension at all hematocrits studied. The contribution of the extracellular sodium to the DQF was significantly smaller than that to the TQF and was only 22% at a high hematocrit of about 90%.

  3. Towards high accurate neutron-induced fission cross sections of 240,242Pu: Spontaneous fission half-lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Eykens, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Moens, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Pretel, C.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fast spectrum neutron-induced fission cross sections of transuranic isotopes are being of special demand in order to provide accurate data for the new GEN-IV nuclear power plants. To minimize the uncertainties on these measurements accurate data on spontaneous fission half-lives and detector efficiencies are a key point. High α-active actinides need special attention since the misinterpretation of detector signals can lead to low efficiency values or underestimation in fission fragment detection. In that context, 240,242Pu isotopes have been studied by means of a Twin Frisch-Grid Ionization Chamber (TFGIC) for measurements of their neutron-induced fission cross section. Gases with different drift velocities have been used, namely P10 and CH4. The detector efficiencies for both samples have been determined and improved spontaneous fission half-life values were obtained.

  4. Prompt fission neutron spectra in fast-neutron-induced fission of 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, V. V.; Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Capote, R.

    2015-07-01

    Prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) measurements for the neutron-induced fission of 238U are carried out at incident neutron energies of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 MeV, respectively. The time-of-flight technique is employed to determine the energy of fission neutrons. The prompt fission neutron energy spectra so obtained are analyzed using Watt parametrization to derive the neutron multiplicity and average prompt fission neutron energy. The present experimental PFNS data are compared with the evaluated spectra taken from the ENDF/B-VII.1 library and the predictive calculations carried out using the empire-3.2 (Malta) code with built-in Los Alamos (LA) and Kornilov PFNS models. The sensitivity of the empire-3.2 LA model-calculated PFNS to the nuclear level density parameter of the average fission fragment and to the total kinetic energy is investigated. empire-3.2 LA model PFNS calculations that use Madland 2006-recommended values [D. G. Madland, Nucl. Phys. A 772, 113 (2006), 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.03.013] of the total kinetic energy and the level density parameter a =A /(10 ±0.5 ) compare very well to measured data at all incident neutron incident energies.

  5. TEM observation of neutron-induced collision cascades in Bi-2212 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksa, M.; Pongratz, P.; Eibl, O.; Sauerzopf, F. M.; Weber, H. W.; Li, T. W.; Kes, P. H.

    1998-03-01

    Several high-quality single crystals of the superconductor Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8 (Bi-2212) were exposed to three different neutron fluences in the central irradiation facility of the Triga Mark II reactor in Vienna in the form of pre-prepared and pre-characterized transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples as well as in full crystalline form. We find that the radiation damage produced in Bi-2212 is very similar to that found previously in YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (Y-123) single crystals. The diameter of the amorphous cascade volume is 3.5 nm, the inwardly directed strain field is of approximately the same size, the density of cascades is 3.7×10 22 m -3 per 10 22 neutrons m -2 ( E>0.1 MeV) and their concentration scales linearly with neutron fluence. Based on these results and in view of the similar displacement cross-sections of the constituents of other high temperature superconductors, we conclude that the neutron-induced defects in high- Tc materials will generally have a diameter (including the strain field) of 5-7 nm.

  6. Neutron induced background in the COMPTEL detector on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, D. J.; Aarts, H.; Bennett, K.; Busetta, M.; Byrd, R.; Collmar, W.; Connors, A.; Diehl, R.; Eymann, G.; Foster, C.

    1992-01-01

    Interactions of neutrons in a prototype of the Compton imaging telescope (COMPTEL) gamma ray detector for the Gamma Ray Observatory were studied to determine COMPTEL's sensitivity as a neutron telescope and to estimate the gamma ray background resulting from neutron interactions. The IUCF provided a pulsed neutron beam at five different energies between 18 and 120 MeV. These measurements showed that the gamma ray background from neutron interactions is greater than previously expected. It was thought that most such events would be due to interactions in the upper detector modules of COMPTEL and could be distinguished by pulse shape discrimination. Rather, the bulk of the gamma ray background appears to be due to interactions in passive material, primarily aluminum, surrounding the D1 modules. In a considerable fraction of these interactions, two or more gamma rays are produced simultaneously, with one interacting in the D1 module and the other interacting in the module of the lower (D2) detector. If the neutron interacts near the D1 module, the D1 D2 time of flight cannot distinguish such an event from a true gamma ray event. In order to assess the significance of this background, the flux of neutrons in orbit has been estimated based on observed events with neutron pulse shape signature in D1. The strength of this neutron induced background is estimated. This is compared with the rate expected from the isotropic cosmic gamma ray flux.

  7. Experimental study of some important characteristics of the thermal neutron induced fission of 237Np

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagemans, C.; Allaert, E.; Caïtucoli, F.; D'hondt, P.; Barreau, G.; Perrin, P.

    1981-10-01

    Fission fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions and their correlations have been studied for the thermal neutron induced fission of 237Np. The global mass distribution is rather smooth, apart from a weak shoulder at μH = 140-141. When low excitation events are selected, fine structures associated with the charge of the fragments are observed. Furthermore, there is a sudden increase in Ek for μH > 155, which is probably due to a spherical shell N = 50 in the light fragment and the corresponding deformed (but stable) heavy fragments with masses in the rare earth region. For the average (pre-neutron emission) total fragment kinetic energy, a value of 176.4 ± 0.6 MeV has been obtained, in agreement with the systematics. Also the prompt neutron emission curve v(m ∗) has been calculated, which shows the well-known saw-tooth shape. Finally, the energy distribution and the emission probability of the ternary α-particles have been determined.

  8. Reliability Design for Neutron Induced Single-Event Burnout of IGBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Shuichi; Ohnishi, Toyokazu; Fujikawa, Touma; Nose, Noboru; Hamada, Kimimori; Ishiko, Masayasu

    Single-event burnout (SEB) caused by cosmic ray neutrons leads to catastrophic failures in insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). It was found experimentally that the incident neutron induced SEB failure rate increases as a function of the applied collector voltage. Moreover, the failure rate increased sharply with an increase in the applied collector voltage when the voltage exceeded a certain threshold value (SEB cutoff voltage). In this paper, transient device simulation results indicate that impact ionization at the n-drift/n+ buffer boundary is a crucially important factor in the turning-on of the parasitic pnp transistor, and eventually latch-up of the parasitic thyristor causes SEB. In addition, the device parameter dependency of the SEB cutoff voltage was analytically derived from the latch-up condition of the parasitic thyristor. As a result, it was confirmed that reducing the current gain of the parasitic transistor, such as by increasing the n-drift region thickness d was effective in increasing the SEB cutoff voltage. Furthermore, `white' neutron-irradiation experiments demonstrated that suppressing the inherent parasitic thyristor action leads to an improvement of the SEB cutoff voltage. It was confirmed that current gain optimization of the parasitic transistor is a crucial factor for establishing highly reliable design against chance failures.

  9. Neutron capture and neutron-induced fission experiments on americium isotopes with DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Bond, E. M.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Stoyer, M. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Haslett, R. J.; Henderson, R. A.

    2009-01-28

    Neutron capture cross section data on Am isotopes were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron capture cross section was determined for {sup 241}Am for neutron energies between thermal and 320 keV. Preliminary results were also obtained for {sup 243}Am for neutron energies between 10 eV and 250 keV. The results on concurrent neutron-induced fission and neutron-capture measurements on {sup 242m}Am will be presented where the fission events were actively triggered during the experiments. In these experiments, a Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) detector that surrounds the target located in the center of the DANCE array was used as a fission-tagging detector to separate (n,{gamma}) events from (n,f) events. The first direct observation of neutron capture on {sup 242m}Am in the resonance region in between 2 and 9 eV of the neutron energy was obtained.

  10. Neutron capture and neutron-induced fission experiments on americium isotopes with DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, Marian

    2008-01-01

    Neutron capture cross section data on Am isotopes were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron capture cross section was determined for {sup 241}Am for neutron energies between thermal and 320 keV. Preliminary results were also obtained for {sup 243}Am for neutron energies between 35 eV and 200 keV. The results on concurrent neutron-induced fission and neutron-capture measurements on {sup 242m}Am will be presented, where the fission events were actively triggered during the experiments. In these experiments, the Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) detector that surrounds the target located in the center of the DANCE array was used as a fission-tagging detector to separate (n,{gamma}) from (n,f) events. The first evidence of neutron capture on {sup 242m}Am in the resonance region in between 2 and 9 eV of the neutron energy was obtained.

  11. Probing energy dissipation, γ-ray and neutron multiplicity in the thermal neutron-induced fission of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Mirfathi, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    The incorporation of the four-dimensional Langevin equations led to an integrative description of fission cross-section, fragment mass distribution and the multiplicity and energy distribution of prompt neutrons and γ-rays in the thermal neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. The dynamical approach presented in this paper thoroughly reproduces several experimental observables of the fission process at low excitation energy.

  12. Experimental Neutron-induced Fission Fragment Mass Yields of 232Th and 238U at Energies from 10 to 33 Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutkin, V. D.; Pomp, S.; Blomgren, J.; Österlund, M.; Bevilacqua, R.; Andersson, P.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Yavshits, S. G.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Onegin, M. S.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2014-05-01

    Development of nuclear energy applications requires data for neutron-induced reactions for actinides in a wide neutron energy range. Here we describe measurements of pre-neutron emission fission fragment mass yields of 232Th and 238U at incident neutron energies from 10 to 33 MeV. The measurements were done at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE; a multi-section twin Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used to detect fission fragments. For the peak neutron energies at 33, 45 and 60 MeV, the details of the data analysis and the experimental results were published in Ref. [I.V. Ryzhov, S.G. Yavshits, G.A. Tutin et al., Phys. Rev. C 83, 054603 (2011)]. In this work we present data analysis in the low-energy tail of the neutron energy spectra. The preliminary measurement results are compared with available experimental data and theoretical predictions.

  13. Neutron induced fission of U isotopes up to 100 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lestone, J.P.; Gavron, A.

    1993-10-01

    We have developed a statistical model description of the neutron induced fission of U isotopes using densities of intrinsic states and spin cut off parameters obtained directly from appropriate Nilsson model single particle levels. The first chance fission cross sections are well reproduced when the rotational contributions to the nuclear level densities are taken into account. In order to fit the U(n,f) cross sections above the threshold of second chance fission, we need to: (1) assume that the triaxial level density enhancement is washed out at an excitation energy of {approximately}7 MeV above the triaxial barriers with a width of {approximately}1 MeV, implying a {gamma} deformation for the first barriers of 10{degree} < {gamma} < 20{degree}; and (2) include pre-equilibrium particle emission in the calculations. Above an incoming neutron kinetic energy of {approximately}17 MeV our statistical model U(n,f) cross sections increasingly overestimate the experimental data when so called ``good`` optical model potentials are used to calculate the compound nucleus formation cross sections. This is not surprising since at these high energies little data exists on the scattering of neutrons to help guide the choice of optical model parameters. A satisfactory reproduction of all the available U(n,f) cross sections above 17 MeV is obtained by a simple scaling of our calculated compound nucleus formation cross sections. This scaling factor falls from 1.0 at 17 MeV to 0.82 at 100 MeV.

  14. Influence of secondary neutrons induced by proton radiotherapy for cancer patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although proton radiotherapy is a promising new approach for cancer patients, functional interference is a concern for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of secondary neutrons induced by proton radiotherapy on ICDs. Methods The experimental set-up simulated proton radiotherapy for a patient with an ICD. Four new ICDs were placed 0.3 cm laterally and 3 cm distally outside the radiation field in order to evaluate the influence of secondary neutrons. The cumulative in-field radiation dose was 107 Gy over 10 sessions of irradiation with a dose rate of 2 Gy/min and a field size of 10 × 10 cm2. After each radiation fraction, interference with the ICD by the therapy was analyzed by an ICD programmer. The dose distributions of secondary neutrons were estimated by Monte-Carlo simulation. Results The frequency of the power-on reset, the most serious soft error where the programmed pacing mode changes temporarily to a safety back-up mode, was 1 per approximately 50 Gy. The total number of soft errors logged in all devices was 29, which was a rate of 1 soft error per approximately 15 Gy. No permanent device malfunctions were detected. The calculated dose of secondary neutrons per 1 Gy proton dose in the phantom was approximately 1.3-8.9 mSv/Gy. Conclusions With the present experimental settings, the probability was approximately 1 power-on reset per 50 Gy, which was below the dose level (60-80 Gy) generally used in proton radiotherapy. Further quantitative analysis in various settings is needed to establish guidelines regarding proton radiotherapy for cancer patients with ICDs. PMID:22284700

  15. Residual Nuclide Production from Iron, Lead, and Uranium by Neutron-Induced Reactions up to 180 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.; Glasser, W.; Herpers, U.; Schuhmacher, H.; Brede, H.J.; Dangendorf, V.; Nolte, R.; Malmborg, P.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Smirnov, A.N.; Rishkov, I.; Kollar, D.; Meulders, J.P.; Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A.

    2005-05-24

    Within the HINDAS project, activation experiments with quasi mono-energetic neutrons were performed at UCL and TSL. Cross sections for the production of residual radionuclides were derived from the measured activities by unfolding, based on the neutron spectra inside the target stacks and starting from 'guess' excitation functions. Exemplary results are presented and are compared with theoretical calculations using the TALYS code.

  16. Application of 1H and 23Na magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy to define the HRBC up-taking of MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabi, Luisella; Paleari, Lino; Biondi, Luca; Linati, Laura; De Miranda, Mario; Ghelli, Stefano

    2003-09-01

    The up-take of Gd(III) complexes of BOPTA, DTPA, DOTA, EDTP, HPDO3A, and DOTP in HRBC has been evaluated by measuring the lanthanide induced shift (LIS) produced by the corresponding dysprosium complexes (DC) on the MAS-NMR resonances of water protons and free sodium ions. These complexes are important in their use as MRI contrast agents (MRI-CA) in diagnostics. 1H and 23Na MAS-NMR spectra of HRBC suspension, collected at 9.395 T, show only one signal due to extra- and intra-cellular water (or sodium). In MAS spectra, the presence of DC in a cellular compartment produces the LIS of only the nuclei (water proton or sodium) in that cellular compartment and this LIS can be related to the DC concentrations (by the experimental curves of LIS vs. DC concentrations) collected in the physiological solution. To obtain correct results about LIS, the use of MAS technique is mandatory, because it guarantees the only the nuclei staying in the same cellular compartment where the LC is present show the LIS. In all the cases considered, the addition of the DC to HRBC (100% hematocrit) produced a shift of only the extra-cellular water (or sodium) signal and the gradient of concentration ( GC) between extra- and intra-cellular compartments resulted greater than 100:1, when calculated by means of sodium signals. These high values of GC are direct proofs that none of the tested dysprosium complexes crosses the HRBC membrane. Since the DC are iso-structural to the gadolinium complexes the corresponding gadolinium ones (MRI-CA) do not cross the HRBC membrane and, consequently, they are not up-taken in HRBC. The GC values calculated by means of water proton signals resulted much lower than those obtained by sodium signals. This proves that the choice of the isotope is a crucial step in order to use this method in the best way. In fact, GC value depends on the lowest detectable LIS which, in turn, depends on the nature of the LC (lanthanide complex) and the observed isotopes.

  17. a Study of Prompt Neutron Emission in Thermal Neutron-Induced Fission of URANIUM-235.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklyn, Christopher Barry

    An original experiment was performed to measure the angular correlation of fission neutrons from thermal -neutron-induced fission of ('235)U, with respect to the light fission fragment direction, as a function of fragment mass division and neutron energy. A Monte Carlo model, with a realistic description of the fission fragment de -excitation process, was developed to simulate the observed neutron-fragment angular correlation data. The model was capable of investigating various possible forms of neutron emission which were classified into emission before, during and after full fragment acceleration, and correspondingly named scission acceleration and prompt neutron emission. Simulated neutron-fragment angular correlations displaying similar distributions with respect to the light fragment direction for different forms of neutron emission are shown to exhibit differing distributions when examined as a function of fragment mass division or neutron energy, thus illustrating the sensitivity of the experiment to the forms of neutron emission occurring in fission. A primary conclusion of the investigation was that neutron emission solely from fully accelerated fragments, whether isotropically or anisotropically emitted in the fragment centre of mass system, was unable to adequately describe the observed neutron-fragment angular correlations. Simulation of the fission process with some neutron emission before or during fragment acceleration exhibited a closer correspondence with observed phenomena. Within the scope of this work the form of neutron emission that produced the closest overall correspondence with experimental data was a simulation in which 20% of the emitted neutrons were isotropically emitted scission neutrons with a Maxwellian energy distribution of temperature 1.0 MeV. The remaining neutrons were emitted from fully accelerated fragments, being isotropic in the fragment centre of mass frame, except for the n-th(n > 1) neutrons from the light fragment, which

  18. RECENT APPLICATIONS OF THE GREENSPAN AND TSCHIEGG DATA ON NEUTRON INDUCED CAVITATION THRESHOLDS

    SciTech Connect

    West, Colin D

    2007-03-01

    In 1967 Greenspan and Tschiegg published a paper on radiation induced acoustic cavitation. They researched the thresholds for cavitation induced in various liquids by fast neutrons, {alpha}-decay recoils and fission fragments. It turns out that these data can be used to verify predictions of a more recent theory of radiation induced cavitation nucleation. In 1979, in a report to their sponsor (The Office of Naval Research) they published new details of their results on neutron induced cavitation thresholds, including tables of the thresholds at different temperatures for various liquids. They were also some fission fragment results, but none of the {alpha}-decay recoil data. By that time Greenspan had evidently retired while I had left the field of cavitation research and did not know of the existence of their report [which also contains the only published record of some cavitation threshold measurements made by West and Howlett at Harwell, England]. Later still, in 1982, Greenspan and Tschiegg published the graphical data--but not the tables--in a more easily accessible form. In the late 1990s I revisited the problem of calculating radiation induced cavitation thresholds. There was interest in this because the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project, then just beginning, planned to use a liquid mercury target to produce intense bursts of neutrons when irradiated by a pulsed, high energy proton beam. It was known that the pressure waves produced by local heating when the proton pulse struck the target could, upon reflection at the walls of the mercury container, give rise to very high, although brief, negative pressure waves in the mercury. There was concern that cavitation might result and, if it did, might lead to undesirable effects. With the encouragement of the SNS target team this author managed further to develop an earlier method of calculating the threshold for such cavitation, and the SNS project kindly provided funding to publish the work in two ORNL

  19. Radioactive ion beams produced by neutron-induced fission at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isolde Collaboration; Catherall, R.; Lettry, J.; Gilardoni, S.; Köster, U.

    2003-05-01

    The production rates of neutron-rich fission products for the next-generation radioactive beam facility EURISOL [EU-RTD Project EURISOL (HPRI-CT-1999-50001)] are mainly limited by the maximum amount of power deposited by protons in the target. An alternative approach is to use neutron beams to induce fission in actinide targets. This has the advantage of reducing: the energy deposited by the proton beam in the target; contamination from neutron-deficient isobars that would be produced by spallation; and mechanical stress on the target. At ISOLDE CERN [E. Kugler, Hyperfine Interact. 129 (2000) 23], tests have been made on standard ISOLDE actinide targets using fast-neutron bunches produced by bombarding thick, high-/Z metal converters with 1 and 1.4 GeV proton pulses. This paper reviews the first applications of converters used at ISOLDE. It highlights the different geometries and the techniques used to compare fission yields produced by the proton beam directly on the target with neutron-induced fission. Results from the six targets already tested, namely UC2/graphite and ThO2 targets with tungsten and tantalum converters, are presented. To gain further knowledge for the design of a dedicated target as required by the TARGISOL project [EU-RTD Project TARGISOL (HPRI-CT-2001-50033)], the results are compared to simulations, using the MARS [N.V. Mokhov, S.I. Striganov, A. Van Ginneken, S.G. Mashnik, A.J. Sierk, J. Ranft, MARS code developments, in: 4th Workshop on Simulating Accelerator Radiation Environments, SARE-4, Knoxville, USA, 14-15.9.1998, FERMILAB-PUB-98-379, nucl-th/9812038; N.V. Mokhov, The Mars Code System User's Guide, Fermilab-FN-628, 1995; N.V. Mokhov, MARS Code Developments, Benchmarking and Applications, Fermilab-Conf-00-066, 2000; O.E. Krivosheev, N.V. Mokhov, A New MARS and its Applications, Fermilab-Conf-98/43, 1998] code interfaced with MCNP [J.S. Hendrics, MCNP4C LANL Memo X-5; JSH-2000-3; J.F. Briemesteir (Ed.), MCNP - A General Montecarlo N

  20. Prompt γ-rays from the Fast Neutron Induced Fission on 235,238U and 232Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebois, M.; Wilson, J. N.; Halipré, P.; Leniau, B.; Matea, I.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Verney, D.

    Preliminary results from the first experiment using the LICORNE neutron source at the IPN Orsay are presented. Prompt fission gamma rays from fast-neutron induced fission of 238U, 232Th and 235U were detected. Thick samples of around 50 g of 238U and 232Th are used for the first part of the experiment. An ionisation chamber containing ∼ 10 mg samples of 238U and 235U to provide a fission trigger is used for the second part of the experiment. Gamma rays have been detected using 17 high efficiency BaF2 detectors and 6 LaBr3 scintillator detectors.

  1. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV.

    PubMed

    Tovesson, F; Hambsch, F J; Oberstedt, A; Fogelberg, B; Ramström, E; Oberstedt, S

    2002-02-11

    The energy dependent neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa has for the first time been measured directly with monoenergetic neutrons. This nuclide is an important intermediary in a thorium based fuel cycle, and its fission cross section is a key parameter in the modeling of future advanced fuel and reactor concepts. A first experiment resulted in four cross section values between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV, establishing a fission threshold in excess of 1 MeV. Significant discrepancies were found with a previous indirect experimental determination and with model estimates. PMID:11863801

  2. A Monte Carlo simulation of the fission chambers neutron-induced pulse shape using the GARFIELD suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filliatre, P.; Jammes, C.; Geslot, B.; Veenhof, R.

    2012-06-01

    A computation route that simulates the neutron-induced charge spectrum and pulse shape of a fission chamber is presented. It is based on the GARFIELD suite, and makes use of the MAGBOLTZ and SRIM codes. It allows the simulation of the signal in the current and Campbelling modes. Computations made with several fission chambers exemplify the possibilities of the route. A good qualitative agreement is obtained when comparing the results with the scarce experimental data available to date. After a further experimental qualification, this route will improve the design of fission chambers by assessing its overall sensitivity.

  3. Study of Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections of U, Am, and Cm at n{sub T}OF

    SciTech Connect

    Milazzo, P. M.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Fujii, K.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.; Ferrant, L.; Gunsing, F.; Pancin, J.; Perrot, L.; Plukis, A.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Cano-Ott, D.

    2010-08-04

    Neutron induced fission cross sections of several isotopes have been measured at the CERN n{sub T}OF spallation neutron facility. Between them some measurements involve isotopes ({sup 233}U, {sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 245}Cm) relevant for applications to nuclear technologies. The n{sub T}OF facility delivers neutrons with high instantaneous flux and in a wide energy range, from thermal up to 250 MeV. The experimental apparatus consists of an ionization chamber that discriminates fission fragments and {alpha} particles coming from natural radioactivity of the samples. All the measurements were performed referring to the standard cross section of {sup 235}U.

  4. 10.1142/9789813109636_fmatter + BaF2 Reaction Studied by TALYS1.4 Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Cui-Juan; Ma, Chun-Wang

    The neutron induced reactions on the 138Ba and 19F nuclei are investigated by using the optical model implanted in the Talys1.4 toolkit. The results of the n + 138Ba and n + 19F reactions within the incident energy ranging from 1 keV to 30MeV are calculated and compared to the measured results.

  5. Comparative measurement of prompt fission γ -ray emission from fast-neutron-induced fission of 235U and 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebois, M.; Wilson, J. N.; Halipré, P.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Marini, P.; Schmitt, C.; Rose, S. J.; Siem, S.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Zakari, A.-A.

    2015-09-01

    Prompt fission γ -ray (PFG) spectra have been measured in a recent experiment with the novel directional fast-neutron source LICORNE at the ALTO facility of the IPN Orsay. These first results from the facility involve the comparative measurement of prompt γ emission in fast-neutron-induced fission of 235U and 238U . Characteristics such as γ multiplicity and total and average radiation energy are determined in terms of ratios between the two systems. Additionally, the average photon energies were determined and compared with recent data on thermal-neutron-induced fission of 235U . PFG spectra are shown to be similar within the precision of the present measurement, suggesting that the extra incident energy does not significantly impact the energy released by prompt γ rays. The origins of some small differences, depending on either the incident energy or the target mass, are discussed. This study demonstrates the potential of the present approach, combining an innovative neutron source and new-generation detectors, for fundamental and applied research on fission in the near future.

  6. Fission Cross Sections and Fission-Fragment Mass Yields via the Surrogate Reaction Method

    SciTech Connect

    Jurado, B.; Kessedjian, G.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Bidaud, A.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Osmanov, B.; Ahmad, I.

    2008-04-17

    The surrogate reaction method is a powerful tool to infer neutron-induced data of short-lived nuclei. After a short overview of the experimental techniques employed in the present surrogate experiments, we will concentrate on a recent measurement to determine neutron-induced fission cross sections for the actinides {sup 242,243}Cm and {sup 241}Am. The latest direct neutron-induced measurement for the {sup 243}Cm fission cross section is questioned by our results, since there are differences of more than 60% in the 0.7 to 7 MeV neutron energy range. Our experimental set-up has also enabled us to measure for the first time the fission fragment ''pseudo-mass'' distributions of {sup 243,244,245}Cm and {sup 242}Am compound nuclei in the excitation energy range from a few MeV to about 25 MeV.

  7. Extensions of the burst generation rate method for wider application to proton/neutron-induced single event effects

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.

    1998-12-01

    The Burst Generation Rate (BGR) method, originally developed to calculate single event upset (SEU) rates in microelectronics due to neutrons and protons, has been extended for wider application, allowing cross sections for both SEU and single event latchup (SEL) to be calculated, and comparisons to be made with measured data. The method uses the Weibull fit to accurately represent the behavior of the heavy ion SEU cross section. Proton SEU cross sections in RAMs, microprocessors and FPGAs are calculated, with agreement generally to within a factor of 2--3, and similar results are obtained for neutron cross sections for both cosmic ray and fission spectra. The BGR method is also modified to calculate cross sections for proton/neutron induced SEL. Agreement is generally good for SEL for most devices, but there are also limitations, since some very modern devices are shown to have unusually high susceptibility to SEL by protons/neutrons.

  8. Experimental and simulation studies of neutron-induced single-event burnout in SiC power diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Shuichi; Hamada, Kimimori; Tadano, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Neutron-induced single-event burnouts (SEBs) of silicon carbide (SiC) power diodes have been investigated by white neutron irradiation experiments and transient device simulations. It was confirmed that a rapid increase in lattice temperature leads to formation of crown-shaped aluminum and cracks inside the device owing to expansion stress when the maximum lattice temperature reaches the sublimation temperature. SEB device simulation indicated that the peak lattice temperature is located in the vicinity of the n-/n+ interface and anode contact, and that the positions correspond to a hammock-like electric field distribution caused by the space charge effect. Moreover, the locations of the simulated peak lattice temperature agree closely with the positions of the observed destruction traces. Furthermore, it was theoretically demonstrated that the period of temperature increase of a SiC power device is two orders of magnitude less than that of a Si power device, using a thermal diffusion equation.

  9. Neutron Transfer Reactions: Surrogates for Neutron Capture for Basic and Applied Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J. A.; Peters, W. A.; Allen, J.; Hatarik, R.; Matthews, C.; O'Malley, P.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Howard, J.; Patterson, N.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Rogers, J.; Sissom, D. J.; Pain, S. D.; Adekola, A.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Liang, F.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pittman, S. T.

    2009-03-10

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

  10. Neutron transfer reactions: Surrogates for neutron capture for basic and applied nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, Steven D; Peters, W. A.; Adekola, Aderemi S; Allen, J.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Becker, J.; Blackmon, Jeff C; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K.; Erikson, Luke; Gaddis, A. L.; Harlin, Christopher W; Hatarik, Robert; Howard, Joshua A; Jandel, M.; Johnson, Micah; Kapler, R.; Krolas, W.; Liang, J Felix; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Matei, Catalin; Matthews, C.; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Patterson, N. P.; Paulauskas, Stanley; Pelham, T.; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, David C; Rogers, J.; Schmitt, Kyle; Shapira, Dan; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, Michael Scott; Swan, T. P.; Thomas, J. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilson, Gemma L

    2009-04-01

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

  11. Neutron-induced Fission Cross Section of 240,242Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Eykens, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Göök, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Pretel, C.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.

    A sensitivity analysis for the new generation of fast reactors [Salvatores (2008)] has shown the importance of improved cross section data for several actinides. Among them, the 240,242Pu(n,f) cross sections require an accuracy improvement to 1-3% and 3-5%, respectively, from the current level of 6% and 20%. At the Van de Graaff facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (JRC-IRMM) the fission cross section of the two isotopes was measured relative to two secondary standard reactions, 237Np(n,f) and 238U(n,f), using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber. The secondary standard reactions were benchmarked through measurements against the primary standard reaction 235U(n,f) in the same geometry. Sample masses were determined by means of low-geometry alpha counting or/and a 2π Frisch-grid ionization chamber, with an uncertainty lower than 2%. The neutron flux and the impact of scattering from material between source and target was examined, the largest effect having been found in cross section ratio measurements between a fissile and a fertile isotope. Our 240,242Pu(n,f) cross sections are in agreement with previous experimental results and slightly lower than present evaluations. In case of the 242Pu(n,f) reaction no evidence for a resonance at En=1.1 MeV was found.

  12. Spin dynamics in Na4-x Ir3O8 (x  =  0.3 and 0.7) investigated by 23Na NMR and μSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sungwon; Baek, S.-H.; Balodhi, Ashiwini; Lee, W.-J.; Choi, K.-Y.; Watanabe, I.; Lord, J. S.; Büchner, B.; Suh, B. J.; Singh, Yogesh

    2015-12-01

    We report 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and zero-field (ZF) and longitudinal-field (LF) muon spin relaxation (μSR) measurements of the depleted hyperkagome compounds Na4-x Ir3O8 (x  =  0.3 and 0.7), which undergo an insulator-semimetal transition as a function of x. The 23Na spin-lattice relaxation rates, T1-1 , follow a T 2.5 power law behavior at accessible temperatures of T  =  120-350 K. A substantial temperature dependence of T1-1 indicates the presence of gapped excitations at elevated temperatures through the transition to a semimetallic phase. ZF-μSR results reveal that hole-doping leads to a melting of quasi-static order to a dynamically fluctuating state. The very slow muon depolarization rate which varies hardly with temperature indicates that spins are close to an itinerant limit in the largest doping x  =  0.7. The dynamic relaxation rates extracted from the LF-μSR spectra show a three-dimensional diffusive transport. Our combined NMR and μSR results suggest the occurrence of intriguing spin and charge excitations across the insulator-semimetal transition.

  13. Dependence on neutron energy of neutron-induced peaks in Ge detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gete, E.; Measday, David F.; Moftah, B. A.; Saliba, M. A.; Stocki, Trevor J.

    1997-02-01

    We have studied the peak shapes at 596 and 691 KeV resulting from fast neutron interactions inside germanium detectors. We have used neutrons from a 252Cf source, as well as from the 28Si((mu) -, nv), and 209Bi((pi) -, xn) reactions to compare the peaks and to check for any dependence of peak shape on the incoming neutron energy. In our investigation, no dependence of these peak shapes on the neutron energy spectra has been observed. In a comparison of these peak shapes with other studies we found similar results to ours except for monoenergetic neutron irradiations from 1 to 8 MeV.

  14. Time features of delayed neutrons and partial emissive-fission cross sections for the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th nuclei in the energy range 3.2-17.9 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Roshchenko, V. A. Piksaikin, V. M. Korolev, G. G.; Egorov, A. S.

    2010-06-15

    The energy dependence of the relative abundances of delayed neutrons and the energy dependence of the half-lives of their precursors in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th nuclei in the energy range 3.2-17.9 MeV were measured for the first time. A systematics of the time features of delayed neutrons is developed. This systematics makes it possible to estimate the half-life of delayed-neutron precursors as a function of the nucleonic composition of fissile nuclei by using a single parameter set for all nuclides. The energy dependence of the partial cross sections for emissive fission in the reaction {sup 232}Th(n, f) was analyzed on the basis of data obtained for the relative abundances of delayed neutrons and the aforementioned half-lives and on the basis of the created systematics of the time features of delayed neutrons. It was shown experimentally for the first time that the decrease in the cross section after the reaction threshold in the fission of {sup 232}Th nuclei (it has a pronounced first-chance plateau) is not an exclusion among the already studied uranium, plutonium, and curium isotopes and complies with theoretical predictions obtained for the respective nuclei with allowance for shell, superfluid, and collective effects in the nuclear-level density and with allowance for preequilibrium neutron emission

  15. Modeling of neutron induced backgrounds in x-ray framing cameras.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, C; Izumi, N; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Conder, A; Eckart, M; Khater, H; Koch, J; Moody, J; Stone, G

    2010-10-01

    Fast neutrons from inertial confinement fusion implosions pose a severe background to conventional multichannel plate (MCP)-based x-ray framing cameras for deuterium-tritium yields >10(13). Nuclear reactions of neutrons in photosensitive elements (charge coupled device or film) cause some of the image noise. In addition, inelastic neutron collisions in the detector and nearby components create a large gamma pulse. The background from the resulting secondary charged particles is twofold: (1) production of light through the Cherenkov effect in optical components and by excitation of the MCP phosphor and (2) direct excitation of the photosensitive elements. We give theoretical estimates of the various contributions to the overall noise and present mitigation strategies for operating in high yield environments. PMID:21034042

  16. An ionization chamber with Frisch grids for studies of high-energy neutron-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutin, G. A.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Eismont, V. P.; Kireev, A. V.; Condé, H.; Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N.; Renberg, P.-U.

    2001-01-01

    A gridded ionization chamber for fission fragment detection is described. The chamber has been specially designed for use at the quasi-monoenergetic 7Li(p, n) neutron source at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden. The detector permits measurements of fission fragment energy and emission angle for two targets with diameter of up to 10 cm. The time response of the chamber (⩽5 ns FWHM) is adequate to apply time-of-flight discrimination against background events induced by non-peak neutrons. Results of angular anisotropy measurements for the 232Th (n, f) and 238U(n, f) reactions in the 20-160 MeV energy range are given.

  17. Predicting long-lived, neutron-induced activation of concrete in a cyclotron vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, L. R.

    2001-07-01

    Many elements in concrete can become activated by neutrons in a cyclotron vault, but only a few of the activation products are long-lived. The most prominent of these are Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Cs-134 which build up over time from (n, γ) reactions in trace amounts of stable Europium, Cobalt, and Cesium that are normally present in concrete in concentrations of a few parts per million, or less, by weight. A retrospective analysis of data taken in connection with a previous decommissioning of a cyclotron vault, coupled with independent published data, gives us an estimate of the concentrations of these elements in concrete. With that estimate as a benchmark, we then employ a Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code to estimate the long-term activation profile in concrete for arbitrary irradiation conditions.

  18. Molecular and electron-spin structures of a ring-shaped mixed-valence polyoxovanadate (IV, V) studied by (11)B and (23)Na solid-state NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takahiro; Yamase, Toshihiro; Nishimura, Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    (11)B and (23)Na solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of ring-shaped paramagnetic crystals of H15[V7(IV)V5(V)B32O84Na4]·13H2O containing seven d(1) electrons from V(IV) were studied. Magic-angle-spinning (MAS) and multiple-quantum MAS NMR experiments were performed at moderate (9.4T) and ultrahigh magnetic fields (21.6T). The NMR parameters for quadrupole and isotropic chemical shift interactions were estimated by simulation of the NMR spectra and from relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Four Na ions incorporated into the framework were found to occupy four distinct sites with different populations. The DFT calculation showed that d(1) electrons with effectively one up-spin caused by strong antiferromagnetic interactions were delocalized over the 12V ions. PMID:27018827

  19. Nanoscale phase quantification in lead-free (Bi1 /2Na1 /2) TiO3-BaTiO3 relaxor ferroelectrics by means of 23Na NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groszewicz, Pedro B.; Breitzke, Hergen; Dittmer, Robert; Sapper, Eva; Jo, Wook; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    We address the unsolved question on the structure of relaxor ferroelectrics at the atomic level by characterizing lead-free piezoceramic solid solutions (100 -x ) (Bi1 /2Na1 /2) TiO3-x BaTiO3 (BNT -x BT ) (for x =1 ,4 ,6 , and 15). Based on the relative intensity between spectral components in quadrupolar perturbed 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance, we present direct evidence of the coexistence of cubic and polar local symmetries in these relaxor ferroelectrics. In addition, we demonstrate how the cubic phase vanishes whenever a ferroelectric state is induced, either by field cooling or changing the dopant amount, supporting the relation between this cubic phase and the relaxor state.

  20. {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO{sub 2} selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2012-07-15

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO{sub 2} adsorption performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Location of extraframework Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} cations was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO{sub 2} adsorbents.

  1. Measurement of Fragment Mass Yields in Neutron-Induced Fission of 232TH and 238U at 33, 45 and 60 Mev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutkin, V. D.; Pomp, S.; Blomgren, J.; Österlund, M.; Andersson, P.; Bevilacqua, R.; Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Khlopin, V. G.; Onegin, M. S.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Meulders, J. P.; Prieels, R.

    2011-10-01

    Over the past years, a significant effort has been devoted to measurements of neutron-induced fission cross-sections at intermediate energies but there is a lack of experimental data on fission yields. Here we describe recent measurements of pre-neutron emission fragment mass distributions from intermediate energy neutron-induced fission of 232Th and 238U. The measurements have been done at the quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam of the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility CYCLONE and neutron peak energies at 32.8, 45.3 and 59.9 MeV. A multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber was used as a fission fragment detector. The measurement results are compared with available experimental data. Some TALYS code modifications done to describe the experimental results are discussed.

  2. Post irradiation experiment analysis using the APOLLO2 deterministic tool. Validation of JEFF-3.1.1 thermal and epithermal actinides neutron induced cross sections through MELUSINE experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, D.; Fabbris, O.

    2012-07-01

    Two different experiments performed in the 8 MWth MELUSINE experimental power pool reactor aimed at analyzing 1 GWd/t spent fuel pellets doped with several actinides. The goal was to measure the averaged neutron induced capture cross section in two very different neutron spectra (a PWR-like and an under-moderated one). This paper summarizes the combined deterministic APOLLO2-stochastic TRIPOLI4 analysis using the JEFF-3.1.1 European nuclear data library. A very good agreement is observed for most of neutron induced capture cross section of actinides and a clear underestimation for the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) as an accurate validation of its associated isomeric ratio are emphasized. Finally, a possible huge resonant fluctuation (factor of 2.7 regarding to the 1=0 resonance total orbital momenta) is suggested for isomeric ratio. (authors)

  3. Neutron induced pion production on C, Al, Cu, and W at neutron energies of 200--600 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.L.

    1991-10-01

    Inclusive double differential neutron induced {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup {minus}} production cross sections were measured for four separate targets: C, Al, Cu and W. The neutron energy range was 200--600 MeV and the pion angular range was 25{degrees}--125{degrees}. The charge, scattering angle and energy of the pions were measured using a magnetic spectrometer. The measurements are compared with intranuclear cascade (INC) calculations and a previous experiment that measured the sum of the {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup {minus}} cross sections. Our data agree with the measured data, but the INC calculations give only moderate agreement with the double differential cross sections as well as with angular distributions and total cross sections as a function of neutron energy. The ratio of {pi}{sup {minus}}:{pi}{sup +} was found to increase rapidly with decreasing neutron energy and the pion production was found to increase approximately as A{sup 2/3} for the different targets. 31 refs., 55 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Characterization of neutron induced damage effect in several types of metallic multilayer nanocomposites based on Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feida; Tang, Xiaobin; Yang, Yahui; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2015-09-01

    Metallic multilayer nanocomposites are known to have excellent interface self-healing performance when it comes to repairing irradiation damages, thus showing promise as structural materials for advanced nuclear power systems. The present study investigated the neutron irradiation displacement damage rate, spectra of the primary knocked-on atoms (PKAs) produced in the cascade collision, and the H/He ratio in four kinds of metallic multilayer nanocomposites (Cu/Nb, Ag/V, Fe/W, and Ti/Ta) versus neutrons' energy. Results suggest that the three neutron induced damage effects in all multilayer systems increased with the increasing of incident neutrons' energy. For fission reactor environment (1 MeV), multilayer's displacement damage rate is 5-10 × 1022 dpa/(n/cm2) and the mean PKAs energy is about 16 keV, without any noteworthy H/He produced. Fe/W multilayer seems very suitable among these four systems. For fusion reactor environment (14 MeV), the dominant damage effect varies in different multilayer systems. Fe/W multilayer has the lowest displacement damage under the same neutron flux but its gaseous transmutation production is the highest. Considering the displacement damage and transmutation, the irradiation resistance of Ag/V and Ti/Ta systems seems much greater than those of the other two.

  5. Protactinium neutron-induced fission up to 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V.

    2010-03-01

    The theoretical evaluation of 230-233Pa(n,F) cross sections is based on direct data, 230-234Pa fission probabilities and ratios of fission probabilities in first-chance and emissive fission domains, surrogate for neutroninduced fission. First chance fission cross sections trends of Pa are based on consistent description of 232Th(n,F), 232Th(n,2n) and 238U(n,F), 238U(n,xn) data, supported by the ratio surrogate data by Burke et al., 2006, for the 237U(n,F) reaction. Ratio surrogate data on fission probabilities of 232Th(6 Li,4 He)234Pa and 232 Th(6 Li,d)236U by Nayak et al., 2008, support the predicted 233Pa(n, F) cross section at En=11.5-16.5 MeV. The predicted trends of 230-232Pa(n, F) cross section up to En=20 MeV, are consistent with fissilities of Pa nuclides, extracted by 232Th(p,F) (Isaev et al., 2008) and 232Th(p,3n) (Morgenstern et al., 2008) data analysis. The excitation energy and nucleon composition dependence of the transition from asymmetric to symmetric scission for fission observables of Pa nuclei is defined by analysis of p-induced fission of 232Th at Ep=1-200 MeV. Predominantly symmetric fission in 232Th(p,F) at En( p)=200 MeV as revealed by experimental branching ratios (Dujvestijn et al., 1999) is reproduced. Steep transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission with increase of nucleon incident energy is due to fission of neutron-deficient Pa (A≤229) nuclei. A structure of the potential energy surface (a drop of f f symmetric and asymmetric fission barriers difierence (EfSYM - EfASYM) from ~3.5 MeV to ~1 MeV) of N-deficient Pa nuclides (A≤226) and available phase space at outer fission saddles, are shown to be responsible for the sharp increase with En( p) of the symmetric fission component contribution for 232Th(p,F) and 230-233 Pa(n, F) reactions. That is a strong evidence of emissive fission nature of moderately excited Pa nuclides, reliably quantified only up to En( p)~20(30) MeV. Predicted fission cross section of 232Pa(n,F) coincides

  6. Dynamics of neutron-induced fission of 235U using four-dimensional Langevin equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Mirfathi, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Background: Langevin equations have been suggested as a key approach to the dynamical analysis of energy dissipation in excited nuclei, formed during heavy-ion fusion-fission reactions. Recently, a few researchers theoretically reported investigations of fission for light nuclei in a low excitation energy using the Langevin approach, without considering the contribution of pre- and post-scission particles and γ -ray emission. Purpose: We study the dynamical evolution of mass distribution of fission fragments, and neutron and γ -ray multiplicity for 236U as compound nuclei that are constructed after fusion of a neutron and 235U. Method: Energy dissipation of the compound nucleus through fission is calculated using the Langevin dynamical approach combined with a Monte Carlo method. Also the shape of the fissioning nucleus is restricted to "funny hills" parametrization. Results: Fission fragment mass distribution, neutron and γ -ray multiplicity, and the average kinetic energy of emitted neutrons and γ rays at a low excitation energy are calculated using a dynamical model, based on the four-dimensional Langevin equations. Conclusions: The theoretical results show reasonable agreement with experimental data and the proposed dynamical model can well explain the energy dissipation in low energy induced fission.

  7. Isotopic yield measurement in the heavy mass region for 239Pu thermal neutron induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bail, A.; Serot, O.; Mathieu, L.; Litaize, O.; Materna, T.; Köster, U.; Faust, H.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.

    2011-09-01

    Despite the huge number of fission yield data available in the different evaluated nuclear data libraries, such as JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, and JENDL-4.0, more accurate data are still needed both for nuclear energy applications and for our understanding of the fission process itself. It is within the framework of this that measurements on the recoil mass spectrometer Lohengrin (at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France) was undertaken, to determine isotopic yields for the heavy fission products from the 239Pu(nth,f) reaction. In order to do this, a new experimental method based on γ-ray spectrometry was developed and validated by comparing our results with those performed in the light mass region with completely different setups. Hence, about 65 fission product yields were measured with an uncertainty that has been reduced on average by a factor of 2 compared to that previously available in the nuclear data libraries. In addition, for some fission products, a strongly deformed ionic charge distribution compared to a normal Gaussian shape was found, which was interpreted as being caused by the presence of a nanosecond isomeric state. Finally, a nuclear charge polarization has been observed in agreement, with the one described on other close fissioning systems.

  8. Neutron-neutron angular correlations in spontaneous and neutron-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jorgen

    2015-04-01

    For many years, the state of the art for treating fission in radiation transport codes has involved sampling from average distributions. However, such average fission models have limited interaction-by-interaction capabilities. Energy is not explicitly conserved and no correlations are available because all particles are emitted isotropically and independently. However, in a true fission event, the energies, momenta and multiplicities of emitted particles are correlated. Such correlations are interesting for many modern applications, including detecting small amounts of material and detector development. Event-by-event generation of complete fission events are particularly useful because it is possible to obtain the fission products as well as the prompt neutrons and photons emitted during the fission process, all with complete kinematic information. It is therefore possible to extract any desired correlation observables. Such codes, when included in broader Monte Carlo transport codes, like MCNP, can be made broadly available. We compare results from our fast event-by-event fission code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) with available neutron-neutron angular correlation data and study the sensitivities of these observables to the model inputs. This work was done under the auspices of the US DOE by (RV) LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by (JR) LBNL, Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. We acknowledge support of the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development in DOE/NNSA.

  9. Benchmarking of activation reaction distribution in an intermediate energy neutron field.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Morev, Mikhail N; Hirota, Masahiro; Abe, Takuya; Koike, Yuya; Iwai, Satoshi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-07-01

    Neutron-induced reaction rate depth profiles inside concrete shield irradiated by intermediate energy neutron were calculated using a Monte-Carlo code and compared with an experiment. An irradiation field of intermediate neutron produced in the forward direction from a thick (stopping length) target bombarded by 400 MeV nucleon(-1) carbon ions was arranged at the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba. Ordinary concrete shield of 90 cm thickness was installed 50 cm downstream the iron target. Activation detectors of aluminum, gold and gold covered with cadmium were inserted at various depths. Irradiated samples were extracted after exposure and gamma-ray spectrometry was performed for each sample. Comparison of experimental and calculated shows good agreement for both low- and high-energy neutron-induced reaction except for (27)Al(n,X)(24)Na reaction at the surface. PMID:21515619

  10. Measurements of fission product yield in the neutron-induced fission of 238U with average energies of 9.35 MeV and 12.52 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukerji, Sadhana; Krishnani, Pritam Das; Shivashankar, Byrapura Siddaramaiah; Mulik, Vikas Kaluram; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula Venkat; Naik, Haladhara; Goswami, Ashok

    2014-07-01

    The yields of various fission products in the neutron-induced fission of 238U with the flux-weightedaveraged neutron energies of 9.35 MeV and 12.52 MeV were determined by using an off-line gammaray spectroscopic technique. The neutrons were generated using the 7Li(p, n) reaction at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre-Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Pelletron facility, Mumbai. The gamma- ray activities of the fission products were counted in a highly-shielded HPGe detector over a period of several weeks to identify the decaying fission products. At both the neutron energies, the fission-yield values are reported for twelve fission product. The results obtained from the present work have been compared with the similar data for mono-energetic neutrons of comparable energy from the literature and are found to be in good agreement. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratios were calculated from the fission-yield data and were found to decreases for neutron energy from 9.35 to 12.52 MeV, which indicates the role of excitation energy. The effect of the nuclear structure on the fission product-yield is discussed.

  11. Interlaboratory reaction rate program. 12th progress report, November 1976-October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Lippincott, E.P.; McElroy, W.N.; Preston, C.C.

    1980-09-01

    The Interlaboratory Reaction Rate UILRR) program is establishing the capability to accurately measure neutron-induced reactions and reaction rates for reactor fuels and materials development programs. The goal for the principal fission reactions, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U and /sup 239/Pu, is an accuracy to within +- 5% at the 95% confidence level. Accurate measurement of other fission and nonfission reactions is also required, but to a lesser accuracy, between +- 5% and 10% at the 95% confidence level. A secondary program objective is improvement in knowledge of the nuclear parameters involved in the standarization of fuels and materials dosimetry measurements of neutron flux, spectra, fluence and burnup.

  12. 7-T (35)Cl and (23)Na MR Imaging for Detection of Mutation-dependent Alterations in Muscular Edema and Fat Fraction with Sodium and Chloride Concentrations in Muscular Periodic Paralyses.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marc-André; Nagel, Armin M; Marschar, Anja M; Glemser, Philip; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Wolf, Maya B; Ladd, Mark E; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Lehmann-Horn, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To determine whether altered sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) homeostasis can be visualized in periodic paralyses by using 7-T sodium 23 ((23)Na) and chlorine 35 ((35)Cl) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and informed consent of all participants were obtained. (23)Na (repetition time msec/echo time msec, 160/0.35) and (35)Cl (40/0.6) MR imaging of both lower legs was performed with a 7-T whole-body system in patients with genetically confirmed hypokalemic periodic paralysis (Cav1.1-R1239H mutation, n = 5; Cav1.1-R528H mutation, n = 8) and Andersen-Tawil syndrome (n = 3) and in 16 healthy volunteers. Additionally, each participant underwent 3-T proton MR imaging on the same day by using T1-weighted, short-tau inversion-recovery, and Dixon-type sequences. Muscle edema was assessed on short-tau inversion-recovery images, fatty degeneration was assessed on T1-weighted images, and muscular fat fraction was quantified with Dixon-type imaging. Na(+) and Cl(-) were quantified in the soleus muscle by using three phantoms that contained 10-, 20-, and 30-mmol/L NaCl solution and 5% agarose gel as a reference. Parametric data for all subpopulations were tested by using one-way analysis of variance with the Dunnett test, and correlations were assessed with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results Median muscular (23)Na concentration was higher in patients with Cav1.1-R1239H (34.7 mmol/L, P < .001), Cav1.1-R528H (32.0 mmol/L, P < .001), and Kir2.1 (24.3 mmol/L, P = .035) mutations than in healthy volunteers (19.9 mmol/L). Median muscular normalized (35)Cl signal intensity was higher in patients with Cav1.1-R1239H (27.6, P < .001) and Cav1.1-R528H (23.6, P < .001) than in healthy volunteers (12.6), but not in patients with the Kir2.1 mutation (14.3, P = .517). When compared with volunteers, patients with Cav1.1-R1239H and Cav1.1-R528H showed increased muscular edema (P < .001 and P = .003, respectively

  13. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and NLO properties of a new mixed crystal potassium sodium ammonium dihydrogenphosphate K0.23Na0.23(NH4)0.54H2PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, G.; Meenakshisundaram, Subbiah

    2012-08-01

    Potassium sodium ammonium dihydrogenphosphate K0.23Na0.23(NH4)0.54H2PO4 (KSADP), a new mixed crystal has been grown in aqueous medium by the slow evaporation of equimolar mixture of ammonium dihydrogenphosphate (ADP), potassium dihydrogenphosphate (KDP) and sodium dihydrogenphosphate (SDP). Crystal composition as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that it belongs to the tetragonal system with noncentrosymmetric space group I-42d and it is structurally similar to ADP with cell parameter values, a=7.4794(4) Å; b=7.4794(4) Å; c=7.2974(11) Å; υ=408.23(7) Å3; z=4. The presence of sodium and potassium in ADP matrix was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The partial cationic substitution results in defect centers influencing the physical properties. Slight shifts in vibrational patterns could be attributed to strains in the lattice. Refinement of structure by single crystal XRD analysis reveals that potassium, sodium and ammonium coexist in the mixed crystal. The surface morphology of the as-grown specimen, which is changed as a result of cationic incorporation, was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements revealed that the mixed crystal has a superior NLO activity than ADP.

  14. A 23Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, XANES, and high-temperature X-ray diffraction study of NaUO3, Na4UO5, and Na2U2O7.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Raison, P E; Martel, L; Charpentier, T; Farnan, I; Prieur, D; Hennig, C; Scheinost, A C; Konings, R J M; Cheetham, A K

    2014-01-01

    The valence state of uranium has been confirmed for the three sodium uranates NaU(V)O3/[Rn](5f(1)), Na4U(VI)O5/[Rn](5f(0)), and Na2U(VI)2O7/[Rn](5f(0)), using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Solid-state (23)Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) measurements have been performed for the first time, yielding chemical shifts at -29.1 (NaUO3), 15.1 (Na4UO5), and -14.1 and -19 ppm (Na1 8-fold coordinated and Na2 7-fold coordinated in Na2U2O7), respectively. The [Rn]5f(1) electronic structure of uranium in NaUO3 causes a paramagnetic shift in comparison to Na4UO5 and Na2U2O7, where the electronic structure is [Rn]5f(0). A (23)Na multi quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) study on Na2U2O7 has confirmed a monoclinic rather than rhombohedral structure with evidence for two distinct Na sites. DFT calculations of the NMR parameters on the nonmagnetic compounds Na4UO5 and Na2U2O7 have permitted the differentiation between the two Na sites of the Na2U2O7 structure. The linear thermal expansion coefficients of all three compounds have been determined using high-temperature X-ray diffraction: αa = 22.7 × 10(-6) K(-1), αb = 12.9 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 16.2 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = 52.8 × 10(-6) K(-1) for NaUO3 in the range 298-1273 K; αa = 37.1 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 6.2 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = 81.8 × 10(-6) K(-1) for Na4UO5 in the range 298-1073 K; αa = 6.7 × 10(-6) K(-1), αb = 14.4 × 10(-6) K(-1), αc = 26.8 × 10(-6) K(-1), αβ = -7.8 × 10(-6) K(-1), and αvol = -217.6 × 10(-6) K(-1) for Na2U2O7 in the range 298-573 K. The α to β phase transition reported for the last compound above about 600 K was not observed in the present studies, either by high-temperature X-ray diffraction or by differential scanning calorimetry. PMID:24350659

  15. Measurements of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of 205Tl, 204,206,207,208Pb and 209Bi with a multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, I. V.; Tutin, G. A.; Mitryukhin, A. G.; Oplavin, V. S.; Soloviev, S. M.; Blomgren, J.; Renberg, P.-U.; Meulders, J. P.; El Masri, Y.; Keutgen, Th.; Prieels, R.; Nolte, R.

    2006-06-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross-sections of 205Tl, 204,206,207,208Pb and 209Bi have been measured in the energy range from 30 to 180 MeV. The measurements were performed with quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams using a multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. The neutron-induced fission cross-sections of 238U were used as reference data. The experimental techniques are described in detail as well as the data processing. The results are compared with existing experimental data.

  16. Measurements of Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections of 205Tl, 204, 206, 207, 208Pb, and 209Bi using Quasi-Monoenergetic Neutrons in the Energy Range 35 - 174 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutin, Gennady A.; Ryzhov, Igor V.; Eismont, Vilen P.; Mitryukhin, Andrey G.; Oplavin, Valery S.; Soloviev, Sergey M.; Blomgren, Jan; Condè, Henri; Olsson, Nils; Renberg, Per-Ulf

    2005-05-01

    Cross sections for neutron-induced fission of 205Tl, 204, 206, 207, 208Pb, and 209Bi were measured in the energy range from 35 MeV to 174 MeV. The experiments were done at the neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory, using a multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber for detection of the fission fragments. The neutron-induced fission cross section of 238U was employed as a reference. The results of the measurements are compared with existing experimental data.

  17. Specific radioactivity of neutron induced radioisotopes: assessment methods and application for medically useful 177Lu production as a case.

    PubMed

    Le, Van So

    2011-01-01

    The conventional reaction yield evaluation for radioisotope production is not sufficient to set up the optimal conditions for producing radionuclide products of the desired radiochemical quality. Alternatively, the specific radioactivity (SA) assessment, dealing with the relationship between the affecting factors and the inherent properties of the target and impurities, offers a way to optimally perform the irradiation for production of the best quality radioisotopes for various applications, especially for targeting radiopharmaceutical preparation. Neutron-capture characteristics, target impurity, side nuclear reactions, target burn-up and post-irradiation processing/cooling time are the main parameters affecting the SA of the radioisotope product. These parameters have been incorporated into the format of mathematical equations for the reaction yield and SA assessment. As a method demonstration, the SA assessment of 177Lu produced based on two different reactions, 176Lu (n,γ)177Lu and 176Yb (n,γ) 177Yb (β- decay) 177Lu, were performed. The irradiation time required for achieving a maximum yield and maximum SA value was evaluated for production based on the 176Lu (n,γ)177Lu reaction. The effect of several factors (such as elemental Lu and isotopic impurities) on the 177Lu SA degradation was evaluated for production based on the 176Yb (n,γ) 177Yb (β- decay) 177Lu reaction. The method of SA assessment of a mixture of several radioactive sources was developed for the radioisotope produced in a reactor from different targets. PMID:21248665

  18. Determination of Minor Actinides Fission Cross Sections by Means of Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Boyer, S.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassié, D.; Grosjean, C.; Guiral, A.; Haas, B.; Jurado, B.; Osmanov, B.; Bauge, E.; Petit, M.; Berthoumieux, E.; Gunsing, F.; Perrot, L.; Theisen, C.; Michel-Sendis, F.; Billebaud, A.; Wilson, J. N.; Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.

    2006-04-01

    An inventive method that allows to determine neutron-induced cross sections of very short-lived minor actinides is presented. We have successfully applied this method, based on the use of transfer reactions, to 233Pa, a key nucleus in the 232Th-233U fuel cycle. A recent experiment using this technique has also been performed in order to obtain the neutron-induced fission cross sections of 242, 243, 244Cm and 241Am which are present in the nuclear waste of the current U-Pu fuel cycle. These cross sections are highly relevant for the design of reactors capable to incinerate minor actinides. Preliminary experimental results will be presented.

  19. {sup 27}Al and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR and powder x-ray diffraction studies of sodium aluminate speciation and the mechanistics of aluminum hydroxide precipitation upon acid hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, S.M.; Hanna, J.V.

    1994-08-24

    {sup 27}Al and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR, powder X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopic investigations of freeze-dried sodium aluminates and aluminum hydroxides formed through acid hydrolysis have been undertaken, with OH/Al hydrolysis ratios between 5.3 and 2.8 being analyzed. Numerous {sup 27}AlNMR resonances were observed, the intensities of which vary as a function of OH/Al ratio, and these have been assigned to four-, five-, and six-coordinate aluminum species constituting a variety of structural moieties. The dominant species at an OH/Al ratio above 4.4 appears to be a Q{sup o}Na[Al(OH);{sub 4}] salt, as indicated by a {sup 27}Al resonance at 86.6 ppm. In addition, a second, broader resonance at 71.3 ppm demonstrates the simultaneous existence of further four-coordinate aluminum species linked thorough oxo bonds to other four-coordinate aluminums (e.g., Q{sup 2} [Al(OH);{sub 2}(OAl){sub 2}];{sup x-}). At an OH/Al ratio between 4.4 and 4.1, a water-soluble phase forms that contains both four- and six-coordinate aluminum. At OH/Al ratios fo 4.0 and below, a water-soluble phase forms that contains both four-and six-coordinate aluminum. AT OH/Al ratios of 4.0 and below, a water-insoluble phase exists possessing four-, five-, and six-coordinate aluminum. At OH/Al{le}3.9 range exhibits {sup 27}Al chemical shifts similar to those reported for transitional aluminas such as {gamma}-, {eta}-, and 0-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and an infrared spectrum similar to pseudo-spinel gels, suggesting that a pseudo-spinel intermediate is the first phase involved in the crystallization of gibbsite. The resonance assigned to five-coordinate aluminum probably results from species involved in the transformation of the pseudo-spinal phase to pseudo-boehmite. The formation of gibbssite on the acid hydrolysis of alkaline sodium aluminate solutions thus appears to follow the pathway pseudo-spinel {r_arrow} pseudo-boehmite {r_arrow} bayerite {r_arrow} gibbsite. 82 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Effects of Neutron Emission on Fragment Mass and Kinetic Energy Distribution from Thermal Neutron-Induced Fission of {sup 235}U

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Saetone, E.

    2007-10-26

    The mass and kinetic energy distribution of nuclear fragments from thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f) have been studied using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Besides reproducing the pronounced broadening in the standard deviation of the kinetic energy at the final fragment mass number around m = 109, our simulation also produces a second broadening around m = 125. These results are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained by Belhafaf et al. and other results on yield of mass. We conclude that the obtained results are a consequence of the characteristics of the neutron emission, the sharp variation in the primary fragment kinetic energy and mass yield curves. We show that because neutron emission is hazardous to make any conclusion on primary quantities distribution of fragments from experimental results on final quantities distributions.

  1. Neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup nat}Pb and {sup 209}Bi from threshold to 1 GeV: An improved parametrization

    SciTech Connect

    Tarrio, D.; Duran, I.; Paradela, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Ferrant, L.; Isaev, S.; Le Naour, C.; Stephan, C.; Trubert, D.; David, S.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.

    2011-04-15

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup nat}Pb and {sup 209}Bi were measured with a white-spectrum neutron source at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight (n{sub T}OF) facility. The experiment, using neutrons from threshold up to 1 GeV, provides the first results for these nuclei above 200 MeV. The cross sections were measured relative to {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U in a dedicated fission chamber with parallel plate avalanche counter detectors. Results are compared with previous experimental data. Upgraded parametrizations of the cross sections are presented, from threshold energy up to 1 GeV. The proposed new sets of fitting parameters improve former results along the whole energy range.

  2. The CCONE Code System and its Application to Nuclear Data Evaluation for Fission and Other Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, O.; Iwamoto, N.; Kunieda, S.; Minato, F.; Shibata, K.

    2016-01-01

    A computer code system, CCONE, was developed for nuclear data evaluation within the JENDL project. The CCONE code system integrates various nuclear reaction models needed to describe nucleon, light charged nuclei up to alpha-particle and photon induced reactions. The code is written in the C++ programming language using an object-oriented technology. At first, it was applied to neutron-induced reaction data on actinides, which were compiled into JENDL Actinide File 2008 and JENDL-4.0. It has been extensively used in various nuclear data evaluations for both actinide and non-actinide nuclei. The CCONE code has been upgraded to nuclear data evaluation at higher incident energies for neutron-, proton-, and photon-induced reactions. It was also used for estimating β-delayed neutron emission. This paper describes the CCONE code system indicating the concept and design of coding and inputs. Details of the formulation for modelings of the direct, pre-equilibrium and compound reactions are presented. Applications to the nuclear data evaluations such as neutron-induced reactions on actinides and medium-heavy nuclei, high-energy nucleon-induced reactions, photonuclear reaction and β-delayed neutron emission are mentioned.

  3. Measurement of fission products yields in the quasi-mono-energetic neutron-induced fission of 232Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, H.; Mukherji, Sadhana; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Jagadeesan, K. C.; Thakare, S. V.; Sharma, S. C.

    2016-08-01

    The cumulative yields of various fission products in the 232Th(n, f) reaction at average neutron energies of 5.42, 7.75, 9.35 and 12.53 MeV have been determined by using an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The neutron beam was produced from the 7Li(p, n) reaction by using the proton energies of 7.8, 12, 16 and 20 MeV. The mass chain yields were obtained from the cumulative fission yields by using the charge distribution correction of medium energy fission. The fine structure in the mass yield distribution was interpreted from the point of nuclear structure effect. On the other hand, the higher yield around mass number 133-134 and 143-144 as well as their complementary products were explained based on the standard I and standard II asymmetric mode of fission. From the mass yield data, the average value of light mass (), heavy mass (), the average number of neutrons (< ν >) and the peak-to-valley (P / V) ratios at different neutron energies of present work and literature data were obtained in the 232Th(n, f) reaction. The different parameters of the mass yield distribution in the 232Th(n, f) reaction were compared with the similar data in the 232Th(γ, f) reaction at comparable excitation energy and a surprising difference was observed.

  4. First simultaneous measurement of fission and gamma probabilities of 237U and 239Np via surrogate reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, P.; Ducasse, Q.; Jurado, B.; Aiche, M.; Mathieu, L.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Moro, A.; Lei, J.; Giacoppo, F.; Gorgen, A.; Tornyi; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Wilson, J. N.; Gunsing, F.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Lebois, M.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Wiedeking, M.; Serot, O.; Boutoux, G.; Méot, V.; Morillon, B.; Denis-Petit, D.; Roig, O.; Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.

    2016-06-01

    Fission and gamma decay probabilities of 237U and 239Np have been measured, for the first time simultaneously in dedicated experiments, via the surrogate reactions 238U(3He, 4He) and 238U(3He,d), respectively. While a good agreement between our data and neutron-induced data is found for fission probabilities, gamma decay probabilities are several times higher than the corresponding neutron-induced data for each studied nucleus. We study the role of the different spin distributions populated in the surrogate and neutron-induced reactions. The compound nucleus spin distribution populated in the surrogate reaction is extracted from the measured gamma-decay probabilities, and used as input parameter in the statistical model to predict fission probabilities to be compared to our data. A strong disagreement between our data and the prediction is obtained. Preliminary results from an additional dedicated experiment confirm the observed discrepancies, indicating the need of a better understanding of the formation and decay processes of the compound nucleus.

  5. Particle-gamma and particle-particle correlations in nuclear reactions using Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshback model

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick; Watanabe, Takehito; Chadwick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for particle and {gamma}-ray emissions from an excited nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory are performed to obtain correlated information between emitted particles and {gamma}-rays. We calculate neutron induced reactions on {sup 51}V to demonstrate unique advantages of the Monte Carlo method. which are the correlated {gamma}-rays in the neutron radiative capture reaction, the neutron and {gamma}-ray correlation, and the particle-particle correlations at higher energies. It is shown that properties in nuclear reactions that are difficult to study with a deterministic method can be obtained with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Empirical formula on (n,(3)He) reaction cross sections at 14.6MeV neutrons.

    PubMed

    Yiğit, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The systematic behavior of the cross sections of (n,(3)He) nuclear reactions has been studied by various researches at neutron energy of 14.6MeV. A new empirical formula based on the Q-value dependence of the cross sections of the investigated reaction has been proposed. The cross sections obtained from the new formula are compared with the other proposed formulae results and the experimental data. It seems that the present formula based on the Q-value dependence provides the good description for cross sections of neutron-induced (n,(3)He) nuclear reactions at 14.6MeV. PMID:26218596

  7. Event-by-Event Fission Modeling of Prompt Neutrons and Photons from Neutron-Induced and Spontaneous Fission with FREYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jorgen

    2013-04-01

    The event-by-event fission Monte Carlo code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events. Using FREYA, it is possible to obtain the fission products as well as the prompt neutrons and photons emitted during the fission process, all with complete kinematic information. We can therefore extract any desired correlation observables. Concentrating on ^239Pu(n,f), ^240Pu(sf) and ^252Cf(sf), we compare our FREYA results with available data on prompt neutron and photon emission and present predictions for novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of transfer reactions using extended R-matrix theory picturing surrogate-type WFCF features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouland, Olivier H.

    2016-03-01

    This article supplies an overview of issues related to the interpretation of surrogate measurement results for neutron-incident cross section predictions; difficulties that are somehow masked by the historical conversion route based on Weisskopf-Ewing approximation. Our proposal is to handle the various difficulties by using a more rigorous approach relying on Monte Carlo simulation of transfer reactions with extended R-matrix theory. The multiple deficiencies of the historical surrogate treatment are recalled but only one is examined in some details here; meaning the calculation of in-out-going channel Width Fluctuation Correction Factors (WFCF) which behavior witness partly the failure of Niels Bohr's compound nucleus theoretical landmark. Relevant WFCF calculations according to neutron-induced surrogate- and cross section-types as a function of neutron-induced fluctuating energy range [0 - 2.1 MeV] are presented and commented in the case of the 240Pu* and 241Pu* compound nucleus isotopes.

  9. Fast-neutron-induced potential background near the Q value of neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornow, W.; Bhike, Megha; Fallin, B.; Krishichayan

    2016-01-01

    The 76Ge (n,p)76Ga reaction and the subsequent β decay of 76Ga to 76Ge has been used to excite the 3951.89-keV state of 76Ge , which decays by the emission of a 2040.70-keV γ ray. Using high-purity germanium detectors, the associated pulse-height signal may be undistinguishable from the potential signal produced in neutrinoless double-β decay of 76Ge with its Q value of 2039.0 keV. At 20-MeV neutron energy the production cross section of the 2040.70-keV γ ray is approximately 0.1 mb.

  10. Effects of rotation of fissioning nuclei in the angular distributions of prompt neutrons and gamma rays originating from the polarized-neutron-induced fission of 233U and 235U nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilyan, G. V.; Klenke, J.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Krakhotin, V. A.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B.

    2014-06-01

    The results of an experiment devoted to searches for effects of rotation of fissioning nuclei in the angular distributions of prompt neutrons and gamma rays originating from the polarized-neutron-induced fission of 233U nuclei are presented. The effects discovered in these angular distributions are opposite in sign to their counterparts in the polarized-neutron-induced fission of 235U nuclei. This is at odds with data on the relative signs of respective effects in the angular distribution of alpha particles from the ternary fission of the same nuclei and may be indicative of problems in the model currently used to describe the effect in question. The report on which this article is based was presented at the seminar held at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics and dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of Yu.G. Abov, corresponding member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Editor in Chief of the journal Physics of Atomic Nuclei.